Science.gov

Sample records for absolute noise levels

  1. Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Giunta, Michele; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Lezius, Matthias; Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish; Alexandre, Christophe; Lours, Michel; Tremblin, Pierre-Alain; Santarelli, Giorgio; Holzwarth, Ronald; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Photonic synthesis of radiofrequency (RF) waveforms revived the quest for unrivalled microwave purity because of its ability to convey the benefits of optics to the microwave world. In this work, we perform a high-fidelity transfer of frequency stability between an optical reference and a microwave signal via a low-noise fibre-based frequency comb and cutting-edge photodetection techniques. We demonstrate the generation of the purest microwave signal with a fractional frequency stability below 6.5 × 10-16 at 1 s and a timing noise floor below 41 zs Hz-1/2 (phase noise below -173 dBc Hz-1 for a 12 GHz carrier). This outperforms existing sources and promises a new era for state-of-the-art microwave generation. The characterization is achieved through a heterodyne cross-correlation scheme with the lowermost detection noise. This unprecedented level of purity can impact domains such as radar systems, telecommunications and time-frequency metrology. The measurement methods developed here can benefit the characterization of a broad range of signals.

  2. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening.

  3. Control of absolute negative mobility via noise recycling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C. H.; Wang, H.; Qing, S.; Hu, J. H.; Li, K. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Absolute negative mobility (ANM) is investigated in a spatially-periodic symmetric system under the influence of noise consisting of the superposition of a white Gaussian noise with the same noise delayed by time τ. The effects of the noise intensity σ, the time delay τ and feedback intensity ɛ in the noise recycling are discussed. It is found that the noise intensity σ and time delay τ can induce the phenomenon of ANM, while the feedback intensity ɛ can not induce it. This phenomenon of ANM can be tested in the setup consisting of a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction device by using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser to generate the noise recycling procedure.

  4. Absolute negative mobility induced by white Poissonian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiechowicz, J.; Łuczka, J.; Hänggi, P.

    2013-02-01

    We study the transport properties of inertial Brownian particles which move in a symmetric periodic potential and are subjected to both a symmetric, unbiased time-periodic external force and a biased Poissonian white shot noise (of non-zero average F) which is composed of a random sequence of δ-shaped pulses with random amplitudes. Upon varying the parameters of the white shot noise, one can conveniently manipulate the transport direction and the overall nonlinear response behavior. We find that within tailored parameter regimes the response is opposite to the applied average bias F of such white shot noise. This particular transport characteristic thus mimics that of a nonlinear absolute negative mobility (ANM) regime. Moreover, such white shot noise driven ANM is robust with respect to the statistics of the shot noise spikes. Our findings can be checked and corroborated experimentally by the use of a setup that consists of a single resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction device.

  5. Deciding Optimal Noise Monitoring Sites with Matrix Gray Absolute Relation Degree Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhihua; Li, Yadan; Zhao, Limin; Wang, Shuangwei

    2015-08-01

    Noise maps are applied to assess noise level in cities all around the world. There are mainly two ways of producing noise maps: one way is producing noise maps through theoretical simulations with the surrounding conditions, such as traffic flow, building distribution, etc.; the other one is calculating noise level with actual measurement data from noise monitors. Currently literature mainly focuses on considering more factors that affect sound traveling during theoretical simulations and interpolation methods in producing noise maps based on measurements of noise. Although many factors were considered during simulation, noise maps have to be calibrated by actual noise measurements. Therefore, the way of obtaining noise data is significant to both producing and calibrating a noise map. However, there is little literature mentioned about rules of deciding the right monitoring sites when placed the specified number of noise sensors and given the deviation of a noise map produced with data from them. In this work, by utilizing matrix Gray Absolute Relation Degree Theory, we calculated the relation degrees between the most precise noise surface and those interpolated with different combinations of noise data with specified number. We found that surfaces plotted with different combinations of noise data produced different relation degrees with the most precise one. Then we decided the least significant one among the total and calculated the corresponding deviation when it was excluded in making a noise surface. Processing the left noise data in the same way, we found out the least significant datum among the left data one by one. With this method, we optimized the noise sensor’s distribution in an area about 2km2. And we also calculated the bias of surfaces with the least significant data removed. Our practice provides an optimistic solution to the situation faced by most governments that there is limited financial budget available for noise monitoring, especially in

  6. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω2 is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  7. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise.

    PubMed

    Torrontegui, E; Kosloff, R

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω^{2} is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  8. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  9. Noise Hazard Evaluation Sound Level Data on Noise Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD-A021 465 NOISE HAZARD EfALUATION SOUND LEVEL DATA ON NOISE SOURCES Jeffrey Goldstein Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Prepared for: Army Health ...A. Noise Hazard Evaluation. B. Engineering Noise Control. C. Health Education. D. Audiometry. E. Hearing Protection. This technical guide concerns the...SOUND LEVEL DATA OF NOISE SOURCES Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. jGI4A C4C SENTINEL HEALTH I 5 US ARMY ENVIROIN.MENTAL HYGIENE

  10. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  11. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  12. Noise Levels in the Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    59-63. Hodge, B., & Thompson , J . F . (1990). Noise pollution in the operating theatre. The Lancet, 335, 891-894. Noise Levels 41...Kam, P. C. A., Kam A. C., & Thompson , J . F . (1994). Noise pollution in the anaesthetic and intensive care environment. Anaesthesia, 49, 982-986

  13. Noise in restaurants: levels and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Chung, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Noise affects the dining atmosphere and is an occupational hazard to restaurant service employees worldwide. This paper examines the levels of noise in dining areas during peak hours in different types of restaurants in Hong Kong SAR, China. A mathematical model that describes the noise level in a restaurant is presented. The 1-h equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq,1-h)) was measured using a Type-1 precision integral sound level meter while the occupancy density, the floor area of the dining area, and the ceiling height of each of the surveyed restaurants were recorded. It was found that the measured noise levels using Leq,1-h ranged from 67.6 to 79.3 dBA in Chinese restaurants, from 69.1 to 79.1 dBA in fast food restaurants, and from 66.7 to 82.6 dBA in Western restaurants. Results of the analysis of variance show that there were no significant differences between means of the measured noise levels among different types of restaurants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships between geometrical and operational parameters and the measured noise levels. Results of the regression analysis show that the measured noise levels depended on the levels of occupancy density only. By reconciling the measured noise levels and the mathematical model, it was found that people in restaurants increased their voice levels when the occupancy density increased. Nevertheless, the maximum measured hourly noise level indicated that the noise exposure experienced by restaurant service employees was below the regulated daily noise exposure value level of 85 dBA.

  14. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  15. Absolute judgment for one- and two-dimensional stimuli embedded in Gaussian noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvalseth, T. O.

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the effect on human performance of adding Gaussian noise or disturbance to the stimuli in absolute judgment tasks involving both one- and two-dimensional stimuli. For each selected stimulus value (both an X-value and a Y-value were generated in the two-dimensional case), 10 values (or 10 pairs of values in the two-dimensional case) were generated from a zero-mean Gaussian variate, added to the selected stimulus value and then served as the coordinate values for the 10 points that were displayed sequentially on a CRT. The results show that human performance, in terms of the information transmitted and rms error as functions of stimulus uncertainty, was significantly reduced as the noise variance increased.

  16. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

  17. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  18. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  19. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97(th) percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  20. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:27830837

  1. Noise levels associated with urban land use.

    PubMed

    King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

    2012-12-01

    Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance.

  2. Noise measurements on the helicopter BK 117 design. Weighted noise levels and influence of airspeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Wolf R.; Anders, Klaus P.; Spiegel, Karl-Heinz

    1986-11-01

    Noise measurements on the prototype helicopter BK 117 were performed in strict compliance with the proposed international Civil Aviation Organization regulations for noise certification of helicopters. Measurement procedure, noise data acquisition, analysis and reduction as well as applied correction procedures are described. Effective perceived noise levels (EPNL) and other noise descriptors were evaluated and related to the proposed noise limits. Additional level flyover tests with variable airspeed were conducted to investigate the resulting effect on the EPNL and other noise measures.

  3. Spectroscopy of electronic thermal noise as a direct probe of absolute thermoelectric coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrity, Patrick L.

    2011-04-01

    The utilization of thermal fluctuations or Johnson/Nyquist noise as a generalized spectroscopic technique to experimentally measure transport properties is applied to Pt and W metal films. Through cross-correlation and autocorrelation functions obtained from voltage power spectral density measurements, multiple transport coefficients are obtained through the Green-Kubo formalism. Supported rigorously by the underlying fluctuation-dissipation theorem and Green-Kubo transport theory, this novel experimental technique provides a direct measurement of absolute Seebeck and Peltier coefficients in addition to the electrical resistivity, electronic contribution to thermal conductivity, and Lorenz number. This work reports the validation results of the experiment accomplished through the use of materials with thermoelectric properties widely accepted by the thermoelectric community, Pt and W. Further validation of the data was accomplished by comparing the resistivity results to standard collinear four-probe resistivity measurements. Spectroscopic results for resistivity at 300 K resulted in 5.3% and 2.5% agreement with four-probe resistivity measurements for Pt and W, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient measurements at 300 K showed agreement with published values within 3.8% and 7.5% for Pt and W, respectively. The electronic thermal conductivity measured 66% and 75% of the total thermal conductivity for Pt and W, respectively, at 300 K.

  4. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  5. The Relation between the Absolute Level of Parenting and Differential Parental Treatment with Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…

  6. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Karen M K; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P M; Yiu, Edwin M L; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers' vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms.

  7. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Karen M.K.; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P.M.; Yiu, Edwin M.L.; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers’ vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms. PMID:25599758

  8. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  9. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  10. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  11. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  12. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  13. Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    PubMed

    Arana, M

    2010-04-01

    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01).

  14. Evidence that fold-change, and not absolute level, of β-catenin dictates Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Goentoro, Lea; Kirschner, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In the canonical Wnt pathway, binding of the Wnt ligand to its transmembrane receptors leads to an inhibition of the degradation of β-catenin; as a result, β-catenin accumulates to a point where it activates target genes. Using mathematical modeling and experiments in mammalian cells, we examined the robustness of the β-catenin response to Wnt stimulation. We found that the final (post-Wnt) level of β-catenin is very sensitive to all perturbations in the Wnt signaling pathway, such that mild genetic or environmental variation would be expected to change the final level of β-catenin, and alter the output of the pathway. By contrast, one unusual parameter was robust: the fold-change in β-catenin (post- Wnt level / pre-Wnt level). Furthermore, in Xenopus embryos, dorsal-anterior development and the corresponding target gene expression are robust to the same perturbations that alter the final level but leave the fold-change intact. These results suggest: First, despite noise and variation, within a range the cell maintains a constant fold-change in β-catenin for a given Wnt stimulation. Second, the transcriptional machinery downstream of the Wnt pathway is constructed to read the robust fold-change and not simply the final level of β-catenin. In analogy to Weber’s law in sensory physiology, some gene transcription networks may be tuned to respond to fold-changes, rather than absolute levels of signals, as a way to reduce the consequences of stochastic, genetic and environmental variation. PMID:20005849

  15. Inadequacies of absolute threshold levels for diagnosing prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Prediabetes comprising Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) represents an intermediate stage of altered glucose metabolism between normal glucose levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with an increased risk for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is considerable evidence that glucose levels lower than those meeting the current definition of prediabetes may also be associated with similar risks particularly in high-risk individuals. Prediabetes is often unrecognized and therefore constitutes a major public health concern suggesting the need for earlier intervention than is currently recommended.

  16. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals.

  17. Single-image noise level estimation for blind denoising.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2013-12-01

    Noise level is an important parameter to many image processing applications. For example, the performance of an image denoising algorithm can be much degraded due to the poor noise level estimation. Most existing denoising algorithms simply assume the noise level is known that largely prevents them from practical use. Moreover, even with the given true noise level, these denoising algorithms still cannot achieve the best performance, especially for scenes with rich texture. In this paper, we propose a patch-based noise level estimation algorithm and suggest that the noise level parameter should be tuned according to the scene complexity. Our approach includes the process of selecting low-rank patches without high frequency components from a single noisy image. The selection is based on the gradients of the patches and their statistics. Then, the noise level is estimated from the selected patches using principal component analysis. Because the true noise level does not always provide the best performance for nonblind denoising algorithms, we further tune the noise level parameter for nonblind denoising. Experiments demonstrate that both the accuracy and stability are superior to the state of the art noise level estimation algorithm for various scenes and noise levels.

  18. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  19. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  20. Current levels of noise in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G H

    1973-12-01

    In 1961, the International Organization for Standardization prescribed upper tolerance limits for noise generated out-of-doors in residential districts. Between 1963 and 1970, vehicular traffic in the UK increased in volume by approximately 40%. This paper describes studies made throughout 1971 in which both peak and ambient noise-levels prevailing inside and outside buildings were measured. These levels were found greatly in excess of those regarded as tolerable ten years previously. Two methods for reducing noise-levels were considered. First, a barrier designed with the primary intention of reflecting rather than absorbing noise; secondly, a relatively simple form of double-glazing fitted to existing window frames. The barrier succeeded in reducing peak noise-levels but failed to influence ambients. The double-glazing attenuated both peak and ambient noise-levels significantly. Attention is drawn to the possibility of noise generated within buildings themselves becoming a source of discomfort for occupants and of annoyance to those outside. Noise-levels rising beyond 100 dB(A) were measured during evening business in the bar of a local hotel. A summary of data referring to noise-levels in the outdoor environment reveals that the upper tolerance limits prescribed by I S O are now being exceeded by 20 dB(A), or more, throughout 18 hours of the day. The findings are discussed in relation to the inevitable limits soon to be reached in adaptation of the human hearing mechanisms to increasing environment noise.

  1. Absolute Binding Energies of Core Levels in Solids from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Taisuke; Lee, Chi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A general method is presented to calculate absolute binding energies of core levels in metals and insulators, based on a penalty functional and an exact Coulomb cutoff method in the framework of density functional theory. The spurious interaction of core holes between supercells is avoided by the exact Coulomb cutoff method, while the variational penalty functional enables us to treat multiple splittings due to chemical shift, spin-orbit coupling, and exchange interaction on equal footing, both of which are not accessible by previous methods. It is demonstrated that the absolute binding energies of core levels for both metals and insulators are calculated by the proposed method in a mean absolute (relative) error of 0.4 eV (0.16%) for eight cases compared to experimental values measured with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy within a generalized gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation functional.

  2. Noise-adaptive nonlinear diffusion filtering of MR images with spatially varying noise levels.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, Alexei A; Johnson, Chris R

    2004-10-01

    Anisotropic diffusion filtering is widely used for MR image enhancement. However, the anisotropic filter is nonoptimal for MR images with spatially varying noise levels, such as images reconstructed from sensitivity-encoded data and intensity inhomogeneity-corrected images. In this work, a new method for filtering MR images with spatially varying noise levels is presented. In the new method, a priori information regarding the image noise level spatial distribution is utilized for the local adjustment of the anisotropic diffusion filter. Our new method was validated and compared with the standard filter on simulated and real MRI data. The noise-adaptive method was demonstrated to outperform the standard anisotropic diffusion filter in both image error reduction and image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. The method was also applied to inhomogeneity-corrected and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) images. The new filter was shown to improve segmentation of MR brain images with spatially varying noise levels.

  3. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2016-04-20

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  4. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil-excited neutral helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil-excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n to the -3rd power, but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range from 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number.

  5. Plumbing noise: Pressure levels and perception in a luxury condominium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watry, Derek

    2005-09-01

    A consulting project has recently been completed that addressed a number of noise concerns in a 9-unit, 20-year-old luxury condominium building in the San Francisco Bay Area. Among other tasks, the noise levels of four bathroom plumbing functions (flushing, showering, bath filling, bath draining) were measured in adjoining units and an inventory of noise concerns was collected. This paper reports the measured noise levels (nearly a 20-dBA range for every function!) and looks at the corresponding resident assessments not always clearly correlated with sound-pressure level.

  6. Comparison of low-frequency noise levels of the Concorde supersonic transport with other commercial service airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Mccurdy, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-two airplane noise recordings, made at several locations around Dulles International Airport, were analyzed to compare the low-frequency noise levels of the Concorde supersonic transport with those of other commercial jet airplanes. Comparisons of the relative low-frequency noise levels which were produced at close and distant locations for departures and arrivals were made for three noise measures: the sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave band centered at 20 Hz, the total sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 125 Hz, and the total sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 500 Hz. Although the absolute noise levels for Concorde were found, in general, to be higher than those for the other airplane types, the level of low-frequency noise of the Concorde relative to the perceived noise level (PNL), effective perceived noise level (EPNL), and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) was within the range established by the other airplane types, except for the arrival operations of four-engine, narrow-body airplanes. The measure OASPL was found to be a significantly better predictor of low-frequency noise level than PNL or EPNL.

  7. Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J Jr

    2002-01-01

    For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

  8. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  9. Techniques for Reducing Gun Blast Noise Levels: An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    gun muzzle blast noise level were in- vestigated experimentally to determine potential effectiveness and utility for existing major-caliber guns...impact on training and testing operations was to be minimized. Most of the noise reduction techniques that were investigated involve the use of some type ...shock noise level at the earth’s surface varies according to a complicated dependence upon projectile trajectory, projectile speed along the trajectory

  10. Noise levels in the vicinity of traffic roundabouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. T.; James, A.

    1980-09-01

    An experimental procedure for analyzing roundabout noise is described. Measurement of the noise from accelerating and decelerating traffic streams on the approach roads to roundabouts at a total of 70 positions at three sites are reported together with a simulation study of noise from central island traffic. The results show that, in general, noise from the accelerating traffic streams is within ±1 dB(A) of the free flow level on the same road and that the noise from the decelerating stream is equal to or less than the free flow level. The propagation of noise from the central island is expressed in the form of a nomogram. Good agreement between predicted and measured levels was found.

  11. Effects of low levels of road traffic noise during the night: a laboratory study on number of events, maximum noise levels and noise sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the laboratory study presented here was to elucidate the importance of the number of noise events of a relatively low maximum noise level for sleep disturbance effects (body movements, subjective sleep quality, mood and performance). Twelve test persons slept eight nights under home-like laboratory settings. During four of these nights, each test person was exposed to 16, 32, 64 and 128 noise events respectively from recorded road traffic noise at a maximum noise level of 45 dB(A). All test persons (aged 20-42 years) considered themselves rather or very sensitive towards noise. The results show a significant decrease in subjective sleep quality at 32 noise events per night. At 64 noise events, 50% of the test persons experienced difficulties in falling asleep and, as compared with quiet nights, the time required to fall asleep was on average 12 minutes longer. The occurrence of body movements was significantly related to the reported number of awakenings, and the number of body movements was three times higher during the noisy periods of the night as compared with the quiet periods, indicating acute noise effects. The results of a vigilance test indicate that noise during the night might prolong the time needed to solve the test. Finally, and regardless of number of noise events, a significant increase in tiredness during the day was found after nights with noise exposure. In the paper comparisons are also made with earlier experiments using maximum noise levels of 50 and 60 dB(A).

  12. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  13. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  14. Simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change in southwest Scandinavia from inversion of sea level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, Jens Morten; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Pejrup, Morten; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-11-01

    Relative sea level curves contain coupled information about absolute sea level change and vertical lithospheric movement. Such curves may be constructed based on, for example tide gauge data for the most recent times and different types of geological data for ancient times. Correct account for vertical lithospheric movement is essential for estimation of reliable values of absolute sea level change from relative sea level data and vise versa. For modern times, estimates of vertical lithospheric movement may be constrained by data (e.g. GPS-based measurements), which are independent from the relative sea level data. Similar independent data do not exist for ancient times. The purpose of this study is to test two simple inversion approaches for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates for ancient times in areas where a dense coverage of relative sea level data exists and well-constrained average lithospheric movement values are known from, for example glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The inversion approaches are tested and used for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates in southwest Scandinavia from modern relative sea level data series that cover the period from 1900 to 2000. In both approaches, a priori information is required to solve the inverse problem. A priori information about the average vertical lithospheric movement in the area of interest is critical for the quality of the obtained results. The two tested inversion schemes result in estimated absolute sea level rise of ˜1.2/1.3 mm yr-1 and vertical uplift rates ranging from approximately -1.4/-1.2 mm yr-1 (subsidence) to about 5.0/5.2 mm yr-1 if an a priori value of 1 mm yr-1 is used for the vertical lithospheric movement throughout the study area. In case the studied time interval is broken into two time intervals (before and after 1970), absolute sea level rise values of ˜0.8/1.2 mm yr-1 (before

  15. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  16. Relationship between Aircraft Noise Contour Area and Noise Levels at Certification Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of sound exposure level contour area reduction has been proposed as an alternative or supplemental metric of progress and success for the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program, which currently uses the average of predicted noise reductions at three community locations. As the program has expanded to include reductions in airframe noise as well as reduction due to optimization of operating procedures for lower noise, there is concern that the three-point methodology may not represent a fair measure of benefit to airport communities. This paper addresses several topics related to this proposal: (1) an analytical basis for a relationship between certification noise levels and noise contour areas for departure operations is developed, (2) the relationship between predicted noise contour area and the noise levels measured or predicted at the certification measurement points is examined for a wide range of commercial and business aircraft, and (3) reductions in contour area for low-noise approach scenarios are predicted and equivalent reductions in source noise are determined.

  17. Intrinsic Noise Level of Noise Cross-Correlation Functions and its Implication to Source Population of Ambient noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Nien; Gung, Yuancheng; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Rhie, Junkee

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe present a quantitative procedure to evaluate the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (INL) of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> cross-correlation function (NCF). The method is applied to realistic NCFs derived from the continuous data recorded by the seismic arrays in Taiwan and Korea. The obtained temporal evolution of NCF <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> follows fairly the prediction of the theoretical formulation, confirming the feasibility of the method. We then apply the obtained INL to the assessment of data quality and the source characteristics of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span>. We show that the INL-based signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio provides an exact measure for the true <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> within the NCF and better resolving power for the NCF quality, and such measurement can be implemented to any time windows of the NCFs to evaluate the quality of overtones or coda waves. Moreover, since NCF amplitudes are influenced by both the population and excitation strengths of <span class="hlt">noises</span>, while INL is primarily sensitive to the overall source population, with information from both measurements, we may better constrain the source characteristics of seismic ambient <span class="hlt">noises</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6925152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6925152"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure dependence of the second ionization <span class="hlt">level</span> of EL2 in GaAs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bliss, D.E.; Nolte, D.D.; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E. Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 ); Lagowski, J. )</p> <p>1990-03-19</p> <p>We report the results of deep <span class="hlt">level</span> transient spectroscopy experiments with the second ionization <span class="hlt">level</span> of the double donor defect (EL2) under uniaxial stress in {ital p}-type GaAs. We measure the shift in the hole emission rate as a function of stress applied in the (100) and (110) directions. By modeling the valence band with two independently displacing bands and appropriately derived effective masses, we determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> hydrostatic pressure derivative of the defect to be 39{plus minus}15 meV GPa{sup {minus}1}. The shear contribution is negligible. These results are very different from those obtained for the first ionization <span class="hlt">level</span>, which has a much higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure derivative of 90 meV GPa{sup {minus}1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2121R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2121R"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Enumeration Station in Rubber Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Siregar, I.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This research was conducted in companies engaged in the production of crumb rubber. In the rubber industry, the potential <span class="hlt">noise</span> occurs in the enumeration station. Stations enumeration use machine and equipment that potentially generated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> can be defined as an unwanted sound because it does not fit the context of space and time so that may interfere with the comfort and human health. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measured at random during the initial observation station enumeration is 101.8 dB. This value has exceeded the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Kep-51 / MEN / 1999 and SNI No. 16-7063-2004 so research must be done to measure the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the enumeration station. Quantitative methods used in the study. Observations made with the calculation method of equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Observations were made on six measurement points for one shift for three days. The results showed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> over the Threshold Limit Value is equal to 85 dBA/8 hours. Based on the measurement results, the whole point of observation was far above the threshold Limit Value (TLV). The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> equivalent is in the observation point 6 with a value of 102, 21 dB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012409','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012409"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the Operating Room</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>CRNA vigilance is crucial to the well-being of patients, and if the cause of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be identified and corrected , CRNAs in the future...64.6 52.2 85.5 107.0 56.2 23 Open shoulder GETA 64.3 48.3 88.9 112.6 54.6 24 Cancelled (before induction) 66.8 50.6 95.0 117.2 53.9 25 Osteotomy ...acromioplasty Knee arthroscopy Knee arthroscopy Knee arthroscopy Finger pinning Wrist pinning Open shoulder Cancelled before inducing Osteotomy ACL</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175843"><span>Reduction of classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> using group contingencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ring, Brandon M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Eubanks, Sean L; Silverman, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated <span class="hlt">noise</span> standards. Participants received real-time graphed feedback of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and had the opportunity to earn monetary group reinforcement for maintaining a low number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> violations. Results suggested that feedback and monetary reinforcement reduced the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> violations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707461','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707461"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Associated With New York City's Mass Transit Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gershon, Robyn R. M.; Zeltser, Marina; Canton, Allison; Akram, Muhammad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with various forms of mass transit and compared them to exposure guidelines designed to protect against <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss. Methods. We used <span class="hlt">noise</span> dosimetry to measure time-integrated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a representative sample of New York City mass transit systems (subways, buses, ferries, tramway, and commuter railways) aboard transit vehicles and at vehicle boarding platforms or terminals during June and July 2007. Results. Of the transit types evaluated, subway cars and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous average (Leq) and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. All transit types had Leq <span class="hlt">levels</span> appreciably above 70 A-weighted decibels, the threshold at which <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss is considered possible. Conclusions. Mass transit <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure has the potential to exceed limits recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency and thus cause <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss among riders of all forms of mass transit given sufficient exposure durations. Environmental noise–control efforts in mass transit and, in cases in which controls are infeasible, the use of personal hearing protection would benefit the ridership's hearing health. PMID:19542046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022454','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022454"><span>Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019333','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019333"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lang, J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5451570','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5451570"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure derivatives of deep <span class="hlt">level</span> defects in III-V semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nolte, D.D.; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Based on transition metal reference <span class="hlt">levels</span>, we present <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure derivatives for band-edges in GaAs and InP and defects in GaAs. The defect deformation potentials are directly related to the electron-lattice coupling which drives lattice relaxation around the defects. We find an exceedingly large inward lattice relaxation of the EL2 defect in GaAs upon electron emission. 12 refs., 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.723a2042H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.723a2042H"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency measurement at 10-16 <span class="hlt">level</span> based on the international atomic time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 <span class="hlt">level</span>. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009563"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from a model turbofan engine with simulated <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures applied</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A study of estimated full-scale <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> based on measured <span class="hlt">levels</span> from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. The effect of active <span class="hlt">noise</span> control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive <span class="hlt">noise</span> control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022453','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022453"><span>A study of interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and transmission paths in light aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and identify principal <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source <span class="hlt">levels</span> and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for <span class="hlt">noise</span> control design are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019994','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019994"><span>Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of two propeller-driven light aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Catherines, J. J.; Mayes, W. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The relationships between aircraft operating conditions and interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the degree to which ground testing can be used in lieu of flight testing for performing interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> research were studied. The results show that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> inside light aircraft is strongly influenced by the rotational speed of the engine and propeller. Both the overall <span class="hlt">noise</span> and low frequency spectra <span class="hlt">levels</span> were observed to decrease with increasing high speed rpm operations during flight. This phenomenon and its significance is not presently understood. Comparison of spectra obtained in flight with spectra obtained on the ground suggests that identification of frequency components and relative amplitude of propeller and engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources may be evaluated on stationary aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891787','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891787"><span>Pilot task-based assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> among firefighters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure sources, and to use collected task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> to create <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These <span class="hlt">levels</span> were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> from a variety of firefighting tasks and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462372"><span>Electrochemical considerations for determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frontier orbital energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> of conjugated polymers for solar cell applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cardona, Claudia M; Li, Wei; Kaifer, Angel E; Stockdale, David; Bazan, Guillermo C</p> <p>2011-05-24</p> <p>Narrow bandgap conjugated polymers in combination with fullerene acceptors are under intense investigation in the field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The open circuit voltage, and thereby the power conversion efficiency, of the devices is related to the offset of the frontier orbital energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the donor and acceptor components, which are widely determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inconsistencies have appeared in the use of the ferrocenium/ferrocene (Fc + /Fc) redox couple, as well as the values used for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> potentials of standard electrodes, which can complicate the comparison of materials properties and determination of structure/property relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013168','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013168"><span>Factors Affecting <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of High-Speed Handpieces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound <span class="hlt">level</span> (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MARG29005V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MARG29005V"><span>Networking with <span class="hlt">noise</span> at the molecular, cellular, and population <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilar, Jose</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The intrinsic stochastic nature of biochemical reactions affects enzymatic and transcriptional networks at different <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Yet, cells are able to function effectively and consistently amidst such random fluctuations. I will discuss some molecular mechanisms that are able to reduce the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of chemical reactions, how suitable designs can make networks resistant to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and what strategies can be used by populations to achieve precise functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018137','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018137"><span>Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that <span class="hlt">noise</span> constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower <span class="hlt">levels</span> of sideline jet <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high <span class="hlt">level</span> of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The duct-heating turbofan with a low <span class="hlt">level</span> of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7241201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7241201"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure dependence of the second ionization <span class="hlt">level</span> of EL2 in GaAs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bliss, D.E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Nolte, D.D.; Haller, E.E.</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>We report the results of DLTS experiments under uniaxial stress on the second ionization <span class="hlt">level</span> of EL2(++/+) in p-type GaAs. We measured the shift in the hole emission rate as a function of stress applied in the (100) and (110) directions. By modeling the valence band with two independently displacing bands and appropriately derived effective masses, we obtain a small <span class="hlt">absolute</span> hydrostatic pressure derivative for the defect, 39 {plus minus} 15 MeV GPa{sup {minus}1}. The shear contribution is negligible. This result is very different than for the first ionization <span class="hlt">level</span>, EL2(+/o) with a emission energy pressure derivative of 90 {plus minus} 15 MeV GPa{sup {minus}1}. The difference can be accounted for by the pressure dependence of the electron capture barrier of EL2(+/o), 49 {plus minus} 15 MeV GPa{sup {minus}1}. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure derivatives of the two <span class="hlt">levels</span> are then comparable and in good agreement with simple theory for Ga site point defects. 20 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970028883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970028883"><span>Confusion <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Due to Galactic and Extragalactic Binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, Peter L.; Hils, Dieter</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We have revised our earlier rough estimate of the combined galactic and extragalactic binary confusion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> curve for gravitational waves. This was done to correct some numerical errors and to allow for roughly three frequency bins worth of information about weaker sources being lost for each galactic binary signal that is removed from the data. The results are still based on the spectral amplitude estimates for different types of galactic binaries reported by Hils et al in 1990, and assume that the gravitational wave power spectral densities for other galaxies are proportional to the optical luminosities. The estimated confusion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> drops to the LISA instrumental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at between roughly 3 and 8 MHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27563964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27563964"><span>Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gajdacz, M; Hilliard, A J; Kristensen, M A; Pedersen, P L; Klempt, C; Arlt, J J; Sherson, J F</p> <p>2016-08-12</p> <p>We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^{6} is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, i.e., ΔN<sqrt[N]. Based on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005928"><span>En route <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from propfan test assessment airplane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garber, Donald P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> test was designed to characterize propagation of propfan <span class="hlt">noise</span> from cruise altitudes to the ground. In-flight measurements of propfan source <span class="hlt">levels</span> and directional patterns were made by a chase plane flying in formation with the propfan test assessment (PTA) airplane. Ground <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were taken during repeated flights over a distributed microphone array. The microphone array on the ground was used to provide ensemble-averaged estimates of mean flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, establish confidence limits for those means, and measure propagation-induced <span class="hlt">noise</span> variability. Even for identical nominal cruise conditions, peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> for individual overflights varied substantially about the average, particularly when overflights were performed on different days. Large day-to-day variations in peak <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements appeared to be caused by large day-to-day differences in propagation conditions and tended to obscure small variations arising from operating conditions. A parametric evaluation of the sensitivity of this prediction method to weather measurement and source <span class="hlt">level</span> uncertainties was also performed. In general, predictions showed good agreement with measurements. However, the method was unable to predict short-term variability of ensemble-averaged data within individual overflights. Although variations in absorption appear to be the dominant factor in variations of peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded on the ground, accurate predictions of those <span class="hlt">levels</span> require that a complete description of operational conditions be taken into account. The comprehensive and integrated methods presented in this paper have adequately predicted ground-measured sound <span class="hlt">levels</span>. On average, peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were predicted within 3 dB for each of the three different cruise conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646974"><span>Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span>: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> with respect to nighttime equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and personal characteristics including <span class="hlt">noise</span> sensitivity. Individual <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the most-exposed facade underestimated <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710923"><span>Predicting mass rapid transit <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on an elevated station.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pamanikabud, Pichai; Paoprayoon, Suwajchai</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This study developed a <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction model for elevated mass rapid transit (MRT) platforms. Relevant physical and operational parameters (e.g. cruise speed, acceleration and deceleration rates for trains, building façade setbacks and so on) were collected from the Bangkok mass transit system (BTS), the first elevated MRT system operated in Bangkok, Thailand. The equivalent continuous sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(Aeq)) were collected from both sides of the MRT stations at the center of each platform. The relevant parameters were collected on both platforms and ground <span class="hlt">level</span>, on both sides of MRT stations. These parameters were statistically tested to determine their correlation with MRT <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The final model was built from highly correlated parameters using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise regression technique. Statistical evaluation showed a high degree of goodness-of-fit test for the model to the observed data. Therefore, it can be efficiently used for the projection of MRT <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the affected areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062646&hterms=ionograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dionograms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062646&hterms=ionograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dionograms"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Robert F.; Desch, Michael D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A sideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed on four commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905, and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200-kHz to 3.5-MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high-latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5152973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5152973"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, R.F.; Desch, M.D. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>A sideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed on four commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905, and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200-kHz to 3.5-MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high-latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events. 20 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4752708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4752708"><span>Low stimulus environments: reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in continuing care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of intrusive background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel <span class="hlt">levels</span> with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a <span class="hlt">noise</span> meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> meter to track and report back on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the use of posters to remind staff about <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the introduction of a visual indication of current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24810556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24810556"><span>Effect of external classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> on schoolchildren's reading and mathematics performance: correlation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and gender.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papanikolaou, M; Skenteris, N; Piperakis, S M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The present study investigated the effect of low, medium, and high traffic road <span class="hlt">noise</span> as well as irrelevant background speech <span class="hlt">noise</span> on primary school children's reading and mathematical performance. A total of 676 participants (324 boys, 47.9% and 352 girls, 52.1%) of the 4th and 5th elementary classes participated in the project. The participants were enrolled in public primary schools from urban areas and had ages ranging from 9 to 10 years and from. Schools were selected on the basis of increasing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of exposure to road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> and then classified into three categories (Low <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 55-66 dB, Medium <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 67-77 dB, and High <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 72-80 dB). We measured reading comprehension and mathematical skills in accordance with the national guidelines for elementary education, using a test designed specifically for the purpose of this study. On the one hand, children in low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools showed statistically significant differences from children in medium- and high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools in reading performance (p<0.001). On the other hand, children in low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools differed significantly from children in high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools but only in mathematics performance (p=0.001). Girls in general did better in reading score than boys, especially in schools with medium- and high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Finally the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and gender were found to be two independent factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scraping&id=ED017129','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scraping&id=ED017129"><span>HOW TO KEEP SCHOOL <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> AT THE RIGHT <span class="hlt">LEVEL</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MCKAY, RONALD L.</p> <p></p> <p>DISCUSSES FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING SCHOOL PLANNING STAGES REGARDING <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> <span class="hlt">LEVELS</span> AND ACOUSTIC DESIGN IMPLICATIONS. FACTORS ARE--(1) A STAGE HOUSE IS DETRIMENTAL TO ORCHESTRAS, BANDS, CHORUSES, LECTURES, ASSEMBLIES, RECITALS, AND CERTAIN DRAMAS AND SPEECH-MUSIC PERFORMANCES. SUGGESTED IS AN AUDITORIUM WITH AUDIENCE AND PERFORMING PLATFORM…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206896"><span>Variability in ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parks, Susan E; Urazghildiiev, Ildar; Clark, Christopher W</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The North Atlantic right whale inhabits the coastal waters off the east coasts of the United States and Canada, areas characterized by high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of shipping and fishing activities. Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of these whales and increases in low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> may be leading to changes in their calling behavior. This study characterizes the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, including both natural and anthropogenic sources, and right whale upcall parameters in three right whale habitat areas. Continuous recordings were made seasonally using autonomous bottom-mounted recorders in the Bay of Fundy, Canada (2004, 2005), Cape Cod Bay, (2005, 2006), and off the coast of Georgia (2004-2005, 2006-2007). Consistent interannual trends in <span class="hlt">noise</span> parameters were found for each habitat area, with both the band <span class="hlt">level</span> and spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements higher in the Bay of Fundy than in the other areas. Measured call parameters varied between habitats and between years within the same habitat area, indicating that habitat area and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> alone are not sufficient to predict variability in call parameters. These results suggest that right whales may be responding to the peak frequency of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, rather than the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in their environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047313"><span>Validation of Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Models at Lower <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound <span class="hlt">level</span> in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> at larger distances from the airport. including en-route <span class="hlt">noise</span>. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087938"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and call types on the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of killer whale calls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> as a likely factor related to call source <span class="hlt">level</span> variability. The source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background <span class="hlt">noise</span> were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and call type were significant factors on call source <span class="hlt">levels</span> (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2987170','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2987170"><span>SMN transcript <span class="hlt">levels</span> in leukocytes of SMA patients determined by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> real-time PCR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Pinto, Anna Maria; Fiori, Stefania; Lomastro, Rosa; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pini, Antonella; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio; Neri, Giovanni; Brahe, Christina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by homozygous mutations of the SMN1 gene. Three forms of SMA are recognized (type I–III) on the basis of clinical severity. All patients have at least one or more (usually 2–4) copies of a highly homologous gene (SMN2), which produces insufficient <span class="hlt">levels</span> of functional SMN protein, because of alternative splicing of exon 7. Recently, evidence has been provided that SMN2 expression can be enhanced by pharmacological treatment. However, no reliable biomarkers are available to test the molecular efficacy of the treatments. At present, the only potential biomarker is the dosage of SMN products in peripheral blood. However, the demonstration that SMN full-length (SMN-fl) transcript <span class="hlt">levels</span> are reduced in leukocytes of patients compared with controls remains elusive (except for type I). We have developed a novel assay based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> real-time PCR, which allows the quantification of SMN1-fl/SMN2-fl transcripts. For the first time, we have shown that SMN-fl <span class="hlt">levels</span> are reduced in leukocytes of type II–III patients compared with controls. We also found that transcript <span class="hlt">levels</span> are related to clinical severity as in type III patients SMN2-fl <span class="hlt">levels</span> are significantly higher compared with type II and directly correlated with functional ability in type II patients and with age of onset in type III patients. Moreover, in haploidentical siblings with discordant phenotype, the less severely affected individuals showed significantly higher transcript <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Our study shows that SMN2-fl dosage in leukocytes can be considered a reliable biomarker and can provide the rationale for SMN dosage in clinical trials. PMID:19603064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..11..021V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..11..021V"><span>Analysis of fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noises</span> using <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.; Sadegh Movahed, M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The so-called <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing analysis has been used to investigate the empirical data set, but there is a lack of interpretation for what is reflected by the <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing results. The fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> as a well-defined stochastic series could be a suitable benchmark to make more sense of the <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing findings. In this paper, we calculated the average frequency of upcrossing for a wide range of fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noises</span> from logarithmic (zero Hurst exponent, H = 0), to Gaussian, H = 1 (0 < H < 1). By introducing the relative change of the total number of upcrossings for original data with respect to the so-called shuffled data, {R} , an empirical function for the Hurst exponent versus {R} has been established. Finally to make the concept more obvious, we applied this approach to some financial series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093410"><span>Urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> functional stratification for estimating average annual sound <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> causes many health problems and the deterioration of the quality of urban life; thus, adequate spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span> and temporal assessment methods are required. Different methods have been proposed for the spatial evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in cities, including the categorization method. Until now, this method has only been applied for the study of spatial variability with measurements taken over a week. In this work, continuous measurements of 1 year carried out in 21 different locations in Madrid (Spain), which has more than three million inhabitants, were analyzed. The annual average sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the temporal variability were studied in the proposed categories. The results show that the three proposed categories highlight the spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span> stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night) and in the overall indicators (L(And), L(Aden), and L(A24)). Also, significant differences between the diurnal and nocturnal sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> show functional stratification in these categories. Therefore, this functional stratification offers advantages from both spatial and temporal perspectives by reducing the sampling points and the measurement time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf"><span>49 CFR 393.94 - Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. 393.94... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources such as motor vehicles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf"><span>49 CFR 393.94 - Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. 393.94... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources such as motor vehicles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820045630&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820045630&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway"><span>Comparing the relationships between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and annoyance in different surveys - A railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> vs. aircraft and road traffic comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fields, J. M.; Walker, J. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Annoyance expressed in a railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey is compared with that from two road traffic and three aircraft surveys in order to determine whether responses to various types of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> are source-specific. Railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> is found to be less annoying than other <span class="hlt">noises</span> at any given high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance rises less rapidly with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. At high <span class="hlt">levels</span>, this gap in reactions averages about 10 dB; it ranges from 4 dB to more than 20 dB. The methods used for comparing the surveys are examined. It is found that methodological uncertainties lead to imprecise comparisons and that different annoyance scales yield different estimates of intersurvey differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6707800','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6707800"><span>Radiation threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> for <span class="hlt">noise</span> degradation of photodiodes. Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aukerman, L.W.; Vernon, F.L.; Song, Y.</p> <p>1986-09-30</p> <p>Space radiation can increase the <span class="hlt">noise</span> of photodiodes as a result of either a sustained ionizing-dose-rate effect or displacement damage. Elementary, straightforward models are presented for calculating radiation threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> and rad hit susceptibility. Radiation-effects experiments that verify these models are discussed. Calculations for room-temperature silicon p-i-n photodetectors, an avalanche photodiode, and a hypothetical cooled staring detector indicate that this damage mechanism should not be ignored for space and nuclear environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040016209','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040016209"><span>Validation of Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Sea <span class="hlt">Level</span> of the North Atlantic obtained from Drifter, Altimetry and Wind Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maximenko, Nikolai A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea <span class="hlt">level</span> reflects the deviation of the Ocean surface from geoid due to the ocean currents and is an important characteristic of the dynamical state of the ocean. Values of its spatial variations (order of 1 m) are generally much smaller than deviations of the geoid shape from ellipsoid (order of 100 m) that makes the derivation of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mean sea <span class="hlt">level</span> a difficult task for gravity and satellite altimetry observations. Technique used by Niiler et al. for computation of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mean sea <span class="hlt">level</span> in the Kuroshio Extension was then developed into more general method and applied by Niiler et al. (2003b) to the global Ocean. The method is based on the consideration of balance of horizontal momentum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582459"><span>Measurement of Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> with Background Music</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Objectives Acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening <span class="hlt">level</span> and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......134K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......134K"><span>Pitch Estimation, Voicing Decision, and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Spectrum Estimation for Speech Corrupted by High <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Additive <span class="hlt">Noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krubsack, David Allan</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation presents two algorithms that extract parameters which are important to speech processing in high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The first algorithm determines whether a signal containing <span class="hlt">noise</span> corrupted human speech is voiced or not and estimates the fundamental frequency (pitch) of voiced speech. The second algorithm produces an estimate of the additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> which is corrupting the speech. Previous research related to the voicing decision and pitch estimation has been concentrated at signal-to -<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNRs) above 0 dB. Consequently, speech processing requiring the extraction of these parameters in higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> could not be performed with much success. The research presented in this dissertation concentrates on SNRs around and below 0 dB. Although the algorithm, based on the autocorrelation function, is designed to work well for high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, good results for the no <span class="hlt">noise</span> case have been maintained. The idea of a confidence measure for parameter estimation is introduced. Confidence measures are defined and developed for both the voicing decision and the pitch estimation algorithms. Estimation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> that is corrupting a speech signal has been motivated by the need to enhance the corrupted speech. Previous research has concentrated on speech which is band limited to about 3500 Hz. Therefore, the estimation of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> corrupting high frequency speech had not been considered. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation algorithm presented in this dissertation considers the effects of high frequency speech on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimate in addition to the effects of low frequency speech. A new spectral averaging method is introduced which significantly reduces the corrupting effect of the speech components on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimate for SNRs above 0 dB. The algorithm is tested for stationary white <span class="hlt">noise</span>, stationary non-white <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and non-stationary white <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8751949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8751949"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> identification of muramic acid, at trace <span class="hlt">levels</span>, in human septic synovial fluids in vivo and absence in aseptic fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fox, A; Fox, K; Christensson, B; Harrelson, D; Krahmer, M</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>This is the first report of a study employing the state-of-the-art technique of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification of muramic acid (a marker for peptidoglycan) at trace <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a human or animal body fluid or tissue. Daughter mass spectra of synovial fluid muramic acid peaks (> or = 30 ng/ml) were identical to those of pure muramic acid. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> chemical identification at this <span class="hlt">level</span> represents a 1,000-fold increase in sensitivity over previous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identifications. Muramic acid was positively identified in synovial fluids during infection and was eliminated over time but was absent from aseptic fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411830"><span>Creating a Culture of Safety by Reducing <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the OR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hogan, Lisa J; Harvey, Renee L</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We implemented a quality improvement project to reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the OR in response to complaints from the anesthesia staff members at two community hospitals. Excessive <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to increase staff member stress, fatigue, distraction, and ineffective communication, which can lead to medical errors. We measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during anesthesia induction and emergence for 118 different surgical procedures and compared <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> before and after the improvement project intervention. Staff member education and <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction strategies, which included signage, prominent <span class="hlt">noise</span> meters, and specific suggestions to staff members, helped to significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during the anesthetic induction and emergence phases of OR procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007474"><span>Yeast AMP-activated Protein Kinase Monitors Glucose Concentration Changes and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Glucose <span class="hlt">Levels</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bendrioua, Loubna; Smedh, Maria; Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Jirstrand, Mats; Goksör, Mattias; Adiels, Caroline B.; Hohmann, Stefan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a signaling system can provide insight into its dynamic properties. We employed the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the transcriptional repressor Mig1 as readout to characterize Snf1-Mig1 dynamics in single yeast cells. Mig1 binds to promoters of target genes and mediates glucose repression. Mig1 is predominantly located in the nucleus when glucose is abundant. Upon glucose depletion, Mig1 is phosphorylated by the yeast AMP-activated kinase Snf1 and exported into the cytoplasm. We used a three-channel microfluidic device to establish a high degree of control over the glucose concentration exposed to cells. Following regimes of glucose up- and downshifts, we observed a very rapid response reaching a new steady state within less than 1 min, different glucose threshold concentrations depending on glucose up- or downshifts, a graded profile with increased cell-to-cell variation at threshold glucose concentrations, and biphasic behavior with a transient translocation of Mig1 upon the shift from high to intermediate glucose concentrations. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data demonstrate that Mig1 shuttles constantly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, although with different rates, depending on the presence of glucose. Taken together, our data suggest that the Snf1-Mig1 system has the ability to monitor glucose concentration changes as well as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> glucose <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The sensitivity over a wide range of glucose <span class="hlt">levels</span> and different glucose concentration-dependent response profiles are likely determined by the close integration of signaling with the metabolism and may provide for a highly flexible and fast adaptation to an altered nutritional status. PMID:24627493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012833"><span>Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) user's guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A guide for the use of the Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO) at the Langley Research Center computer complex is provided. This document is divided into 5 primary sections, the introduction, the purpose of the model, and an in-depth description of the following subsystems: baseline, <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction simulation and track analysis. For each subsystem, the user is provided with a description of architecture, an explanation of subsystem use, sample results, and a case runner's check list. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operations at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) computer complex, the Network Operating System (NOS 1.4) and CYBER Control Language. Incorporated within the ALAMO model is a census database system called SITE II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22724316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22724316"><span>Minimum requirement of artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for using <span class="hlt">noise</span>-assisted correlation algorithm to suppress artifacts in ultrasonic Nakagami images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsui, Po-Hsiang</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Nakagami image is a complementary imaging mode for pulse-echo ultrasound B-scan to characterize tissues. White <span class="hlt">noise</span> in anechoic areas induces artifacts in the Nakagami image. Recently, we proposed a <span class="hlt">noise</span>-assisted correlation algorithm (NCA) for suppressing the Nakagami artifact. In the NCA, artificial white <span class="hlt">noise</span> is intentionally added twice to backscattered signals to produce two noisy data, which are used to establish a correlation profile for rejecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This study explored the effects of artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on the NCA to suppress the artifact of the Nakagami image. Simulations were conducted to produce B-mode images of anechoic regions under signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNRs) of 20, 10 and 5 dB. Various artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> ranging from 0.1- to 1-fold of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitude were used in the NCA for constructing the Nakagami images. Phantom experiments were conducted to validate the performance of using the optimal artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> suggested by the simulation results to suppress the Nakagami artifacts by the NCA. The simulation results indicated that the artifacts of the Nakagami image in the anechoic regions can be gradually suppressed by increasing the artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> used in the NCA to improve the image contrast-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (CNR). The CNR of the Nakagami image reached 20 dB when the artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was 0.7-fold of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitude. This criterion was demonstrated by the phantom results to provide the NCA with an excellent ability to obtain artifact-free Nakagami images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114Q2351S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114Q2351S"><span>Speech intelligibility index predictions for young and old listeners in automobile <span class="hlt">noise</span>: Can the index be improved by incorporating factors other than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saweikis, Meghan; Surprenant, Aimée M.; Davies, Patricia; Gallant, Don</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>While young and old subjects with comparable audiograms tend to perform comparably on speech recognition tasks in quiet environments, the older subjects have more difficulty than the younger subjects with recognition tasks in degraded listening conditions. This suggests that factors other than an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold may account for some of the difficulty older listeners have on recognition tasks in noisy environments. Many metrics, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII), used to measure speech intelligibility, only consider an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold when accounting for age related hearing loss. Therefore these metrics tend to overestimate the performance for elderly listeners in noisy environments [Tobias et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 859-895 (1988)]. The present studies examine the predictive capabilities of the SII in an environment with automobile <span class="hlt">noise</span> present. This is of interest because people's evaluation of the automobile interior sound is closely linked to their ability to carry on conversations with their fellow passengers. The four studies examine whether, for subjects with age related hearing loss, the accuracy of the SII can be improved by incorporating factors other than an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold into the model. [Work supported by Ford Motor Company.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4767928','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4767928"><span>Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Test Outcome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing <span class="hlt">noise</span> while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less <span class="hlt">noise</span> was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=2&id=EJ1070880','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=2&id=EJ1070880"><span>Easy <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Values? <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572703"><span>Are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments all over the world have enacted environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> directives and <span class="hlt">noise</span> control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey. Outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at or above ANLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900474"><span>Are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments all over the world have enacted environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> directives and <span class="hlt">noise</span> control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey. Outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111270"><span>Study of some parameters affecting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in textile spinning and weaving mills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>el-Dakhakhny, A A; Noweir, M H; Kamel, N R</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> was evaluated in six spinning and five weaving halls located in three textile mills in Egypt. Spindle speed (rpm) and loom speed (picks per minutes) were found to be important parameters affecting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in these mills. Reduction of the number of spinning machines to five spindles per square meter of floor area will probably bring the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> below the TLV. In the weaving departments, the decrease in the number of looms will not effectively reduce the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..659Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..659Z"><span>Optimising threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative <span class="hlt">noise</span> on each threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The problem of optimising the threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform <span class="hlt">noise</span> is considered. Similar to previous results for additive <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and find that all threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. When the multiplicative <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> are not all identical for small additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643619','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643619"><span>Supplementary <span class="hlt">absolute</span> differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen's n=3 and 4 <span class="hlt">levels</span> by electron impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sweeney, Christopher J.; Shyn, Tong W.; Grafe, Alan</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>We have conducted measurements of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> differential cross sections for the excitation of hydrogen atoms to their n=3(3S+3P+3D) and 4(4S+4P+4D+4F) <span class="hlt">levels</span>. A modulated, crossed-beam method was employed, and the impact energies were 40 and 60 eV. Comparison of our results with those of others is quite favorable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034970&hterms=routes+Administration&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droutes%2BAdministration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034970&hterms=routes+Administration&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droutes%2BAdministration"><span>The prediction of en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for a DC-9 aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weir, Donald S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>En route <span class="hlt">noise</span> for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source <span class="hlt">noise</span> and propagation effects for an aircraft in <span class="hlt">level</span> flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source <span class="hlt">noise</span>, atmospheric absorption loss, and received <span class="hlt">noise</span> are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395787"><span>Anomalously high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a fibre Bragg grating semiconductor laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V</p> <p>2015-01-31</p> <p>Taking into account gain nonlinearity allows one to obtain anomalously high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. This paper examines the effect of the gain nonlinearity due to spectral hole burning on <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics. (lasers)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.434a2039H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.434a2039H"><span>Synchronous <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EIT in three thoracic planes at different gravity <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, G.; Just, A.; Dittmar, J.; Fromm, K. H.; Quintel, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The validity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Electrical Impedance Tomography (a-EIT) for assessment of local lung volume has been investigated far less than the well evaluated ventilation monitoring by functional EIT (f-EIT). To achieve progress in a-EIT we investigated 10 healthy volunteers in an upright sitting position by using a-EIT at normal gravity (1 g), weightlessness (0 g) and approx. double gravity (1.8 g) during parabolic flight manoeuvres. Lung resistivity in three thoracic planes was determined by a-EIT using a multiple-plane synchronised Goe-MF II EIT system. Tomograms of resistivity at end-expiration in normal spontaneous breathing were reconstructed by a modified SIRT algorithm. Local lung resistivity was determined separately for both lungs. The respective resistivity values at 1 g and 1.8 g before and after weightlessness show an almost reversible behaviour along the sequence of gravity changes with a tendency to be lower after occurrence of weightlessness. The results reveal not only the expected varying resistivity of lung tissue in cranio-caudal direction but also a clear difference in these cranio-caudal stratifications of local lung volume between the left and right lung. The resolution and stability of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EIT seem to be valid and expressive for future investigations of unilateral lung volume under different physiological and pathological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..715N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..715N"><span>Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of wind turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wind turbines <span class="hlt">noise</span> effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical <span class="hlt">noise</span> of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of wind turbine blades is the main source of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation. Numerical simulations of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994692"><span>Community response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Social surveys on <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> (three airports) and road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> are nearly identical to those presented in the European <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/<span class="hlt">noise</span>/directive.htm]. For road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091991"><span>Sound-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Measurements of a Light Airplane Modified to Reduce <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Reaching the Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vogeley, A W</p> <p>1949-01-01</p> <p>An Army liaison-type airplane, representative of personal airplanes in the 150 to 200 horsepower class, has been modified to reduce propeller and engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> according to known principles of airplane-<span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction. <span class="hlt">Noise-level</span> measurements demonstrate that, with reference to an observer on the ground, a noisy airplane of this class can be made quiet -- perhaps more quiet than necessary. In order to avoid extreme and unnecessary modifications, acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729143"><span>Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2015-12-29</p> <p>There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> (A-weighted outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical <span class="hlt">noise</span> model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> significantly decreased. When applying the statistical <span class="hlt">noise</span> model we found a relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span>, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school <span class="hlt">level</span>. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275629"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of dental equipment used in dental college of Damascus University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qsaibati, Mhd. Loutify; Ibrahim, Ousama</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: In dental practical classes, the acoustic environment is characterized by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in relation to other teaching areas. The aims of this study were to measure <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> produced during the different dental learning clinics, by equipments used in dental learning areas under different working conditions and by used and brand new handpieces under different working conditions. Materials and Methods: The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured by using a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> meter with a microphone, which was placed at a distance of 15 cm from a main <span class="hlt">noise</span> source in pre-clinical and clinical areas. In laboratories, the microphone was placed at a distance of 15 cm and another reading was taken 2 m away. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of dental learning clinics were measured by placing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> meter at clinic center. The data were collected, tabulated and statistically analyzed using t-tests. Significance <span class="hlt">level</span> was set at 5%. Results: In dental clinics, the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> was produced by micro motor handpiece while cutting on acrylic (92.2 dB) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> (51.7 dB) was created by ultrasonic scaler without suction pump. The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> in laboratories was caused by sandblaster (96 dB at a distance of 15 cm) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> by stone trimmer when only turned on (61.8 dB at a distance of 2 m). There was significant differences in <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the equipment's used in dental laboratories and dental learning clinics (P = 0.007). The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> recorded in clinics was at pedodontic clinic (67.37 dB). Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> detected in this study were considered to be close to the limit of risk of hearing loss 85 dB. PMID:25540655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187519"><span>[Equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in neonatal intensive care unit associated to burnout syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrido Galindo, A P; Camargo Caicedo, Y; Vélez-Pereira, A M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in neonatal intensive care units allow the appearance of symptoms associated with burnout such as stress, irritability, fatigue and emotional instability on health care personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the neonatal intensive care unit and compare the results with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with the occurrence of burnout syndrome on the care team. Continuous sampling was conducted for 20 days using a type I sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter on the unit. The maximum, the ninetieth percentile and the equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (Leq) values were recorded. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is reported in the range of 51.4-77.6 decibels A (dBA) with an average of 64 dBA, 100.6 dBA maximum, and average background <span class="hlt">noise</span> from 57.9 dBA. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceed the standards suggested for neonatal intensive care units, are close to maximum values referred for <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in the occupational standards and to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with the onset of burnout; thus allowing to infer the probability of occurrence of high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> present in the unit on the development of burnout in caregivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/129600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/129600"><span>[<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements of the air <span class="hlt">noise</span> during drilling and grinding on the fresh isolated temporal bone (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paulsen, K; Vietor, K</p> <p>1975-10-01</p> <p>Aerial sound measurements with different drilling instruments were performed during dry running and preparations of the bone. Registered were the values of the small drilling instruments Sirona, Dentatus-Air, and Electro-Torque-Ritter. Also tested were the KaVo-Technique-machine, the Hall-machine, the Air-Orbit-turbine, and the Sirona-turbine. During dry running most of them already reached the allowed marginal value of <span class="hlt">noise</span> nuisance for the ear of 85 dB (A) at a distance of 35 cm. Only the Air-Orbit-machine showed a slightly lower value of 80 dB (A). The <span class="hlt">level</span> increases with the used handpieces. Normal handpieces 1:1 exert only a minimal influence, gear handpieces 2:1, however, markedly increase the <span class="hlt">level</span>. The verticity is of no importance in the range of normal rotations between 10,000 r/min. and 80,000 r/min. Only rotations in the lower frequency range of 2,000 r/min. markedly decrease the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. During bone drilling, the kind and size of the drilling bit have an influence on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Quadruple wing milling cutters create a very high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (at a distance of 15 cm still above 110 dB [A!]), big rose cutters (R 16) create <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 95 dB (A) and above, and only diamond round bits create less <span class="hlt">noise</span> (approximately 88 db [A]). Small drilling bits make such a faint <span class="hlt">noise</span>, that it is overroared by the drilling instrument. The turbines create only slightly higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> than during dry running. Larger drilling bits cannot be employed here on principle. Wing milling cutters can lead to persistent damages of the inner ear. The frequent use of dental drilling instruments for bone preparations can also lead to a hearing loss of the operator in the long run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917637','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917637"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a dental teaching institute - A matter of concern!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Simarpreet; Singh, Gurminder; Sharma, Sumit; Kaur, Amarinder</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To measure and assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> produced by various dental equipments in different areas of a dental institution and to recommend improvements if <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are not within permissible limits. Material and Methods: Sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at three different areas of a dental institution where learning and teaching activities are organized. The sound <span class="hlt">level</span> was measured using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter known as ‘decibulolmeter’. In each area the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was assessed at two positions-one, at 6 inches from the operators ear and second, at the chairside instrument trolley. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also assessed from a central location of the clinic area when multiple equipments were in operation simultaneously. Results: Dental laboratory machine, dental hand-piece, ultrasonic scalers, amalgamators, high speed evacuation, and other items produce <span class="hlt">noise</span> at different sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> which is appreciable. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated varied between 72.6 dB in pre-clinics and 87.2 dB in prosthesis laboratory. The results are comparable to the results of other studies which are conducted elsewhere. Although the risk to the dentists is lesser, but damage to the hearing is possible over prolonged periods. Conclusion: Higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are potentially hazardous to the persons working in such environments especially in the laboratory areas where <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are exceeding the permissible limits. Key words:<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, equipment, hearing loss, risk, working areas. PMID:24558544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3745508','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3745508"><span>Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: Feasibility of determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khokhlova, Vera A.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm2 to at least 50 W/cm2. Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle. PMID:23927199</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23927199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23927199"><span>Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: feasibility of determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khokhlova, Vera A; Shmeleva, Svetlana M; Gavrilov, Leonid R; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm(2) to at least 50 W/cm(2). Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169372"><span>Shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum of open dissipative quantum two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguado, Ramón; Brandes, Tobias</p> <p>2004-05-21</p> <p>We study the current <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum of qubits under transport conditions in a dissipative bosonic environment. We combine (non-)Markovian master equations with correlation functions in Laplace space to derive a <span class="hlt">noise</span> formula for both weak and strong coupling to the bath. The coherence-induced reduction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> is diminished by weak dissipation and/or a large <span class="hlt">level</span> separation (bias). For weak dissipation, we demonstrate that the dephasing and relaxation rates of the two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems can be extracted from <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In the strong dissipation regime, the localization-delocalization transition becomes visible in the low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534855"><span>Performance of different types of hearing protectors undergoing high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buck, Karl</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes the problems that may occur when hearing protectors, usually designed for industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> environments, are used for high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse (weapon) <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The military impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment is described, as are the different types of passive and active hearing protectors and the measurement procedures. The different mechanisms that may alter the effectiveness of the hearing protectors as well as their global efficiency when submitted to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> are presented. The paper also discusses how the performance values accessible to the user may be used in different damage risk criteria for continuous and impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9473860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9473860"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and hearing ability of female workers in a textile factory in Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, A L; Nguyen, T C; Van, T L; Hoang, M H; Nguyen, S; Jonai, H; Villanueva, M B; Matsuda, S; Sotoyama, M; Sudo, A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and hearing ability profiles were determined in a textile factory in Vietnam. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> mapping done in the weaving section showed that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the Vietnamese standard of 90 dBA by as much as 9 dBA in some areas. Audiometric tests performed on 69 female workers from the weaving section revealed that workers with more than 10 years of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure had the worst hearing threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. Similar findings were observed for workers greater than 35 years old. The 4,000 Hz notch, suggestive of exposure to intense <span class="hlt">noise</span>, was noted in the audiograms of 26 subjects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1151S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1151S"><span>Estimating the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> in time series by using fractal dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sase, Takumi; Ramírez, Jonatán Peña; Kitajo, Keiichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present a method for estimating the dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of a 'short' time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJAME..21..511I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJAME..21..511I"><span>Industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> study in a wheat processing factory in ilorin, nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibrahim, I.; Ajao, K. R.; Aremu, S. A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>An industrial process such as wheat processing generates significant <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can cause adverse effects on workers and the general public. This study assessed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at a wheat processing mill in Ilorin, Nigeria. A portable digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter HD600 manufactured by Extech Inc., USA was used to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> around various machines, sections and offices in the factory at pre-determined distances. Subjective assessment was also mode using a World Health Organization (WHO) standard questionnaire to obtain information regarding <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratings, effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on personnel and <span class="hlt">noise</span> preventive measures. The result of the study shows that the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 99.4 dBA was recorded at a pressure blower when compared to other machines. WHO Class-4 hearing protector is recommended for workers on the shop floor and room acoustics should be upgraded to absorb some sounds transmitted to offices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026920','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026920"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the continental United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McNamara, D.E.; Buland, R.P.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The results of our <span class="hlt">noise</span> analysis are useful for characterizing the performance of existing broadband stations and for detecting operational problems and should be relevant to the future siting of ANSS backbone stations. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> maps at body-wave frequencies should be useful for estimating the magnitude threshold for the ANSS backbone and regional networks or conversely for optimizing the distribution of regional network stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022127"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center <span class="hlt">noise</span> test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the <span class="hlt">noise</span> results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field <span class="hlt">noise</span> around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf"><span>14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and other information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>..., weights, configurations, and other information or data employed for obtaining the certified <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> prescribed by this part, including equivalent procedures used for flight, testing, and analysis, must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf"><span>14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and other information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>..., weights, configurations, and other information or data employed for obtaining the certified <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> prescribed by this part, including equivalent procedures used for flight, testing, and analysis, must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010980','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010980"><span>An empirical method for predicting the mixing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of subsonic circular and coaxial jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An empirical method for predicting the static free field source <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet <span class="hlt">noise</span> in terms of four components which are overall power <span class="hlt">level</span>, power spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span>, directivity index, and relative spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span>. The values of these <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at each of these grid points is called a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinates define the component <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030705"><span>Switching Correlation and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Pr3+:YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> correlation and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other. PMID:27650423</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650423"><span>Switching Correlation and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Pr(3+):YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> correlation and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014729"><span>Guidelines for <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the space station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Human habitability <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration guidelines for the Space Station are presented. These were developed by a working group of experts established by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure limits are suggested that will permit adequate speech communication, sleep, and hearing safety. Vibration exposure limits are suggested which will provide adequate comfort and permit adequate task performance. These are provided for guidance only for setting criteria. The exact criteria will depend on Space Station design and duty cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080075"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in primary schools of medium sized city in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarantopoulos, George; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kassomenos, Pavlos</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This study presents and evaluates <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded at 15 school complexes in order to describe the indoor as well as the outdoor acoustic environment of schools and gain insight on controlling factors. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at the roadside in front of the school, the schoolyard, and 41 classrooms, both occupied and unoccupied, were simultaneously and continuously recorded through the course of a daily timetable (08:20-13:10). The average speech <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of teachers was separately measured for 1min periods. Indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, in all cases, were much higher than internationally recommended values: LAeq,5min averaged 69.0dB in occupied classrooms, and 47.1dB in unoccupied ones. Average speech-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (SNR) was estimated to be 12.0dB(A) during teaching, whereas both indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were significantly elevated during break time and outdoor physical-educational activities. Corresponding measurements of indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggest that <span class="hlt">noise</span> from the outside (road and schoolyard) affects the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the classrooms, however in varying degrees, depending on the specific layout and road traffic characteristics. Using double glazing diminishes this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529260"><span>Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Montreal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2016-08-11</p> <p>The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> source was also used as an indicator of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road <span class="hlt">noise</span> when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160421"><span>Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood <span class="hlt">absolute</span> NK cell counts and cortisol <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress <span class="hlt">levels</span> during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former <span class="hlt">levels</span> remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span> during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress <span class="hlt">levels</span> in calves during road transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349105"><span>A <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction method is effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerobic+AND+exercise&pg=6&id=EJ808593','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerobic+AND+exercise&pg=6&id=EJ808593"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to measure <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22444065"><span>Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the <span class="hlt">noise</span> guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) <span class="hlt">levels</span> in each district consistently indicates that <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of <span class="hlt">noise</span> during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> with air pollutant <span class="hlt">levels</span> indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and air pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&id=EJ1047166','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&id=EJ1047166"><span>Reduction of Classroom <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Using Group Contingencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ring, Brandon M.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Eubanks, Sean L.; Silverman, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated <span class="hlt">noise</span> standards. Participants…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=class+AND+insulation&pg=2&id=EJ130979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=class+AND+insulation&pg=2&id=EJ130979"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, David P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924625','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924625"><span>Pure-tone audiometric threshold assessment with in-ear monitoring of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Turk, Marvee; Clavier, Odile H.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective Our objective was to obtain reliable threshold measurements without a sound booth by using a passive <span class="hlt">noise</span>-attenuating hearing protector combined with in-ear 1/3-octave band <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements to verify the ear canal was suitably quiet. Design We deployed laptop-based hearing testing systems to Tanzania as part of a study of HIV infection and hearing. An in-ear probe containing a microphone was used under the hearing protector for both the in-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and threshold audiometry. The 1/3-octave band <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum from the microphone was displayed on the operator’s screen with acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> in grey and unacceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> in red. Operators attempted to make all bars grey, but focused on achieving grey bars at 2000 Hz and above. Study Sample 624 adults and 260 children provided 3381 in-ear octave band measurements. Repeated measurements from 144 individuals who returned for testing on 3 separate occasions were also analyzed. Results In-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the minimal permissible ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (MPANL) for ears not covered, but not the dB SPL <span class="hlt">levels</span> corresponding to 0 dB HL between 2–4 kHz. In-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were repeatable over time. Conclusions Reliable audiometry can be performed using a passive <span class="hlt">noise</span>-attenuating hearing protector and in-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. PMID:23992487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507061','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507061"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in 200 Mosques in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al Shimemeri, S. A.; Patel, Chirag B.; Abdulrahman, Al Fayez</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a recognized concern within the context of occupational and general health. However, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are seldom studied at nonworkplace and nonabode sites that are visited regularly, e.g., places of worship. The purpose of this study was to assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms and to compare the <span class="hlt">levels</span> with established <span class="hlt">noise</span> tolerance limits. Materials and Methods: A portable digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter was used to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (measured in dB) inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms. The highest (peak) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from each recording were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). Results: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at 200 mosque prayer rooms from all 15 municipal districts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Of these, 151 prayer rooms (75.5%) had both inside and outside <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and the remaining 49 prayer rooms (24.5%) had only inside <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. There was significantly greater <span class="hlt">noise</span> outside compared to inside the prayer rooms, for both the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (outside: 87.8 ± 4.8 dB compared to inside: 85.8 ± 5.4 dB, P < 0.0001) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (outside: 58.4 ± 3.8 dB compared to inside: 56.6 ± 3.6 dB, P < 0.00001). In all, 112 of the inside highest <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements (56%) and 113 of the outside highest <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements (74.8%) were greater than 85 dB, the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> at which NIHL has been shown to occur in occupational settings. Conclusion: A large proportion (56%) of mosque prayer rooms with inside peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were above acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> (85 dB), however, prayers certainly do not last for 8 continuous hours. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at mosques is acceptable and in compliance with international norms of hearing safety; moreover, it does not present any risk to hearing in the long run. PMID:23210007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611053"><span>Assessing the Underwater Ship <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the North Tyrrhenian Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossi, Eduardo; Licitra, Gaetano; Iacoponi, Andrea; Taburni, Daniele</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to assess the anthropic underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> caused by ships within the Cetacean Sanctuary, a wide area in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> from low-frequency continuous sounds has been investigated within the 1/3-octave bands centered at 63 and 125 Hz. All the information about <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and sound attenuation have been organized in a database; a tool automatically extracts useful information from it and feeds a ray-tracing model to estimate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The results show average <span class="hlt">levels</span> generally over the 100 dB re 1 μPa value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356370"><span>Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in preschools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress <span class="hlt">level</span>, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress <span class="hlt">level</span> was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PNAS..10813019B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PNAS..10813019B"><span>Comparing the role of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Since the late 1990s, rising sea <span class="hlt">levels</span> around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795605"><span>Comparing the role of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard</p> <p>2011-08-09</p> <p>Since the late 1990s, rising sea <span class="hlt">levels</span> around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156165"><span>Comparing the role of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Since the late 1990s, rising sea <span class="hlt">levels</span> around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002–2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world’s first climate change “refugees.” We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future. PMID:21795605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740017450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740017450"><span>Civil helicopter <span class="hlt">noise</span> assessment study Boeing-Vertol model 347. [recommendations for reduction of helicopter <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to forecast the <span class="hlt">noise</span> restrictions which may be imposed on civil transport helicopters in the 1975-1985 time period. Certification and community acceptance criteria were predicted. A 50 passenger tandem rotor helicopter based on the Boeing-Vertol Model 347 was studied to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reductions required, and the means of achieving them. Some of the important study recommendations are: (1) certification limits should be equivalent to 95 EPNdb at data points located at 500 feet to each side of the touchdown/takeoff point, and 1000 feet from this point directly under the approach and departure flight path. (2) community acceptance should be measured as Equivalent <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (Leq), based on dBA, with separate limits for day and night operations, and (3) in order to comply with the above guidelines, the Model 347 helicopter will require studies and tests leading to several modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020277&hterms=Deafness&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDeafness','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020277&hterms=Deafness&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDeafness"><span><span class="hlt">Level</span>, peculiarities and effects of coal mine <span class="hlt">noise</span> on pit workers. [correlation between <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity and hearing impairment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Darlea, I. G.; Bitir, P.; Coculescu, M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>There exists a correlation between <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity and spectrum and degree of hearing impairment in the different professional categories in the pit. Most affected are dross miners and drillers. In these, the first degree of hypoacusia sets in within the first five years of exposure. Deafness begins at a frequency of 4,000 Hz, but often enough (20%) at 2,000 Hz as well, progressively evolving through the classical stages if exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> continues. In the coal bearing basins investigated, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is, on the whole, 31.2%, but the conventional zone is not involved by more than 6.3%. Technological and medical measures are proposed for the purpose of avoiding these troubles in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..431I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..431I"><span>The plasma cyclic-AMP response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>Rats were exposed to short-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for <span class="hlt">levels</span> of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014855"><span>Sources and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Soderman, Paul T.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel following installation of a sound-absorbent lining on the test-section walls. Results show that the fan-drive <span class="hlt">noise</span> dominated the empty test-section background <span class="hlt">noise</span> at airspeeds below 120 knots. Above 120 knots, the test-section broadband background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was dominated by wind-induced dipole <span class="hlt">noise</span> (except at lower harmonics of fan blade-passage tones) most likely generated at the microphone or microphone support strut. Third-octave band and narrow-band spectra are presented for several fan operating conditions and test-section airspeeds. The background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> can be reduced by making improvements to the microphone wind screen or support strut. Empirical equations are presented relating variations of fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> with fan speed or blade-pitch angle. An empirical expression for typical fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra is also presented. Fan motor electric power consumption is related to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation. Preliminary measurements of sound absorption by the test-section lining indicate that the 152 mm thick lining will adequately absorb test-section model <span class="hlt">noise</span> at frequencies above 300 Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007066','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007066"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and their effects on Shuttle crewmembers' performance: Operational concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koros, Anton S.; Adam, Susan C.; Wheelwright, Charles D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>When excessive, <span class="hlt">noise</span> can result in sleep interference, fatigue, interference with verbal communication, and hearing damage. Shuttle crewmembers are exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> throughout their mission. The contribution of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to decrements in crew performance over these extended exposure durations was the focus of this study. On the STS-40/SLS-1, mission <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were evaluated through the use of a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a crew questionnaire. Crewmembers noted that sleep, concentration, and relaxation were negatively impacted by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Speech Interference <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (SIL's), calculated from the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements, suggested that crewmembers were required to raise their voice in order to be heard. No difficulty detecting caution and warning alarms was noted. The higher than desirable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Spacelab were attributed to flight specific payloads for which acoustic waivers were granted. It is recommended that current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> be reduced in Spacelab and the Orbiter Middeck especially as longer missions are planned for the buildup of Space Station Freedom. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of NC 50 are recommended in areas where speech communication is required and NC 40 in sleep areas. These <span class="hlt">levels</span> are in accordance with the NASA Man-Systems Integration Standards. Measurements proposed for subsequent orbiter missions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARD46004C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARD46004C"><span>Impact of Atomic Structure on <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Joshua</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>There has been a staggeringly rapid increase in the photovoltaic performance of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite - greater than 19 percent solar cell power conversion efficiency has been reported in less than five years since the first report in 2009. Despite the progress in device performance, structure-property relationships in MAPbI3 are still poorly understood. I will present our recent findings on the impact of changing the Pb-I bond length and Pb-I-Pb bond angle on the electronic structure of MAPbI3. By using the combination of temperature dependent X-ray scattering, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, absorbance and PL spectroscopy, we show that the energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) shift in the same direction as MAPbI3 goes through tetragonal-to-cubic structural phase transition wherein the rotational angle of PbI6 octahedra is the order parameter of the transition. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations which show that the lattice expansion and bond angle distortion cause different degree of orbital overlap between the Pb and I atoms and the anti-bonding orbital nature of both HOMO and LUMO results in the same direction of their shift. Moreover, through pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering, we discovered that the majority of MAPbI3 in thin film solar cell layer has highly disordered structure with a coherence range of only 1.4 nm. The nanostructuring correlates with a blueshift of the absorption onset and increases the photoluminescence. Our results underscore the importance of understanding the structure-property relationships in order to improve the device performance of metal-organic perovskites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028215"><span>COMPARISON OF VENTED AND <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-<span class="hlt">LEVEL</span> MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MCDONALD JP</p> <p>2011-09-08</p> <p>Automated water-<span class="hlt">level</span> data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-<span class="hlt">level</span> measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-<span class="hlt">level</span> measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005624"><span>Effects of sound <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations on annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccurdy, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of variations in the rate and magnitude of sound <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations on the annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The effects of tonal content, <span class="hlt">noise</span> duration, and sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> on annoyance were also studied. An aircraft-<span class="hlt">noise</span> synthesis system was used to synthesize 32 aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimuli representing the factorial combinations of 2 tone conditions, 2 <span class="hlt">noise</span> durations, 2 sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 2 <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation rates, and 2 <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation magnitudes. Thirty-two test subjects made annoyance judgements on a total of 64 stimuli in a subjective listening test facility simulating an outdoor acoustic environment. Variations in the rate and magnitude of <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations were found to have little, if any, effect on annoyance. Tonal content, <span class="hlt">noise</span> duration, sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>, and the interaction of tonal content with sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> were found to affect the judged annoyance significantly. The addition of tone corrections and/or duration corrections significantly improved the annoyance prediction ability of <span class="hlt">noise</span> rating scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2438M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2438M"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were determined using a precision sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter, which was positioned at ear <span class="hlt">level</span> and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits in A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23008255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23008255"><span>Additive white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation in SVD domain for images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wei; Lin, Weisi</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Accurate estimation of Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is of fundamental interest in a wide variety of vision and image processing applications as it is critical to the processing techniques that follow. In this paper, a new effective <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation method is proposed on the basis of the study of singular values of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-corrupted images. Two novel aspects of this paper address the major challenges in <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation: 1) the use of the tail of singular values for <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation to alleviate the influence of the signal on the data basis for the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation process and 2) the addition of known <span class="hlt">noise</span> to estimate the content-dependent parameter, so that the proposed scheme is adaptive to visual signals, thereby enabling a wider application scope of the proposed scheme. The analysis and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reliably infer <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and show robust behavior over a wide range of visual content and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions, and that is outperforms relevant existing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1910M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1910M"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> and transient <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were highest. The animals also responded to the transient <span class="hlt">noise</span> of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275337"><span>Manatee (Trichechus manatus) vocalization usage in relation to environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Tyack, Peter L</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> can interfere with acoustic communication by masking signals that contain biologically important information. Communication theory recognizes several ways a sender can modify its acoustic signal to compensate for <span class="hlt">noise</span>, including increasing the source <span class="hlt">level</span> of a signal, its repetition, its duration, shifting frequency outside that of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> band, or shifting the timing of signal emission outside of <span class="hlt">noise</span> periods. The extent to which animals would be expected to use these compensation mechanisms depends on the benefit of successful communication, risk of failure, and the cost of compensation. Here we study whether a coastal marine mammal, the manatee, can modify vocalizations as a function of behavioral context and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. To investigate whether and how manatees modify their vocalizations, natural vocalization usage and structure were examined in terms of vocalization rate, duration, frequency, and source <span class="hlt">level</span>. Vocalizations were classified into two call types, chirps and squeaks, which were analyzed independently. In conditions of elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, call rates decreased during feeding and social behaviors, and the duration of each call type was differently influenced by the presence of calves. These results suggest that ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> do have a detectable effect on manatee communication and that manatees modify their vocalizations as a function of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in specific behavioral contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175977','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175977"><span>Radiation Threshold <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Degradation of Photodiodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-09-30</p> <p>for <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Degradation of Photodiodes L. W. AUKERMAN , F. L. VERNON, Jr., and Y. SONG Electronics Research Laboratory Laboratory Operations The...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER TR-0086 (6925-04)-2 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Lee W. Aukerman , Frank L. Vernon, Jr., and Yeong Song...Agency, Washington, D.C. (December 1971). 8. D. H. Seib and L. W. Aukerman , "Photodetectors for the 0.1 to 1.0 4m Spectral Region," Advances in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18846431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18846431"><span>A comparative study of <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended <span class="hlt">level</span> by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally <span class="hlt">noise</span> polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high <span class="hlt">noise</span> risk may help to relieve the <span class="hlt">noise</span> problem in the metropolis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23453285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23453285"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> lymphocyte count is associated with minimal residual disease <span class="hlt">level</span> in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Hong-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Hua; Tang, Yong-Min; Song, Hua; Yang, Shi-Long; Shi, Shu-Wen; Xu, Wei-Qun</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The prognostic value of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> lymphocyte count (ALC) has been a recent matter of debate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the current study, ALCs at the time of diagnosis (ALC-0), after 7 days of initial therapy (ALC-8) and at interim of the induction therapy (ALC-22) were examined in Chinese children with B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL and correlated with the <span class="hlt">level</span> of minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 22 of induction therapy. Medical and laboratory records of 140 patients diagnosed with childhood BCP ALL were retrieved and analyzed. ALC-22 is significantly correlated with MRD <span class="hlt">level</span> at day 22 of therapy and can be a good prognostic factor for childhood BCP-ALL. Furthermore, lymphocyte count at initial diagnosis is correlated with MRD <span class="hlt">level</span> at day 22 in childhood BCP-ALL with the immnunophenotype of CD19(pos)/CD10(pos)/CD34(pos)/CD45(neg) and role as a new prognostic factor was determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000068518','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000068518"><span>Validation of Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Models at Low <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted <span class="hlt">levels</span> are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670443','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670443"><span>Effects of voice style, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their <span class="hlt">level</span> in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:26723357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780960"><span>Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures" such as environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> plus recreational <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The present study measures the preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a mobile phone program with subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants' earphone volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were analyzed using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> than for the other programs. Higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume <span class="hlt">level</span> was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> is still needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918671','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918671"><span>Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on “double <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures” such as environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> plus recreational <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The present study measures the preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a mobile phone program with subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants’ earphone volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were analyzed using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> than for the other programs. Higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume <span class="hlt">level</span> was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> is still needed. PMID:26780960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014927','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014927"><span>Measurement of speech <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the presence of time varying background <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pearsons, K. S.; Horonjeff, R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Short-term speech <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements which could be used to note changes in vocal effort in a time varying <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment were studied. Knowing the changes in speech <span class="hlt">level</span> would in turn allow prediction of intelligibility in the presence of aircraft flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Tests indicated that it is possible to use two second samples of speech to estimate long term root mean square speech <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Other tests were also performed in which people read out loud during aircraft flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Results of these tests indicate that people do indeed raise their voice during flyovers at a rate of about 3-1/2 dB for each 10 dB increase in background <span class="hlt">level</span>. This finding is in agreement with other tests of speech <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the presence of steady state background <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629916"><span>The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Received by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M; Giles, Deborah A; Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Hogan, Jeffrey T; Branch, Trevor A; VanBlaricom, Glenn R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667929"><span>The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Received by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M.; Giles, Deborah A.; Hanson, M. Bradley; Emmons, Candice K.; Hogan, Jeffrey T.; Branch, Trevor A.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population. PMID:26629916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173493','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173493"><span>The relationship between vessel traffic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by killer whales (Orcinus orca)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M.; Giles, Deborah A.; Hanson, M. Bradley; Emmons, Candice K.; Hogan, Jeffrey T.; Branch, Trevor A.; Vanblaricom, Glenn R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227021','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227021"><span>Modeling Signal-to-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Ratio of Otoacoustic Emissions in Workers Exposed to Different Industrial <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL) and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.3154K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.3154K"><span>Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and duration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, Colleen Reichmuth</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Behavioral psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the hearing sensitivity of three pinnipeds: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as the difference between auditory thresholds obtained before and after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, was assessed. The subjects were exposed to octave-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> centered at 2500 Hz at two sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>: 80 and 95 dB SL (re: auditory threshold at 2500 Hz). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure durations were 22, 25, and 50 min. Threshold shifts were assessed at 2500 and 3530 Hz. Mean threshold shifts ranged from 2.9-12.2 dB. Full recovery of auditory sensitivity occurred within 24 h of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Control sequences, comprising sham <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures, did not result in significant mean threshold shifts for any subject. Threshold shift magnitudes increased with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SEL) for two of the three subjects. The results underscore the importance of including sound exposure metrics (incorporating sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> and exposure duration) in order to fully assess the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on marine mammal hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4476045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4476045"><span>Harbour porpoises react to low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dyndo, Monika; Wiśniewska, Danuta Maria; Rojano-Doñate, Laia; Madsen, Peter Teglberg</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cetaceans rely critically on sound for navigation, foraging and communication and are therefore potentially affected by increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from human activities at sea. Shipping is the main contributor of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater, but studies of shipping <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects have primarily considered baleen whales due to their good hearing at low frequencies, where ships produce most <span class="hlt">noise</span> power. Conversely, the possible effects of vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> on small toothed whales have been largely ignored due to their poor low-frequency hearing. Prompted by recent findings of energy at medium- to high-frequencies in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we conducted an exposure study where the behaviour of four porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a net-pen was logged while they were exposed to 133 vessel passages. Using a multivariate generalised linear mixed-effects model, we show that low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency components in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> elicit strong, stereotyped behavioural responses in porpoises. Such low <span class="hlt">levels</span> will routinely be experienced by porpoises in the wild at ranges of more than 1000 meters from vessels, suggesting that vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a, so far, largely overlooked, but substantial source of disturbance in shallow water areas with high densities of both porpoises and vessels. PMID:26095689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511083D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511083D"><span>Harbour porpoises react to low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyndo, Monika; Wiśniewska, Danuta Maria; Rojano-Doñate, Laia; Madsen, Peter Teglberg</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Cetaceans rely critically on sound for navigation, foraging and communication and are therefore potentially affected by increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from human activities at sea. Shipping is the main contributor of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater, but studies of shipping <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects have primarily considered baleen whales due to their good hearing at low frequencies, where ships produce most <span class="hlt">noise</span> power. Conversely, the possible effects of vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> on small toothed whales have been largely ignored due to their poor low-frequency hearing. Prompted by recent findings of energy at medium- to high-frequencies in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we conducted an exposure study where the behaviour of four porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a net-pen was logged while they were exposed to 133 vessel passages. Using a multivariate generalised linear mixed-effects model, we show that low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency components in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> elicit strong, stereotyped behavioural responses in porpoises. Such low <span class="hlt">levels</span> will routinely be experienced by porpoises in the wild at ranges of more than 1000 meters from vessels, suggesting that vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a, so far, largely overlooked, but substantial source of disturbance in shallow water areas with high densities of both porpoises and vessels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16334695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16334695"><span>Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and duration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, Colleen Reichmuth</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Behavioral psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the hearing sensitivity of three pinnipeds: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as the difference between auditory thresholds obtained before and after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, was assessed. The subjects were exposed to octave-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> centered at 2500 Hz at two sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>: 80 and 95 dB SL (re: auditory threshold at 2500 Hz). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure durations were 22, 25, and 50 min. Threshold shifts were assessed at 2500 and 3530 Hz. Mean threshold shifts ranged from 2.9-12.2 dB. Full recovery of auditory sensitivity occurred within 24 h of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Control sequences, comprising sham <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures, did not result in significant mean threshold shifts for any subject. Threshold shift magnitudes increased with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SEL) for two of the three subjects. The results underscore the importance of including sound exposure metrics (incorporating sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> and exposure duration) in order to fully assess the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on marine mammal hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918653"><span>The impact of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive performance in attention-based tasks depends on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> even within moderate-<span class="hlt">level</span> ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schlittmeier, Sabine J.; Feil, Alexandra; Liebl, Andreas; Hellbrück, Jürgen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little empirical evidence is available regarding the effects of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive performance in adults, although traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be heard at many offices and home office workplaces. Our study tested the impact of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at different <span class="hlt">levels</span> (50 dB(A), 60 dB(A), 70 dB(A)) on performance in three tasks that differed with respect to their dependency on attentional and storage functions, as follows: The Stroop task, in which performance relied predominantly on attentional functions (e.g., inhibition of automated responses; Experiment 1: n = 24); a non-automated multistage mental arithmetic task calling for both attentional and storage functions (Exp. 2: n = 18); and verbal serial recall, which placed a burden predominantly on storage functions (Experiment 3: n = 18). Better performance was observed during moderate road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 50 dB(A) compared to loud traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A) in attention-based tasks (Experiments 1-2). This contrasted with the effects of irrelevant speech (60 dB(A)), which was included in the experiments as a well-explored and common <span class="hlt">noise</span> source in office settings. A disturbance impact of background speech was only given in the two tasks that called for storage functions (Experiments 2-3). In addition to the performance data, subjective annoyance ratings were collected. Consistent with the <span class="hlt">level</span> effect of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> found in the performance data, a moderate road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 50 dB(A) was perceived as significantly less annoying than a loud road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A), which was found, however, independently of the task at hand. Furthermore, the background sound condition with the highest detrimental performance effect in a task was also rated as most annoying in this task, i.e., traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A) in the Stroop task, and background speech in the mental arithmetic and serial recall tasks. PMID:25913554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515634"><span>Excessive <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are noted in kindergarten classrooms in the island of Crete.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatzakis, Nikolaos S; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Helidoni, Meropi E; Velegrakis, Stelios G; Christodoulou, Panagiotis; Velegrakis, Georgios A</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> in classrooms may present a serious obstacle to the academic achievement of children. There is relatively little information on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in teaching facilities in Greece and particularly in the island of Crete. The purpose of this study was to provide objective data on the internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside kindergartens in Crete. The study was conducted in the city of Heraklion in the island of Crete, Greece. Ten kindergartens were selected and a total of 18 classrooms were chosen. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in occupied and unoccupied classrooms. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in occupied classrooms ranged from 71.6 to 82.9 dBA with an average of 75.8 dBA. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in empty classrooms varied from 48.2 to 59.6 dBA with an average of 53.1 dBA. All values are well above international standards. Excessive classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> seems to be very common in kindergartens. Results may indicate that school facilities are not built in compliance with international standards. School administrators and local authorities should become aware of the problem, and make any necessary interventions to improve the learning capabilities of children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641522"><span>Relationship between container ship underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Low-frequency ocean ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> is dominated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship <span class="hlt">noise</span> in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source <span class="hlt">level</span> was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative <span class="hlt">noise</span> was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> from container ships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715651"><span>Influence of music and music preference on acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in listeners with normal hearing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) is defined as the maximum <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background <span class="hlt">noise</span> than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background <span class="hlt">noise</span> than twelve-talker babble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25454773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25454773"><span>Timing vocal behavior: lack of temporal overlap avoidance to fluctuating <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in singing Eurasian wrens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiao-Jing; Slabbekoorn, Hans</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Many animals live in or near urban areas that have become increasingly widespread and noisy over the last century. Especially those species that rely heavily on acoustics for communication may be affected by these elevated anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Many bird species that sing to defend their territories and to attract mates may have to exploit specific <span class="hlt">noise</span> coping strategies to persist in such acoustically challenging conditions. Eurasian wrens (Troglodytes troglodytes), like several other bird species, have been shown in a previous experiment to time their vocalizations such that they avoid overlap with other singing birds. Here, we tested whether Eurasian wrens also time their songs to avoid overlap with fluctuating anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. However, we did not find any evidence in favor of this potential phenomenon. Territorial wrens persisted in singing without temporal adjustments in noisy territories with 'natural' fluctuations of traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> as well as during experimental exposure to intermittent white <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24275001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24275001"><span>Recent and long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and salivary cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Environmental and occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span> measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every <span class="hlt">noise</span> recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>, time since occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were associated with increased cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span> off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812447"><span>Probing the Crystal Structure, Composition-Dependent <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Levels</span>, and Electrocatalytic Properties of Silver Indium Sulfide Nanostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saji, Pintu; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhat, Mohsin A; Ingole, Pravin P</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electronic energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> in silver indium sulfide (AIS) nanocrystals (NCs) with varying compositions and crystallographic phases have been determined by using cyclic voltammetry. Different crystallographic phases, that is, metastable cubic, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and a mixture of cubic and orthorhombic AIS NCs, were studied. The band gap values estimated from the cyclic voltammetry measurements match well with the band gap values calculated from the diffuse reflectance spectra measurements. The AIS nanostructures were found to show good electrocatalytic activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Our results clearly establish that the electronic and electrocatalytic properties of AIS NCs are strongly sensitive to the composition and crystal structure of AIS NCs. Monoclinic AIS was found to be the most active HER electrocatalyst, with electrocatalytic activity that is almost comparable to the MoS2 -based nanostructures reported in the literature, whereas cubic AIS was observed to be the least active of the studied crystallographic phases and compositions. In view of the HER activity and electronic band structure parameters observed herein, we hypothesize that the Fermi energy <span class="hlt">level</span> of AIS NCs is an important factor that decides the electrocatalytic efficiency of these nanocomposites. The work presented herein, in addition to being the first of its kind regarding the composition and phase-dependence of electrochemical aspects of AIS NCs, also presents a simple solvothermal method for the synthesis of different crystallographic phases with various Ag/In molar ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865218','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865218"><span>Effect of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on neuronal coding of interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural <span class="hlt">noise</span> at high <span class="hlt">levels</span> generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects were related to selective <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. They also suggest that some effects of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the <span class="hlt">level</span> of the midbrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997495','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997495"><span>Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Montreal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> source was also used as an indicator of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road <span class="hlt">noise</span> when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:27529260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design... accommodation spaces, must be designed to limit the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in those areas so that personnel wearing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213147"><span>Measurement of SQUID <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for SuperCDMS SNOLAB detectors - Final Paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Maxwell</p> <p>2015-08-27</p> <p>SuperCDMS SNOLAB is a second generation direct dark matter search. In the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, detectors are able to pick up from signals from dark matter nuclear recoil interactions which occur inside the bulk of the detectors. These interactions produce both phonon and charge signals. HEMTs read out charge signals whereas TES are used to detect phonon signals which are then read out by SQUID amplifiers. SQUID amplifiers must add negligible <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the TES intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> which has been previously measured and is approximately 50pA/√Hz down to 100Hz for ease of signal distinguishability in dark matter nuclear interactions. The intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the SQUID was tested in the SLAC 300mK fridge and determined to provide adequately low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> with a floor of approximately 3pA/√Hz. Furthermore, a 10x amplifier was tested for addition of extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This <span class="hlt">noise</span> was investigated with and without this amplifier, and it was found that it did not add a significant amount of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the intrinsic SQUID <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135145"><span>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> affects their behaviors, plasma NE <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232429','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232429"><span>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> affects their behaviors, plasma NE <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759906"><span>Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R</p> <p>2012-08-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902452"><span>High ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Vadodara City, India, affected by urbanization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Neha; Dhiman, Hitesh; Shaikh, Sadaf; Shah, Purvish; Sarkar, Roma; Patel, Shashin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The present research was conducted to study the urbanization of Vadodara city and to monitor the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the industrial, commercial, residential and silence zones of the city. A settlement map created by unsupervised classification for the land use and land cover study of Vadodara city clearly shows the increasing pattern of urbanization in its central part, which may be the result of urban sprawl due to migration of people from the rural to the urban areas. The fluctuation in ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was recorded using an A-weighted sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter in all the four zones of Vadodara city for 3 h at regular intervals of 15 min on 3 consecutive days at the same time. The results showed the highest equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 93.7 dBA in the commercial zone followed by 85.5 dBA in the industrial zone, 73.2 dBA in silence zone, and 70.2 dBA in the residential zone. The values of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> were high in all the zones of the city increasing remarkably over the prescribed limit given in the <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution (Control and Regulation) Rules, 2000. Continuous exposure to such high <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> may lead to detrimental effect on people.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014387"><span>The relative importance of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and number of events on human reactions to <span class="hlt">noise</span>: Community survey findings and study methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fields, J. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The data from seven surveys of community response to environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> are reanalyzed to assess the relative influence of peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the numbers of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events on human response. The surveys do not agree on the value of the tradeoff between the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and numbers of events. The value of the tradeoff cannot be confidently specified in any survey because the tradeoff estimate may have a large standard error of estimate and because the tradeoff estimate may be seriously biased by unknown <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement errors. Some evidence suggests a decrease in annoyance with very high numbers of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events but this evidence is not strong enough to lead to the rejection of the conventionally accepted assumption that annoyance is related to a log transformation of the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900493"><span>Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in preschools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M.; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr.; Sala, Eeva</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called “Hjalli model”, and in six public preschools. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress <span class="hlt">level</span>, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the “Hjalli model”) experienced lower activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the “Hjalli model” preschool and fewer “Hjalli model” teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than “Hjalli model” teachers and the stress <span class="hlt">level</span> was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. PMID:26356370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec... equivalent procedures, must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JSV....84..573Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JSV....84..573Y"><span>Criteria for acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the Shinkansen Super Express train <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration in residential areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included <span class="hlt">noise</span>, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational <span class="hlt">level</span>, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration increased. Combined effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27324167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27324167"><span>Comparing Loudness Tolerance and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Listeners With Hearing Loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franklin, Clifford A; White, Letitia J; Franklin, Thomas C; Livengood, Lindsay G</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The present study was a follow-up investigation to a previous study exploring the relationship between listeners' loudness tolerance and listeners' acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> among normally hearing adults. The present study compared the same two measures, but data were obtained from listeners with hearing loss; 12 adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in a loudness tolerance measure using a scaling technique initially established for setting hearing aid output limits, in addition to an acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measure. The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> procedure used in this study quantified the listeners' acceptance of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> while listening to speech. As with the research involving listeners with normal hearing, the Pearson correlation procedure indicated a lack of any statistically significant correlation between the two measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176048"><span>Influences of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and respiration rate on the accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yabuki, Shizuha; Toyama, Hiroaki; Takei, Yusuke; Wagatsuma, Toshihiro; Yabuki, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Masanori</p> <p>2017-02-07</p> <p>We tested the hypothesis that the environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated by a forced-air warming system reduces the monitoring accuracy of acoustic respiration rate (RRa). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were adjusted to 45-55, 56-65, 66-75, and 76-85 dB. Healthy participants breathed at set respiration rates (RRset) of 6, 12, and 30/min. Under each <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at each RRset, the respiration rates by manual counting (RRm) and RRa were recorded. Any appearance of the alarm display on the RRa monitor was also recorded. Each RRm of all participants agreed with each RRset at each <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. At 45-55 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the RRa of 13, 17, and 17 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of 14, 17, and 16 participants at 56-65 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. At 66-75 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the RRa of 9, 15, and 16 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of one, nine, and nine participants at 76-85 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span> agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively, which was significantly less than the other <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (P < 0.05). Overall, 72.9% of alarm displays highlighted incorrect values of RRa. In a noisy situation involving the operation of a forced-air warming system, the acoustic respiration monitoring should be used carefully especially in patients with a low respiration rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006586"><span>Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in the American bullfrog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simmons, Dwayne D.; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D.; Hooper, Rebecca A.; Baird, Richard A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that diminished DPOAE at 2f1–f2 using an f2 stimulus <span class="hlt">level</span> at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1–f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-<span class="hlt">level</span> (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to <span class="hlt">noise</span> differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> within 3–4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent <span class="hlt">noise</span> damage. PMID:24501139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187653"><span>Determination of the <span class="hlt">Level</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Nurseries and Pre-schools and the Teachers’ <span class="hlt">Level</span> of Annoyance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gokdogan, Ozan; Gokdogan, Cagil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The aim of this article is to determine the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in nurseries and pre-schools and also to compare measured <span class="hlt">levels</span> with standard <span class="hlt">levels</span> and evaluate the teachers’ <span class="hlt">level</span> of annoyance. Materials and Methods: The <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured in three different schools. A total of 162 students, whose ages were between 3 and 6 years, and 12 teachers were included the study. Every age groups’ <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured during sleeping, gaming, and eating activity. In addition, teachers’ annoyance was assessed in different age groups. Results: The 4- to 6-year-old groups were found to have higher <span class="hlt">level</span> of sounds than 3-year-old group. Eating period was found to be the highest <span class="hlt">level</span> of sound whereas sleeping was found the lowest. Furthermore, teachers’ annoyance was found higher as the age decreased. Conclusion: Nurseries and pre-schools have noisy environment both for the students and the teachers. High <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which has bad effects on health, is a public health problem. Both the students’ families and teachers must be aware of this annoying situation. PMID:27762254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=detection+AND+advanced+AND+waves&id=EJ688624','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=detection+AND+advanced+AND+waves&id=EJ688624"><span>A Temporal Model of <span class="hlt">Level</span>-Invariant, Tone-in-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berg, Bruce G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Level</span>-invariant detection refers to findings that thresholds in tone-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> detection are unaffected by roving-<span class="hlt">level</span> procedures that degrade energy cues. Such data are inconsistent with ideas that detection is based on the energy passed by an auditory filter. A hypothesis that detection is based on a <span class="hlt">level</span>-invariant temporal cue is advanced.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10875369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10875369"><span>Community reaction to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span>: time-of-day penalty and tradeoff between <span class="hlt">levels</span> of overflights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miedema, H M; Vos, H; de Jong, R G</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>A decrease in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of sound events can compensate for an increase in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of other events, but <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics assume different tradeoffs. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> metrics also differ in the penalty applied to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the evening and to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the night, and in the definition of these periods. These two aspects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics, i.e., the tradeoff and the penalty for the nighttime (23-7h), are investigated. A general model of the relation between SELs of sound events (aircraft overflights) and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance is presented which allows for a wide range of tradeoffs and time-of-day penalties. The (tradeoff and time-of-day penalty) parameters of the model are fitted to the data from an aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> study conducted around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, which is especially suited for investigating the tradeoff and time-of-day penalties. It was found that in this study the tradeoff between the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of events in metrics based on L(Aeq)'s, such as L(Aeq)(24 h), DNL, and DENL, is approximately correct for the prediction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance. Furthermore, it was found that the strongest correlation with annoyance is obtained with a nighttime penalty of circa 10 dB. No suitable data were available for further tests of the tradeoff. The result with respect to the nighttime penalty was weakly further supported by the outcome of analyses of the original data from four other aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> surveys (one survey conducted around British airports, and three coordinated surveys carried out around Paris Orly, Amsterdam Schiphol, and Glasgow Abbotsinch).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9902E..0EZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9902E..0EZ"><span>Extracting fingerprint of wireless devices based on phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> and multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Weichen; Sun, Zhuo; Kong, Song</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Wireless devices can be identified by the fingerprint extracted from the signal transmitted, which is useful in wireless communication security and other fields. This paper presents a method that extracts fingerprint based on phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> of signal and multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition. The phase of signal will be extracted first and then decomposed by multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition. The statistic value of each wavelet coefficient vector is utilized for constructing fingerprint. Besides, the relationship between wavelet decomposition <span class="hlt">level</span> and recognition accuracy is simulated. And advertised decomposition <span class="hlt">level</span> is revealed as well. Compared with previous methods, our method is simpler and the accuracy of recognition remains high when Signal <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Ratio (SNR) is low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015177','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015177"><span>Cumulative annoyance due to multiple aircraft flyover with differing peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shepherd, K. P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory study in which 160 subjects judged the annoyance of 30 minute sessions of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> is described. Each session contained nine flyovers consisting of various combinations of three takeoff recordings of Boeing 727. The subjects were asked to judge their annoyance in the simulated living room environment of the laboratory and also to assess how annoyed they would be if they heard the <span class="hlt">noise</span> in their home during the day, evening, and night periods. The standard deviation of the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> did not improve the predictive ability of L sub eq (equivalent continuous sound <span class="hlt">level</span>) which performed as well or better than other <span class="hlt">noise</span> measured. Differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and nighttime periods. Time of day penalties derived from these results showed reasonable agreement with those currently used in community <span class="hlt">noise</span> indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3518M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3518M"><span>Compact and lightweight VLF/LF magnetic antenna with femtotesla <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marusenkov, Andriy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The measurements of the electromagnetic field in the frequency band 3-300 kHz are widely used for subsurface geophysical surveys, investigations of the various phenomena in the Earth-ionosphere cavity, in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere, including those connected with seismic and lightning activity. The instrumental <span class="hlt">noise</span> has to be as low as possible in order to reliably detect the weakest electromagnetic signals, which magnitude could be only a few femtoteslas. In order to decrease magnetic antenna <span class="hlt">noises</span> the size and mass of the probe has to be increased. However, such approach could be hardly applied for development of mobile sensors. In this report the efforts to achieve the minimal possible <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the restricted weight and size of the magnetic antenna are presented. Applying the minimal mass criteria the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the induction coil with a high permeability magnetic core, used as a probe, was optimized. The new pre-amplifier, based on the ultra low <span class="hlt">noise</span> field effect transistor, was developed. The special attention was paid to the design of the electrostatic screen, which has to generate negligible magnetic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. As a result, the 300 mm long, 25 mm diameter antenna has the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> approximately 1 fT/sqrt(Hz) in the frequency band 50 - 200 kHz and <5 fT/sqrt(Hz) in the band 3 - 500 kHz. The mass of the antenna is equal to 0.27 kg for the weather protected version and 0.15 kg for the indoor version. The possibilities to achieve even lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the same size of the instrument will be also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7521E..0FG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7521E..0FG"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> suppression in three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system driven by quantized field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, A.; Mironov, V.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Numerically by the Monte-Carlo wave function (MCWF) method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method the interaction of three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atom with quantized electromagnetic field is investigated in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions. A possibility of <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression in atomic system by means of quantum features of squeezed light is examined in detail. The characteristics of atomic system responsible for relaxation processes and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in EIT are found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7521E..0FG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7521E..0FG"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> suppression in three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system driven by quantized field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, A.; Mironov, V.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Numerically by the Monte-Carlo wave function (MCWF) method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method the interaction of three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atom with quantized electromagnetic field is investigated in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions. A possibility of <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression in atomic system by means of quantum features of squeezed light is examined in detail. The characteristics of atomic system responsible for relaxation processes and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in EIT are found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618049"><span>A survey of acoustic conditions and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in secondary school classrooms in England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shield, Bridget; Conetta, Robert; Dockrell, Julie; Connolly, Daniel; Cox, Trevor; Mydlarz, Charles</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An acoustic survey of secondary schools in England has been undertaken. Room acoustic parameters and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in 185 unoccupied spaces in 13 schools to provide information on the typical acoustic environment of secondary schools. The unoccupied acoustic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> data were correlated with various physical characteristics of the spaces. Room height and the amount of glazing were related to the unoccupied reverberation time and therefore need to be controlled to reduce reverberation to suitable <span class="hlt">levels</span> for teaching and learning. Further analysis of the unoccupied data showed that the introduction of legislation relating to school acoustics in England and Wales in 2003 approximately doubled the number of school spaces complying with current standards. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured during 274 lessons to examine typical <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated during teaching activities in secondary schools and to investigate the influence of acoustic design on working <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the classroom. Comparison of unoccupied and occupied data showed that unoccupied acoustic conditions affect the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> occurring during lessons. They were also related to the time spent in disruption to the lessons (e.g., students talking or shouting) and so may also have an impact upon student behavior in the classroom.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19274486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19274486"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In this work, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin are evaluated and compared. Emphasis is given to <span class="hlt">noise</span> emitted by individual industrial machinery from the selected industries. Event L(Aeq) and L(N) cycles were studied to identify the noisy machines and to generate baseline data. Findings show that hammer mill machine from mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills produced the highest average <span class="hlt">noise</span> [98.4 dB(A)], an electric generator 1 [95.6 dB(A)] from the soft drink bottling industry, an electric generator [97.7 dB(A)] from the beer brewing and bottling industry, a vacuum pump [93.1 dB(A)] from the tobacco making industry, and an electric generator 2 [94.1 dB(A)] from the mattress-making industry. The highest and lowest average <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> are recorded in mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills [93.16 dB(A)] and the mattress making industry [84.69 dB(A)], respectively. The study shows that, at 95% confidence <span class="hlt">level</span>, there is significant difference (P < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the industries surveyed. The percentages of machines that emit <span class="hlt">noise</span> above Federal Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommendations [90 dB(A)] are from the soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), the beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), the tobacco making industry (71.4%), the mattress making industry (11.1%), and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the soft drink bottling industry were reduced by 0.58 dB(A), and those of the beer brewing and bottling industry were reduced by 9.66 dB(A). However, that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On average, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in these industries has been reduced by 2.52 dB(A). The results of this study show that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures put in place have significant impacts on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> in the industries surveyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820284"><span>Pilot study of methods and equipment for in-home <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neitzel, Richard L.; Heikkinen, Maire S.A.; Williams, Christopher C.; Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the auditory and non-auditory effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> has increased dramatically over the past decade, but indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure measurement methods have not advanced appreciably, despite the introduction of applicable new technologies. This study evaluated various conventional and smart devices for exposure assessment in the National Children's Study. Three devices were tested: a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter (SLM), a dosimeter, and a smart device with a <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement application installed. Instrument performance was evaluated in a series of semi-controlled tests in office environments over 96-hour periods, followed by measurements made continuously in two rooms (a child's bedroom and a most used room) in nine participating homes over a 7-day period with subsequent computation of a range of <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics. The SLMs and dosimeters yielded similar A-weighted average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> measured by the smart devices often differed substantially (showing both positive and negative bias, depending on the metric) from those measured via SLM and dosimeter, and demonstrated attenuation in some frequency bands in spectral analysis compared to SLM results. Virtually all measurements exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's 45 dBA day-night limit for indoor residential exposures. The measurement protocol developed here can be employed in homes, demonstrates the possibility of measuring long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures in homes with technologies beyond traditional SLMs, and highlights potential pitfalls associated with measurements made by smart devices. PMID:27053775</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593149"><span>[Effects of peak <span class="hlt">levels</span> and number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> impulses on hearing among forge hammering workers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suvorov, G A; Denisov, E I; Antipin, V G; Kharitonov, V I; Starck, Iu; Pyykko, I; Toppila, E</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The work was aimed (1) to compare actual and expected values of hearing loss in forge hammering workers, using risk evaluation patterns based on impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements, and (2) to simulate harmful hearing changes caused by impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Study of exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and hearing loss covered forge hammering workers in 2 major blacksmith workshops of automobile enterprise, where equivalent <span class="hlt">levels</span> of acoustic pressure (104 and 106 dB) were equal, but peak <span class="hlt">levels</span> and impalse degrees reliably differed. Hearing thresholds for 2 selected groups of workers (97 and 235 subjects) were evaluated. When compared, actual and expected values of hearing loss calculated according to ISO standard appeared different with excess of 1 dB and 3 dB for the workers in shops 1 and 2 respectively. Excessive hearing loss corresponds to <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure increased by 3.5 years. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to less impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span> were readily forecasted by ISO standard 1999-1990. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to more impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span> were in reliable correlation with combination of peak <span class="hlt">level</span> and impulses number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3857221','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3857221"><span>A <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB25002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB25002N"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> from Two-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Systems in Superconducting Resonators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neill, C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Ohya, S.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems (TLSs) present in amorphous dielectrics and surface interfaces are a significant source of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Linear microwave resonators offer a valuable instrument for characterizing the strongly power-dependent response of these TLSs. Using quarter-wavelength coplanar waveguide resonators, we monitored the microwave response of the resonator at a single near-resonant frequency versus time at varying microwave drive powers. We observe a time dependent variation of the resonator's internal dissipation and resonance frequency. The amplitude of these variations saturates with power in a manner similar to loss from TLSs. These results provide a means for quantifying the number and distribution of TLSs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2555D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2555D"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and site response at Mt. Etna volcano and Aeolian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D Amico, S.; Giampiccolo, E.; Maiolino, V.; Patanè, D.; Ursino, A.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to test the quality of the sites where the stations of the INGV-CT seismic network are installed. This because most of the installations will be soon improved with new broad-band sensors, which require a low <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Therefore, we investigated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and estimated the site response at the seismic stations deployed at Mt. Etna and at Aeolian Islands, in order to evidence possible disturbs which can be related to anthropic activity, environmental factors and/or to the local soil conditions. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements were carried out using a portable digital seismic station equipped with a 3-component, 20 s sensor. The acquisition was performed both inside the vault structures where the remote stations are located and in proximity of them, on the outcropping terrain. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra were compared with the NLNM (New Low <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) and NHNM (New High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) models described by Peterson (1993). A preliminary estimate of site response at each station, by applying the Nakamura (1989) technique, was also performed. The obtained results show, for some stations, higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> mainly due to volcanic tremor and/or bad soil conditions. Moreover, in several cases, vault design need to be deeply reviewed and for some installations the substitution of the sites is required. References Nakamura, Y., (1989). A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. Quarterly R of Report RTRI, 30, 25-33. Peterson, J., (1993). Observations and modelling of background seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Open File Report 93-322, U. S. Geological Survey, Albuquerque, NM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557274"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and infant hearing screening programs in developing countries: an observational report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olusanya, Bolajoko O</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Considering that current newborn/infant hearing screening (NHS) instruments were designed primarily for use in developed countries, this study set out to ascertain the potential effects of higher ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in sub-Saharan Africa. Data was drawn from two hospital-based and community-based NHS programs in Lagos, Nigeria, with a total screened population of 11 893 infants. Two automated TEOAE screening devices-Echo-Screen and ECHOCHECK-were available for this study. Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> ranged from 61.0-90.5 dBA in the hospital wards and 55.6-82.5 dBA in the community health centers. One TEOAE model could not be activated at the prevailing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. No significant pattern was observed in average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and overall TEOAE referrals across all screening sites. However, the false-positive rates ranged from 1.4-13.8%. This study suggests that valid TEOAE screening is attainable in the Negroid race in settings with ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> up to 68 dBA but the associated high false-positive rates may necessitate additional screening with auditory brainstem response to achieve acceptable overall referral rates for timely diagnostic evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..3JN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..3JN"><span>Object reconstruction from thermal and shot <span class="hlt">noises</span> corrupted block-based compressive ultra-low-light-<span class="hlt">level</span> imaging measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niu, Sen; Ke, Jun</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, block-based compressive ultra low-light-<span class="hlt">level</span> imaging (BCU-imaging) is studied. Objects are divided into blocks. Features, or linear combinations of block pixels, instead of pixels, are measured for each block to improve system measurement SNR and thus object reconstructions. Thermal <span class="hlt">noise</span> and shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> are discussed for object reconstruction. The former is modeled as Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The latter is modeled as Poisson <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Linear Wiener operator and linearized iterative Bregman algorithm are used to reconstruct objects from measurements corrupted by thermal <span class="hlt">noise</span>. SPIRAL algorithm is used to reconstruct object from measurements with shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Linear Wiener operator is also studied for measurements with shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>, because Poisson <span class="hlt">noise</span> is similar to Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> at large signal <span class="hlt">level</span> and feature values are large enough to make this assumption feasible. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to quantify system reconstruction quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3726297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3726297"><span>[The <span class="hlt">level</span> of the musical loud sound and <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing impairment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ono, H; Deguchi, T; Ino, T; Okamoto, K; Takyu, H</p> <p>1986-03-20</p> <p> examined the relationship between these loud sound and <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced temporary threshold shift (NITTS) in discotheques and <span class="hlt">noise</span> proof room using simulation of loud sound exposure. Moreover, we measured the most comfortable loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> of head phones in each examine and different types of music with environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in consideration, thus examining the relationship between musical loud sound and the hearing impairment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045080','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045080"><span>Temporal variations in Global Seismic Stations ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> power <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Hutt, C.R.; McNamara, D.E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent concerns about time-dependent response changes in broadband seismometers have motivated the need for methods to monitor sensor health at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations. We present two new methods for monitoring temporal changes in data quality and instrument response transfer functions that are independent of Earth seismic velocity and attenuation models by comparing power <span class="hlt">levels</span> against different baseline values. Our methods can resolve changes in both horizontal and vertical components in a broad range of periods (∼0.05 to 1,000 seconds) in near real time. In this report, we compare our methods with existing techniques and demonstrate how to resolve instrument response changes in long-period data (>100 seconds) as well as in the microseism bands (5 to 20 seconds).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250719','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250719"><span>Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for CT denoising</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a <span class="hlt">noise</span> model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical <span class="hlt">noise</span> map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this <span class="hlt">noise</span> map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, <span class="hlt">noise</span> power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this <span class="hlt">noise</span> map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation matches the <span class="hlt">noise</span> distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical <span class="hlt">noise</span> map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9689E..2IC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9689E..2IC"><span>Combination therapy using antioxidants and low <span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT) on <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (NIHL)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is <span class="hlt">noise</span> trauma. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud <span class="hlt">noises</span> from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>[4].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825390"><span>Pink <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Den Hartigh, Ruud J; Cox, Ralf F; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L</p> <p>2015-03-27</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes in order to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill <span class="hlt">level</span>. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggests that rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes' motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559647"><span>Pink <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill <span class="hlt">level</span>. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031543&hterms=advancing+blade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadvancing%2Bblade','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031543&hterms=advancing+blade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadvancing%2Bblade"><span>Tip-path-plane angle effects on rotor blade-vortex interaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and directivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burley, Casey L.; Martin, Ruth M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Acoustic data of a scale model BO-105 main rotor acquired in a large aeroacoustic wind tunnel are presented to investigate the parametric effects of rotor operating conditions on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Contours of a BVI <span class="hlt">noise</span> metric are employed to quantify the effects of rotor advance ratio and tip-path-plane angle on BVI <span class="hlt">noise</span> directivity and amplitude. Acoustic time history data are presented to illustrate the variations in impulsive characteristics. The directionality, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and impulsive content of both advancing and retreating side BVI are shown to vary significantly with tip-path-plane angle and advance ratio over the range of low and moderate flight speeds considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611055"><span>Impact of Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-<span class="hlt">level</span> impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related disturbance, or attentional interference. <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902830"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and annoyance from aircraft run-ups at Vancouver International Airport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scherebnyj, Katrina; Hodgson, Murray</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Annoyance complaints resulting from engine run-ups have been increasing at Vancouver International Airport for several years. To assist the Airport in managing run-up <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, a prediction tool based on a Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) model has been consolidated, evaluated, and applied. It was extended to include more realistic atmospheric and ground input parameters. Measurements were made of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-radiation characteristics of a CRJ200 jet aircraft. The GFPE model was validated by comparing predictions with results in the literature. A sensitivity analysis showed that predicted <span class="hlt">levels</span> are relatively insensitive to small variations in geometry and ground impedance, but relatively sensitive to variations in wind speed, atmosphere type, and aircraft heading and power setting. Predicted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured at <span class="hlt">noise</span> monitoring terminals. For the four cases for which all input information was available, agreement was within 10 dBA. For events for which some information had to be estimated, predictions were within 20 dBA. The predicted annoyance corresponding to the run-up events considered ranged from 1.8% to 9.5% of people awoken, suggesting that <span class="hlt">noise</span> complaints can be expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Chaos..18b3115J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Chaos..18b3115J"><span>A method of estimating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in a chaotic time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jayawardena, A. W.; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, W. K.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>An attempt is made in this study to estimate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> present in a chaotic time series. This is achieved by employing a linear least-squares method that is based on the correlation integral form obtained by Diks in 1999. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using five artificial chaotic time series, the Hénon map, the Lorenz equation, the Duffing equation, the Rossler equation and the Chua's circuit whose dynamical characteristics are known a priori. Different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> are added to the artificial chaotic time series and the estimated results indicate good performance of the proposed method. Finally, the proposed method is applied to estimate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> present in some real world data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2441B"><span>School cafeteria <span class="hlt">noise</span>-The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility on children's voice <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bridger, Joseph F.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility conditions of different school cafeterias on the voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> of children is examined. Methods of evaluating cafeteria designs and predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are discussed. Children are shown to modify their voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> with changes in speech intelligibility like adults. Reverberation and signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio are the important acoustical factors affecting speech intelligibility. Children have much more difficulty than adults in conditions where <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reverberation are present. To evaluate the relationship of voice <span class="hlt">level</span> and speech intelligibility, a database of real sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> and room acoustics data was generated from measurements and data recorded during visits to a variety of existing cafeterias under different occupancy conditions. The effects of speech intelligibility and room acoustics on childrens voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> are demonstrated. A new method is presented for predicting speech intelligibility conditions and resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the design of new cafeterias and renovation of existing facilities. Measurements are provided for an existing school cafeteria before and after new room acoustics treatments were added. This will be helpful for acousticians, architects, school systems, regulatory agencies, and Parent Teacher Associations to create less noisy cafeteria environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197556"><span>Measurement and evaluation of the environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> collected during the previous years.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014613"><span>An exploratory survey of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with a 100kW wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Balombin, J. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements of a 125-foot diameter, 100 kW wind turbine are presented. The data include measurements as functions of distance from the turbine and directivity angle and cover a frequency range from 1 Hz to several kHz. Potential community impact is discussed in terms of A-weighted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> relative to background <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the intrasonic spectral content. Finally, the change in the sound power spectrum associated with a change in the rotor speed in described. The acoustic impact of this size wind turbine is judged to be minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970004793','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970004793"><span>The Influences of Lamination Angles on the Interior <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of an Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fernholz, Christian M.; Robinson, Jay H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of reducing the interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an aircraft passenger cabin through optimization of the composite lay up of the fuselage is investigated. MSC/NASTRAN, a commercially available finite element code, is used to perform the dynamic analysis and subsequent optimization of the fuselage. The numerical calculation of sensitivity of acoustic pressure to lamination angle is verified using a simple thin, cylindrical shell with point force excitations as <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. The thin shell used represents a geometry similar to the fuselage and analytic solutions are available for the cylindrical thin shell equations of motion. Optimization of lamination angle for the reduction of interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> is performed using a finite element model of an actual aircraft fuselage. The aircraft modeled for this study is the Beech Starship. Point forces simulate the structure borne <span class="hlt">noise</span> produced by the engines and are applied to the fuselage at the wing mounting locations. These forces are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source for the optimization problem. The acoustic pressure response is reduced at a number of points in the fuselage and over a number of frequencies. The objective function is minimized with the constraint that it be larger than the maximum sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> at the response points in the passenger cabin for all excitation frequencies in the range of interest. Results from the study of the fuselage model indicate that a reduction in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> is possible over a finite frequency range through optimal configuration of the lamination angles in the fuselage. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> reductions of roughly 4 dB were attained. For frequencies outside the optimization range, the acoustic pressure response may increase after optimization. The effects of changing lamination angle on the overall structural integrity of the airframe are not considered in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349796"><span>The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: A Pilot Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable <span class="hlt">level</span> for speech and the loudest <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more <span class="hlt">noise</span> and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0214/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0214/report.pdf"><span>A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Holcomb, L. Gary</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system <span class="hlt">noise</span> can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848050','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848050"><span>The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: A Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable <span class="hlt">level</span> for speech and the loudest <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more <span class="hlt">noise</span> and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050209966','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050209966"><span>Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear <span class="hlt">Noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field <span class="hlt">noise</span>, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear <span class="hlt">noise</span>, both for parametric trends and for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6192992','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6192992"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground-<span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, R.F.; Desch, M.D.</p> <p>1990-05-03</p> <p>A wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed using 4 commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905 and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200 kHz to 3.5 MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5429S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5429S"><span>Shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> in magnetic tunneling structures with two-<span class="hlt">level</span> quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We analyze shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-<span class="hlt">level</span> quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's <span class="hlt">levels</span> to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556567"><span>Underwater radiated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a research icebreaker in the central Arctic Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roth, Ethan H; Schmidt, Val; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy's underwater radiated <span class="hlt">noise</span> signature was characterized in the central Arctic Ocean during different types of ice-breaking operations. Propulsion modes included transit in variable ice cover, breaking heavy ice with backing-and-ramming maneuvers, and dynamic positioning with the bow thruster in operation. Compared to open-water transit, Healy's <span class="hlt">noise</span> signature increased approximately 10 dB between 20 Hz and 2 kHz when breaking ice. The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulted while the ship was engaged in backing-and-ramming maneuvers, owing to cavitation when operating the propellers astern or in opposing directions. In frequency bands centered near 10, 50, and 100 Hz, source <span class="hlt">levels</span> reached 190-200 dB re: 1 μPa at 1 m (full octave band) during ice-breaking operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672659"><span>Intelligibility of speech in <span class="hlt">noise</span> at high presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span>: effects of hearing loss and frequency region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Summers, Van; Cord, Mary T</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>These experiments examined how high presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span> influence speech recognition for high- and low-frequency stimuli in <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were tested. In Experiment 1, high- and low-frequency bandwidths yielding 70%-correct word recognition in quiet were determined at <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with broadband speech at 75 dB SPL. In Experiment 2, broadband and band-limited sentences (based on passbands measured in Experiment 1) were presented at this <span class="hlt">level</span> in speech-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span> filtered to the same frequency bandwidths as targets. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were adjusted to produce approximately 30%-correct word recognition. Frequency bandwidths and signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios supporting criterion performance in Experiment 2 were tested at 75, 87.5, and 100 dB SPL in Experiment 3. Performance tended to decrease as <span class="hlt">levels</span> increased. For NH listeners, this "rollover" effect was greater for high-frequency and broadband materials than for low-frequency stimuli. For HI listeners, the 75- to 87.5-dB increase improved signal audibility for high-frequency stimuli and rollover was not observed. However, the 87.5- to 100-dB increase produced qualitatively similar results for both groups: scores decreased most for high-frequency stimuli and least for low-frequency materials. Predictions of speech intelligibility by quantitative methods such as the Speech Intelligibility Index may be improved if rollover effects are modeled as frequency dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS43A1956B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS43A1956B"><span>Processing of Surface-NMR Data From Sites With High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behroozmand, A. A.; Larsen, J. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The applicability of surface NMR in investigations of groundwater is often limited by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in many areas of interest. In this paper we present measurements from a high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> area in Ristrup, Denmark. Standard multichannel filtering techniques for <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction are inadequate for several data sets acquired in this area and surface-NMR signals cannot be resolved from the acquired data. With a careful assessment of the frequency content of the data, we show how a model-based approach can be used to subtract two harmonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> components from the data and reliable surface-NMR data can be extracted from the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduced data. Moreover, we show the impact of the proposed processing approaches on the inversion results and also present an example where the proposed methodology allows us to reveal and avoid an otherwise overlooked contamination of the reference coil signals with surface-NMR signal. The results of this study show that a careful processing of the data makes it possible to extract surface-NMR data in more places of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819755"><span>Relationship between Lighting and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Productivity of the Occupants in Automotive Assembly Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akbari, Jafar; Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Work environment affects human productivity and his performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of lighting and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on human productivity in the automotive assembly industry. Method. Subjects were 181 workers from different parts of an automobile assembly industry. Illuminance (Lx) at the height of 30 inches from the surface of work station and <span class="hlt">noise</span> (dBA) were locally measured. Also human productivity by the Goldsmith and Hersey scale (1980) was measured. Data were analyzed by using SPSS v20 Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. The results showed that the relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and human productivity is negative and significant (P < 0.05, r = −0.178), but there was no significant relationship between lighting and human productivity (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results, in assembly tasks, <span class="hlt">noise</span> has a negative impact on human productivity, and lighting does not affect this. So, in order to increase employee productivity, <span class="hlt">noise</span> control and reduction to less than the standard values (less than 85 dB) is necessary. PMID:24250340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMOp...63.2114M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMOp...63.2114M"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> property of a four-<span class="hlt">level</span> system in vee + ladder configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ming, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yang, Rong-Can</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present the results of a theoretical study of the output amplitude <span class="hlt">noises</span> of a four-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system in vee + ladder configuration. The difference and connection of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting effects are investigated theoretically. The output amplitude <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the probe field of two effects were compared, the quantum properties of the input field of the thin medium and the thick medium under Autler-Townes splitting or electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) condition are maintained, the higher fidelity is obtained in the storage of the thick medium under the condition of EIT in non-classical states. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics of the squeezed vacuum field after four-<span class="hlt">level</span> coherent medium are studied; the <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the output field is lowest when the detection light is far away from detuning. The double split of EIT window was made by the dynamic Stark splitting on the ground state of control field, the quantum properties of the input field in the strong-control field and strong-coupling field were maintained. The output <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum is divided with the increase in the field strength, the maximum output squeezing is far away from the resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020268&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020268&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions"><span>Load influence on gear <span class="hlt">noise</span>. [mathematical model for determining acoustic pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> as function of load</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Merticaru, V.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An original mathematical model is proposed to derive equations for calculation of gear <span class="hlt">noise</span>. These equations permit the acoustic pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> to be determined as a function of load. Application of this method to three parallel gears is reported. The logical calculation scheme is given, as well as the results obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Statistical+AND+Methods+AND+Clinical+AND+Trials&pg=2&id=EJ1059970','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Statistical+AND+Methods+AND+Clinical+AND+Trials&pg=2&id=EJ1059970"><span>Acceptance <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>: Effects of the Speech Signal, Babble, and Listener Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Method: Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012834','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012834"><span>Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The airport-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627791"><span>A <span class="hlt">noise</span> delivery system for multi-animal multi-<span class="hlt">level</span> whole body ototoxicity studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stubbs, John E; Slagley, Jeremy M; Reboulet, James E</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The objective was to design a <span class="hlt">noise</span> delivery system that could provide a white <span class="hlt">noise</span> source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input <span class="hlt">noise</span> in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to deliver <span class="hlt">noise</span> and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different <span class="hlt">levels</span> simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Alfred, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244805','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244805"><span>Analysis of Measured Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: An Assessment of the Effects of Airbase Operational Model Variables on Predicted <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> data was used in an effort to quantify the complicating factors relevant to airbase enviromental <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction. These factors are...were used to optimize the operational profiles influencing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> predictions at that location. Some marginal benefit from this effort was realized...Records The McChord measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> data was originally recorded on printed paper tapes. The measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> events’ data were entered into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023156','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023156"><span>Effect of external pressure environment on the internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> due to a source inside a cylindrical tank</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea <span class="hlt">level</span>) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (<span class="hlt">noise</span>) <span class="hlt">level</span> differences in the interior. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955128"><span>Distortion product otoacoustic emission <span class="hlt">level</span> maps from normal and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-damaged cochleae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meinke, Deanna K; Clavier, Odile H; Norris, Jesse; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Allen, Lindsay; Buckey, Jay C</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping may be useful for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) early. Employing DPOAE mapping effectively requires knowledge of the optimal mapping parameters to use for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced changes. The goal of this project was to show the map regions that differ most between normal and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-damaged cochlea to determine the optimal mapping parameters for detecting NIHL. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were generated for the 2f 1 -f 2 and the 2f 2 -f 1 DPOAEs for 17 normal hearing male subjects and 19 male subjects with NIHL. DPOAEs were measured in DPOAE frequency steps of approximately 44 Hz from 0.5 kHz to 6 kHz using constant f 2 /f 1 ratios incremented in 0.025 steps from 1.025 to 1.5 using both unequal-<span class="hlt">level</span> (L1,L2 = 65,55 dB sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL)) and equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> (L1,L2 = 75,75 dB SPL) stimulus paradigms. Maximal responses for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission at L1,L2 = 65,55 dB SPL were found at lower ratios compared to previous studies. The map regions where NIHL eliminated or reduced DPOAE magnitude were identified. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping using higher-<span class="hlt">level</span>, equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primaries produced significantly more detectable emissions particularly for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission. The data from this study can be used to optimize DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping parameters for tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed subjects longitudinally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354622','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354622"><span>EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> <span class="hlt">LEVELS</span> IN ABUJA MUNICIPALITY USING MOBILE PHONES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ibekwe, T.; Folorunso, D.; Ebuta, A.; Amodu, J.; Nwegbu, M.; Mairami, Z.; Liman, I.; Okebaram, C.; Chimdi, C.; Durogbola, B.; Suleiman, H.; Mamven, H.; Baamlong, N.; Dahilo, E.; Gbujie, I.; Ibekwe, P.; Nwaorgu, O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of man. It aggravates chronic illnesses like hypertension and other cardiopulmonary diseases. Unfortunately, increased activities from industrialization and technological transfers/drifts have tumultuously led to increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution in most of our fast growing cities today and hence the need for concerted efforts in monitoring and regulating our environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Objective: To assess the equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Method: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016. The city was divided into 12 segments including residential, business and market areas via the Abuja Geographic Information System. The major markets were captured separately on a different scale. Measurements were taken with the mobile phone softwares having validated this with Extech 407730 digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter, serial no Z310135. Leq(A) were measured at different points and hours of the day and night. The average Leq(A) were classified according to localities and compared with WHO standard safety <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Results: LeqD ranged 71-92dB(A); 42-79dB(A) and 69-90dB(A) in business/ parks, residential and market places respectively. The Night measurements were similar 18dB(A)-56dB(A) and the day-night Leq(A)=77.2dB(A) and 90.4dB(A) for residential and business zones. Conclusion: The night <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are satisfactory but the day and day-night <span class="hlt">levels</span> are above the recommended tolerable values by WHO and therefore urgently call for awareness and legislative regulations. PMID:28337089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034279"><span>Origin of multi-<span class="hlt">level</span> switching and telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in organic nanocomposite memory devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Younggul; Jeong, Hyunhak; Chung, Seungjun; Ahn, Geun Ho; Kim, Tae-Young; Jang, Jingon; Yoo, Daekyoung; Jeong, Heejun; Javey, Ali; Lee, Takhee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The origin of negative differential resistance (NDR) and its derivative intermediate resistive states (IRSs) of nanocomposite memory systems have not been clearly analyzed for the past decade. To address this issue, we investigate the current fluctuations of organic nanocomposite memory devices with NDR and the IRSs under various temperature conditions. The 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> scaling behaviors at various temperature conditions in the IRSs and telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in NDR indicate the localized current pathways in the organic nanocomposite layers for each IRS. The clearly observed telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> with a long characteristic time in NDR at low temperature indicates that the localized current pathways for the IRSs are attributed to trapping/de-trapping at the deep trap <span class="hlt">levels</span> in NDR. This study will be useful for the development and tuning of multi-bit storable organic nanocomposite memory device systems. PMID:27659298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22978870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22978870"><span>Listening <span class="hlt">level</span> of music through headphones in train car <span class="hlt">noise</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening <span class="hlt">level</span> of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(train)) and type of train <span class="hlt">noise</span> (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train <span class="hlt">noise</span> type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train <span class="hlt">noise</span>, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972900"><span>Measuring the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In the setting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For <span class="hlt">noise</span> model validation, the daily <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated <span class="hlt">noise</span> model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.2823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.2823H"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Photometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartig, George</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426033"><span>A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G</p> <p>2015-09-29</p> <p>Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct <span class="hlt">noise</span> laws and regulations. This study characterized <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable <span class="hlt">noise</span> and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution with appropriate and effective policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626965','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626965"><span>A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct <span class="hlt">noise</span> laws and regulations. This study characterized <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable <span class="hlt">noise</span> and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20017679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20017679"><span>What is the influence of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> and exercise on the listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of iPod users?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgetts, William; Szarko, Ryan; Rieger, Jana</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The widespread use of portable listening devices (PLDs) has increased concern about the potential for hearing impairment caused by their use. The current study investigated the effects of external <span class="hlt">noise</span> and exercise on the use of PLDs. The 24 participants listened to the same song on an iPod during rest-in-quiet, rest-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span>, and exercise-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> (PLLs) were recorded and participants' maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> doses were calculated. Participants selected significantly higher listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> in both <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions than in the quiet condition. The variability of volume selection was reduced significantly in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. The maximum daily <span class="hlt">noise</span> dose would have been exceeded by seven participants in the rest-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> condition and by eight in the exercise-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> condition compared to one participant in the rest-in-quiet condition. These results indicated that increased background <span class="hlt">noise</span> causes individuals to increase the volume on their PLDs to potentially dangerous <span class="hlt">levels</span> and that increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> alone was not the only factor affecting the participants as the addition of exercise induced even further increases in PLLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1918R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1918R"><span>Meeting 2006, outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> directive (OND) <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rowe, David F.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>In January 2006, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND <span class="hlt">noise</span> limit of 100 LwA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723364"><span>Empirical prediction of peak pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> in anthropogenic impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Part I: Airgun arrays signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galindo-Romero, Marta; Lippert, Tristan; Gavrilov, Alexander</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents an empirical linear equation to predict peak pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> of anthropogenic impulsive signals based on its correlation with the sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>. The regression coefficients are shown to be weakly dependent on the environmental characteristics but governed by the source type and parameters. The equation can be applied to values of the sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> predicted with a numerical model, which provides a significant improvement in the prediction of the peak pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>. Part I presents the analysis for airgun arrays signals, and Part II considers the application of the empirical equation to offshore impact piling <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155094"><span>Do outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> and atmospheric NO2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> spatially overlap in urban areas?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Boilleaut, Mathieu; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The urban environment holds numerous emission sources for air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution, creating optimum conditions for environmental multi-exposure situations. Evaluation of the joint-exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> is the main obstacle for multi-exposure studies and one of the biggest challenges of the next decade. The present study aims to describe the <span class="hlt">noise</span>/NO2 multi-exposure situations in the urban environment by exploring the possible discordant and concordant situations of both exposures. Fine-scale diffusion models were developed in the European medium-sized city of Besançon (France), and a classification method was used to evaluate the multi-exposure situations in the façade perimeter of 10,825 buildings. Although correlated (Pearson's r = 0.64, p < 0.01), urban spatial distributions of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> and NO2 around buildings do not overlap, and 30% of the buildings were considered to be discordant in terms of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> and NO2 exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span>. This discrepancy is spatially structured and associated with variables describing the building's environment. Our results support the presence of several co-existing, multi-exposure situations across the city impacted by both the urban morphology and the emission and diffusion/propagation phases of each pollutant. Identifying the mechanisms of discrepancy and convergence of multi-exposure situations could help improve the health risk assessment and public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2376J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2376J"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> present in the Colonia Auditorium (October 2001)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jalisco, Zapopan; Palafox, Lourdes; Orozco, Martha; Rodriguez, Erika</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The study area is located in the city of Guadalajara, defined by: delimited in the north by the Gonzlez Gallo street; in the south by the Anillo Perifrico street; in the east by Avenida Mezquitan; and in the west by Avenida Alcalde. There were 38 measurement points outside the auditorium and 25 inside. A poll was conducted among the neighbors and visitors in both areas, getting 70 replies. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were between 41-101 dB(A) on the outside, average Leq on the outside was 64.5 dB(A), and inside was 80.15 dB(A). The conclusion is that the whole area is affected by traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, as well by the huge number of visitors, the electric games, and the electric generators that supply energy to them. On the outside 21 points were above 65 dB(A), which means that 55% were above the average; on the inside, 100% were above 65 dB(A). Thus the neighbors are exposed to high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> due to the festivities during October. The biggest problem, however, is the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure of the workers inside the auditorium, due to music, games, people, and electric generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029917"><span>Assessment and analysis of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in and around Ib river coalfield, Orissa, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohapatra, Haraprasad; Goswami, Shreerup</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Heavy earth moving machineries, different capacities of dumpers and loaders, blasting and drilling make the mining environment noisy. A study was carried out to assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in different opencast projects in and around Belpahar and Brajarajnagar areas of Ib river coalfield. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> assessment was carried out in various residential, commercial and industrial places. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, especially L(eq) values of different wheel loaders, dumpers, shovel and crusher units were also assessed and were more than permissible limit (90dB) in some of their operating conditions. Sound ressure <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements while drilling into coal and overburden at Lakhanpur opencast project yielded <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(eq)) of 81.33 to 96.2 dB. Thus, these L(eq) values of drilling machines in most of the operating conditions were above permissible limit. The average <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensities (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 51.6-60.875dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 42.6-49.8dB) and L(eq) values (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 50.9-67.0dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 40.8-53.3dB) during both day and night time of the residential areas around the Ib river coalfield were in close proximity or beyond the permissible limit. The L(eq) values at some of the commercial and industrial places were beyond (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 61.6-88.3 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 55.4-64.8dB) permissible limit. However, in most of the cases, the L(max) <span class="hlt">noise</span> values were more (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 68.5-91.4 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 69.3-76.4dB) than the permissible limit. Analysis of variance was also computed for heavy earth moving machineries in different operating conditions and also for different residential, commercial and industrial places to infer the <span class="hlt">level</span> of significance. The difference of <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity produced by different wheel loaders at Lakhanpur and Lilari opencast projects, drilling machines at Lakhanpur opencast project, 50 tons capacity dumpers at various conditions of Ib river coalfield within the same operating condition was significant at both 5% and 1% <span class="hlt">levels</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118..914D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118..914D"><span>Word recognition in <span class="hlt">noise</span> at higher-than-normal <span class="hlt">levels</span>: Decreases in scores and increases in masking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubno, Judy R.; Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Under certain conditions, speech recognition in <span class="hlt">noise</span> decreases above conversational <span class="hlt">levels</span> when signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio is held constant. The current study was undertaken to determine if nonlinear growth of masking and the subsequent reduction in ``effective'' signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio accounts for this decline. Nine young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllabic words at three <span class="hlt">levels</span> in each of three <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a masker shaped to match the speech spectrum. An additional low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> equated audibility by producing equivalent masked thresholds for all subjects. If word recognition was determined entirely by signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio and was independent of overall speech and masker <span class="hlt">levels</span>, scores at a given signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio should remain constant with increasing <span class="hlt">level</span>. Masked pure-tone thresholds measured in the speech-shaped maskers increased linearly with increasing masker <span class="hlt">level</span> at lower frequencies but nonlinearly at higher frequencies, consistent with nonlinear growth of upward spread of masking that followed the peaks in the spectrum of the speech-shaped masker. Word recognition declined significantly with increasing <span class="hlt">level</span> when signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio was held constant which was attributed to nonlinear growth of masking and reduced ``effective'' signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio at high speech-shaped masker <span class="hlt">levels</span>, as indicated by audibility estimates based on the Articulation Index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...76..677S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...76..677S"><span>Design method of automotive powertrain mounting system based on vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> limitations of vehicle <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Ang; Lv, Zhao-Ping; Rakheja, Subhash</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The design logic and calculation method for determining mount stiffness and damping for a Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) based on reductions of vehicle vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> contributed by mounts is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the design target for a PMS with regard to vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> limitations of vehicle <span class="hlt">level</span> contributed form mounts is described. Then a vehicle model with 13 Degree of Freedoms (DOFs) is proposed, which includes 6DOFs for the powertrain, 3 DOFs for the car body and 4DOFs for the four unsprung mass, and the dynamic equation for the model is derived. Some widely used models, such as the 6 DOFs model of the powertrain for the design calculation of a PMS, the 7 DOFs model (Body's 3 DOFs; unsprung mass's 4 DOFs) and the 9 DOFs model (powertrain's 6 DOFs; Body's 3 DOFs) for ride analysis of a vehicle, are the specific cases of the presented model of 13 DOF. Thirdly, the calculation method for obtaining the vibration of seat track and evaluation point and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> at driver right ear is presented based on the mount forces and the vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> transfer functions. An optimization process is proposed to get the mount stiffness and damping based on minimization of vehicle vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and the optimized stiffness is validated by comparing the calculated vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> and limitations. In the end of this paper, the natural frequencies and mode energies for the powertrain, the body and the unsprung mass are calculated using different models and the results are compared and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22109412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22109412"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty <span class="hlt">level</span> of 10(-11).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2011-11-21</p> <p>We determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2375..234J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2375..234J"><span>Measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy (to <0.5%) of a clip-<span class="hlt">level</span> beam profiler using Fresnel diffraction by a wide slit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnston, Thomas F., Jr.; Fleischer, John M.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>By comparing the measured width of an optical test patten to the known width, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> error of a clip-<span class="hlt">level</span> profiler is determined to be (-0.1 +/- 0.3)%. An expanded fundamental mode beam illuminates a pair of opposed knife edges (a wide slit) to generate the test pattern by Fresnel diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction pattern gives 18.2% as the appropriate clip <span class="hlt">level</span> to read the geometrical shadow width between edges (with additional small adjustments for illumination non-uniformity and the finite size of the scanning aperture). The separation between the edges is determined by mechanical translation edge to edge through a focused beam. 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S33D2812H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S33D2812H"><span>Estimation of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We evaluated the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) and NLNM (New Low <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..304B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..304B"><span>A simple indicator for estimating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of a hyperspectral data cube for earth observation missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben-Dor, Eyal; Notesco, Gila</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A method for estimating the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> of a hyperspectral data cube is proposed. The method includes <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction using the Minimum <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Fraction (MNF) transform and mapping the spectral dissimilarity between the pixels in the resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduced radiance image, as well as in the original noisy radiance image, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Comparing the two maps, on a pixel by pixel basis, gives a value indicating the addition of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the spectrum of each pixel. An average value for the entire image is calculated, defined as the Image <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Indicator (INI). In practice, this value indicates the quality of the data. Combining the INI value with the <span class="hlt">level</span> of radiance enables estimating the Image <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (INL). The method was applied and examined on a noisy synthetic image and then implemented for over 20 acquired images from different hyperspectral sensors and their <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was estimated. Further examination showed that the INI value is independent of the heterogeneity of the hyperspectral data cube. The INI value, indicating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, might increase as a geo-reference procedure is applied to hyperspectral data cube. The INI-INL can also be used as a quality indicator (QI) in the ongoing effort to objectively certify hyperspectral remote sensing images for practical usages.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051329&hterms=wind+turbine+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bturbine%2Bimpact','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051329&hterms=wind+turbine+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bturbine%2Bimpact"><span>An exploratory survey of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with a 100 kW wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Balombin, J. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>During performance tests of a 125-foot diameter, 100 kW wind turbine at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio, the opportunity arose to make exploratory <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and results of those surveys are presented. The data include measurements as functions of distance from the turbine, and directivity angle, and cover a frequency range from 1 Hz to several kHz. Potential community impact is discussed in terms of A-weighted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> relative to background <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the infrasonic spectral content. Finally, the change in the sound power spectrum associated with a change in the rotor speed is described. The acoustic impact of this size wind turbine is judged to be minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713837V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713837V"><span>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the mean integrated acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234804','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234804"><span>Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a <span class="hlt">noise</span> free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against <span class="hlt">noise</span> contamination. PMID:28085953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27493778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27493778"><span>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, but not artificial light <span class="hlt">levels</span> predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorado-Correa, Adriana M; Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether <span class="hlt">noise</span> or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4968470','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4968470"><span>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, but not artificial light <span class="hlt">levels</span> predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether <span class="hlt">noise</span> or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution. PMID:27493778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085953"><span>Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jee Keen Raymond, Wong; Illias, Hazlee Azil; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a <span class="hlt">noise</span> free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against <span class="hlt">noise</span> contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110592','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110592"><span>Use of Aqueous Foam to Reduce Shoulder-Launched Rocket <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>: Feasibility Investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>1 tj~ * UNCLASSIFIED SECUflITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (**en Dese Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COOTRUTIONS I. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT...assistance and cooperation of Mr. Jerry Arszman of U.S. Army MIRADCOM (Missile Research and Development Command) and Mr. Charles Carter and Mr. George...REFERENCES 1. A. Clark, et al., The Reduction of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> from Explosive Test Facilities Using Aqueous Foan, Royal Armament Research and Development</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035992','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035992"><span>Integrated analysis of PALSAR/Radarsat-1 InSAR and ENVISAT altimeter data for mapping of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water <span class="hlt">level</span> changes in Louisiana wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kim, J.-W.; Lu, Zhiming; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Baek, S.-H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been used to detect relative water <span class="hlt">level</span> changes in wetlands. We developed an innovative method to integrate InSAR and satellite radar altimetry for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> or geocentric water <span class="hlt">level</span> changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identify double-bounce backscattering areas in the wetland. ENVISAT radar altimeter-measured 18-Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water <span class="hlt">level</span> data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (~ 40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-1 C-band InSAR are then integrated with ENVISAT radar altimetry to obtain <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water <span class="hlt">level</span>. The resulting water <span class="hlt">level</span> time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. We anticipate that this new technique will allow retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22481770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22481770"><span>Modeling phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> in multifunction subassemblies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Michael</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Obtaining requisite phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> performance in hardware containing multifunction circuitry requires accurate modeling of the phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics of each signal path component, including both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (oscillator) and residual (non-oscillator) circuit contributors. This includes prediction of both static and vibration-induced phase <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The model (usually in spreadsheet form) is refined as critical components are received and evaluated. Additive (KTBF) phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> data can be reasonably estimated, based on device drive <span class="hlt">level</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> figure. However, accurate determination of component near-carrier (multiplicative) and vibration-induced <span class="hlt">noise</span> usually must be determined via measurement. The model should also include the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> introduced by IC voltage regulators and properly discriminate between common versus independent signal path residual <span class="hlt">noise</span> contributors. The modeling can be easily implemented using a spreadsheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031265&hterms=dick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddick','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031265&hterms=dick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddick"><span>Fundamental <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> and white phase (photon) <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and verified the software with a white phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740012550','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740012550"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of operational helicopters of the OH-6 type designed to meet the LOH mission. [acoustic properties for various helicopter configurations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, R. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Formulas relating overall sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (OASPL) to parameters such as horsepower required, tip speed, and thrust for main and tail rotors are presented for standard and quieted helicopters. Formulas relating OASPL to engine parameters such as horsepower output and percent power turbine rpm are presented for unmuffled and muffled engines. The linear scale was used in preference to any of the weighted scales because it resulted in more consistent agreement with the test data when the SPL is expressed in the usual parameters of tip speed, thrust generated and power required. It is recognized that the linear scale does not adequately reflect hearing response, and hence is not a good <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for detection by humans. However, linear OASPL is believed to be useful as a relative means of comparing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> variations of individual components in similar helicopters with reasonably modest design changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22559390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22559390"><span>Sound <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination by gray treefrogs in the presence and absence of chorus-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bee, Mark A; Vélez, Alejandro; Forester, James D</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>An important aspect of hearing and acoustic communication is the ability to discriminate differences in sound <span class="hlt">level</span>. Little is known about <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination in anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), for which vocal communication in noisy social environments is often critical for reproduction. This study used two-choice phonotaxis tests to investigate the ability of females of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) to discriminate between two advertisement calls differing only in sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> by 2, 4, or 6 dB. Tests were conducted in the presence and absence of chorus-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span> (73 dB) and using two different ranges of signal <span class="hlt">levels</span> (73-79 dB and 79-85 dB). Females discriminated between two signals differing by as little as 2-4 dB. In contrast to expectations based on the "near miss to Weber's law" in birds and mammals, <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination was slightly better at the lower range of signal amplitudes, a finding consistent with earlier studies of frogs and insects. Realistic <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> simulating a breeding chorus had no discernable effect on discrimination at the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> differences tested in this study. These results have important implications for studies of auditory masking and signaling behavior in the contexts of anuran hearing and sound communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6303510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6303510"><span>Measurement of outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodman, C.W.</p> <p>1981-08-27</p> <p>In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance <span class="hlt">levels</span>. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound <span class="hlt">level</span> in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984maph...10..205S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984maph...10..205S"><span>Solar terrestrial influences on the D region as shown by the <span class="hlt">level</span> of atmospheric radio <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satori, G.; Schaning, B.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>Measurements of the integrated atmospheric radio <span class="hlt">noise</span> field strength at 27 kHz, used here, were made from 1965 to 1975 at Uppsala, Kuhlungsborn, and Prague-Panska Ves. The large scale meteorological situation was considered by comparing solar disturbed and undisturbed periods under similar weather situations. In order to show the effects of the precipitating high energy particle (HEP) flux and of the Forbush decrease on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between pairs of stations were computed as deviations from the monthly median. Delta E (dB), day by day for all six periods was studied. The correlation coefficients for noon as well as for night values were computed. The correlation coefficients were compared with those for solar undisturbed periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241674"><span>[Association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zheng, Y X; Zhang, H L; Geng, Q; Cheng, Y B; Yu, S F</p> <p>2016-12-20</p> <p>Objective: To investigate the association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Methods: Acohort study was performed for 7 445 workers exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the steelmaking and steel rolling workshops of an iron and steel enterprise in Henan Province, China. The follow-up time was from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. The workers with a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold of ≥40 dB (HL) were enrolled as case group, and those with a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold of <35 dB (HL) and a binaural average speech frequency of ≤25 dB (HL) were enrolled as control group. After being matched for age, working years of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, sex, and type of work at a ratio of 1∶1, 187 workers each were enrolled in the case group and the control group. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the serum magnesium ionlevel. Aconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span>, body mass index, cumulative <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure (CNE) , smoking, drinking, hypertension, and physical exercise with NIHL, as well as the association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of NIHL after the adjustment for covariants. Results: There was no significant difference in the serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> between the case group and the control group (24.63±7.92 mg/m(3) vs 24.91±7.33 mg/m(3), P>0.05) . Smoking (OR=1.687, 95%CI 1.090-2.613) was a risk factor for NIHL, and physical exercise (OR=0.509, 95%CI 0.325-0.796) reduced the risk of NIHL. In the workers with CNE>98 dB (A) ·year, the risk of NIHL in the workers with higher CNE was 1.305 times (95%CI 1.051-1.620) that in those with lower CNE. After the adjustment for CNE, smoking, and physical exercise, there was no significant difference in the influence of serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> on the risk of NIHL between the two groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> may not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286610"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and Low-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Dynamics Can Coordinate Multicomponent Bet Hedging Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To counter future uncertainty, cells can stochastically express stress response mechanisms to diversify their population and hedge against stress. This approach allows a small subset of the population to survive without the prohibitive cost of constantly expressing resistance machinery at the population <span class="hlt">level</span>. However, expression of multiple genes in concert is often needed to ensure survival, requiring coordination of infrequent events across many downstream targets. This raises the question of how cells orchestrate the timing of multiple rare events without adding cost. To investigate this, we used a stochastic model to study regulation of downstream target genes by a transcription factor. We compared several upstream regulator profiles, including constant expression, pulsatile dynamics, and noisy expression. We found that pulsatile dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> are sufficient to coordinate expression of multiple downstream genes. Notably, this is true even when fluctuations in the upstream regulator are far below the dissociation constants of the regulated genes, as with infrequently activated genes. As an example, we simulated the dynamics of the multiple antibiotic resistance activator (MarA) and 40 diverse downstream genes it regulates, determining that low-<span class="hlt">level</span> dynamics in MarA are sufficient to coordinate expression of resistance mechanisms. We also demonstrated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> can play a similar coordinating role. Importantly, we found that these benefits are present without a corresponding increase in the population-<span class="hlt">level</span> cost. Therefore, our model suggests that low-<span class="hlt">level</span> dynamics or <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a transcription factor can coordinate expression of multiple stress response mechanisms by engaging them simultaneously without adding to the overall cost. PMID:25564865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3954697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3954697"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in cockpits of aircraft during normal cruise and considerations of auditory risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gasaway, D C</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> data, including A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> and C-minus-A values, are summarized for exposures associated with normal cruise flight in 13 groups of 593 aircraft; means and standard deviations are reported; degrees of auditory risk using OSHA-1983 criterion are presented; and at-the-ear protected and unprotected exposures are revealed. Mean A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> were 95.0 for 528 fixed-wing; 100.9 for 65 rotary-wing; and 95.7 for all 593 aircraft. Of 13 sub-groups, the lowest mean A-<span class="hlt">level</span> (85.5) was exhibited in the cockpits of tail-mounted turbojet/fan-powered aircraft, and the highest (105.0) was found in both reciprocating and turbine-powered twin-rotor helicopters. All mean A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the OSHA damage-risk criterion for 8 h.d-1 exposures. At-the-ear exposures while wearing hearing protection are presented. Results clearly illustrate the potential for auditory damage of unprotected aircrews. Hearing protection must be considered to effectively control routinely encountered exposures. The material and illustrations resulting from this study will help health and safety monitors during indoctrination and counseling of aircrews concerning the need to protect their hearing against <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures during normal and routine flight operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62..127W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62..127W"><span>Impact of physiological <span class="hlt">noise</span> correction on detecting blood oxygenation <span class="hlt">level</span>-dependent contrast in the breast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, Tess E.; Manavaki, Roido; Graves, Martin J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Fiona J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Physiological fluctuations are expected to be a dominant source of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in blood oxygenation <span class="hlt">level</span>-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments to assess tumour oxygenation and angiogenesis. This work investigates the impact of various physiological <span class="hlt">noise</span> regressors: retrospective image correction (RETROICOR), heart rate (HR) and respiratory volume per unit time (RVT), on signal variance and the detection of BOLD contrast in the breast in response to a modulated respiratory stimulus. BOLD MRI was performed at 3 T in ten volunteers at rest and during cycles of oxygen and carbogen gas breathing. RETROICOR was optimized using F-tests to determine which cardiac and respiratory phase terms accounted for a significant amount of signal variance. A nested regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of RETROICOR, HR and RVT on the model fit residuals, temporal signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio, and BOLD activation parameters. The optimized RETROICOR model accounted for the largest amount of signal variance ( Δ R\\text{adj}2   =  3.3  ±  2.1%) and improved the detection of BOLD activation (P  =  0.002). Inclusion of HR and RVT regressors explained additional signal variance, but had a negative impact on activation parameter estimation (P  <  0.001). Fluctuations in HR and RVT appeared to be correlated with the stimulus and may contribute to apparent BOLD signal reactivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797186"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy for prevention of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro</p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p>Noninvasive low-<span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense <span class="hlt">noise</span> and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........91N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........91N"><span>Low frequency critical current <span class="hlt">noise</span> and two <span class="hlt">level</span> system defects in Josephson junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nugroho, Christopher Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been known to arise from an ensemble of two <span class="hlt">level</span> systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance <span class="hlt">noise</span>. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two <span class="hlt">level</span> systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176524"><span>Carrier-Number-Fluctuation Induced Ultralow 1/f <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Top-Gated Graphene Field Effect Transistor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Songang; Jin, Zhi; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan; Mao, Dacheng; Wang, Shaoqing; Yu, Guanghui</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A top-gated graphene FET with an ultralow 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 1.8 × 10(-12) μm(2)Hz(1-) (f = 10 Hz) has been fabricated. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> has the least value at Dirac point, it then increases fast when the current deviates from that at Dirac point, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> slightly decreases at large current. The phenomenon can be understood by the carrier-number-fluctuation induced low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which caused by the trapping-detrapping processes of the carriers. Further analysis suggests that the effect trap density depends on the location of Fermi <span class="hlt">level</span> in graphene channel. The study has provided guidance for suppressing the 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> in graphene-based applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091822','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091822"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Measurements of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Interleukin-1-β mRNA <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Accurately Predict Treatment Response in Depressed Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ferrari, Clarissa; Uher, Rudolf; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Riva, Marco Andrea; Pariante, Carmine M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Increased <span class="hlt">levels</span> of inflammation have been associated with a poorer response to antidepressants in several clinical samples, but these findings have had been limited by low reproducibility of biomarker assays across laboratories, difficulty in predicting response probability on an individual basis, and unclear molecular mechanisms. Methods: Here we measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mRNA values (a reliable quantitation of number of molecules) of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and interleukin-1β in a previously published sample from a randomized controlled trial comparing escitalopram vs nortriptyline (GENDEP) as well as in an independent, naturalistic replication sample. We then used linear discriminant analysis to calculate mRNA values cutoffs that best discriminated between responders and nonresponders after 12 weeks of antidepressants. As Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and interleukin-1β might be involved in different pathways, we constructed a protein-protein interaction network by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. Results: We identified cutoff values for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mRNA measures that accurately predicted response probability on an individual basis, with positive predictive values and specificity for nonresponders of 100% in both samples (negative predictive value=82% to 85%, sensitivity=52% to 61%). Using network analysis, we identified different clusters of targets for these 2 cytokines, with Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor interacting predominantly with pathways involved in neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and cell proliferation, and interleukin-1β interacting predominantly with pathways involved in the inflammasome complex, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Conclusion: We believe that these data provide a clinically suitable approach to the personalization of antidepressant therapy: patients who have <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mRNA values above the suggested cutoffs could be directed toward earlier access to more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900494"><span>DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced cochlear damage from short-duration music exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Clavier, Odile H.; Allen, Lindsay V.; Brooks, Chris A.; Norris, Jesse A.; Gui, Jiang; Meinke, Deanna K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides a comprehensive picture of cochlear responses over a range of DP frequencies and f2/f1 ratios. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> sound would show changes detectable by DPOAE mapping, but not apparent on a standard DP-gram. Thirteen normal hearing subjects were studied before and after attending music concerts. Pure-tone audiometry (500-8,000 Hz), DP-grams (0.3-10 kHz) at 1.22 ratio, and DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were collected prior to, as soon as possible after, and the day after the concerts. All maps covered the range of 2,000-6,000 Hz in DP frequency and from 1.3 to -1.3 in ratio using equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primary tone stimuli. Changes in the pure-tone audiogram were significant (P ≤ 0.01) immediately after the concert at 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 6,000 Hz. The DP-gram showed significant differences only at f2 = 4,066 (P = 0.01) and f2 = 4,348 (P = 0.04). The postconcert changes were readily apparent both visually and statistically (P ≤ 0.01) on the mean DP <span class="hlt">level</span> maps, and remained statistically significantly different from baseline the day after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure although no significant changes from baseline were seen on the DP-gram or audiogram the day after exposure. Although both the DP-gram and audiogram showed recovery by the next day, the average DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps remained significantly different from baseline. The mapping data showed changes in the cochlea that were not detected from the DP-gram obtained at a single ratio. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides comprehensive information on subtle cochlear responses, which may offer advantages for studying and tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:26356368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356368"><span>DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced cochlear damage from short-duration music exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C; Fellows, Abigail M; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Brooks, Chris A; Norris, Jesse A; Gui, Jiang; Meinke, Deanna K</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides a comprehensive picture of cochlear responses over a range of DP frequencies and f₂/f₁ratios. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> sound would show changes detectable by DPOAE mapping, but not apparent on a standard DP-gram. Thirteen normal hearing subjects were studied before and after attending music concerts. Pure-tone audiometry (500-8,000 Hz), DP-grams (0.3-10 kHz) at 1.22 ratio, and DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were collected prior to, as soon as possible after, and the day after the concerts. All maps covered the range of 2,000-6,000 Hz in DP frequency and from 1.3 to -1.3 in ratio using equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primary tone stimuli. Changes in the pure-tone audiogram were significant (P ≤ 0.01) immediately after the concert at 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 6,000 Hz. The DP-gram showed significant differences only at f₂= 4,066 (P = 0.01) and f₂= 4,348 (P = 0.04). The postconcert changes were readily apparent both visually and statistically (P ≤ 0.01) on the mean DP <span class="hlt">level</span> maps, and remained statistically significantly different from baseline the day after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure although no significant changes from baseline were seen on the DP-gram or audiogram the day after exposure. Although both the DP-gram and audiogram showed recovery by the next day, the average DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps remained significantly different from baseline. The mapping data showed changes in the cochlea that were not detected from the DP-gram obtained at a single ratio. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides comprehensive information on subtle cochlear responses, which may offer advantages for studying and tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15189073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15189073"><span>Combustion process in a spark ignition engine: dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaminski, T; Wendeker, M; Urbanowicz, K; Litak, G</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>We analyze the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from the usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed additional oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Based on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per combustion cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a larger spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ElL....24..643A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ElL....24..643A"><span>Performance of mean-<span class="hlt">level</span> detector in presence of multiple-tone interference plus <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Hussaini, E. K.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>Performance of the adaptive mean-<span class="hlt">level</span> constant false alarm rate detector is derived in the presence of multiple-tone interference plus Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Such signals may result from jamming, interference, or multipath propagation. A square-law envelope detector is employed and a single sweep or hit is processed. The target signal envelope fluctuates according to a Rayleigh probability density function. The results show that the probability of a false alarm decreases monotonically with increasing interfering tonal SNR per pulse for one tone. The probability is unaffected when there is an infinite number of tones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938911"><span>Improving patients' sleep: reducing light and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on wards at night.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hewart, Carol; Fethney, Loveday</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>There is much research concerning the psychological and physical effects of sleep deprivation on patients in healthcare systems, yet interrupted sleep on hospital wards at night remains a problem. Staff at Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Devon, wanted to identify the factors that prevent patients from sleeping well at night. Two audits were carried out, between April and August 2015, to assess <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light <span class="hlt">levels</span> on wards at night, and to engage nurses in ways of reducing these. A number of recommendations were made based on the audit findings, many of which have been put into practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S71A1052S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S71A1052S"><span>Ambient Seismic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of the Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.; Shiobara, H.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Mikada, H.; Fukao, Y.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were successfully installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. Both the observatories fill important observational gaps, since no other land site can replace this site. Each observatory has two identical broadband seismometers (Guralp, CMG-1T), which are cemented, near the bottom of the hole. All the necessary power for the WP-1 is supplied from the Lithium Battery System with a capacity of 5.2 kAh. For the WP-2 observatory, the Sea Water Battery (SWB) System mainly supplies the power to the system. Additional lithium batteries were used as a backup system. Both seismometers are operational, but we are operating only one seismometer for both the observatories to reduce the consuming power of the system. The WP-2 observatory was activated in October 2000 using an ROV KAIKO. In August 2001, the KAIKO re-visited the WP-2 site. From the first observation, we obtained about three-months continuous data (Oct. 29th, 2000 - Jan. 27th, 2001). The KAIKO visited the WP-2 site again in June 2002 and approximately eleven-months continuous data (Aug. 3rd, 2001 - Jun. 29th, 2002) were retrieved for second observation period. The KAIKO also recovered the monitoring data for the SWB system. It was confirmed that the SWB system continued working for almost one year. The observation at the WP-1 was started from March 2002. We now have the preliminary data (about 20 minutes long) from during the ROV dive for the activation. A re-visit of the WP-1 site is planned in October 2002. The long-term variations of broadband seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz) in the northwestern Pacific Basin were revealed. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> above 10 s is stable all the year round. The vertical component of the WP-2 has the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> about -145 db (re: 1 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51C2701H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51C2701H"><span>Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1347963-development-low-level-calibration-standard-analysis-absolute-gas-counting-measurements-augmented-simulation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1347963-development-low-level-calibration-standard-analysis-absolute-gas-counting-measurements-augmented-simulation"><span>Development of a low-<span class="hlt">level</span> 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gas counting measurements augmented with simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...</p> <p>2017-02-17</p> <p>Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11H1253S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11H1253S"><span>Transfer Function <span class="hlt">Noise</span> (TFN) Modeling of Dynamic Groundwater <span class="hlt">Level</span> Fluctuation using Deseasonalized Rainfall Series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanmugam, M.; Kumar, G.; Narasimhan, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A study to examine the effect of rainfall variable on groundwater <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation was analyzed using transfer function <span class="hlt">noise</span> (TFN) models for five representative wells from the study area of Adyar basin located in the north-east coastal part of Tamil Nadu, India. Five representative wells out of 43 were chosen based on maximum coefficient of determination (R2) value by simple linear regression analysis where rainfall and water <span class="hlt">level</span> rise time series were used as independent and dependent variables respectively. An alternative method of zone wise Thiessen rainfall (ZTR), where the zones were separated by Thiessen method and the wells contained in the zones were regressed upon that particular zone station rainfall values with 100% weightage, was giving maximum R2 value compared to other traditional ways of estimating areal average rainfall methods such as simple arithmetic average (SAA) and Thiessen polygon (TP) methods. Water <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation was further modeled using TFN modeling approach in which missing rainfall was filled using normal ratio (NR) method as it was giving maximum R2 value compared to simple station average (SSA) and inverse distance (ID) methods. A deseasonalized transfer function <span class="hlt">noise</span> modeling (DS-TFN) approach has been adopted in the study which minimizes the number of numerator and denominator polynomial parameters and assures an improved method of forecasting groundwater <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation in terms of maximum R2 and minimum root mean square error (RMSE) values compared to other traditional TFN models such as ARIMAX and SARIMAX. Before identifying suitable TFN model structure for input-output data, the data was analyzed for seasonality. Since both rainfall series and selected water <span class="hlt">level</span> data show the seasonality behavior, it was adjusted with deseasonalizing process. Deseasonalizing process was carried out after detrending the data with 13-term moving average process and estimating seasonal component from the detrended series using seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4848..455B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4848..455B"><span>Database applicaton for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus <span class="hlt">noise</span> subtracting. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031365','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031365"><span>Piloted Simulation Study of a Dual Thrust-Cutback Procedure for Reducing High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Riley, Donald R.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A piloted simulation study was performed for the purpose of indicating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction benefits and piloting performance that could occur for a typical 4-engine high-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration during takeoff when a dual thrust-cutback procedure was employed with throttle operation under direct computer control. Two thrust cutbacks were employed with the first cutback performed while the vehicle was accelerating on the run-way and the second cutback performed at a distance farther downrange. Added vehicle performance improvements included the incorporation of high-lift increments into the aerodynamic database of the vehicle and the use of limited engine oversizing. Four single-stream turbine bypass engines that had no <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression of any kind were used with this configuration. This approach permitted establishing the additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression <span class="hlt">level</span> that was needed to meet Federal Air Regulation Part 36 Stage 3 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for subsonic commercial jet aircraft. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> results were calculated with the jet mixing and shock <span class="hlt">noise</span> modules of the Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Program (ANOPP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NaPho..10..406L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NaPho..10..406L"><span>Efficient and low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> single-photon-<span class="hlt">level</span> frequency conversion interfaces using silicon nanophotonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qing; Davanço, Marcelo; Srinivasan, Kartik</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Optical frequency conversion has applications ranging from tunable light sources to telecommunications-band interfaces for quantum information science. Here, we demonstrate efficient, low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> frequency conversion on a nanophotonic chip through four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in compact (footprint <0.5 × 10-4 cm2) Si3N4 microring resonators. We investigate three frequency conversion configurations: spectral translation over a few nanometres within the 980 nm band; upconversion from 1,550 nm to 980 nm and downconversion from 980 nm to 1,550 nm. With conversion efficiencies ranging from 25% for the first process to >60% for the last two processes, a signal conversion bandwidth of >1 GHz, a required continuous-wave pump power of <60 mW and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> between a few femtowatts and a few picowatts, these devices are suitable for quantum frequency conversion of single-photon states from InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Simulations based on coupled mode equations and the Lugiato-Lefever equation are used to model device performance, and show quantitative agreement with measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384249"><span>Mathematical explanation of the predictive power of the X-<span class="hlt">level</span> approach reaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimator method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The X-<span class="hlt">level</span> Approach Reaction <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Estimator (XARNES) method has been developed previously to study reaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> in well mixed reaction volumes. The method is a typical moment closure method and it works by closing the infinite hierarchy of equations that describe moments of the particle number distribution function. This is done by using correlation forms which describe correlation effects in a strict mathematical way. The variable X is used to specify which correlation effects (forms) are included in the description. Previously, it was argued, in a rather informal way, that the method should work well in situations where the particle number distribution function is Poisson-like. Numerical tests confirmed this. It was shown that the predictive power of the method increases, i.e. the agreement between the theory and simulations improves, if X is increased. In here, these features of the method are explained by using rigorous mathematical reasoning. Three derivative matching theoremsare proven which show that the observed numerical behavior is generic to the method. PMID:22500492</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2939612','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2939612"><span>A Dynamic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Algorithm for Spectral Screening of Peptide MS/MS Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background High-throughput shotgun proteomics data contain a significant number of spectra from non-peptide ions or spectra of too poor quality to obtain highly confident peptide identifications. These spectra cannot be identified with any positive peptide matches in some database search programs or are identified with false positives in others. Removing these spectra can improve the database search results and lower computational expense. Results A new algorithm has been developed to filter tandem mass spectra of poor quality from shotgun proteomic experiments. The algorithm determines the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> dynamically and independently for each spectrum in a tandem mass spectrometric data set. Spectra are filtered based on a minimum number of required signal peaks with a signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio of 2. The algorithm was tested with 23 sample data sets containing 62,117 total spectra. Conclusions The spectral screening removed 89.0% of the tandem mass spectra that did not yield a peptide match when searched with the MassMatrix database search software. Only 6.0% of tandem mass spectra that yielded peptide matches considered to be true positive matches were lost after spectral screening. The algorithm was found to be very effective at removal of unidentified spectra in other database search programs including Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem (75.93%-91.00%) with a small loss (3.59%-9.40%) of true positive matches. PMID:20731867</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537148"><span>Using continuous GPS and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> at tide-gauges in the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H</p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-<span class="hlt">level</span> variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-<span class="hlt">level</span>, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-<span class="hlt">level</span>.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=robert&pg=7&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=robert&pg=7&id=EJ1000865"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010391"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure on Systemic and Tissue-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Markers of Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Cao, Shuangfeng; Du, Ziwei; Wang, Yongfang; Feng, Xian; Gao, Ye; Zha, Mingming; Guo, Min; Sun, Zilin; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the nature of the connection between <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and T2DM remains to be explored. Objectives: We explored whether and how <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects glucose homeostasis in mice as the initial step toward T2DM development. Methods: Male ICR mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the control group and three <span class="hlt">noise</span> groups (N20D, N10D, and N1D), in which the animals were exposed to white <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 95 decibel sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (dB SPL) for 4 hr per day for 20 successive days, 10 successive days, or 1 day, respectively. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the final <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure (1DPN, 1WPN, and 1MPN). Standard immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to assess insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, the morphology of β cells, and plasma corticosterone <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Results: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure for 1 day caused transient glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure for 10 and 20 days had no effect on glucose tolerance but did cause prolonged insulin resistance and an increased insulin response to glucose challenge. Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in response to exogenous insulin were decreased in the skeletal muscle of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed animals. Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure at 95 dB SPL caused insulin resistance in male ICR mice, which was prolonged with longer <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and was likely related to the observed blunted insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Citation: Liu L, Wang F, Lu H, Cao S, Du Z, Wang Y, Feng X, Gao Y, Zha M, Guo M, Sun Z, Wang J. 2016. Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on systemic and tissue-<span class="hlt">level</span> markers of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in male mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1390–1398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP162 PMID:27128844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25a3029X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25a3029X"><span>Quality-aware features-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimator for block matching and three-dimensional filtering algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Shaoping; Hu, Lingyan; Yang, Xiaohui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The performance of conventional denoising algorithms is usually controlled by one or several parameters whose optimal settings depend on the contents of the processed images and the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">noises</span>. Among these parameters, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is a fundamental parameter that is always assumed to be known by most of the existing denoising algorithms (so-called nonblind denoising algorithms), which largely limits the applicability of these nonblind denoising algorithms in many applications. Moreover, these nonblind algorithms do not always achieve the best denoised images in visual quality even when fed with the actual <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter. To address these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a new quality-aware features-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimator (NLE), which consists of quality-aware features extraction and optimal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter prediction. First, considering that image local contrast features convey important structural information that is closely related to image perceptual quality, we utilize the marginal statistics of two local contrast operators, i.e., the gradient magnitude and the Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), to extract quality-aware features. The proposed quality-aware features have very low computational complexity, making them well suited for time-constrained applications. Then we propose a learning-based framework where the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter is estimated based on the quality-aware features. Based on the proposed NLE, we develop a blind block matching and three-dimensional filtering (BBM3D) denoising algorithm which is capable of effectively removing additive white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>, even coupled with impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter of the BBM3D algorithm is automatically tuned according to the quality-aware features, guaranteeing the best performance. As such, the classical block matching and three-dimensional algorithm can be transformed into a blind one in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results demonstrate that the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227017"><span>Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Chronic exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band <span class="hlt">noise</span> (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 <span class="hlt">level</span>. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C <span class="hlt">level</span> was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047154"><span>An energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions from an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> localized molecular orbital reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Azar, R. Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-14</p> <p>We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-<span class="hlt">level</span> contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span>, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the C{sub s}-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-<span class="hlt">level</span> calculations and experiment when possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260560"><span>An energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions from an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> localized molecular orbital reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azar, R Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-14</p> <p>We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-<span class="hlt">level</span> contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span>, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the C(s)-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-<span class="hlt">level</span> calculations and experiment when possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.136b4103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.136b4103A"><span>An energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions from an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> localized molecular orbital reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azar, R. Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-<span class="hlt">level</span> contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles <span class="hlt">level</span>, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the Cs-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-<span class="hlt">level</span> calculations and experiment when possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4109949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4109949"><span>Increased <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Have Different Impacts on the Anti-Predator Behaviour of Two Sympatric Fish Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Voellmy, Irene K.; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator−prey relationships. Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship <span class="hlt">noise</span>), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to determine survival and population consequences. PMID:25058618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058618"><span>Increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship <span class="hlt">noise</span>), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to determine survival and population consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8180434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8180434"><span>Preferred real-ear insertion gain on a commercial hearing aid at different speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuk, F K; Harper, T; Doubek, K</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>In the present study, we measured preferred real-ear insertion gain (REIG) under different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> to assess whether current automatic gain control (AGC) and automatic signal processing (ASP) hearing aids are operating optimally. Preferred REIG for optimal speech clarity was determined under seven speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. In four conditions, speech (discourse passages) was varied from 55 dB SPL to 85 dB SPL in 10-dB steps at a fixed signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (S/N) of +5. In the remaining conditions, speech was fixed at 65 dB SPL while the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was varied in 5-dB steps to yield S/Ns from +10 to -5. The results showed that subjects selected less gain as speech or <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were increased. In general, less overall gain was selected as speech <span class="hlt">level</span> was increased, and less overall gain, especially in the low-frequency region, was selected as the S/N ratio became progressively poorer. These results are discussed in relation to how hearing aids with adaptive frequency/gain responses should respond to varying input <span class="hlt">levels</span> to achieve optimal clarity of speech.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101661','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101661"><span>Current Background <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Sources and <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span>, discusses the sources of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span> is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive <span class="hlt">noise</span> for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant <span class="hlt">noise</span> mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this <span class="hlt">noise</span> mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are also different for probes of various</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ811675','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ811675"><span>Sound Pressure <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Induced Hearing Loss?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holland, Nicholas V., III</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated within a university concert band and compares sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> with the criteria set by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5369M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5369M"><span>Improvement of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the Split Langmuir Probe - a spatial current density meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marusenkov, Andriy; Dudkin, Fedor; Shuvalov, Valentyn</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> laboratory test bench as well as in the plasma-dynamic vacuum chamber. These test show that the sensor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is decreased approximately 3-5 times. This study was supported by the SSAU contract # 1550.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51A2281E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51A2281E"><span>Ambient seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for <span class="hlt">noise</span> at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-<span class="hlt">noise</span> model and low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background <span class="hlt">noise</span>; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606254"><span>Long term estimations of low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> over water from an off-shore wind farm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolin, Karl; Almgren, Martin; Ohlsson, Esbjörn; Karasalo, Ilkka</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This article focuses on computations of low frequency sound propagation from an off-shore wind farm. Two different methods for sound propagation calculations are combined with meteorological data for every 3 hours in the year 2010 to examine the varying <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at a reception point at 13 km distance. It is shown that sound propagation conditions play a vital role in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact from the off-shore wind farm and ordinary assessment methods can become inaccurate at longer propagation distances over water. Therefore, this paper suggests that methodologies to calculate <span class="hlt">noise</span> immission with realistic sound speed profiles need to be combined with meteorological data over extended time periods to evaluate the impact of low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> from modern off-shore wind farms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859870"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> during the showing of 25 films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The harmful effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790023883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790023883"><span>Study of design constraints on helicopter <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Wiedersum, C. W.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A means of estimating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated by a helicopter main rotor using information which is generally available during the preliminary design phase of aircraft development is presented. The method utilizes design charts and tables which do not require an understanding of acoustical theory or computational procedures in order to predict the perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, a weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>, or C weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> of a single hovering rotor. A method for estimating the effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in forward flight is also included. In order to give the designer an assessment of the relative rotor performance, which may be traded off against <span class="hlt">noise</span>, an additional chart for estimating the percent of available rotor thrust which must be expended in lifting the rotor and drive system, is included as well as approach for comparing the subjective acceptability of various rotors once the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> are predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064894','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064894"><span>Acoustic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Dental Equipments and Its Association with Fear and Annoyance <span class="hlt">Levels</span> among Patients Attending Different Dental Clinic Setups in Jaipur, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Atri, Mansi; Singh, Kushpal; Sidiq, Mohsin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is a source of pervasive occupational hazard for practicing dentists and the patients. The sources of dental sounds by various dental equipments can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system and add to the annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from various equipments and evaluate the effect of acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimulus on dental fear and annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> among patients attending different dental clinic setups in Jaipur, India. Methodology: The sampling frame comprised of 180 patients, which included 90 patients attending 10 different private clinics and 90 patients attending a Dental College in Jaipur. The <span class="hlt">levels</span> of Acoustic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Stimulus originating from different equipments were determined using a precision sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter/decibulometer. Dental fear among patients was measured using Dental Fear Scale (DFS). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test and unpaired t-test. The mean background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were found to be maximum in the pre-clinical setup/ laboratory areas (69.23+2.20). Females and the patients attending dental college setup encountered more fear on seeing the drill as compared to the patients attending private clinics (p<0.001). Conclusion: The sources of dental sounds can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system. It was analyzed that the environment in the clinics can directly have an effect on the fear and annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> of patients. Hence it is necessary control the <span class="hlt">noise</span> from various dental equipments to reduce the fear of patients from visiting a dental clinic. PMID:24959512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911605"><span>Feedback damping of a microcantilever at room temperature to the minimum vibration amplitude limited by the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kawamura, Y.; Kanegae, R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cooling the vibration amplitude of a microcantilever as low as possible is important to improve the sensitivity and resolutions of various types of scanning type microscopes and sensors making use of it. When the vibration amplitude is controlled to be smaller using a feed back control system, it is known that the obtainable minimum amplitude of the vibration is limited by the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the detection system. In this study, we demonstrated that the amplitude of the thermal vibration of a microcantilever was suppressed to be about 0.15 pmHz−1/2, which is the same value with the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, without the assistance of external cryogenic cooling. We think that one of the reason why we could reach the smaller amplitude at room temperature is due to stiffer spring constant of the lever, which leads to higher natural frequency and consequently lower floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The other reason is considered to be due to the increase in the laser power for the diagnostics, which lead to the decrease in the signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio determined by the optical shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:27312284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627843K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627843K"><span>Feedback damping of a microcantilever at room temperature to the minimum vibration amplitude limited by the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawamura, Y.; Kanegae, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Cooling the vibration amplitude of a microcantilever as low as possible is important to improve the sensitivity and resolutions of various types of scanning type microscopes and sensors making use of it. When the vibration amplitude is controlled to be smaller using a feed back control system, it is known that the obtainable minimum amplitude of the vibration is limited by the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the detection system. In this study, we demonstrated that the amplitude of the thermal vibration of a microcantilever was suppressed to be about 0.15 pmHz‑1/2, which is the same value with the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, without the assistance of external cryogenic cooling. We think that one of the reason why we could reach the smaller amplitude at room temperature is due to stiffer spring constant of the lever, which leads to higher natural frequency and consequently lower floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The other reason is considered to be due to the increase in the laser power for the diagnostics, which lead to the decrease in the signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio determined by the optical shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760019862','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760019862"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft during 3 deg approaches and <span class="hlt">level</span> flyovers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements have been made with a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft making 3 deg approaches and <span class="hlt">level</span> flyovers. The flight-test data showed that, in the standard 3 deg approach configuration with 40 deg flaps, effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (EPNL) had a value of 109.5 effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> decibels (EPNdB). This result was in agreement with unpublished data obtained with the same type of aircraft during <span class="hlt">noise</span> certification tests; the 3 deg approaches made with 30 deg flaps and slightly reduced thrust reduced the EPNL value by 1 EPNdB. Extended center-line <span class="hlt">noise</span> determined during the 3 deg approaches with 40 deg flaps showed that the maximum reference A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (LA,max)ref varied from 100.0 A-weighted decibels 2.01 km (108 n. mi.) from the threshold to 87.4 db(A) at 6.12 km (3.30 n. mi.) from the threshold. These test values were about 3 db(A) higher than estimates used for comparison. The test data along the extended center line during approaches with 30 deg flaps were 1 db(A) lower than those for approaches with 40 deg flaps. Flight-test data correlating (LA,max)ref with thrust at altitudes of 122 m (400 ft) and 610 m (2000 ft) were in agreement with reference data used for comparison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234891"><span>Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible <span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers. IV. Models using interaural time, <span class="hlt">level</span>, and envelope differences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mao, Junwen; Carney, Laurel H</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The addition of out-of-phase tones to in-phase <span class="hlt">noises</span> results in dynamic interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) cues for the dichotic tone-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> detection task. Several models have been used to predict listeners' detection performance based on ILD, ITD, or different combinations of the two cues. The models can be tested using detection performance from an ensemble of reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers. Previous models cannot predict listeners' detection performance for reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers without fitting the data. Here, two models were tested for narrowband and wideband reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> experiments. One model was a linear combination of ILD and ITD that included the generally ignored correlation between the two cues. The other model was based on a newly proposed cue, the slope of the interaural envelope difference (SIED). Predictions from both models explained a significant portion of listeners' performance for detection of a 500-Hz tone in wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Predictions based on the SIED approached the predictable variance in the wideband condition. The SIED represented a nonlinear combination of ILD and ITD, with the latter cue dominating. Listeners did not use a common strategy (cue) to detect tones in the narrowband condition and may use different single frequencies or different combinations of frequency channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNEng...8d6006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNEng...8d6006C"><span>Automatic subthalamic nucleus detection from microelectrode recordings based on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and neuronal activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cagnan, Hayriye; Dolan, Kevin; He, Xuan; Fiorella Contarino, Maria; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Wadman, Wytse J.; Bour, Lo; Martens, Hubert C. F.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Microelectrode recording (MER) along surgical trajectories is commonly applied for refinement of the target location during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. In this study, we utilize automatically detected MER features in order to locate the subthalamic nucleus (STN) employing an unsupervised algorithm. The automated algorithm makes use of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, compound firing rate and power spectral density along the trajectory and applies a threshold-based method to detect the dorsal and the ventral borders of the STN. Depending on the combination of measures used for detection of the borders, the algorithm allocates confidence <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the annotation made (i.e. high, medium and low). The algorithm has been applied to 258 trajectories obtained from 84 STN DBS implantations. MERs used in this study have not been pre-selected or pre-processed and include all the viable measurements made. Out of 258 trajectories, 239 trajectories were annotated by the surgical team as containing the STN versus 238 trajectories by the automated algorithm. The agreement <span class="hlt">level</span> between the automatic annotations and the surgical annotations is 88%. Taking the surgical annotations as the golden standard, across all trajectories, the algorithm made true positive annotations in 231 trajectories, true negative annotations in 12 trajectories, false positive annotations in 7 trajectories and false negative annotations in 8 trajectories. We conclude that our algorithm is accurate and reliable in automatically identifying the STN and locating the dorsal and ventral borders of the nucleus, and in a near future could be implemented for on-line intra-operative use.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8207E..27C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8207E..27C"><span>The optimal window time to treat <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) with low <span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, So-Young; Suh, Myung-Whan; Bahk, Chan Woong; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Rhee, Chung-Ku</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The transcanal LLLT was found to recover <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (NIHL) but the LLLT was performed immediately after the induction of NIHL. The aim of this study was to find an optimal window time to treat and recover a NIHL with LLLT. Bilateral ears of 6SD rats (12ears) were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Left ears of the rats were irradiated with a LLLT (830 nm, 594 J/cm2 per day) for 12 days, starting 3 days and 7 days post exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Right ears were used as control ears. The hearing <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at each frequency of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 32 kHz before and after the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and post 12th irradiations. The initial hearing <span class="hlt">levels</span> in all frequencies before and after the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure were 26.5, 24.5, 24.0, 24.0 and 24.5 dB SPL and 63.5, 64, 71.5, 73.5 and 67.5 dB SPL in 4, 8, 12, 16 and 32 kHz, respectively in 6 ears. After 12th irradiation, the thresholds of the LLLT treated left ears of the 3-day group recovered significantly compared to those of the untreated right. However, for the 7 day group, the recovery of the LLLT treated left ears was not significantly improved compared to that of the untreated right. The results of this study suggest that the optimal window time to treat NIHL with LLLT was within 3 days from the exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> but the hearing failed to recover if the LLLT was started 7 days post exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019"><span>A stochastic simulation framework for the prediction of strategic <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping and occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure using the random walk approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Strategic <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping provides important information for <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact assessment and <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement. However, producing reliable strategic <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping and to predict the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and <span class="hlt">noise</span> emission <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Also, it assesses the impact of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted <span class="hlt">noise</span> doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental <span class="hlt">noises</span>. It could predict strategic <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping to facilitate <span class="hlt">noise</span> monitoring and <span class="hlt">noise</span> control in the workplaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.2131T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.2131T"><span>Combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> assessment in direct injection Diesel engines by means of in-cylinder pressure components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Martín, J.; Monelletta, L.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The low consumption achievable with Diesel engines and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions, together with the new technologies allowing to meet present and future legislation for pollutant emission reduction, make them attractive from an environmental viewpoint. However, current and future Diesel concepts are intrinsically noisy, and thus in the past few years, combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> was considered as an additional factor in engine development alongside performance, emissions and driveability. Otherwise, due to this negative issue intrinsic to Diesel combustion, end-users could be reluctant to drive Diesel-powered vehicles and their potential for environment preservation could thus be lost or underused. Evaluation procedures are then required, both for <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and sound quality, that may be integrated into the global engine development process, avoiding the need to resort to long and expensive acoustic tests. In this paper, such a procedure, based on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source diagnostic through the definition of suitable components extracted from in-cylinder pressure, is proposed and validated. An innovative decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal is used to obtain such components, so that features associated with the excitation inside the cylinder may be properly identified. These combustion components, significant of the rate of heat release in the cylinder and the resonance in the combustion chamber, may be correlated with the overall <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. A prediction of the radiated engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> more accurate than that obtained from the classical 'block attenuation' approach is achieved, while combustion process features related to the resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> can be identified and thus corrective actions may be proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740006652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740006652"><span>A study of the effect of flight density and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> as measure of annoyance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960027050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960027050"><span>Baseline acoustic <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the NASA Active <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Control Fan rig</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sutliff, Daniel L.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Elliott, David M.; Nallasamy, M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Extensive measurements of the spinning acoustic mode structure in the NASA 48 inch Active <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Control Fan (ANCF) test rig have been taken. A continuously rotating microphone rake system with a least-squares data reduction technique was employed to measure these modes in the inlet and exhaust. Farfield directivity patterns in an anechoic environment were also measured at matched corrected rotor speeds. Several vane counts and spacings were tested over a range of rotor speeds. The Eversman finite element radiation code was run with the measured in-duct modes as input and the computed farfield results were compared to the experimentally measured directivity pattern. The experimental data show that inlet spinning mode measurements can be made very accurately. Exhaust mode measurements may have wake interference, but the least-squares reduction does a good job of rejecting the non-acoustic pressure. The Eversman radiation code accurately extrapolates the farfield <span class="hlt">levels</span> and directivity pattern when all in-duct modes are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125531','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125531"><span>Nutrient Plasma <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Achieved During Treatment that Reduces <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Induced Hearing Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Le Prell, C. G.; Dolan, D. F.; Bennett, D. C.; Boxer, P. A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Hearing loss encompasses both temporary and permanent deficits. If temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) share common pathological mechanisms, then agents that reduce PTS should also reduce TTS. Several antioxidant agents have reduced PTS in rodent models; however, reductions in TTS have been inconsistent. This study first determined whether dietary antioxidants (beta-carotene, and vitamins C and E) delivered in combination with magnesium (Mg) reliably increase plasma concentrations of the active agents. Then, additional manipulations tested the hypothesis that these nutrients reduce acute TTS insult in the first 24 hours following loud sound, as well as longer lasting changes in hearing measured up to 7 days post-<span class="hlt">noise</span>. Saline or nutrients were administered to guinea pigs prior to and after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Sound-evoked electrophysiological responses were measured before <span class="hlt">noise</span>, with tests repeated 1-hour post-<span class="hlt">noise</span>, as well as 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-days post-<span class="hlt">noise</span>. All subjects showed significant functional recovery; subjects treated with nutrients recovered more rapidly, and had better hearing outcomes at early post-<span class="hlt">noise</span> times as well as the final test time. Thus, this combination of nutrients, which produced significant increases in plasma concentrations of vitamins C and E and Mg, effectively reduced hearing loss at multiple post-<span class="hlt">noise</span> times. These data suggest free radical formation contributes to TTS as well as PTS insults, and suggest a potential opportunity to prevent TTS in human populations. PMID:21708356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28096427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28096427"><span>Influence of fatiguing <span class="hlt">noise</span> on auditory evoked responses to stimuli of various <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Popov, Vladimir V; Sysueva, Evgeniya V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Supin, Alexander Ya</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>The negative impact of man-made <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the hearing of odontocetes has attracted considerable recent attention. In the majority of studies, permanent or temporary reductions in sensitivity, known as permanent or temporary threshold shift (PTS or TTS, respectively), have been investigated. In the present study, the effects of a fatiguing sound on the hearing of a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, within a wide range of <span class="hlt">levels</span> of test signals was investigated. The fatiguing <span class="hlt">noise</span> was half-octave band-limited <span class="hlt">noise</span> centered at 32 kHz. Post-exposure effects of this <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the evoked responses to test stimuli (rhythmic pip trains with a 45-kHz center frequency) at various <span class="hlt">levels</span> (from threshold to 60 dB above threshold) were measured. For baseline (pre-exposure) responses, the magnitude-versus-<span class="hlt">level</span> function featured a segment of steep magnitude dependence on <span class="hlt">level</span> (up to 30 dB above threshold) that was followed by a plateau segment that featured little dependence on <span class="hlt">level</span> (30 to 55 dB above threshold). Post-exposure, the function shifted upward along the <span class="hlt">level</span> scale. The shift was 23 dB at the threshold and up to 33 dB at the supra-threshold <span class="hlt">level</span>. Owing to the plateau in the magnitude-versus-<span class="hlt">level</span> function, post-exposure suppression of responses depended on the stimulus <span class="hlt">level</span> such that higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> corresponded to less suppression. The experimental data may be modeled based on the compressive non-linearity of the cochlea. According to the model, post-exposure responses of the cochlea to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> stimuli are minimally suppressed compared with the pre-exposure responses, despite a substantially increased threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051"><span>Electronic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Cartesian Autocollimator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leviton, Douglas B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907862"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>-structure reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flack, Howard D</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their <span class="hlt">level</span> of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26333123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26333123"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> Stress-Induced Changes in mRNA <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Family Molecules and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Rat Brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eraslan, E; Akyazi, İ; Ergül-Ekiz, E; Matur, E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> is a widespread stress resource that may lead to detrimental effects on the health. However, the molecular basis of the stress response caused by <span class="hlt">noise</span> remains elusive. We have studied the effects of acute and chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress on stress-related molecules in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and also corticosterone responses. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control, acute and chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress groups. While the chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress group animals were exposed to 100 dB white <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 4 h/a day during 30 days, the acute <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress group of animals was exposed to the same <span class="hlt">level</span> of stress once for 4 h. The expression profiles of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), CRH1, CRH2 receptors and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNAs were analysed by RT-PCR. Chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress upregulated CRH mRNA <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the hypothalamus. Both acute and chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> increased CRH-R1 mRNA in the hypothalamus but decreased it in the hippocampus. GR mRNA <span class="hlt">levels</span> were decreased by chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress in the hippocampus. The present results suggest that while corticosterone responses have habituated to continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress, the involvement of CRH family molecules and glucocorticoid receptors in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> stress responses are different and structure specific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2318B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2318B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> classical spin states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We introduce the concept of "<span class="hlt">absolutely</span> classical" spin states, in analogy to <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> separable states of bipartite quantum systems. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> separable states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870001601&hterms=white+noise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwhite%2Bnoise','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870001601&hterms=white+noise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwhite%2Bnoise"><span>Choosing channel quantization <span class="hlt">levels</span> and viterbi decoding for space diversity reception over the additive white Guassian <span class="hlt">noise</span> channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalson, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization <span class="hlt">levels</span> for a additive white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88c3406L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88c3406L"><span>Fast and robust population transfer in two-<span class="hlt">level</span> quantum systems with dephasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> and/or systematic frequency errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Ruschhaupt, A.; Alonso, D.; Guérin, S.; Muga, J. G.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We design, by invariant-based inverse engineering, driving fields that invert the population of a two-<span class="hlt">level</span> atom in a given time, robustly with respect to dephasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> and/or systematic frequency shifts. Without imposing constraints, optimal protocols are insensitive to the perturbations but need an infinite energy. For a constrained value of the Rabi frequency, a flat π pulse is the least sensitive protocol to phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> but not to systematic frequency shifts, for which we describe and optimize a family of protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA109430','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA109430"><span>Potential for Interaction of Low-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Impulse and Continuous <span class="hlt">Noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>not include provisions for evaluating the combined effects of impulse and eontinuous <span class="hlt">noise</span>, Moreover, research on animal models (chinchilla) has shown...hearing function from this animal. Also, we probably have a better understanding of how <span class="hlt">noise</span> affects the chinchilla than any odher animal model . The...8217._____ -- . ....... _- . . . TABLE 6 (cont’d) THE MEAN AND THE GROUP MEDIAN THRESHOLD SHIFTS MEASURED DURING THE 8TH EXPOSURE WEEK GpOUp I Animl No. kHa 703 706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904306"><span>Long-term stabilization of a heterodyne metrology interferometer down to a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 20 pm over an hour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Yoshito; Arai, Koji; Ueda, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masaaki; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei</p> <p>2009-11-10</p> <p>A heterodyne metrology interferometer was stabilized down to a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 20 picometers (pm) as a root-mean-square (RMS) value integrated between 0.3 mHz and 1 Hz. This <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was achieved by employing active and passive interferometer stabilization techniques. The heterodyne interferometer was built on a 50 mm square ultralow expansion glass plate in order to reduce an optical path length change caused by temperature variation. An optical configuration of the interferometer is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a design as symmetric as possible so that a detection signal can be insensitive to homogeneous thermal expansion of the glass plate. The heterodyne frequency is actively controlled in order to suppress residual <span class="hlt">noises</span> caused by optical path length changes outside of the glass plate as well as phase fluctuations of the heterodyne frequency source. Our stabilization scheme is considered useful in achieving the 20 pm <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> without a stable heterodyne frequency source, as well as temperature stabilization around a whole apparatus. This interferometer can be used in precise metrology applications, such as characterization of deformation for satellite optical components against thermal exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036419"><span>Long-term stabilization of a heterodyne metrology interferometer down to a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 20 pm over an hour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niwa, Yoshito; Arai, Koji; Ueda, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masaaki; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei</p> <p>2009-11-10</p> <p>A heterodyne metrology interferometer was stabilized down to a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 20 picometers (pm) as a root-mean-square (RMS) value integrated between 0.3 mHz and 1 Hz. This <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was achieved by employing active and passive interferometer stabilization techniques. The heterodyne interferometer was built on a 50 mm square ultralow expansion glass plate in order to reduce an optical path length change caused by temperature variation. An optical configuration of the interferometer is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a design as symmetric as possible so that a detection signal can be insensitive to homogeneous thermal expansion of the glass plate. The heterodyne frequency is actively controlled in order to suppress residual <span class="hlt">noises</span> caused by optical path length changes outside of the glass plate as well as phase fluctuations of the heterodyne frequency source. Our stabilization scheme is considered useful in achieving the 20 pm <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> without a stable heterodyne frequency source, as well as temperature stabilization around a whole apparatus. This interferometer can be used in precise metrology applications, such as characterization of deformation for satellite optical components against thermal exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438459"><span>Auditory map reorganization and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-<span class="hlt">level</span> ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Weimin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal's survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-<span class="hlt">level</span> ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed rats in a noisy environment. PMID:22973201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813783L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813783L"><span>Climatic and anthropogenic stress on water <span class="hlt">levels</span>: basin-scale observations with seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecocq, Thomas; Pedersen, Helle; Brenguier, Florent; Stammler, Klaus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring changes in shear wave velocities within the crust have become possible through recently developed techniques based on seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> analysis. In the present work we address the challenge of using these techniques for environmental monitoring at upper crustal <span class="hlt">level</span>. Our work is based on data from the broadband Gräfenberg array (Germany) which was installed in 1976 and for which the continuous data acquired has been preserved until today. Using state of the art pre-processing and cross-correlation techniques (MSNoise), we computed daily cross-correlation functions (CCF) between 4 stations (6 pairs) of the Gräfenberg array over the period 1977-2007. The daily CCFs are then stacked to form an average CCF per month. Instead of doing classic "one versus reference" comparisons, the monthly CCFs are compared pairwise using Moving Window Cross-Spectral analysis (MWCS). In total, 387 720 MWCS have been computed between 20 s and 80 s lapse time to obtain relative velocity changes (dv/v). All dv/v are then inverted using a Bayesian weighted least square procedure. Depending on the smoothing weight used during the inversion, seasonal to long term trends can be evidenced. The results show clear and stable trends in the data. We present possible causes explaining these trends and abrupt changes of dv/v by showing modelled (GLDAS) and observed climatic data together with anthropogenic observables. A combination of climatic (warmer surface temperatures, less rainfall) and anthropogenic (more population, more irrigated land) factors are the most probable causes of the progressive relative increase of seismic velocities under the Gräfenberg array. We interpret these results as a progressive depletion of the water resources in the large karstified Malm reservoir (Late Jurassic) below the array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5327586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5327586"><span>A Trainable Hearing Aid Algorithm Reflecting Individual Preferences for Degree of <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Suppression, Input Sound <span class="hlt">Level</span>, and Listening Situation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yoon, Sung Hoon; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yook, Sunhyun; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jang, Dong Pyo; Hong, Sung Hwa; Kim, In Young</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objectives In an effort to improve hearing aid users’ satisfaction, recent studies on trainable hearing aids have attempted to implement one or two environmental factors into training. However, it would be more beneficial to train the device based on the owner’s personal preferences in a more expanded environmental acoustic conditions. Our study aimed at developing a trainable hearing aid algorithm that can reflect the user’s individual preferences in a more extensive environmental acoustic conditions (ambient sound <span class="hlt">level</span>, listening situation, and degree of <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression) and evaluated the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm. Methods Ten normal hearing subjects participated in this study. Each subjects trained the algorithm to their personal preference and the trained data was used to record test sounds in three different settings to be utilized to evaluate the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm by performing the Comparison Mean Opinion Score test. Results Statistical analysis revealed that of the 10 subjects, four showed significant differences in amplification constant settings between the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-only and speech-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> situation (P<0.05) and one subject also showed significant difference between the speech-only and speech-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> situation (P<0.05). Additionally, every subject preferred different β settings for beamforming in all different input sound <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Conclusion The positive findings from this study suggested that the proposed algorithm has potential to improve hearing aid users’ personal satisfaction under various ambient situations. PMID:27507270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1301K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1301K"><span>Gamma-magnetic normalization - new effect to reduce flux-gate magnetometer <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korepanov, V.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>It is the author's opinion confirmed by numerous experiments, that the FGM <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (NL) is determined not by Barkhausen jumps during the core remagnetization from positive to negative state as the majority of designers believe, but by non-repeatability of the magnetic domains transition from negative to positive states and back. This shows the way how to reduce the magnetic <span class="hlt">noise</span>: to manufacture the magnetic material with a structure which will create conditions for magnetic domain walls to glide easily and uniformly when changing their orientation leading to minimal efforts at cyclic remagnetization. Ideally, such a material may be represented as a solid "liquid" with freely floating uniform magnetic domains without walls friction. To reduce the specific NL of the materials, several post-melting processing technologies were developed. A set of experiments made by many investigators has shown that the best results gives the magnetic materials annealing in vacuum or in any inert gas applying by this during all annealing time the alternative magnetic field, imitating core excitation field during FGM operation. If to accept the "solid liquid" model, this mechanism of NL decreasing has clear physical explanation: permanent re-magnetization of domains leads to the structural improvements favorable namely for the homogenization of transitions, rise of temperature gives necessary energy for the impurities liquidation. Probably, M. Acuna was the first who reported that during FGM operation in space its NL is decreasing with time and attributed this to the relaxation of mechanical stresses in the core material in weightlessness conditions [1]. We studied in details the conditions in which the core material is in space: weightlessness, vacuum and radiation. Mechanical stresses relaxation hypothesis was rejected because the internal forces in any solid body are much stronger as those to which a gravity force might have influence. Also the tests of FGM sensor in vacuum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=2&id=EJ721822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=2&id=EJ721822"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Hong Kong Primary Schools: Implications for Classroom Listening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Choi, Ching Yee; McPherson, Bradley</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Many researchers have stressed that the acoustic environment is crucial to the speech perception, academic performance, attention, and participation of students in classrooms. Classrooms in highly urbanised locations are especially vulnerable to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a major influence on the acoustic environment. The purpose of this investigation was to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA205758','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA205758"><span>A Standard Definition for Wind-Generated, Low-Frequency Ambient <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Source <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-02-09</p> <p>FUNDING NUMBERS PROGR.AM PROJECT ITASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT 14O. NO. NO. IACCESSION NO. I I ritLE (include Security Caiafaon) I7Ol A STANDARD DEFINITION...use of a specific propagation code (PE, RAYTRACE, ASTRAL , NORMAL MODE, etc). The specification of <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity per unit area with respect to/ /P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OEng....6...77S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OEng....6...77S"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> arrangement in determined zones of homogenous development of green areas on the example of the spa park in Inowrocław</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Skiba, Marta</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements are usually carried out in developed areas as well as in the surroundings of traffic routes providing basis for actions in order to limit its influence on the neighboring areas. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements in park areas are rare due to belief that these areas are silent zones. Such attitude cannot be justified. This article aims to the assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> appearing in determined subzones of the spa park in Inowrocław. From the research carried out it can be noticed that traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> does not have any important meaning for the acoustic climate of the park. It is the people who stay there who generate more <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Comparative analysis proves the appearance and penetration of <span class="hlt">noise</span> from the zones with greater <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the ones with lower amount.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900008583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900008583"><span>Optical Johnson <span class="hlt">noise</span> thermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson <span class="hlt">noise</span> may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be detected and quantified in a background of other <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance <span class="hlt">noise</span> may provide a noncontact measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2894914','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2894914"><span>Your attention please: increasing ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> elicits a change in communication behaviour in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Cato, Douglas H.; Noad, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>High background <span class="hlt">noise</span> is an important obstacle in successful signal detection and perception of an intended acoustic signal. To overcome this problem, many animals modify their acoustic signal by increasing the repetition rate, duration, amplitude or frequency range of the signal. An alternative method to ensure successful signal reception, yet to be tested in animals, involves the use of two different types of signal, where one signal type may enhance the other in periods of high background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Humpback whale communication signals comprise two different types: vocal signals, and surface-generated signals such as ‘breaching’ or ‘pectoral slapping’. We found that humpback whales gradually switched from primarily vocal to primarily surface-generated communication in increasing wind speeds and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, though kept both signal types in their repertoire. Vocal signals have the advantage of having higher information content but may have the disadvantage of loosing this information in a noisy environment. Surface-generated sounds have energy distributed over a greater frequency range and may be less likely to become confused in periods of high wind-generated <span class="hlt">noise</span> but have less information content when compared with vocal sounds. Therefore, surface-generated sounds may improve detection or enhance the perception of vocal signals in a noisy environment. PMID:20392731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6157384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6157384"><span>Effectiveness of predictive computer programs in the design of <span class="hlt">noise</span> barriers. A before and after approach. Part 2-B: Supplement. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> data. Final Report, June 1975-June 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haviland, J.K.; Noble, D.F.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>To evaluate the efficacy of the predictive computer programs used to design the barriers, <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were taken before and after construction of an Earth berm and plywood wall alongside I-495 in Northern Virginia. Despite intrusive <span class="hlt">noise</span> periodically overriding the traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> from I-495, the latter clearly dominated the neighborhood <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment. Direct correlations made between variations in L10 <span class="hlt">levels</span> and truck traffic and between L50 and L90 <span class="hlt">levels</span> and automobile traffic seem to support the generalization that the L10 <span class="hlt">levels</span> are controlled by trucks and the L90 <span class="hlt">levels</span> are controlled by automobiles. See Part II-A for a description of the study and the discussion of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194..719B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.194..719B"><span>Characterizing and minimizing the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in tide gauge time series: relative and geocentric sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rise around Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgette, Reed J.; Watson, Christopher S.; Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Tregoning, Paul; Coleman, Richard</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We quantify the rate of sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rise around the Australian continent from an analysis of tide gauge and Global Positioning System (GPS) data sets. To estimate the underlying linear rates of sea <span class="hlt">level</span> change in the presence of significant interannual and decadal variability (treated here as <span class="hlt">noise</span>), we adopt and extend a novel network adjustment approach. We simultaneously estimate time-correlated <span class="hlt">noise</span> as well as linear model parameters and realistic uncertainties from sea <span class="hlt">level</span> time series at individual gauges, as well as from time-series differences computed between pairs of gauges. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> content at individual gauges is consistent with a combination of white and time-correlated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. We find that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> in time series from the western coast of Australia is best described by a first-order Gauss-Markov model, whereas east coast stations generally exhibit lower <span class="hlt">levels</span> of time-correlated <span class="hlt">noise</span> that is better described by a power-law process. These findings suggest several decades of monthly tide gauge data are needed to reduce rate uncertainties to <0.5 mm yr-1 for undifferenced single site time series with typical <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics. Our subsequent adjustment strategy exploits the more precise differential rates estimated from differenced time series from pairs of tide gauges to estimate rates among the network of 43 tide gauges that passed a stability analysis. We estimate relative sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rates over three temporal windows (1900-2011, 1966-2011 and 1993-2011), accounting for covariance between time series. The resultant adjustment reduces the rate uncertainty across individual gauges, and partially mitigates the need for century-scale time series at all sites in the network. Our adjustment reveals a spatially coherent pattern of sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rise around the coastline, with the highest rates in northern Australia. Over the time periods beginning in 1900, 1966 and 1993, we find weighted average rates of sea <span class="hlt">level</span> rise of 1.4 ± 0.6, 1.7 ± 0.6 and 4.6 ± 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571783"><span>Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation <span class="hlt">level</span> on speech perception in <span class="hlt">noise</span> in elderly individuals with hearing loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span> on speech perception in <span class="hlt">noise</span> for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span> presented at the most comfortable <span class="hlt">level</span>. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span> (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in <span class="hlt">noise</span>, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901346"><span>Attention enhances stimulus representations in macaque visual cortex without affecting their signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Treue, Stefan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude of the attentional modulation of neuronal responses in visual cortex varies with stimulus contrast. Whether the strength of these attentional influences is similarly dependent on other stimulus properties is unknown. Here we report the effect of spatial attention on responses in the medial-temporal area (MT) of macaque visual cortex to moving random dots pattern of various motion coherences, i.e. signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios. Our data show that allocating spatial attention causes a gain change in MT neurons. The magnitude of this attentional modulation is independent of the attended stimulus’ motion coherence, creating a multiplicative scaling of the neuron’s coherence-response function. This is consistent with the characteristics of gain models of attentional modulation and suggests that attention strengthens the neuronal representation of behaviorally relevant visual stimuli relative to unattended stimuli, but without affecting their signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios. PMID:27283275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993eaug.rept.....P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993eaug.rept.....P"><span>An experimental assessment of the use of ground-<span class="hlt">level</span> microphones to measure the fly-over <span class="hlt">noise</span> of jet-engined aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Payne, R. C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>During aircraft flight trials to measure the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of six different military jet aircraft types in low altitude high speed operations, <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were performed using microphones at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> and at a height of 1.2 m. The program provided reliable data on the difference between sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> from the two microphone arrangements, for sound incident over a range of angles, from 0 deg (aircraft overhead) to approximately 80 deg. Substantial differences from ground <span class="hlt">level</span> to 1.2 m were observed in measurements of maximum perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and maximum A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>. For sound waves incident to the ground at angles less than approximately 60 deg from vertical, these differences were found to be independent of angle of incidence for all the six aircraft and all flight procedures. Within this range of sound incidence angles the ground plane arrangement produced data that closely approximated pressure doubled values. The conventional 1.2 m high microphone gave rise to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> approximately 4 dB lower. For sound incident at angles greater than 60 deg from vertical, the difference between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured using the two microphone configurations was found to depend on angle of incidence, reducing to zero at approximately 75 deg. When <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements are made using the ground plane arrangement, the effects of meteorological conditions must be considered in relation to sound incident at angles greater than approximately 60 deg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8458743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8458743"><span>The intensitive DL of tones: dependence of signal/masker ratio on tone <span class="hlt">level</span> and on spectrum of added <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenwood, D D</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>In Greenwood [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 484-502 (1961a)] the ratio of masked signal threshold to masker <span class="hlt">level</span> (S/M) decreased about 4 dB at a masker <span class="hlt">level</span> of about 50 dB SL, the 'transition' <span class="hlt">level</span>, when <span class="hlt">noise</span> bands were subcritical but not when supercritical. Schlauch et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, S73 (1982)] report a related result. A pilot study [Greenwood, Harvard Psychoacoustic Lab. Status Report 37, 8-9 (1961)] in which pure tones masked identical tones in-phase showed a larger change in S/M. Detailed tone-tone growth-of-masking curves from over a dozen subjects in 1967-69, and in 1960, are reported here. A transition in slope, of variable abruptness, often begins to occur at about 50 dB SL, dropping S/M ratio by 6 to 8 dB or more [Rabinowitz et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1053 (1976)]; the curves sometimes possess two segments, sometimes are simply convex. All have overall slopes less than 1.0, known also as the 'near miss'. Consistent with other results [Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-396 (1956); Viemeister, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1265-1296 (1972); Moore and Raab, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 1049-1060 (1974)], addition of low-<span class="hlt">level</span> wide-band and high-pass <span class="hlt">noise</span> was found to counteract the change in S/M, i.e., to raise the high-<span class="hlt">level</span> section of the growth-of-masking curve. However, the ability of narrow 'band-pass' <span class="hlt">noise</span> to exert this effect was greatest when added at a frequency ratio (band/masking-tone) of 1.3 to 1.5, which seems more closely to link the effects of added <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the effects of increasing a masking band from sub- to supercritical width (above). Interpretation of the decrease in DL with <span class="hlt">level</span> begins by noting that the 'transition' <span class="hlt">level</span> correlates approximately with the <span class="hlt">level</span> at which a primary unit population excited by a given pure tone begins rapidly to expand basally. Underlying this, the basalward shift of a tone's displacement envelope peak accelerates at about the same <span class="hlt">level</span> [Rhode, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1218-1231 (1971); Sellick et al., J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011639','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011639"><span>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woodward, Richard P.; Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The acoustic capability of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel has been significantly improved by reducing the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured by in-flow microphones. This was accomplished by incorporating streamlined microphone holders having a profile developed by researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center. These new holders were fabricated for fixed mounting on the tunnel wall and for an axially traversing microphone probe which was mounted to the tunnel floor. Measured in-flow <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the tunnel test section were reduced by about 10 dB with the new microphone holders compared with those measured with the older, less refined microphone holders. Wake interference patterns between fixed wall microphones were measured and resulted in preferred placement patterns for these microphones to minimize these effects. Acoustic data from a model turbofan operating in the tunnel test section showed that results for the fixed and translating microphones were equivalent for common azimuthal angles, suggesting that the translating microphone probe, with its significantly greater angular resolution, is preferred for sideline <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. Fixed microphones can provide a local check on the traversing microphone data quality, and record acoustic performance at other azimuthal angles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844473','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844473"><span>The Effect of Exposure to High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> on the Performance and Rate of Error in Manual Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khajenasiri, Farahnaz; Zamanian, Alireza; Zamanian, Zahra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Sound is among the significant environmental factors for people’s health, and it has an important role in both physical and psychological injuries, and it also affects individuals’ performance and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on the performance and rate of error in manual activities. Methods This was an interventional study conducted on 50 students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (25 males and 25 females) in which each person was considered as its own control to assess the effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on her or his performance at the sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 70, 90, and 110 dB by using two factors of physical features and the creation of different conditions of sound source as well as applying the Two-Arm coordination Test. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Repeated measurements were used to compare the length of performance as well as the errors measured in the test. Results Based on the results, we found a direct and significant association between the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of sound and the length of performance. Moreover, the participant’s performance was significantly different for different sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> (at 110 dB as opposed to 70 and 90 dB, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion This study found that a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> of 110 dB had an important effect on the individuals’ performances, i.e., the performances were decreased. PMID:27123216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908745"><span>[Are intensive care units (ICU) loud? Discrepancies between the perception of professionals and patients and the measurement of real <span class="hlt">noise</span> with sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escuté, Mercé Revuelta; Martínez, Javier Rodríguez</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>In the hospital the WHO advises placing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> between 30 and 45 dB, either rooms or halls, which would be equivalent to the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> allowed in a library. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in units both have harmful effects on health and the evolution of the patient, and also on the workers, making it an occupational hazard. The combination of these factors affects both in the patient safety, and in the quality of our care. The aim of this project is to detect the sources of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in an ICU, in order to establish a plan of prevention and reduction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and trying to get the Guideline Value recommended by WHO. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> pollution is a major health problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S11A0190S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S11A0190S"><span>Data Recovery from Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific and Ambient Seismic <span class="hlt">NoiseLevel</span> Changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinohara, M.; Araki, E.; Kanazawa, T.; Suyehiro, K.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin, and the WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. The seismic network with 1000-km interval in the western Pacific has been completed by the construction of these stations. Each observatory had two identical broadband seismometers (Guralp, CMG-1T), which were cemented in a igneous rock section. The WP-1 has a water depth of 5710m and all the necessary power was supplied from the Lithium Battery System. For the WP-2 observatory, a water depth is 5566m and the Sea Water Battery (SWB) System mainly supplied the power to the system. We operated only one seismometer for both the observatories to reduce the consuming power of the system. The WP-1 observatory was activated in March 2002 using the ROV KAIKO and long-term observation was started. In June 2006, the new ROV KAIKO-7000II dived to the WP-1 (fourth visit) and recovered the data. At this visit, data recording was discontinued. At present, seismic records of 692-days (Mar. 2002 - Feb, 2004) have been obtained from the WP-1. The WP-2 observatory was activated in October 2000 using the KAIKO. In June 2005, the KAIKO-7000II made fourth visit to the WP-2 and recovered the data. Recording at the WP-2 has been suspended from the fourth ROV visit. In total, 436-days data (Oct. 2000 - Jan. 2001, Aug. 2001 - July 2002) were retrieved. In addition, it was confirmed that the SWB system continued working for the whole observation period by the system monitoring data. The long-term variations of broadband seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz) in oceanic basins were revealed. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (-160 db, re: 1 m**2/s**4/Hz) at periods of greater than 10 s are stable. On the other hand, temporal small variations (maximum fluctuation is 10 dB) of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (-120 db) for periods around a few seconds are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> relative or relatively <span class="hlt">absolute</span>: violations of value invariance in human decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Making decisions based on relative rather than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the other emerges from accumulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.155....1E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.155....1E"><span>Reduction of air pollution <span class="hlt">levels</span> downwind of a road with an upwind <span class="hlt">noise</span> barrier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enayati Ahangar, Faraz; Heist, David; Perry, Steven; Venkatram, Akula</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We propose a dispersion model to estimate the impact of a solid <span class="hlt">noise</span> barrier upwind of a highway on air pollution concentrations downwind of the road. The model, based on data from wind tunnel experiments conducted by Heist et al. (2009), assumes that the upwind barrier has two main effects: 1) it creates a recirculation zone behind the barrier that sweeps the emissions from the highway back towards the wall, and 2) it enhances vertical dispersion and initial mixing. By combining the upwind barrier model with the mixed wake model for a downwind barrier described in Schulte et al. (2014), we are able to model dispersion of emissions from a highway with <span class="hlt">noise</span> barriers on both sides. The model provides a good description of measurements made in the wind tunnel. The presence of an upwind barrier causes reductions in concentrations relative to those measured downwind of a road with no barriers. The reduction can be as large as that caused by a downwind barrier if the recirculation zone covers the width of the highway. Barriers on both sides of the highway result in larger reductions downwind of the barriers than those caused by a single barrier either upwind or downwind. As expected, barrier effects are small beyond 10 barrier heights downwind of the highway. We also propose a tentative model to estimate on-road concentrations within the recirculation zone induced by the upwind barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750038290&hterms=noise+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750038290&hterms=noise+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Bpollution"><span>Judgments of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> with the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> were evaluated. For one technique, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was changed with each aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> during a session. Subjective response to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> was found to decrease with increasing background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, for a range of typical indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution <span class="hlt">Level</span> (NPL) measurement scale.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..563R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..563R"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, G.</p> <p></p> <p>A new inverse approach for restoring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112603"><span>Grey <span class="hlt">level</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> evaluation of a Foveon X3 image sensor: a statistical and experimental approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riutort-Mayol, Gabriel; Marqués-Mateu, Angel; Seguí, Ana Elena; Lerma, José Luis</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Radiometric values on digital imagery are affected by several sources of uncertainty. A practical, comprehensive and flexible procedure to analyze the radiometric values and the uncertainty effects due to the camera sensor system is described in this paper. The procedure is performed on the grey <span class="hlt">level</span> output signal using image raw units with digital numbers ranging from 0 to 2(12)-1. The procedure is entirely based on statistical and experimental techniques. Design of Experiments (DoE) for Linear Models (LM) are derived to analyze the radiometric values and estimate the uncertainty. The presented linear model integrates all the individual sensor <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources in one global component and characterizes the radiometric values and the uncertainty effects according to the influential factors such as the scene reflectance, wavelength range and time. The experiments are carried out under laboratory conditions to minimize the rest of uncertainty sources that might affect the radiometric values. It is confirmed the flexibility of the procedure to model and characterize the radiometric values, as well as to determine the behaviour of two phenomena when dealing with image sensors: the <span class="hlt">noise</span> of a single image and the stability (trend and <span class="hlt">noise</span>) of a sequence of images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.436..928R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.436..928R"><span>Brownian motion: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> negative particle mobility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`<span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552421','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552421"><span>Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative <span class="hlt">noise</span>), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05). Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53–1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user’s error cost over a range of <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks. PMID:26313560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAG....67...66A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAG....67...66A"><span>A seismic field test with a Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> Acoustic Combustion Source and Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Askeland, Bjørn; Ruud, Bent Ole; Hobæk, Halvor; Mjelde, Rolf</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> Acoustic Combustion Source (LACS) which can fire its pulses at a high rate, has been tested successfully as a seismic marine source on shallow ice-age sediments in Byfjorden at Bergen, Norway. Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> pulsed signals with spiky autocorrelation functions were used to detect the sediments. Each transmitted sequence lasted 10 s and contained 43 pulses. While correlation gave a blurry result, deconvolution between the near-field recordings and the streamer recordings gave a clear seismic section. Compared to the section acquired with single air-gun shots along the same profile, the LACS gave a more clear presentation of the sediments and basement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020289&hterms=materials+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Binsulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020289&hterms=materials+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Binsulation"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and vibration <span class="hlt">level</span> reduction by covering metal structures with layers of damping materials. [considering viscoelastic insulation layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rugina, I.; Paven, H. T. O.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>One of the most important methods of reducing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration <span class="hlt">level</span> is the damping of the secondary sources, such as metal plates, often used in vehicle structures, by means of covering materials with high internal viscosity. Damping layers are chosen at an optimum thickness corresponding to the frequency and temperature range in which a certain structure works. The structure's response corresponding to various real situations is analyzed by means of a measuring chain including electroacoustical or electromechanical transducers. The experimental results provide the dependence of the loss factor and damping transmission coefficient as a function of the damping layer thickness or of the frequency for various viscoelastic covering materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305691"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative blindsight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.237..347C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.237..347C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028724&hterms=Propellers+aircraft&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPropellers%2Baircraft','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028724&hterms=Propellers+aircraft&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPropellers%2Baircraft"><span>Effects of acoustic treatment on the interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a twin-engine propeller aircraft - Experimental flight results and theoretical predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In-flight <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> (PAIN) mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3629681','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3629681"><span>Hearing Threshold, Loss, <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Worker’s Profiles of an Open Cast Chromite Mines in Odisha, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kerketta, Sunamani; Gartia, Rajendra; Bagh, Somanath</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: The aims of the study were to describe the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at an open cast chromite mine in Odisha, India, and the hearing threshold of its workers and to associate their hearing loss with their age, work station and length of employment at the mine. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the hearing threshold of chromite mine workers. Audiometric data from 500 subjects was collected at the mines’ hospital in the Sukinda Valley of Jajpur, Odisha, India. The latest audiometry data available for the period 2002 to 2008 was used in the analysis. Audiometric screening was performed using an audiometer (TRIVENI TAM-25 6025A) in a quiet environment by qualified technicians, audiologists or physicians. Tests were conducted on the subjects after they had completely rested for 16 hours or more after their day shift. Results: A maximum of 262 subjects (52.4%) were employed in the work zone area and a minimum of 2 subjects (0.4%) had less than 5 years working experience. The age of the subjects ranged from 29 to 59 years and their working experience ranged from 4 to 37 years. The subjects’ average mean hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz were 21.53 dBA, 23.40 dBA and 21.90 dBA, respectively. The maximum Leq and L90 <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the prescribed limits for commercial, residential and silence zones. The maximum Leq <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded 95 dBA for large and medium heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), both outside and at the operator’s position. Hearing loss due to the subjects’ work experience was found to be greater than that attributable to age and workstation. Conclusion: In our study population, the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for large and medium HEMMs and inside the cabins of HEMMs were found to be more than 95 dBA. This indicates that operators in this particular chromite mine at Odisha, India were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeding 95 dBA for more than 10% of the monitoring time. The subjects’ hearing loss was also found to increase for every 10-year</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730006379&hterms=blast&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dblast','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730006379&hterms=blast&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dblast"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and blast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> data. The effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low <span class="hlt">level</span> sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566106"><span>Low number of luminance <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span> increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souza, Givago S; Malone, Felecia L; Crawford, Teera L; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C; Guimarães, Diego L; Ventura, Dora F; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span> forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance <span class="hlt">levels</span> present in the luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274881','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274881"><span>Low number of luminance <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span> increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Souza, Givago S.; Malone, Felecia L.; Crawford, Teera L.; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C.; Guimarães, Diego L.; Ventura, Dora F.; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span> forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance <span class="hlt">levels</span> present in the luminance <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories. PMID:25566106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951361"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je</p> <p>2012-09-21</p> <p> imaging slice and the reconstructed regional projected current density, we propose a direct non-iterative algorithm to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conductivity in the ROI. The numerical simulations in the presence of various degrees of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, as well as a phantom MRI imaging experiment showed that the proposed method reconstructs the regional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conductivity in a ROI within a subject including the defective regions. In the simulation experiment, the relative L₂-mode errors of the reconstructed regional and global conductivities were 0.79 and 0.43, respectively, using a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 50 db in the defective region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1334289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1334289"><span>Development of a laser Doppler displacement encoder system with ultra-low-<span class="hlt">noise-level</span> for linear displacement measurement with subnanometer resolution - Final CRADA Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shu, Deming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>An U.S. DOE Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ANL and Optodyne, Inc. has been established to develop a prototype laser Doppler displacement encoder system with ultra-low <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for linear measurements to sub-nanometer resolution for synchrotron radiation applications. We have improved the heterodyne efficiency and reduced the detector shot <span class="hlt">noises</span> by proper shielding and adding a low-pass filter. The laser Doppler displacement encoder system prototype demonstrated a ~ 1 nm system output <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor with single reflection optics. With multiple-pass optical arrangement, 0.1 nm scale closed-loop feedback control is achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720005339','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720005339"><span>An evaluation of methods for scaling aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ollerhead, J. B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston engined aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a paired comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> rating procedures in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. It was found that the complex procedures developed by Stevens, Zwicker and Kryter are superior to other scales. The main advantage of these methods over the more convenient weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> scales lies in their ability to cope with signals over a wide range of bandwidth. However, Stevens' loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> scale and the perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> scale both overestimate the growth of perceived <span class="hlt">level</span> with intensity because of an apparent deficiency in the band <span class="hlt">level</span> summation rule. A simple correction is proposed which will enable these scales to properly account for the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710422T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710422T"><span>Contribution of seasonal presence of cetaceans, earthquakes, drifting icebergs and anthropogenic activity to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the Southern Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Assessing the ambient sound <span class="hlt">level</span> in the oceans is essential for a better understanding of the interactions between the ecosystem and anthropogenic activities. Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> studies conducted in the North Pacific and Atlantic oceans, have shown that since the 60's oceanic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> increases with the ship traffic, even if potential impacts of shipping <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the ecosystem is not yet fully understood. However long-term acoustic records for the Indian Ocean are still limited. Here we present long-term statistics on the ambient sound in the Southern Indian Ocean basin based on 2 years of data collected at 5 widely distributed autonomous hydrophones. The data consist of single hydrophone spectra (10-100 Hz in 1-Hz bins) averaged using Welch's method over 200 s. Spectral probability distributions of the ambient sound <span class="hlt">level</span> are analyzed in order to identify the main sound sources and their geographical and time variability. The mean sound <span class="hlt">level</span> within the array is 10 to 20 dB lower than in other oceans, revealing a weaker influence of shipping on the Southern Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">noise</span> budget. Seismic events are evenly distributed in time and space and mostly contribute to the general low-frequency background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Periodic signals are mainly associated with the seasonal presence of 3 types of blue whales and fin whales whose signatures are easily identified at target frequencies. Winter lows and summer highs of the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are also well correlated with ice volume variations. Icebergs are found to be a major sound source, strongly contributing to seasonal variations even at northernmost sites of the array. Although anthropogenic factors do not seem to dominate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum, shipping sounds are present north and east of the array. Observed higher sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> are consistent with the proximity of major traffic lanes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930046790&hterms=Fisica&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFisica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930046790&hterms=Fisica&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFisica"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea <span class="hlt">level</span> is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea <span class="hlt">level</span>. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173481"><span>A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-<span class="hlt">level</span>, complex low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Yukio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-<span class="hlt">level</span>, complex low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL) tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL) tone] and five complex <span class="hlt">noises</span> composed of the pure tones. For the complex <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimuli, the sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL) and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL). Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration <span class="hlt">level</span> (VAL) of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen), the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-<span class="hlt">level</span> low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> were different from those in the trunk of the body.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2489754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2489754"><span>[Analysing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in dental environment. Air turbine sound response to various physical factors].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oka, S</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>Dental Air Turbine sound depends on the mechanical performance such as rotation and it is impossible to neglect connections of the sound with fluid mechanics and acoustics. Turbine sound must be considered from the standpoint of the sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> and frequency component. In this study, the sound samples was measured and analysed in octave band spectrum. Turbine sound has three resonance bands of the frequency with the range from 0 to 1,600 Hz and the resonance band increased as air pressure increased. The frequency of the second resonance band decreased as the cutting load and cutting point diameter increased. Damping of the second resonance band frequency shifted downward by polishing point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800003619','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800003619"><span>A method for predicting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of coannular jets with inverted velocity profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, J. W.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A coannular jet was equated with a single stream equivalent jet with the same mass flow, energy, and thrust. The acoustic characteristics of the coannular jet were then related to the acoustic characteristics of the single jet. Forward flight effects were included by incorporating a forward exponent, a Doppler amplification factor, and a Strouhal frequency shift. Model test data, including 48 static cases and 22 wind tunnel cases, were used to evaluate the prediction method. For the static cases and the low forward velocity wind tunnel cases, the spectral mean square pressure correlation coefficients were generally greater than 90 percent, and the spectral sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> standard deviation were generally less than 3 decibels. The correlation coefficient and the standard deviation were not affected by changes in equivalent jet velocity. Limitations of the prediction method are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JSV...116..445E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JSV...116..445E"><span>The influence of continuous and intermittent traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>The effects of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. For one <span class="hlt">noise</span> condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent <span class="hlt">noise</span> of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> peaks from the background, rather than the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> peak <span class="hlt">level</span>. Continuous traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520976"><span>A three-axis SQUID-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We report on the development of a three-axis <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482572"><span>A three-axis SQUID-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We report on the development of a three-axis <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JSV...133..117O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JSV...133..117O"><span>Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms—A pilot survey among persons exposed to high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Öhrström, E.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by 63 persons during three consecutive days. It was found that both sleep quality and mood (social orientation, activity, wellbeing and extroversion) were depressed in the noisy area as compared with a control area. Symptoms of tiredness, headache and nervous stomach disorders were more frequent. A significant relationship between sensitivity to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and sleep quality was also found. From this pilot study hypotheses may be formulated about a relationship between environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> and different psycho-social and medical symptoms. It is suggested that similar studies on a larger scale are performed to elucidate long-term effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> airborne gravimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumann, Henri</p> <p></p> <p>This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimetry is feasible and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18773929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18773929"><span>Effects of nocturnal railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Due to undisputable effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound <span class="hlt">level</span> and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound <span class="hlt">level</span>. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway <span class="hlt">noise</span>, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to <span class="hlt">noise</span> during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental <span class="hlt">noises</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003186','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003186"><span>Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) Slat <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Yueping; Brunsniak, Leon; Czech, Michael; Thomas, Russell H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an analysis of the slat <span class="hlt">noise</span> for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft, based on a database from a 3% scale wind tunnel test. It is shown that the HWB slats are one of the dominant <span class="hlt">noise</span> components, characterized by its broad spectral shape with a peak frequency that depends on both the mean flow velocity and the aircraft angle of attack, the former following the conventional Strouhal number scaling and the latter explainable by the dependence of the coherence length of the slat unsteady flows on the aircraft angle of attack. While the overall <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the slat <span class="hlt">noise</span> are shown to approximately follow the fifth power law in the flow Mach number, the effects of the Mach number manifest themselves in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra in both the amplitude and the spectral shape. The slat <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitude is shown to also depend on the angle of attack, assuming a minimum in the range of 3 to 5 degrees and increasing when the angle of attack moves away from this range. These features are all modeled and incorporated in slat <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction methodologies, extending the prediction capability from conventional aircraft designs to HWB configurations. Comparisons between predictions and data show very good agreements both in various parametric trends and in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The HWB aircraft is designed to operate at angles of attack much higher than those of conventional aircraft. This is shown to significantly increase the HWB slat <span class="hlt">noise</span>. To further illustrate, the test data are extrapolated to full scale and compared with the slat <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the Boeing 777 aircraft, showing that the former is higher the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-<span class="hlt">level</span> optimization, it is important to simulate correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28d5005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28d5005M"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> multilateration between spheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4574699','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4574699"><span>Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at different time intervals among workers exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the <span class="hlt">level</span> of significance. Results: For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30–8:00 A.M. and 13:30–14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work. PMID:26388979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2336V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2336V"><span>Dragline <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Bauer, Eric R.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>It is estimated that 70%-90% of miners have enough <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (NIHL) to be classified as a disability (NIOSH, Publication No. 76-172, 1976; Franks, NIOSH Internal Report, 1996). In response, NIOSH is conducting a cross-sectional survey of the mining industry in order to determine the sources of mining <span class="hlt">noise</span> and offer recommendations on how to mitigate high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and bring mining operations into compliance with the recent mining <span class="hlt">noise</span> regulation: 30CFR, Part 62. This paper will outline the results from <span class="hlt">noise</span> surveys of eight draglines which operate in above-ground coal mining operations. The data recorded include <span class="hlt">noise</span> dosimetry in conjunction with time-at-task studies and 1/3-octave sound <span class="hlt">level</span> (Leq, Lmin, and Lmax) measurements. The 1/3-octave band readings were used to create <span class="hlt">noise</span> contour maps which allowed the spatial and frequency information of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> to be considered. Comparison of Lmin and Lmax <span class="hlt">levels</span> offer insight into the variability of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside the dragline. The potential for administrative controls is limited due to consistently high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> throughout the deck. Implementation of engineering controls is also hindered by the size and number of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and the frequency content of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870004687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870004687"><span>Effects of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on total <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willshire, K. F.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for three community <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each <span class="hlt">noise</span> source presented at four different <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for the traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, with aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> defined as the major <span class="hlt">noise</span> source and traffic and air conditioner <span class="hlt">noise</span> as background <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. Effects on annoyance of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> differences between aircraft and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> for three total <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and for both background <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...61B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...61B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiation Thermometry in the NIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746943"><span>The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in patients with sensorineural hearing loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018006','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018006"><span>Contribution of tonal components to the overall loudness, annoyance and noisiness of <span class="hlt">noise</span>: Relation between single tones and <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectral shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hellman, R. P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A large scale laboratory investigation of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness produced by single-tone-<span class="hlt">noise</span> complexes was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quanitification and prediction of perceived annoyance of sounds containing tonal components. Loudness, annoyance, and noisiness were distinguished as separate, distinct, attributes of sound. Three different spectral patterns of broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span> with and without added tones were studied: broadband-flat, low-pass, and high-pass. Judgments were obtained by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude estimation supplement by loudness matching. The data were examined and evaluated to determine the potential effects of (1) the overall sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL) of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-tone complex, (2) tone SPL, (3) <span class="hlt">noise</span> SPL, (4) tone-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio, (5) the frequency of the added tone, (6) <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectral shape, and (7) subjective attribute judged on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude of annoyance. Results showed that, in contrast to noisiness, loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The close correspondence between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The close correspondence between loundness and annoyance suggests that, to better understand perceived annoyance of sound mixtures, it is necessary to relate the results to basic auditory mechanisms governing loudness and masking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......268M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......268M"><span>Assessment and evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> controls on roof bolting equipment and a method for predicting sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> in underground coal mining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matetic, Rudy J.</p> <p></p> <p>Over-exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> remains a widespread and serious health hazard in the U.S. mining industries despite 25 years of regulation. Every day, 80% of the nation's miners go to work in an environment where the time weighted average (TWA) <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> exceeds 85 dBA and more than 25% of the miners are exposed to a TWA <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> that exceeds 90 dBA, the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Additionally, MSHA coal <span class="hlt">noise</span> sample data collected from 2000 to 2002 show that 65% of the equipment whose operators exceeded 100% <span class="hlt">noise</span> dosage comprise only seven different types of machines; auger miners, bulldozers, continuous miners, front end loaders, roof bolters, shuttle cars (electric), and trucks. In addition, the MSHA data indicate that the roof bolter is third among all the equipment and second among equipment in underground coal whose operators exceed 100% dosage. A research program was implemented to: (1) determine, characterize and to measure sound power <span class="hlt">levels</span> radiated by a roof bolting machine during differing drilling configurations (thrust, rotational speed, penetration rate, etc.) and utilizing differing types of drilling methods in high compressive strength rock media (>20,000 psi). The research approach characterized the sound power <span class="hlt">level</span> results from laboratory testing and provided the mining industry with empirical data relative to utilizing differing <span class="hlt">noise</span> control technologies (drilling configurations and types of drilling methods) in reducing sound power <span class="hlt">level</span> emissions on a roof bolting machine; (2) distinguish and correlate the empirical data into one, statistically valid, equation, in which, provided the mining industry with a tool to predict overall sound power <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a roof bolting machine given any type of drilling configuration and drilling method utilized in industry; (3) provided the mining industry with several approaches to predict or determine sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> in an underground coal mine utilizing laboratory test results from a roof bolting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1FL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1FL"><span>Estimation of signal and <span class="hlt">noise</span> for a whole-body photon counting research CT system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhoubo; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Zhicong; Kappler, Steffen; McCollough, Cynthia H.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Photon-counting CT (PCCT) may yield potential value for many clinical applications due to its relative immunity to electronic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, increased geometric efficiency relative to current scintillating detectors, and the ability to resolve energy information about the detected photons. However, there are a large number of parameters that require optimization, particularly the energy thresholds configuration. Fast and accurate estimation of signal and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in PCCT can benefit the optimization of acquisition parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. Based on the acquisition parameters and detector response of our research PCCT system, we derived mathematical models for both signal and <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The signal model took the tube spectrum, beam filtration, object attenuation, water beam hardening, and detector response into account. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> model considered the relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> and radiation dose, as well as the propagation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> as threshold data are subtracted to yield energy bin data. To determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> value, a <span class="hlt">noise</span> look-up table (LUT) was acquired using a limited number of calibration scans. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation algorithm then used the <span class="hlt">noise</span> LUT to estimate <span class="hlt">noise</span> for scans with a variety of combination of energy thresholds, dose <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and object attenuation. Validation of the estimation algorithms was performed on our whole-body research PCCT system using semianthropomorphic water phantoms and solutions of calcium and iodine. The algorithms achieved accurate estimation of signal and <span class="hlt">noise</span> for a variety of scanning parameter combinations. The proposed method can be used to optimize energy thresholds configuration for many clinical applications of PCCT.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238744"><span>Completion of <span class="hlt">Level</span> 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Britton Jr, Charles L.</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 <span class="hlt">level</span> 4 milestone for the project entitled “Johnson <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements” and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860015745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860015745"><span>Helicopter rotor <span class="hlt">noise</span> due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor <span class="hlt">noise</span> due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Compared to trailing edge <span class="hlt">noise</span>, turbulence ingestion <span class="hlt">noise</span> is the dominant <span class="hlt">noise</span> mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceed turbulence ingestion <span class="hlt">noise</span> by 25 dB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811791R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811791R"><span>Sea <span class="hlt">level</span> estimate from multi-frequency signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio data collected by a single geodetic receiver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roussel, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric; Ramillien, Guillaume; Darrozes, José; Cornu, Gwendolyne; Koummarasy, Khanithalath</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) altimetry has demonstrated a strong potential for sea <span class="hlt">level</span> monitoring. Interference Pattern Technique (IPT) based on the analysis of the Signal-to-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Ratio (SNR) estimated by a GNSS receiver, presents the main advantage of being applicable everywhere by using a single geodetic antenna and receiver, transforming them to real tide gauges. Such a technique has already been tested in various configurations of acquisition of surface-reflected GNSS signals with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Nevertheless, the classical SNR analysis method for estimating the reflecting surface-antenna height is limited by an approximation: the vertical velocity of the reflecting surface must be negligible. Authors present a significant improvement of the SNR technique to solve this problem and broaden the scope of SNR-based tide monitoring. The performances achieved on the different GNSS frequency band (L1, L2 and L5) are analyzed. The method is based on a Least-Mean Square Resolution Method (LSM), combining simultaneous measurements from different GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS), which permits to take the dynamic of the surface into account. It was validated in situ [1], with an antenna placed at 60 meters above the Atlantic Ocean surface with variations reaching ±3 meters, and amplitude rate of the semi-diurnal tide up to 0.5 mm/s. Over the three months of SNR records on L1 frequency band for sea <span class="hlt">level</span> determination, we found linear correlations of 0.94 by comparing with a classical tide gauge record. Our SNR-based time series was also compared to a tide theoretical model and amplitudes and phases of the main astronomical periods (6-, 12- and 24-h) were perfectly well detected. Waves and swell are also likely to be detected. If the validity of our method is already well-established with L1 band [1], the aim of our current study is to analyze the results obtained with the other GNSS frequency band: L2 and L5. L1 band seems to provide the best sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119488"><span>Habitat-related birdsong divergence: a multi-<span class="hlt">level</span> study on the influence of territory density and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> in European blackbirds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Kok, Jet S; van Rijssel, Jacco C; Slabbekoorn, Hans</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Song plays an important role in avian communication and acoustic variation is important at both the individual and population <span class="hlt">level</span>. Habitat-related variation between populations in particular can reflect adaptations to the environment accumulated over generations, but this may not always be the case. In this study, we test whether variation between individuals matches local conditions with respect to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and territory density to examine whether short-term flexibility could contribute to song divergence at the population <span class="hlt">level</span>. We conducted a case study on an urban and forest population of the European blackbird and show divergence at the population <span class="hlt">level</span> (i.e. across habitats) in blackbird song, anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and territory density. Unlike in several other species, we found a lack of any correlation at the individual <span class="hlt">level</span> (i.e. across individuals) between song features and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This suggests species-specific causal explanations for <span class="hlt">noise</span>-dependent song differentiation which are likely associated with variation in song-copying behaviour or feedback constraints related to variable singing styles. On the other hand, we found that at the <span class="hlt">level</span> of individual territories, temporal features, but not spectral ones, are correlated to territory density and seasonality. This suggests that short-term individual variation can indeed contribute to habitat-dependent divergence at the population <span class="hlt">level</span>. As this may undermine the potential role for song as a population marker, we conclude that more investigations on individual song flexibility are required for a better understanding of the impact of population-<span class="hlt">level</span> song divergence on hybridisation and speciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity acceleration in Firenze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> condition at the site. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2386761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2386761"><span>Constrained Least <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation Neural Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In our previous works, we have proposed the least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21556903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21556903"><span>Effect of training data size and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial <span class="hlt">level</span> of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> training data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCAMD..25..455K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCAMD..25..455K"><span>Effect of training data size and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial <span class="hlt">level</span> of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> training data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875366"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Site Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L</p> <p>2004-07-15</p> <p>The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740013195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740013195"><span>Effects of a traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> background on judgements of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted in which subjects judged aircraft <span class="hlt">noises</span> in the presence of road traffic background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Two different techniques for presenting the background <span class="hlt">noises</span> were evaluated. For one technique, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was continuous over the whole of a test session. For the other, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was changed with each aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span>. A range of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were presented to simulate typical indoor <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810021384','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810021384"><span>Comparison of predicted engine core <span class="hlt">noise</span> with current and proposed aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> certification requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Predicted engine core <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are compared with measured total aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and with current and proposed federal <span class="hlt">noise</span> certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core <span class="hlt">noise</span> provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> will limit further reductions in aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for current widebody commercial aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9421756D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9421756D"><span>The relative <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of parallel axis gear sets with various contact ratios and gear tooth forms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Spencer, Robert H.; Valco, Mark; Oswald, Fred B.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The real <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction benefits which may be obtained through the use of one gear tooth form as compared to another is an important design parameter for any geared system, especially for helicopters in which both weight and reliability are very important factors. This paper describes the design and testing of nine sets of gears which are as identical as possible except for their basic tooth geometry. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements were made at various combinations of load and speed for each gear set so that direct comparisons could be made. The resultant data was analyzed so that valid conclusions could be drawn and interpreted for design use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017283','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017283"><span>The relative <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of parallel axis gear sets with various contact ratios and gear tooth forms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Spencer, Robert H.; Valco, Mark; Oswald, Fred B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The real <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction benefits which may be obtained through the use of one gear tooth form as compared to another is an important design parameter for any geared system, especially for helicopters in which both weight and reliability are very important factors. This paper describes the design and testing of nine sets of gears which are as identical as possible except for their basic tooth geometry. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements were made at various combinations of load and speed for each gear set so that direct comparisons could be made. The resultant data was analyzed so that valid conclusions could be drawn and interpreted for design use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021593"><span>Rotorcraft <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huston, R. J. (Compiler)</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-<span class="hlt">noise</span> methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103088"><span>The discomfort produced by <span class="hlt">noise</span> and whole-body vertical vibration presented separately and in combination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the prediction of the discomfort caused by simultaneous <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration from the discomfort caused by <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the discomfort caused by vibration when they are presented separately. A total of 24 subjects used <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude estimation to report their discomfort caused by seven <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> (70-88 dBA SEL), 7 magnitudes of vibration (0.146-2.318 ms(- 1.75)) and all 49 possible combinations of these <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration stimuli. Vibration did not significantly influence judgements of <span class="hlt">noise</span> discomfort, but <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduced vibration discomfort by an amount that increased with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, consistent with a 'masking effect' of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on judgements of vibration discomfort. A multiple linear regression model or a root-sums-of-squares model predicted the discomfort caused by combined <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration, but the root-sums-of-squares model is more convenient and provided a more accurate prediction of the discomfort produced by combined <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868200','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868200"><span>Optical Johnson <span class="hlt">noise</span> thermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Shepard, Robert L.; Blalock, Theron V.; Roberts, Michael J.; Maxey, Lonnie C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Method and device for direct, non-contact temperature measure of a body. A laser beam is reflected from the surface of the body and detected along with the Planck radiation. The detected signal is analyzed using signal correlation technique to generate an output signal proportional to the Johnson <span class="hlt">noise</span> introduced into the reflected laser beam as a direct measure of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature of the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.744a2189L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.744a2189L"><span>Active <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Control for Dishwasher <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher <span class="hlt">noise</span>, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active <span class="hlt">noise</span> control for dishwasher <span class="hlt">noise</span>. It is observed that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-<span class="hlt">noise</span> are designed for active <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. Simulation result shows proposed active <span class="hlt">noise</span> control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1504863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1504863"><span>[Cardiovascular effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vacheron, A</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The circulatory response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> is dominated by a peripheral blood vessels vasoconstriction, of greater magnitude when asleep than awake. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> of lower frequency seems more able to produce this response. With repetition of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, adaptation and tolerance to it quickly appears. Meanwhile prolonged high <span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposition induces an increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension among industrial workers. This increase is also clearly found in residential communities living near airports. Long-term exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a dangerous nuisance, that can lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure and favour coronary artery disease development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cacn.agarQ....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cacn.agarQ....S"><span>Combat aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>A discussion of the characteristics and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-<span class="hlt">noise</span> procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against <span class="hlt">noise</span> will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.9107C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.9107C"><span>Automated measurement of CT <span class="hlt">noise</span> in patient images with a novel structure coherence feature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chun, Minsoo; Choi, Young Hun; Hyo Kim, Jong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>While the assessment of CT <span class="hlt">noise</span> constitutes an important task for the optimization of scan protocols in clinical routine, the majority of <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements in practice still rely on manual operation, hence limiting their efficiency and reliability. This study presents an algorithm for the automated measurement of CT <span class="hlt">noise</span> in patient images with a novel structure coherence feature. The proposed algorithm consists of a four-step procedure including subcutaneous fat tissue selection, the calculation of structure coherence feature, the determination of homogeneous ROIs, and the estimation of the average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. In an evaluation with 94 CT scans (16 517 images) of pediatric and adult patients along with the participation of two radiologists, ROIs were placed on a homogeneous fat region at 99.46% accuracy, and the agreement of the automated <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements with the radiologists’ reference <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements (PCC  =  0.86) was substantially higher than the within and between-rater agreements of <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements (PCCwithin  =  0.75, PCCbetween  =  0.70). In addition, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements matched closely the theoretical <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by a reduced-dose simulation technique. Our proposed algorithm has the potential to be used for examining the appropriateness of radiation dose and the image quality of CT protocols for research purposes as well as clinical routine.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26831958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26831958"><span>Ultra-compact Watt-<span class="hlt">level</span> flat supercontinuum source pumped by <span class="hlt">noise</span>-like pulse from an all-fiber oscillator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, He; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>We demonstrate Watt-<span class="hlt">level</span> flat visible supercontinuum (SC) generation in photonic crystal fibers, which is directly pumped by broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span>-like pulses from an Yb-doped all-fiber oscillator. The novel SC generator is featured with elegant all-fiber-integrated architecture, high spectral flatness and high efficiency. Wide optical spectrum spanning from 500 nm to 2300 nm with 1.02 W optical power is obtained under the pump of 1.4 W <span class="hlt">noise</span>-like pulse. The flatness of the spectrum in the range of 700 nm~1600 nm is less than 5 dB (including the pump residue). The exceptional simplicity, economical efficiency and the comparable performances make the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-like pulse oscillator a competitive candidate to the widely used cascade amplified coherent pulse as the pump source of broadband SC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of SC generation which is directly pumped by an all-fiber <span class="hlt">noise</span>-like pulse oscillator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819806','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819806"><span>Managing Electrochemical <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Data by Exception Application of an On Line EN Data Analysis Technique to Data From a High <span class="hlt">Level</span> Nuclear Waste Tank</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>EDGEMON, G.L.</p> <p>2003-11-13</p> <p>Electrochemical <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been used a t the Hanford Site for a number of years to monitor in real time for pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms in high <span class="hlt">level</span> nuclear waste tanks. Currently the monitoring technique has only been implemented on three of the 177 underground storage tanks on the site. Widespread implementation of the technique has been held back for of a number of reasons, including issues around managing the large volume of data associated with electrochemical <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the complexity of data analysis. Expert review of raw current and potential measurements is the primary form of data analysis currently used at the Hanford site. This paper demonstrates the application of an on-line data filtering and analysis technique that could allow data from field applications of electrochemical <span class="hlt">noise</span> to be managed by exception, transforming electrochemical <span class="hlt">noise</span> data into a process parameter and focusing data analysis efforts on the important data. Results of the analysis demonstrate a data compression rate of 95%; that is, only 5% of the data would require expert analysis if such a technique were implemented. It is also demonstrated that this technique is capable of identifying key periods where localized corrosion activity is apparent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020442','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020442"><span>Disturbance caused by aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Josse, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents <span class="hlt">noise</span> tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft <span class="hlt">noises</span> are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound <span class="hlt">level</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082327.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082327.pdf"><span>The Effect of Three <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> on Task Attention and Performance in Reading and Math with Fifth and Sixth Grade Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meyer, Jo Ann; Wurster, Stanley R.</p> <p></p> <p>For this study, a 5th and 6th grade team taught classroom of 66 children was chosen. Three equivalent groups of 22 children each were matched on the basis of a pretest in math. Each group was given a different <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> treatment: quiet (45-55 decibels), average (55-70 decibels), and noisy (75-90 decibels). A tape recording of actual classroom…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194274"><span>The impact of an urban park on air pollution and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 <span class="hlt">levels</span>. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> by ∼5 dB(A).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343046','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343046"><span>A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band <span class="hlt">Noise</span> and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation <span class="hlt">Level</span> Theory of Tinnitus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> matches, minimum masking <span class="hlt">levels</span>, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span> resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking <span class="hlt">levels</span> following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation <span class="hlt">level</span> theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span> shifts internal adaptation <span class="hlt">level</span> weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=GROUP+PRESSURE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGROUP%2BPRESSURE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=GROUP+PRESSURE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGROUP%2BPRESSURE"><span>Cryogenic, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, High Pressure Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensing configuration. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880044398&hterms=metcalf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmetcalf','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880044398&hterms=metcalf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmetcalf"><span>Structureborne <span class="hlt">noise</span> in aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The amount of <span class="hlt">noise</span> reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of other <span class="hlt">noises</span> are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating <span class="hlt">levels</span> on the wing and interior <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The magnitude of the structureborne <span class="hlt">noise</span> transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011338','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011338"><span>Core <span class="hlt">Noise</span> - Increasing Importance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) <span class="hlt">noise</span> funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-<span class="hlt">noise</span> area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-<span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-<span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-<span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall <span class="hlt">noise</span> signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> have traditionally dominated over core <span class="hlt">noise</span>. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core <span class="hlt">noise</span> even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671617"><span>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000844','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000844"><span>Core <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) <span class="hlt">noise</span> funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core <span class="hlt">noise</span> area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor <span class="hlt">noise</span> is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-<span class="hlt">noise</span> area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> outside of airport boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1HR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1HR"><span>On the analogy between pulse-pile-up in energy-sensitive, photon-counting detectors and <span class="hlt">level</span>-crossing of shot <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roessl, Ewald; Bartels, Matthias; Daerr, Heiner; Proksa, Roland</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> processes are omnipresent in physics and many of their properties have been extensively studied in the past, including the particular problem of <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing of shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Energy-sensitive, photon-counting detectors using comparators to discriminate pulse-heights are currently heavily investigated for medical applications, e.g. for x-ray computed tomography and x-ray mammography. Surprisingly, no mention of the close relation between the two topics can be found in the literature on photon-counting detectors. In this paper, we point out the close analogy between <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing of shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the problem of determining count rates of photon- counting detectors subject to pulse pile-up. The latter is very relevant for obtaining precise forward models for photon-counting detectors operated under conditions of very high x-ray flux employed in clinical x-ray computed tomography. Although several attempts have been made to provide reasonably accurate, approximative models for the registered number of counts in x-ray detectors under conditions of high flux and arbitrary x-ray spectra, see, e.g., no exact, analytic solution is given in the literature for general continuous pulse shapes. In this paper we present such a solution for arbitrary response functions, x-ray spectra and continuous pulse shapes based on a result from the theory of <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing. We briefly outline the theory of <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing including the famous Rice theorem and translate from the language of <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing to the language of photon-counting detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023195"><span>Airport <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pendley, R. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The problem of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, steps taken to reduce jet engine <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational <span class="hlt">noise</span> on airport safety and altenative means for reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006956"><span>Combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strahle, W. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A review of the subject of combustion generated <span class="hlt">noise</span> is presented. Combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> is an important <span class="hlt">noise</span> source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978128"><span>A developmental study of latent <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The ability to recall the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch <span class="hlt">level</span> of familiar music (latent <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch <span class="hlt">level</span> of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678944"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> Mapping and Annoyance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knauss, D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The EC has published a Green Paper on <span class="hlt">noise</span> policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This directive will make <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate <span class="hlt">noise</span> maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for <span class="hlt">noise</span> mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on <span class="hlt">noise</span> maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify <span class="hlt">noise</span> hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are sufficiently correct.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLA..379.2169C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLA..379.2169C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> negative mobility in a one-dimensional overdamped system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ru-Yin; Nie, Lin-Ru; Pan, Wan-Li; Zhang, Jian-Qiang</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional overdamped system consisting of a symmetric periodic potential, a constant bias force and a trichotomous <span class="hlt">noise</span> was investigated. In the frame of master equations, we derived analytical expression of its current. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that the current first increases, then decreases and finally increases with the bias force increasing, i.e., an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility (ANM) phenomenon. Our further investigations presented dependence of the ANM phenomenon on parameters of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Its intrinsic physical mechanism was also open up, and a minimal model with ANM phenomenon is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H24F..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H24F..01S"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity <span class="hlt">levels</span> during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions, <span class="hlt">levels</span> of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+music&pg=4&id=EJ095314','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+music&pg=4&id=EJ095314"><span>School <span class="hlt">Noise</span> and Its Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ikenberrgy, Larry D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Sources of <span class="hlt">noises</span> affecting schools and their hindrance of learning are presented. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for different activities are tabled and possible methods for controlling such <span class="hlt">noises</span> are suggested. Internal to the school, shop and music <span class="hlt">levels</span> are the most severe. More care in site selection and design considerations are recommended. (LS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282107"><span>Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration, and determination of electron temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cacn.agarQ....W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cacn.agarQ....W"><span>Non-propulsive aerodynamic <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe <span class="hlt">noise</span> to total aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression applied to the fan and turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. The airframe <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the fan inlet. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact of the airframe <span class="hlt">noise</span>, as measured by <span class="hlt">noise</span> contour area, is 1/4 that of fan <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Further fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction efforts should not view airframe <span class="hlt">noise</span> as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity <span class="hlt">noise</span> wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930063997&hterms=classification+algorithm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclassification%2Balgorithm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930063997&hterms=classification+algorithm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclassification%2Balgorithm"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> classification with unsupervised clustering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020273"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Slater, P. N.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The distinction between the uses of relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration are described, and the categories of relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance <span class="hlt">level</span> at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9684E..38J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9684E..38J"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness testing in sub-stitching interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xie, Weimin; Xing, Tingwen</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Sub-aperture stitching is an effective way to extend the lateral and vertical dynamic range of a conventional interferometer. The test accuracy can be achieved by removing the error of reference surface by the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> testing method. When the testing accuracy (repeatability and reproducibility) is close to 1nm, in addition to the reference surface, other factors will also affect the measuring accuracy such as environment, zoom magnification, stitching precision, tooling and fixture, the characteristics of optical materials and so on. In the thousand <span class="hlt">level</span> cleanroom, we establish a good environment system. Long time stability, temperature controlled at 22°+/-0.02°.The humidity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> are controlled in a certain range. We establish a stitching system in the clean room. The vibration testing system is used to test the vibration. The air pressure testing system is also used. In the motion system, we control the tilt error no more than 4 second to reduce the error. The angle error can be tested by the autocollimator and double grating reading head.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+pollution&pg=4&id=EJ113258','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+pollution&pg=4&id=EJ113258"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution--What can be Done?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Edgar A. G.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the ratio of energy dissipated as sound to the mechanical output of devices. Considers <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, ranges vs. peaks, <span class="hlt">noise</span> indexes, and health hazards. Indicates some problems vs. solutions in the technology of <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. (GH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2397B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2397B"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> regulations that serve the community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, James D.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>State and local governments have adopted a variety of regulations over the past 40 years to protect the public against unreasonable <span class="hlt">noise</span>. These regulations, which may be be qualitative in nature, may prohibit particular activities (e.g., barking dogs or loud radios) or outlaw nuisance <span class="hlt">noise</span> in general (e.g., sounds disturbing to a resident). In addition, these regulations may be quantitative and define specific sound limits for a source at property line or community locations. The quantitative approach may typically include <span class="hlt">absolute</span> limits that account for many factors, such as the time of day or week, the type of source and receptor, and the character of the sound; or in the case of Massachusetts, may include relative limits that account for the ambient background sound <span class="hlt">levels</span>. A significant increase in community sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> that is caused by a source is a useful indicator of a potential <span class="hlt">noise</span> problem, but should this factor be considered when setting regulatory limits for individual projects? The presentation shall explore this issue and its effect on the process of siting, permitting, designing, and operating industrial facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title23-vol1-sec772-11.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title23-vol1-sec772-11.pdf"><span>23 CFR 772.11 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> abatement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> AND CONSTRUCTION <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> § 772.11 <span class="hlt">Noise</span> abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> would be of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title23-vol1-sec772-11.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title23-vol1-sec772-11.pdf"><span>23 CFR 772.11 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> abatement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> AND CONSTRUCTION <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> § 772.11 <span class="hlt">Noise</span> abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> would be of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+noise&pg=3&id=ED085220','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+noise&pg=3&id=ED085220"><span>A Literature Survey of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shih, H. H.</p> <p></p> <p>Physically, <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a complex sound that has little or no periodicity. However, the essential characteristic of <span class="hlt">noise</span> is its undesirability. Thus, <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be defined as any annoying or unwanted sound. In recent years, the rapid increase of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in our environment has become a national public health hazard. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> affects man's state of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=white+AND+noise&pg=6&id=ED022316','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=white+AND+noise&pg=6&id=ED022316"><span>The Effects of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> on Pupil Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slater, Barbara Ruth</p> <p></p> <p>Effects of school <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions on student written task performance were studied. Three <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were examined--(1) irregular interval <span class="hlt">noise</span>, 75-90 decibels, (2) average or normal <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and (3) quiet condition, 45-55 decibels. An attempt was made to reproduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions typical of the school environment. A second controlled…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023196','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023196"><span>Community <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bragdon, C. R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> are considered. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ265369.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ265369.pdf"><span>Relativistic <span class="hlt">Absolutism</span> in Moral Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogt, W. Paul</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B8.1407L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B8.1407L"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Standards for Climate Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leckey, J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5275I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5275I"><span>Quantitative time-lapse 3D seismic data interpretation from the pilot site of Ketzin (CO2 Storage): the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Alexandra; Lüth, Stefan; Kempka, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The first European onshore pilot scale project for geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) was initiated in 2004 near Berlin (Germany). This project is multidisciplinary including 3D seismic time-lapse surveys as an essential tool for reservoir characterization at a depth of 650 m. A 3D pre-injection baseline seismic survey was acquired in 2005. CO2 injection into a sandstone saline aquifer started in 2008 and stopped in 2013 after 67 kilotons of CO2 had been injected. The 1st and 2nd 3D seismic repeat surveys were acquired after 22 and 61 kilotons of CO2 had been injected respectively. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical data and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation <span class="hlt">levels</span> have allowed for an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. The close agreement (over 85%) between the injected and observed amount is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods. However this estimate contains a number of uncertainties. For example the most of the time delay values in the both 3D seismic repeat surveys within the amplitude anomaly are near the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 1-2 ms, however a change of 1 ms in the time delay affects significantly the mass estimate, thus the choice of the time-delay cutoff is crucial. In this study we put bounds into the <span class="hlt">noise</span> in seismic data from Ketzin using results of 3D flow simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..47M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..47M"><span>Dual-energy computed tomography of the head: a phantom study assessing axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsubara, Kosuke; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Takata, Tadanori; Kobayashi, Masanao; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Koshida, Kichiro</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to propose a calibration method for small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses during dual- source dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and to compare the axial dose distribution, eye lens dose, and image <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between DE and standard, single-energy (SE) head CT angiography. Three DE (100/Sn140 kVp 80/Sn140 kVp, and 140/80 kVp) and one SE (120 kVp) acquisitions were performed using a second-generation dual-source CT device and a female head phantom, with an equivalent volumetric CT dose index. The axial absorbed dose distribution at the orbital <span class="hlt">level</span> and the absorbed doses for the eye lens were measured using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. CT attenuation numbers were obtained in the DE composite images and the SE images of the phantom at the orbital <span class="hlt">level</span>. The doses absorbed at the orbital <span class="hlt">level</span> and in the eye lens were lower and standard deviations for the CT attenuation numbers were slightly higher in the DE acquisitions than those in the SE acquisition. The anterior surface dose was especially higher in the SE acquisition than that in the DE acquisitions. Thus, DE head CT angiography can be performed with a radiation dose lower than that required for a standard SE head CT angiography, with a slight increase in the image <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The 100/Sn140 kVp acquisition revealed the most balanced axial dose distribution. In addition, our proposed method was effective for calibrating small dosimeters to measure absorbed doses in DECT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT........67K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT........67K"><span>Experimental Studies of Electron Impact Phenomena: (i) <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Elastic Differential Cross Section Measurements of Carbon-Monoxide Nitrogen Molecule, and Carbon-Dioxide Using a Refined Relative Flow Technique, (ii) Differential Cross Section Measurements for Excitation of Electronic <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Carbon-Monoxide by Electron Impact, (iii) <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Total Scattering Cross Section Measurements for Electron Impact on Krypton, Oxygen Molecule, and Carbon-Monoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanik, Isik</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> elastic differential scattering cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on CO, N_2 , and CO_2 in the energy range 20-100 eV and angular range 20^circ -120^circ were measured. A crossed beam scattering geometry was employed and the results were obtained using a relative flow technique in which the DCS of CO and CO_2 were compared directly to the DCS of helium at each angle and energy and the DCS of N_2 was compared directly to the DCS of CO. The results of the elastic DCS of neon are also presented as a check on the experimental procedure. Differential cross section measurements for excitation of the electronic features (a^3Pi , a^'^3Sigma ^+, d^3Delta, and A^1Pi) of CO by electron impact have been carried out by JPL group (Peter Zetner and Sandor Trajmar). These data have been analyzed and differential cross sections were obtained for the impact energies 12.5 eV and 15.0 eV by using a computer unfolding program that employes flux corrected Franck-Condon factors and calibration scheme developed jointly with the JPL group. Details of the routine for extracting the DCS are presented. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> total scattering cross section measurements were carried out for electron impact on Kr, O_2 , and CO. The results were obtained using a linear attenuation technique in the 5-300 eV incident energy range. The present results have an assigned error of 3% and generally found to be in good agreement with other experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020625','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020625"><span>Effects of road traffic background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on judgments of individual airplane <span class="hlt">noises</span>. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, C. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on judgments of individual airplane flyover <span class="hlt">noises</span>. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover <span class="hlt">noises</span> in the presence of traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> types and 3 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover <span class="hlt">noises</span> in the presence of traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> types and 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. In both experiments the airplane <span class="hlt">noises</span> were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> than in the presence of low traffic-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20644124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20644124"><span>Active radiometric calorimeter for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of radioactive sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>This report describes the design and initial <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor of approximately 2 nW. This low <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006981','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006981"><span>Jet engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> source and <span class="hlt">noise</span> footprint computer programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dunn, D. G.; Peart, N. A.; Miller, D. L.; Crowley, K. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Calculation procedures are presented for predicting maximum passby <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and contours (footprints) of conventional jet aircraft with or without <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression devices. The procedures have been computerized and a user's guide is presented for the computer programs to be used in predicting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics during aircraft takeoffs, fly-over, and/or landing operations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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