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Sample records for absolute pitch ap

  1. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  2. The Neurocognitive Components of Pitch Processing: Insights from Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y.; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  3. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Neil M.; Marco, David J. T.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information. PMID:24961624

  4. Absolute pitch in Costa Rica: Distribution of pitch identification ability and implications for its genetic basis.

    PubMed

    Chavarria-Soley, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Absolute pitch is the unusual ability to recognize a pitch without an external reference. The current view is that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the acquisition of the trait. In the present study, 127 adult musicians were subjected to a musical tone identification test. Subjects were university music students and volunteers who responded to a newspaper article. The test consisted of the identification of 40 piano and 40 pure tones. Subjects were classified in three categories according to their pitch naming ability: absolute pitch (AP), high accuracy of tone identification (HA), and non-absolute pitch (non-AP). Both the percentage of correct responses and the mean absolute deviation showed a statistically significant variation between categories. A very clear pattern of higher accuracy for white than for black key notes was observed for the HA and the non-AP groups. Meanwhile, the AP group had an almost perfect pitch naming accuracy for both kinds of tones. Each category presented a very different pattern of deviation around the correct response. The age at the beginning of musical training did not differ between categories. The distribution of pitch identification ability in this study suggests a complex inheritance of the trait. PMID:27586721

  5. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory. PMID:23758506

  6. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  7. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  8. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  9. An empirical reevaluation of absolute pitch: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Sollberger, Silja; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    Here, we reevaluated the "two-component" model of absolute pitch (AP) by combining behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. This specific model postulates that AP is driven by a perceptual encoding ability (i.e., pitch memory) plus an associative memory component (i.e., pitch labeling). To test these predictions, during EEG measurements AP and non-AP (NAP) musicians were passively exposed to piano tones (first component of the model) and additionally instructed to judge whether combinations of tones and labels were conceptually associated or not (second component of the model). Auditory-evoked N1/P2 potentials did not reveal differences between the two groups, thus indicating that AP is not necessarily driven by a differential pitch encoding ability at the processing level of the auditory cortex. Otherwise, AP musicians performed the conceptual association task with an order of magnitude better accuracy and shorter RTs than NAP musicians did, this result clearly pointing to distinctive conceptual associations in AP possessors. Most notably, this behavioral superiority was reflected by an increased N400 effect and accompanied by a subsequent late positive component, the latter not being distinguishable in NAP musicians. PMID:23647515

  10. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    PubMed Central

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. Methods/Principal Findings A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Conclusions/Significance Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP. PMID:21085598

  11. Virtual pitch extraction from harmonic structures by absolute-pitch musicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, I.-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2009-03-01

    The ability of absolute-pitch (AP) musicians to identify or produce virtual pitch from harmonic structures without feedback or an external acoustic referent was examined in three experiments. Stimuli consisted of pure tones, missing-fundamental harmonic complexes, or piano notes highpass filtered to remove their fundamental frequency and lower harmonics. Results of Experiment I showed that relative to control (non-AP) musicians, AP subjects easily (>90%) identified pitch of harmonic complexes in a 12-alternative forced-choice task. Increasing harmonic order (i.e., lowest harmonic number in the complex), however, resulted in a monotonic decline in performance. Results suggest that AP musicians use two pitch cues from harmonic structures: 1) spectral spacing between harmonic components, and 2) octave-related cues to note identification in individually resolved harmonics. Results of Experiment II showed that highpass filtered piano notes are identified by AP subjects at better than 75% accuracy even when the note’s energy is confined to the 4th and higher harmonics. Identification of highpass piano notes also appears to be better than that expected from pure or complex tones, possibly due to contributions from familiar timbre cues to note identity. Results of Experiment III showed that AP subjects can adjust the spectral spacing between harmonics of a missing-fundamental complex to accurately match the expected spacing from a target musical note. Implications of these findings for mechanisms of AP encoding are discussed.

  12. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

  13. Preservation of absolute pitch after right amygdalohippocampectomy for a pianist with TLE.

    PubMed

    Suriadi, Meilia M; Usui, Keiko; Tottori, Takayasu; Terada, Kiyohito; Fujitani, Shigeru; Umeoka, Shuichi; Usui, Naotaka; Baba, Kouichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Inoue, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) ability is a rare musical phenomenon. In the literature, it has been suggested that the relative specialization for pitch processing is in the right temporal lobe in the non-AP population. Since the anatomic basis for absolute pitch is not fully understood and cases of temporal lobe epilepsy of AP possessors are extremely rare, applicability of resection as a treatment of epilepsy in this particular area should be evaluated with caution. In the present study, we examined an AP possessor who suffered from medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and underwent right selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). The SAH procedure clearly avoided disturbing important structures for AP, inasmuch as postsurgically she preserved her AP ability and was seizure-free. She did well post-operatively in the test of pure sine wave tones with short reaction time, which could be identified as "true" absolute pitch. PMID:25499156

  14. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  15. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Dipinto, Rosanna; Mosesso, Ilaria; Tommasi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP) is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP) musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization). Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do) more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view. PMID:19621074

  16. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. PMID:24355545

  17. What the [bleep]? Enhanced absolute pitch memory for a 1000Hz sine tone.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2016-09-01

    Many individuals are able to perceive when the tuning of familiar stimuli, such as popular music recordings, has been altered. This suggests a kind of ubiquitous pitch memory, though it is unclear how this ability differs across individuals with and without absolute pitch (AP) and whether it plays any role in AP. In the present study, we take advantage of a salient single frequency - the 1000Hz sine tone used to censor taboo words in broadcast media - to assess the nature of this kind of pitch memory across individuals with and without AP. We show that non-AP participants are accurate at selecting the correct version of the censor tone among incorrect versions shifted by either one or two semitones, though their accuracy was still below that of an AP population (Experiment 1). This suggests a benefit for AP listeners that could be due to the use of explicit note categories or greater amounts of musical training. However, AP possessors still outperformed all non-AP participants when incorrect versions of the censor tone were shifted within a note category, even when controlling for musical experience (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that AP listeners did not appear to possess a category label for the censor tone that could have helped them differentiate the censor tones used in Experiment 2. Overall, these results suggest that AP possessors may have better pitch memory, even when divorced from pitch labeling (note categories). As such, these results have implications for how AP may develop and be maintained. PMID:27289485

  18. Absolute pitch memory: its prevalence among musicians and dependence on the testing context.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2014-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is widely believed to be a rare ability possessed by only a small group of gifted and special individuals (AP possessors). While AP has fascinated psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians for more than a century, no theory can satisfactorily explain why this ability is so rare and difficult to learn. Here, we show that AP ability appears rare because of the methodological issues of the standard pitch-naming test. Specifically, the standard test unnecessarily poses a high decisional demand on AP judgments and uses a testing context that is highly inconsistent with one's musical training. These extra cognitive challenges are not central to AP memory per se and have thus led to consistent underestimation of AP ability in the population. Using the standard test, we replicated the typical findings that the accuracy for general violinists was low (12.38 %; chance level = 0 %). With identical stimuli, scoring criteria, and participants, violinists attained 25 % accuracy in a pitch verification test in which the decisional demand of AP judgment was reduced. When the testing context was increasingly similar to their musical experience, verification accuracy improved further and reached 39 %, three times higher than that for the standard test. Results were replicated with a separate group of pianists. Our findings challenge current theories about AP and suggest that the prevalence of AP among musicians has been highly underestimated in prior work. A multimodal framework is proposed to better explain AP memory. PMID:23943554

  19. Speed and Accuracy of Absolute Pitch Judgments: Some Latter-Day Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    Nine subjects, 5 of whom claimed absolute pitch (AP) ability were instructed to rapidly strike notes on the piano to match randomized tape-recorded piano notes. Stimulus set sizes were 64, 16, or 4 consecutive semitones, or 7 diatonic notes of a designated octave. A control task involved motor movements to notes announced in advance. Accuracy,…

  20. Bridging the gap between perceptual and cognitive perspectives on absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Rogenmoser, Lars; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) refers to the rare ability to identify the chroma of a tone or to produce a specific pitch without reference to keyality (e.g., G or C). Previously, AP has been proposed to rely on the distinctive functional-anatomical architecture of the left auditory-related cortex (ARC), this specific trait possibly enabling an optimized early "categorical perception". In contrast, currently prevailing models of AP postulate that cognitive rather than perceptual processes, namely "pitch labeling" mechanisms, more likely constitute the bearing skeleton of AP. This associative memory component has previously been proposed to be dependent, among other mechanisms, on the recruitment of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as on the integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus, a fiber bundle linking the posterior supratemporal plane with the DLPFC. Here, we attempted to integrate these two apparently conflicting perspectives on AP, namely early "categorical perception" and "pitch labeling". We used electroencephalography and evaluated resting-state intracranial functional connectivity between the left ARC and DLPFC in a sample of musicians with and without AP. Results demonstrate significantly increased left-hemispheric theta phase synchronization in AP compared with non-AP musicians. Within the AP group, this specific electrophysiological marker was predictive of absolute-hearing behavior and explained ∼30% of variance. Thus, we propose that in AP subjects the tonal inputs and the corresponding mnemonic representations are tightly coupled in such a manner that the distinctive electrophysiological signature of AP can saliently be detected in only 3 min of resting-state measurements. PMID:25568128

  1. Effective connectivity associated with auditory error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Amy L.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.; Robin, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    It is advantageous to study a wide range of vocal abilities in order to fully understand how vocal control measures vary across the full spectrum. Individuals with absolute pitch (AP) are able to assign a verbal label to musical notes and have enhanced abilities in pitch identification without reliance on an external referent. In this study we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to model effective connectivity of ERP responses to pitch perturbation in voice auditory feedback in musicians with relative pitch (RP), AP, and non-musician controls. We identified a network compromising left and right hemisphere superior temporal gyrus (STG), primary motor cortex (M1), and premotor cortex (PM). We specified nine models and compared two main factors examining various combinations of STG involvement in feedback pitch error detection/correction process. Our results suggest that modulation of left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration in AP musicians. We also identify reduced connectivity of left hemisphere PM to STG connections in AP and RP groups during the error detection and corrections process relative to non-musicians. We suggest that this suppression may allow for enhanced connectivity relating to pitch identification in the right hemisphere in those with more precise pitch matching abilities. Musicians with enhanced pitch identification abilities likely have an improved auditory error detection and correction system involving connectivity of STG regions. Our findings here also suggest that individuals with AP are more adept at using feedback related to pitch from the right hemisphere. PMID:24634644

  2. Enhanced Cortical Connectivity in Absolute Pitch Musicians: A Model for Local Hyperconnectivity

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Charles Li, Hui C.; Hohmann, Anja; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Connectivity in the human brain has received increased scientific interest in recent years. Although connection disorders can affect perception, production, learning, and memory, few studies have associated brain connectivity with graded variations in human behavior, especially among normal individuals. One group of normal individuals who possess unique characteristics in both behavior and brain structure is absolute pitch (AP) musicians, who can name the appropriate pitch class of any given tone without a reference. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography, we observed hyperconnectivity in bilateral superior temporal lobe structures linked to AP possession. Furthermore, volume of tracts connecting left superior temporal gyrus to left middle temporal gyrus predicted AP performance. These findings extend previous reports of exaggerated temporal lobe asymmetry, may explain the higher incidence of AP in developmental disorders, and may provide a model for understanding the heightened connectivity that is thought to underlie savant skills and cases of exceptional creativity. PMID:20515408

  3. Prevalence of absolute pitch: a comparison between Japanese and Polish music students.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Ken'ichi; Makomaska, Sylwia; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Comparable large-scale surveys including an on-site pitch-naming test were conducted with music students in Japan and Poland to obtain more convincing estimates of the prevalence of absolute pitch (AP) and examine how musical experience relates to AP. Participants with accurate AP (95% correct identification) accounted for 30% of the Japanese music students, but only 7% of the Polish music students. This difference in the performance of pitch naming was related to the difference in musical experience. Participants with AP had begun music training at an earlier age (6 years or earlier), and the average year of commencement of musical training was more than 2 years earlier for the Japanese music students than for the Polish students. The percentage of participants who had received early piano lessons was 94% for the Japanese musically trained students but was 72% for the Polish music students. Approximately one-third of the Japanese musically trained students had attended the Yamaha Music School, where lessons on piano or electric organ were given to preschool children in parallel with fixed-do solfège singing training. Such early music instruction was not as common in Poland. The relationship of AP with early music training is discussed. PMID:23145628

  4. Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Gervain, Judit; Vines, Bradley W.; Chen, Lawrence M.; Seo, Rubo J.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.; Young, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch, the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without a reference point, has a critical period, i.e., it can only be acquired early in life. However, research has shown that histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) enable adult mice to establish perceptual preferences that are otherwise impossible to acquire after youth. In humans, we found that adult men who took valproate (VPA) (a HDAC inhibitor) learned to identify pitch significantly better than those taking placebo—evidence that VPA facilitated critical-period learning in the adult human brain. Importantly, this result was not due to a general change in cognitive function, but rather a specific effect on a sensory task associated with a critical-period. PMID:24348349

  5. Absolute pitch: evidence for early cognitive facilitation during passive listening as revealed by reduced P3a amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify or produce different pitches without using reference tones. At least two sequential processing stages are assumed to contribute to this phenomenon. The first recruits a pitch memory mechanism at an early stage of auditory processing, whereas the second is driven by a later cognitive mechanism (pitch labeling). Several investigations have used active tasks, but it is unclear how these two mechanisms contribute to AP during passive listening. The present work investigated the temporal dynamics of tone processing in AP and non-AP (NAP) participants by using EEG. We applied a passive oddball paradigm with between- and within-tone category manipulations and analyzed the MMN reflecting the early stage of auditory processing and the P3a response reflecting the later cognitive mechanism during the second processing stage. Results did not reveal between-group differences in MMN waveforms. By contrast, the P3a response was specifically associated with AP and sensitive to the processing of different pitch types. Specifically, AP participants exhibited smaller P3a amplitudes, especially in between-tone category conditions, and P3a responses correlated significantly with the age of commencement of musical training, suggesting an influence of early musical exposure on AP. Our results reinforce the current opinion that the representation of pitches at the processing level of the auditory-related cortex is comparable among AP and NAP participants, whereas the later processing stage is critical for AP. Results are interpreted as reflecting cognitive facilitation in AP participants, possibly driven by the availability of multiple codes for tones. PMID:25170790

  6. Changing the Tune: The Structure of the Input Affects Infants' Use of Absolute and Relative Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Reeck, Karelyn; Niebuhr, Aimee; Wilson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Sequences of notes contain several different types of pitch cues, including both absolute and relative pitch information. What factors determine which of these cues are used when learning about tone sequences? Previous research suggests that infants tend to preferentially process absolute pitch patterns in continuous tone sequences, while other…

  7. Absolute memory for musical pitch: evidence from the production of learned melodies.

    PubMed

    Levitin, D J

    1994-10-01

    Evidence for the absolute nature of long-term auditory memory is provided by analyzing the production of familiar melodies. Additionally, a two-component theory of absolute pitch is presented, in which this rare ability is conceived as consisting of a more common ability, pitch memory, and a separate, less common ability, pitch labeling. Forty-six subjects sang two different popular songs, and their productions were compared with the actual pitches used in recordings of those songs. Forty percent of the subjects sang the correct pitch on at least one trial; 12% of the subjects hit the correct pitch on both trials, and 44% came within two semitones of the correct pitch on both trials. The results show a convergence with previous studies on the stability of auditory imagery and latent absolute pitch ability; the results further suggest that individuals might possess representations of pitch that are more stable and accurate than previously recognized. PMID:7984397

  8. The effects of acoustic variability on absolute pitch categorization: Evidence of contextual tuning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is defined as the ability to label a musical note without the aid of a reference note. Despite the large amounts of acoustic variability encountered in music, AP listeners generally experience perceptual constancy for different exemplars within note categories (e.g., recognizing that a C played on a tuba belongs to the same category as a C played on a piccolo). The present studies investigate whether AP possessors are sensitive to context variability along acoustic dimensions that are not inherently linked to the typical definition of a note category. In a speeded target recognition task, AP participants heard a sequence of notes and pressed a button whenever they heard a designated target note. Within a trial the sequence of notes was either blocked according to note-irrelevant variation or contained a mix of different instruments (Experiment 1), amplitude levels (Experiment 2), or octaves (Experiment 3). Compared to the blocked trials, participants were significantly slower to respond in the mixed-instrument and mixed-octave trials, but not the mixed-amplitude trials. Importantly, this performance difference could not be solely attributed to initial performance differences between instruments, amplitudes, or octaves. These results suggest that AP note identification is contextually sensitive. PMID:26233042

  9. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. PMID:19354413

  10. Absolute Pitch in Boreal Chickadees and Humans: Exceptions that Test a Phylogenetic Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Ronald G.; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined generality of the phylogenetic rule that birds discriminate frequency ranges more accurately than mammals. Human absolute pitch chroma possessors accurately tracked transitions between frequency ranges. Independent tests showed that they used note naming (pitch chroma) to remap the tones into ranges; neither possessors nor…

  11. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments. PMID:24180794

  12. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star AP Andromedae

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2014-06-01

    AP And is a well-detached F5 eclipsing binary star for which only a very limited amount of information was available before this publication. We have obtained very extensive measurements of the light curve (19,097 differential V magnitude observations) and a radial velocity curve (83 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.277 ± 0.004 and 1.251 ± 0.004 M {sub ☉}, radii of 1.233 ± 0.006 and 1.1953 ± 0.005 R {sub ☉}, and temperatures of 6565 ± 150 K and 6495 ± 150 K. The distance to the system is about 400 ± 30 pc. Comparison with the theoretical properties of the stellar evolutionary models of the Yonsei-Yale series of Yi et al. shows good agreement between the observations and the theory at an age of about 500 Myr and a slightly sub-solar metallicity.

  13. Perfect pitch reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Calum

    2014-10-01

    Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. PMID:25301913

  14. Online recognition of music is influenced by relative and absolute pitch information.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C; Tumlin, Melanie A

    2012-03-01

    Three experiments explored online recognition in a nonspeech domain, using a novel experimental paradigm. Adults learned to associate abstract shapes with particular melodies, and at test they identified a played melody's associated shape. To implicitly measure recognition, visual fixations to the associated shape versus a distractor shape were measured as the melody played. Degree of similarity between associated melodies was varied to assess what types of pitch information adults use in recognition. Fixation and error data suggest that adults naturally recognize music, like language, incrementally, computing matches to representations before melody offset, despite the fact that music, unlike language, provides no pressure to execute recognition rapidly. Further, adults use both absolute and relative pitch information in recognition. The implicit nature of the dependent measure should permit use with a range of populations to evaluate postulated developmental and evolutionary changes in pitch encoding. PMID:22039917

  15. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC’s own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people. PMID:24600416

  16. Ethnicity effects in relative pitch.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-06-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the rare ability to identify a musical pitch, occurs at a higher rate among East Asian musicians. This has stimulated considerable research on the comparative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Two studies examined whether a similar ethnicity effect is found for relative pitch (RP), identifying the distance or interval between two tones. Nonmusicians (n = 103) were trained to label musical intervals and were subsequently tested on interval identification. We establish similar ethnicity effects: Chinese and Korean participants consistently outperformed other participants in RP tasks, but not in a "relative rhythm" control task. This effect is not driven by previous musical or tone-language experience. The parallel with the East Asian advantage for AP suggests that enhanced perceptual-cognitive processing of pitch is more general and is not limited to highly trained musicians. This effect opens up many research questions concerning the environmental and genetic contributions related to this more general pitch-based ability. PMID:20551351

  17. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population. PMID:22666425

  18. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population. PMID:22666425

  19. Realization of high capacity transmission in fiber optic communication systems using Absolute Polar Duty Cycle Division Multiplexing (AP-DCDM) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekmohammadi, Amin; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Abdullah, Mohamad Khazani; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A.

    2009-08-01

    An electrical multiplexing technique, namely Absolute Polar Duty Cycle Division Multiplexing (AP-DCDM) is reported for high-speed optical fiber communication systems. It is demonstrated that 40 Gb/s (4 × 10 Gb/s) AP-DCDM system shows a clear advantage over conventional 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK with 50% duty cycle in terms of dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency. At 40 Gb/s its tolerance to chromatic dispersion (CD) is 124 ps/nm and 194 ps/nm for the worst and the best user, respectively. These values are higher than that of 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK, which is around 100 ps/nm. The spectral efficiency, receiver sensitivity and OSNR for different number of channels are discussed. Comparison against other modulation formats namely duobinary, Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ)-OOK and RZ-Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (RZ-DQPSK) at 40 Gb/s are made. It is shown that AP-DCDM has the best receiver sensitivity (-32 dBm) and better CD tolerance (±200 ps/nm) than NRZ-OOK and RZ-DQPSK. In reference to duobinary, AP-DCDM has better receiver sensitivity but worse dispersion tolerance.

  20. Synaesthesia: pitch-colour isomorphism in RGB-space?

    PubMed

    de Thornley Head, Phineas

    2006-02-01

    A new experimental technique found coloured-hearing synaesthetes to possess localised isomorphism between pitch and colour. We found significantly more consistency in synaesthetes' pitch-colour matches than controls, with matches unaffected by musical experience, not facilitated by absolute pitch (AP) and responded to on the basis of pitch alone, without interference from note-name information. Synaesthetes also placed their colour responses to quartertones (notes falling between adjacent semitones) significantly closer to the RGB midpoint of their responses to the semitones lying either side. This is partial evidence for a direct, localised pitch-colour correspondence. Criteria for possible between-synaesthete similarities in patterning are also discussed, with limited evidence for localised patterning presented. PMID:16683490

  1. Absolute Pitch—Functional Evidence of Speech-Relevant Auditory Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Oechslin, Mathias S.; Meyer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) has been shown to be associated with morphological changes and neurophysiological adaptations in the planum temporale, a cortical area involved in higher-order auditory and speech perception processes. The direct link between speech processing and AP has hitherto not been addressed. We provide first evidence that AP compared with relative pitch (RP) ability is associated with significantly different hemodynamic responses to complex speech sounds. By systematically varying the lexical and/or prosodic information of speech stimuli, we demonstrated consistent activation differences in AP musicians compared with RP musicians and nonmusicians. These differences relate to stronger activations in the posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus and weaker activations in the anterior mid-part of the superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, this pattern is considerably modulated by the auditory acuity of AP. Our results suggest that the neural underpinnings of pitch processing expertise exercise a strong influence on propositional speech perception (sentence meaning). PMID:19592570

  2. Songbirds use spectral shape, not pitch, for sound pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bregman, Micah R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Humans easily recognize “transposed” musical melodies shifted up or down in log frequency. Surprisingly, songbirds seem to lack this capacity, although they can learn to recognize human melodies and use complex acoustic sequences for communication. Decades of research have led to the widespread belief that songbirds, unlike humans, are strongly biased to use absolute pitch (AP) in melody recognition. This work relies almost exclusively on acoustically simple stimuli that may belie sensitivities to more complex spectral features. Here, we investigate melody recognition in a species of songbird, the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), using tone sequences that vary in both pitch and timbre. We find that small manipulations altering either pitch or timbre independently can drive melody recognition to chance, suggesting that both percepts are poor descriptors of the perceptual cues used by birds for this task. Instead we show that melody recognition can generalize even in the absence of pitch, as long as the spectral shapes of the constituent tones are preserved. These results challenge conventional views regarding the use of pitch cues in nonhuman auditory sequence recognition. PMID:26811447

  3. Songbirds use spectral shape, not pitch, for sound pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Patel, Aniruddh D; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    Humans easily recognize "transposed" musical melodies shifted up or down in log frequency. Surprisingly, songbirds seem to lack this capacity, although they can learn to recognize human melodies and use complex acoustic sequences for communication. Decades of research have led to the widespread belief that songbirds, unlike humans, are strongly biased to use absolute pitch (AP) in melody recognition. This work relies almost exclusively on acoustically simple stimuli that may belie sensitivities to more complex spectral features. Here, we investigate melody recognition in a species of songbird, the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), using tone sequences that vary in both pitch and timbre. We find that small manipulations altering either pitch or timbre independently can drive melody recognition to chance, suggesting that both percepts are poor descriptors of the perceptual cues used by birds for this task. Instead we show that melody recognition can generalize even in the absence of pitch, as long as the spectral shapes of the constituent tones are preserved. These results challenge conventional views regarding the use of pitch cues in nonhuman auditory sequence recognition. PMID:26811447

  4. Music perception, pitch, and the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of music depends on many culture-specific factors, but is also constrained by properties of the auditory system. This has been best characterized for those aspects of music that involve pitch. Pitch sequences are heard in terms of relative, as well as absolute, pitch. Pitch combinations give rise to emergent properties not present in the component notes. In this review we discuss the basic auditory mechanisms contributing to these and other perceptual effects in music. PMID:18824100

  5. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  6. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  7. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  8. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  9. Comparative learning of pitch and loudness identification.

    PubMed

    Houtsma, A J; Durlach, N I; Horowitz, D M

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated possible similarities between the ability to identify pitches and the ability to identify loudnesses. Systematic training of musically naive subjects indicated that frequency identification performance improves at about the same rate as intensity identification performance. Examination of frequency and intensity identification behavior of musically trained subjects showed that their ability to code pitch information efficiently does not generalize to an ability to encode loudness information more efficiently than untrained subjects. Intensity identification training curves of musically trained and untrained subjects are similar, but final performance levels are below frequency identification performance levels exhibited by musically trained subjects, especially those with absolute pitch. PMID:3819170

  10. Melody and pitch processing in five musical savants with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Woolf, Katherine; Tadic, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    We examined absolute-pitch (AP) and short-term musical memory abilities of five musical savants with congenital blindness, seven musicians, and seven non-musicians with good vision and normal intelligence in two experiments. In the first, short-term memory for musical phrases was tested and the savants and musicians performed statistically indistinguishably, both significantly outperforming the non-musicians and remembering more material from the C major scale sequences than random trials. In the second experiment, participants learnt associations between four pitches and four objects using a non-verbal paradigm. This experiment approximates to testing AP ability. Low statistical power meant the savants were not statistically better than the musicians, although only the savants scored statistically higher than the non-musicians. The results are evidence for a musical module, separate from general intelligence; they also support the anecdotal reporting of AP in musical savants, which is thought to be necessary for the development of musical-savant skill. PMID:18456928

  11. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries. PMID:27618243

  12. Stimulus-Dependent Flexibility in Non-Human Auditory Pitch Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregman, Micah R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds and humans share many parallels in vocal learning and auditory sequence processing. However, the two groups differ notably in their abilities to recognize acoustic sequences shifted in absolute pitch (pitch height). Whereas humans maintain accurate recognition of words or melodies over large pitch height changes, songbirds are…

  13. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  14. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  15. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  16. Octave Bias in Pitch Perception: The Influence of Pitch Height on Pitch Class Identification.

    PubMed

    Prpic, Valter; Murgia, Mauro; De Tommaso, Matteo; Boschetti, Giulia; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-09-01

    Pitch height and pitch class are different, but strictly related, percepts of music tones. To investigate the influence of pitch height in a pitch class identification task, we systematically analyzed the errors-in terms of direction and amount-committed by a group of musicians. The aim of our study was to verify the existence of constant errors in the identification of pitch classes across consecutive octaves. Stimuli were single piano tones from the C major scale executed in two consecutive octaves. Participants showed different response patterns in the two octaves. The direction of errors revealed a constant tendency to underestimate pitch classes in the lowest octave and to overestimate pitch classes in the highest octave. Thus, pitch height showed to influence pitch class identification. We called this bias "pitch class polarization", since the same pitch class was judged to be respectively lower and higher, depending on relatively low or high pitch height. PMID:27251169

  17. Vocal pitch shift in congenital amusia (pitch deafness).

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25 or 200 cents. While a few amusics failed to show pitch-shift effects, a majority showed a pitch-shift response and nearly half showed a normal response to both large and small shifts, with similar magnitudes and response times as controls. The size and presence of the shift response to small shifts were significantly predicted by participants' vocal pitch matching accuracy, rather than their ability to perceive small pitch changes. The observed dissociation between the ability to consciously perceive small pitch changes and to produce and monitor vocal pitch provides evidence for a dual-route model of pitch processing in the brain. PMID:23467261

  18. Pitch carbon microsphere composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Nelson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Petroleum pitch carbon microspheres were prepared by flash heating emulsified pitch and carbonizing the resulting microspheres in an inert atmosphere. Microsphere composites were obtained from a mixture of microspheres and tetraester precursor pyrrone powder. Scanning electron micrographs of the composite showed that it was an aggregate of microspheres bonded together by the pyrrone at the sphere contact points, with voids in and among the microspheres. Physical, thermal, and sorption properties of the composite are described. Composite applications could include use as a honeycomb filler in elevated-temperature load-bearing sandwich boards or in patient-treatment tables for radiation treatment of tumors.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGAN, JOHN R.

    EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF FACTORS WERE STUDIED. THE FACTORS WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT…

  20. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  1. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  2. Perceptual judgment of voice pitch during pitch-matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Schueller, Marianne; Fucci, Donald; Bond, Z S

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the perceptual judgment of voice pitch. 24 individuals were assigned to two groups to assess whether there is a difference in perceptual judgment of voice pitch during pitch-matching tasks. Group I, Naïve listeners, had no previous experience in anatomy, physiology, or voice pitch-evaluation methods. Group II, Experienced listeners, were master's level speech-language pathologists having completed academic training in evaluation of voice. Both groups listened to identical stimuli, which required matching audiotaped voice-pitch samples of a male and female voice to a note on an electronic keyboard. The experiment included two tasks. The first task assessed pitch range, which required matching of the lowest and highest voice pitch of both a male and female speaker singing /a/ to a note on a keyboard. The second task assessed habitual pitch, which required matching of the voice pitch of a word spoken by a male and female speaker to a note on a keyboard. A one-way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference between groups occurred for only one of four conditions measured, perceptual judgment of the female pitch range. No differences between groups were found in the perceptual judgments of the male pitch range or during perceptual judgment of the female or male habitual pitch, suggesting that the skill possessed by speech-language pathology students is no different from that of inexperienced listeners. PMID:12081301

  3. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  4. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  5. Good pitch memory is widespread.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2003-05-01

    Here we show that good pitch memory is widespread among adults with no musical training. We tested unselected college students on their memory for the pitch level of instrumental soundtracks from familiar television programs. Participants heard 5-s excerpts either at the original pitch level or shifted upward or downward by 1 or 2 semitones. They successfully identified the original pitch levels. Other participants who heard comparable excerpts from unfamiliar recordings could not do so. These findings reveal that ordinary listeners retain fine-grained information about pitch level over extended periods. Adults' reportedly poor memory for pitch is likely to be a by-product of their inability to name isolated pitches. PMID:12741751

  6. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  7. Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Zohar; Schupak, Asi; Gotler, Alex; Marks, Lawrence E

    2014-01-01

    Experiments using diverse paradigms, including speeded discrimination, indicate that pitch and visually-perceived size interact perceptually, and that higher pitch is congruent with smaller size. While nearly all of these studies used static stimuli, here we examine the interaction of dynamic pitch and dynamic size, using Garner's speeded discrimination paradigm. Experiment 1 examined the interaction of continuous rise/fall in pitch and increase/decrease in object size. Experiment 2 examined the interaction of static pitch and size (steady high/low pitches and large/small visual objects), using an identical procedure. Results indicate that static and dynamic auditory and visual stimuli interact in opposite ways. While for static stimuli (Experiment 2), higher pitch is congruent with smaller size (as suggested by earlier work), for dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1), ascending pitch is congruent with growing size, and descending pitch with shrinking size. In addition, while static stimuli (Experiment 2) exhibit both congruence and Garner effects, dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1) present congruence effects without Garner interference, a pattern that is not consistent with prevalent interpretations of Garner's paradigm. Our interpretation of these results focuses on effects of within-trial changes on processing in dynamic tasks and on the association of changes in apparent size with implied changes in distance. Results suggest that static and dynamic stimuli can differ substantially in their cross-modal mappings, and may rely on different processing mechanisms. PMID:24351984

  8. Self-propulsion of a heaving and pitching flexible flag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boyoung; Park, Sung Goon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-11-01

    Flapping motions of flexible flags are widespread in nature. Birds, fish, and insects use their wings, fins, or bodies to stay afloat and to advance forward in the surrounding fluids. In the present study, a self-propelled flexible flag with heaving and pitching motions in a quiescent flow has been simulated by using the immersed boundary method. The flexible flag can move freely in the horizontal direction and the body of the flexible flag moves passively along the head. The motion of the head of the flag was described as a harmonic heaving oscillation in the vertical direction. The motion of the angle of the head was described as a harmonic oscillation with a moving clamped condition for the heaving and pitching flag. The cruising speed and the swimming efficiency of the self-propelled flag were determined as functions of the bending coefficient (γ) , the heaving amplitude (Ah) , the pitching amplitude (Ap) , the heaving frequency (St), and the phase difference (Δϕ) between Ah and Ap. We conducted a parametric study on the optimized the cruising speed and the swimming efficiency with respect to γ, St, Ah, Ap, and Δϕ

  9. Spiral model of pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James D.

    2003-10-01

    A spiral model of pitch interrelates tone chroma, tone height, equal temperament scales, and a cochlear map. Donkin suggested in 1870 that the pitch of tones could be well represented by an equiangular spiral. More recently, the cylindrical helix has been popular for representing tone chroma and tone height. Here it is shown that tone chroma, tone height, and cochlear position can be conveniently related to tone frequency via a planar spiral. For this ``equal-temperament spiral,'' (ET Spiral) tone chroma is conceived as a circular array with semitones at 30° intervals. The frequency of sound on the cent scale (re 16.351 Hz) is represented by the radius of the spiral defined by r=(1200/2π)θr, where θr is in radians. By these definitions, one revolution represents one octave, 1200 cents, 30° represents a semitone, the radius relates θ to cents in accordance with equal temperament (ET) tuning, and the arclength of the spiral matches the mapping of sound frequency to the basilar membrane. Thus, the ET Spiral gives tone chroma as θ, tone height as the cent scale, and the cochlear map as the arclength. The possible implications and directions for further work are discussed.

  10. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  11. Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics?

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Erickson, Brandon J.; Sgroi, Terrance; Vignona, Peter; Lesniak, Matthew; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Injuries of the adolescent shoulder and elbow are common in baseball pitchers. Fatigue has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for injury. Purpose: To determine if shoulder and elbow kinematics, pitching velocity, accuracy, and pain change during a simulated full baseball game in adolescent pitchers. Methods: Methods: Adolescent pitchers between the ages of 13-16 were recruited to throw a 90 pitch simulated game. Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and after the game. Velocity and accuracy were measured for every pitch and every 15th pitch was videotaped from two orthogonal views in high definition at 240 Hz. Quantitative and qualitative mechanics were measured from these videos. Perceived fatigue and pain were assessed after each inning using the visual analog scale. Data was statistically analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Results: Twenty-eight elite adolescent pitchers were included. These pitchers, on average, were 14.6±0.9 years old (mean ± standard deviation), had been pitching for 6.3±1.7 years, and threw 94±58 pitches per week. Our experimental model functioned as expected in that pitchers became progressively more fatigued and painful and pitched with a lower velocity as pitch number increased (p<0.001, 0.001, and <0.001 respectively). Knee flexion at ball release progressively increased with pitch number (p=0.008). Hip and shoulder separation significantly decreased as pitch number increased, from 90%±40% at pitch 15 to 40%±50% at pitch 90 (p0.271 in all cases, 91% power for elbow flexion at ball release). External rotation and total range of motion in the pitching shoulder significantly increased post-pitching (p=0.007 and 0.047 respectively). Conclusion: Conclusion: As pitchers progress through a simulated game they throw lower velocity pitches and become fatigued and painful. Core and leg musculature becomes fatigued before upper extremity kinematics change. Based upon these

  12. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. An examination of slo-pitch pitching trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom; Gervais, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many slo-pitch coaches and players believe that generating spin on a ball can affect its trajectory. The influence of air resistance on a ball that is thrown at a moderate speed and spin is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of spin on the ball's trajectory in slo-pitch pitching using both experimental results and ball flight simulations. Fourteen pitchers participated in the study, each of whom threw five backspin and topspin pitches each. Data were collected using standard three-dimensional videography. The horizontal velocity, vertical velocity, angular velocity, release height, and horizontal displacement of the backspin pitches were significantly higher than those of the topspin pitches. The ball flight simulations were developed to examine the influence of the ball spin, and it was concluded that the spin of the ball had a significant effect on the ball's vertical and horizontal displacements. Furthermore, our results suggest that a backspin pitch that reaches the maximum height allowable and lands in the front edge of the strike zone has the steepest slope. The present results add to our understanding of projectile motion and aerodynamics. PMID:18341138

  16. Singing with yourself: evidence for an inverse modeling account of poor-pitch singing.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

    2014-05-01

    Singing is a ubiquitous and culturally significant activity that humans engage in from an early age. Nevertheless, some individuals - termed poor-pitch singers - are unable to match target pitches within a musical semitone while singing. In the experiments reported here, we tested whether poor-pitch singing deficits would be reduced when individuals imitate recordings of themselves as opposed to recordings of other individuals. This prediction was based on the hypothesis that poor-pitch singers have not developed an abstract "inverse model" of the auditory-vocal system and instead must rely on sensorimotor associations that they have experienced directly, which is true for sequences an individual has already produced. In three experiments, participants, both accurate and poor-pitch singers, were better able to imitate sung recordings of themselves than sung recordings of other singers. However, this self-advantage was enhanced for poor-pitch singers. These effects were not a byproduct of self-recognition (Experiment 1), vocal timbre (Experiment 2), or the absolute pitch of target recordings (i.e., the advantage remains when recordings are transposed, Experiment 3). Results support the conceptualization of poor-pitch singing as an imitative deficit resulting from a deficient inverse model of the auditory-vocal system with respect to pitch. PMID:24480454

  17. Silicon modeling of pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, J; Mead, C

    1989-12-01

    We have designed and tested an integrated circuit that models human pitch perception. The chip receives as input a time-varying voltage corresponding to sound pressure at the ear and produces as output a map of perceived pitch. The chip is a physiological model; subcircuits on the chip correspond to known and proposed structures in the auditory system. Chip output approximates human performance in response to a variety of classical pitch-perception stimuli. The 125,000-transistor chip computes all outputs in real time by using analog continuous-time processing. PMID:2594787

  18. STS-133: Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver

    NASA Video Gallery

    At 1:15 p.m. EST Saturday, space shuttle Discovery began the nine-minute Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, or "backflip." With Commander Steve Lindsey at the helm, Discovery rotated 360 degrees backward t...

  19. STS-134: Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 18, 2011, space shuttle Endeavour performed the Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, or "backflip." With Commander Mark Kelly at the helm, Endeavour rotated 360 degrees backward to enable Internationa...

  20. STS-135: Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 10, 2011, space shuttle Atlantis performed the nine-minute Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, or “backflip.” With Commander Chris Ferguson at the helm, Atlantis rotated 360 degrees backward to ...

  1. AP-Gate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    In May 2001, students in the author's Advanced Placement (AP) United States History class were embroiled in a controversy surrounding the AP exam, in particular, having access to the exam's Document Based Question (DBQ) and free response portion prior to the test's administration. Prior to the exam, the College Board had provided a fifty-year time…

  2. Impaired memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    We examined memory for pitch in congenital amusia in two tasks. In one task, we varied the pitch distance between the target and comparison tone from 4 to 9 semitones and inserted either a silence or 6 interpolated tones between the tones to be compared. In a second task, we manipulated the number of pitches to be retained in sequences of length 1, 3, or 5. Amusics' sensitivity to pitch distance was exacerbated by the presence of interpolated tones, and amusics' performance was more strongly affected by the number of pitches to maintain in memory than controls. A pitch perception deficit could not account for the pitch memory deficit of amusics. PMID:19673791

  3. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. PMID:26385332

  4. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  5. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  6. Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: a signal detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Anna; Mottron, Laurent; Peretz, Isabelle; Trudel, Manon; Gallun, Erick; Bonnel, Anne-Marie

    2003-02-15

    Past research has shown a superiority of participants with high-functioning autism over comparison groups in memorizing picture-pitch associations and in detecting pitch changes in melodies. A subset of individuals with autism, known as "musical savants," is also known to possess absolute pitch. This superiority might be due to an abnormally high sensitivity to fine-grained pitch differences in sounds. To test this hypothesis, psychoacoustic tasks were devised so as to use a signal detection methodology. Participants were all musically untrained and were divided into a group of 12 high-functioning individuals with autism and a group of 12 normally developing individuals. Their task was to judge the pitch of pure tones in a "same-different" discrimination task and in a "high-low" categorization task. In both tasks, the obtained psychometric functions revealed higher pitch sensitivity for subjects with autism, with a more pronounced advantage over control participants in the categorization task. These findings confirm that pitch processing is enhanced in "high-functioning" autism. Superior performance in pitch discrimination and categorization extends previous findings of enhanced visual performance to the auditory domain. Thus, and as predicted by the enhanced perceptual functioning model for peaks of ability in autism (Mottron & Burack, 2001), autistic individuals outperform typically developing population in a variety of low-level perceptual tasks. PMID:12676060

  7. Cancellation model of pitch perception.

    PubMed

    de Cheveigné, A

    1998-03-01

    A model of pitch perception is presented involving an array of delay lines and inhibitory gating neurons. In response to a periodic sound, a minimum appears in the pattern of outputs of the inhibitory neurons at a lag equal to the period of the sound. The position of this minimum is the cue to pitch. The model is similar to the autocorrelation model of pitch, multiplication being replaced by an operation similar to subtraction, and maxima by minima. The two models account for a wide class of pitch phenomena in very much the same way. The principal goal of this paper is to demonstrate this fact. Several features of the cancellation model may be to its advantage: it is closely related to the operation of harmonic cancellation that can account for segregation of concurrent harmonic stimuli, it can be generalized to explain the perception of multiple pitches, and it shows a greater degree of sensitivity to phase than autocorrelation, which may allow it to explain certain phenomena that autocorrelation cannot account for. PMID:9514016

  8. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  9. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  10. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge

  11. Photobase generator assisted pitch division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyu; Bates, Christopher M.; Cho, Younjin; Kawakami, Takanori; Nagai, Tomoki; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Sundaresan, Arunkumar K.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Bristol, Robert; Zimmerman, Paul; Willson, C. Grant

    2010-04-01

    The drive to sustain the improvements in productivity that derive from following Moore's law has led the semiconductor industry to explore new technologies that enable production of smaller and smaller features on semiconductor device. Pitch division techniques and double exposure lithography are approaches that print features beyond the fundamental resolution limit of state-of-art lenses by modifying the lithographic process. This paper presents a new technique that enables pitch division in the printing of gratings using only a single exposure that is fully compatible with the current manufacturing tools. This technique employs a classical photoresist polymer together with a photoactive system that incorporates both a photoacid generator (PAG) and a photobase generator (PBG). The PBG is added to the resist formulation in higher molar concentration than the PAG, but has a base production rate that is slower than the acid production rate of the PAG. The PBG functions as a dose-dependent base quencher, which neutralizes the acid in high dose exposure regions but not in the low dose regions. This photoactive system can be exploited in the design of both positive tone and negative tone resist formulations that provide a developed image of a grating that is twice the frequency of the grating on the mask. A simulation of this process was performed for a 52 nm line and space pattern using PROLITH and customized codes. The results showed generation of a 26 nm half pitch relief image after development. Through this new technique, a 45 nm half pitch line and space pattern was experimentally achieved with a mask that produces a 90 nm half pitch aerial image. This corresponds to a k1 factor of 0.13. The principles, the materials design and the first lithographic evaluations of this system are reported.

  12. Propeller/fan-pitch feathering apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, Jan C. (Inventor); Adamson, Arthur P. (Inventor); Bathori, Julius (Inventor); Walker, Neil (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pitch feathering system for a gas turbine driven aircraft propeller having multiple variable pitch blades utilizes a counter-weight linked to the blades. The weight is constrained to move, when effecting a pitch change, only in a radial plane and about an axis which rotates about the propeller axis. The system includes a linkage allowing the weight to move through a larger angle than the associated pitch change of the blade.

  13. Method of casting pitch based foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

  14. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  15. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  16. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  17. Music Lessons, Pitch Processing, and "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Moreno, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Musically trained and untrained participants were administered tests of pitch processing and general intelligence ("g"). Trained participants exhibited superior performance on tests of pitch-processing speed and relative pitch. They were also better at frequency discrimination with tones at 400 Hz but not with very high tones (4000 Hz). The two…

  18. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  19. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  20. APS undulator radiation: First results

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Dejus, R.J.; Hartog, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    The first undulator radiation has been extracted from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The results from the characterization of this radiation are very satisfactory. With the undulator set at a gap of 15.8 mm (K=1.61), harmonics as high as the 17th were observed using a crystal spectrometer. The angular distribution of the third-harmonic radiation was measured, and the source was imaged using a zone plate to determine the particle beam emittance. The horizontal beam emittance was found to be 6.9 {plus_minus} 1.0 nm-rad, and the vertical emittance coupling was found to be less than 3%. The absolute spectral flux was measured over a wide range of photon energies, and it agrees remarkably well with the theoretical calculations based on the measured undulator magnetic field profile and the measured beam emittance. These results indicate that both the emittance of the electron beam and the undulator magnetic field quality exceed the original specifications.

  1. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch

    DOEpatents

    Greskovich, Eugene J.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

  2. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  3. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  4. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10–15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,” has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language. PMID:21811479

  5. Individuals with congenital amusia imitate pitches more accurately in singing than in speaking: implications for music and language processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Jiang, Cunmei; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T; Xu, Yi; Yang, Yufang; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of congenital amusia, a disorder of musical processing, on speech and song imitation in speakers of a tone language, Mandarin. A group of 13 Mandarin-speaking individuals with congenital amusia and 13 matched controls were recorded while imitating a set of speech and two sets of song stimuli with varying pitch and rhythm patterns. The results indicated that individuals with congenital amusia were worse than controls in both speech and song imitation, in terms of both pitch matching (absolute and relative) and rhythm matching (relative time and number of time errors). Like the controls, individuals with congenital amusia achieved better absolute and relative pitch matching and made fewer pitch interval and contour errors in song than in speech imitation. These findings point toward domain-general pitch (and time) production deficits in congenital amusia, suggesting the presence of shared pitch production mechanisms but distinct requirements for pitch-matching accuracy in language and music processing. PMID:23877539

  6. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  7. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  8. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  9. Eye Orientation During Static Tilts and Its Relationship to Spontaneous Head Pitch in the Laboratory Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Oommen, Brian S.; Stahl, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Both eye position and head orientation are influenced by the macular (otolith) organs, via the tilt maculo-ocular reflex (tiltMOR) and the vestibulo-collic reflexes, respectively. The mechanisms that control head position also influence the rest position of the eye, because head orientation influences eye position through the tiltMOR. Despite the increasing popularity of mice for studies of vestibular and ocular motor functions, relatively little is known in this species about tiltMOR, spontaneous orientation of the head, and their interrelationship. We used 2D video oculography to determine in C57BL/6 mice the absolute horizontal and vertical positions of the eyes over body orientations spanning 360° about the pitch and roll axes. We also determined head pitch during ambulation in the same animals. Eye elevation varied approximately sinusoidally as functions of pitch or roll angle. Over the central ±30° of pitch, sensitivity and gain in the light were 31.7°/g and 0.53, respectively. The corresponding values for roll were 31.5°/g and 0.52. Absolute positions adopted in light and darkness differed only slightly. During ambulation, mice carried the lambda-bregma plane at a downward pitch of 29°, corresponding to a horizontal eye position of 64° and a vertical eye position of 22°. The vertical position is near the center of the range of eye movements produced by the pitch tiltMOR. The results indicate the tiltMOR is robust in this species, and favor standardizing pitch orientation across laboratories. The robust tiltMOR also has significant methodological implications for the practice of pupil-tracking video oculography in this species. PMID:18178173

  10. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  11. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  12. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  13. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual’s threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory. PMID:24205375

  14. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory. PMID:24205375

  15. Local Cochlear Correlations of Perceived Pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoli, Stefan; Stoop, Ruedi

    2010-07-01

    Pitch is one of the most salient attributes of the human perception of sound, but is still not well understood. This difficulty originates in the entwined nature of the phenomenon, in which a physical stimulus as well as a psychophysiological signal receiver are involved. In an electronic realization of a biophysically detailed nonlinear model of the cochlea, we find local cochlear correlates of the perceived pitch that explain all essential pitch-shifting phenomena from physical grounds.

  16. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  17. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  18. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  19. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    PubMed Central

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  20. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB).

    PubMed

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  1. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We’ve already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience. In regards to dynamic pitch, we do not yet know whether the multiple pitch-related transient components of the CPR reflect specific temporal attributes of such stimuli. Here we examine the sensitivity of the multiple transient components of CPR to changes in pitch acceleration associated with the Mandarin high rising lexical tone. CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na-Pb and Pb-Nb showed a systematic increase in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc-Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset. We therefore propose that in the early stages of cortical sensory processing, a series of neural markers flag different temporal attributes of a dynamic pitch contour: onset of temporal regularity (Na); changes in temporal regularity between onset and offset (Na-Pb, Pb-Nb); and offset of temporal regularity (Pc-Nc). At the temporal electrode sites, the stimulus with the most gradual change in pitch acceleration evoked a rightward asymmetry. Yet within the left hemisphere, stimuli with more gradual change were indistinguishable. These findings highlight the emergence of early hemispheric preferences and their functional roles as related to

  2. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  3. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  4. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  5. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates. PMID:22831751

  6. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2015-04-01

    pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models.

  7. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models. PMID:26177846

  8. Pitch evaluation of high-precision gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yancong; Zhou, Changhe; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Xiang, Xiansong; Li, Yanyang; Yu, Junjie; Li, Shubin; Wang, Jin; Liu, Kun; Wei, Shengbin

    2014-11-01

    Optical encoders and laser interferometers are two primary solutions in nanometer metrology. As the precision of encoders depends on the uniformity of grating pitches, it is essential to evaluate pitches accurately. We use a CCD image sensor to acquire grating image for evaluating the pitches with high precision. Digital image correlation technique is applied to filter out the noises. We propose three methods for determining the pitches of grating with peak positions of correlation coefficients. Numerical simulation indicated the average of pitch deviations from the true pitch and the pitch variations are less than 0.02 pixel and 0.1 pixel for these three methods when the ideal grating image is added with salt and pepper noise, speckle noise, and Gaussian noise. Experimental results demonstrated that our method can measure the pitch of the grating accurately, for example, our home-made grating with 20μm period has 475nm peak-to-valley uniformity with 40nm standard deviation during 35mm range. Another measurement illustrated that our home-made grating has 40nm peak-to-valley uniformity with 10nm standard deviation. This work verified that our lab can fabricate high-accuracy gratings which should be interesting for practical application in optical encoders.

  9. Video Game Programmers Learn to "Pitch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    New video and computer game ideas reach the stage of production by a company when they are "pitched" by game developers to game publishers. Learning how to "pitch" technology products has great educational value for technology education students. In this article, the author shares his experience with helping his students master the art of the…

  10. Pitch-Learning Algorithm For Speech Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, B. R. Udaya

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive algorithm detects and corrects errors in sequence of estimates of pitch period of speech. Algorithm operates in conjunction with techniques used to estimate pitch period. Used in such parametric and hybrid speech coders as linear predictive coders and adaptive predictive coders.

  11. Ideomotor effects of pitch on continuation tapping.

    PubMed

    Ammirante, Paolo; Thompson, William F; Russo, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    The ideomotor principle predicts that perception will modulate action where overlap exists between perceptual and motor representations of action. This effect is demonstrated with auditory stimuli. Previous perceptual evidence suggests that pitch contour and pitch distance in tone sequences may elicit tonal motion effects consistent with listeners' implicit awareness of the lawful dynamics of locomotive bodies. To examine modulating effects of perception on action, participants in a continuation tapping task produced a steady tempo. Auditory tones were triggered by each tap. Pitch contour randomly and persistently varied within trials. Pitch distance between successive tones varied between trials. Although participants were instructed to ignore them, tones systematically affected finger dynamics and timing. Where pitch contour implied positive acceleration, the following tap and the intertap interval (ITI) that it completed were faster. Where pitch contour implied negative acceleration, the following tap and the ITI that it completed were slower. Tempo was faster with greater pitch distance. Musical training did not predict the magnitude of these effects. There were no generalized effects on timing variability. Pitch contour findings demonstrate how tonal motion may elicit the spontaneous production of accents found in expressive music performance. PMID:20694921

  12. Auditory and Visual Similarity of Pitch Contours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Dik J.

    1998-01-01

    In two experiments, five phoneticians rated the dissimilarity of two pitch contours to investigate whether important audible differences would correspond with visually conspicuous differences between displayed pitch contours. Results indicate that visual feedback may be very effective in intonation training if auditorily relevant features of pitch…

  13. Measuring the Perceptual Similarity of Pitch Contours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Dik J.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of four different methods for measuring the similarity of pitch contours. The correlation coefficient between two normalized contours was the best method; however, if pitch range is important, the mean distance and the root-mean-square distance should be considered first in automatic training in…

  14. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We have already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience … CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na–Pb and Pb–Nb showed a systematic decrease in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc–Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset … and their functional roles as related to sensory and cognitive properties of the stimulus. [Corrected] PMID:24751993

  15. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  16. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  17. Enhanced Cortical Connectivity in Absolute Pitch Musicians: A Model for Local Hyperconnectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Psyche; Li, H. Charles; Hohmann, Anja; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Connectivity in the human brain has received increased scientific interest in recent years. Although connection disorders can affect perception, production, learning, and memory, few studies have associated brain connectivity with graded variations in human behavior, especially among normal individuals. One group of normal individuals who possess…

  18. Online Recognition of Music Is Influenced by Relative and Absolute Pitch Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments explored online recognition in a nonspeech domain, using a novel experimental paradigm. Adults learned to associate abstract shapes with particular melodies, and at test they identified a played melody's associated shape. To implicitly measure recognition, visual fixations to the associated shape versus a distractor shape were…

  19. Development of TIF based figuring algorithm for deterministic pitch tool polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hyun-Su; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2007-12-01

    Pitch is perhaps the oldest material used for optical polishing, leaving superior surface texture, and has been used widely in the optics shop floor. However, for its unpredictable controllability of removal characteristics, the pitch tool polishing has been rarely analysed quantitatively and many optics shops rely heavily on optician's "feel" even today. In order to bring a degree of process controllability to the pitch tool polishing, we added motorized tool motions to the conventional Draper type polishing machine and modelled the tool path in the absolute machine coordinate. We then produced a number of Tool Influence Function (TIF) both from an analytical model and a series of experimental polishing runs using the pitch tool. The theoretical TIFs agreed well with the experimental TIFs to the profile accuracy of 79 % in terms of its shape. The surface figuring algorithm was then developed in-house utilizing both theoretical and experimental TIFs. We are currently undertaking a series of trial figuring experiments to prove the performance of the polishing algorithm, and the early results indicate that the highly deterministic material removal control with the pitch tool can be achieved to a certain level of form error. The machine renovation, TIF theory and experimental confirmation, figuring simulation results are reported together with implications to deterministic polishing.

  20. On drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?

    PubMed Central

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer to more generally as individuals having a “vocal pitch imitation deficit.” The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability. PMID:26029088

  1. Perception of pitch height in lexical and musical tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Lekich, Allison; Zhang, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the music-speech relationship by examining pitch height perception in lexical and musical tones. English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians identified multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without typical cues for speaker normalization. The musicians also identified note names of piano, viola, and pure tones without a reference pitch. In the Taiwanese task, both the musicians and nonmusicians were able to identify tone height above chance, but only for tones at the extremes of the speakers' overall vocal range. The musicians only had a slight advantage over the nonmusicians. In the music task, none of the musicians met the criterion for absolute pitch. Timbre did not affect how accurately the musical tones were identified. No correlations were found between performance in the Taiwanese task and that in the music task. It was concluded that musicians' advantage in lexical tone perception arose from the ability to track F0 contours. The ability to identify pitch height in lexical tones appears to involve calibrating acoustic input according to gender-specific, internally stored pitch templates. PMID:24606295

  2. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  3. Bathymetric surveying with GPS and heave, pitch, and roll compensation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, P.A.; Hansen, M.; Rogers, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Field and laboratory tests of a shipborne hydrographic survey system were conducted. The system consists of two 12-channel GPS receivers (one on-board, one fixed on shore), a digital acoustic fathometer, and a digital heave-pitch-roll (HPR) recorder. Laboratory tests of the HPR recorder and fathometer are documented. Results of field tests of the isolated GPS system and then of the entire suite of instruments are presented. A method for data reduction is developed to account for vertical errors introduced by roll and pitch of the survey vessel, which can be substantial (decimeters). The GPS vertical position data are found to be reliable to 2-3 cm and the fathometer to 5 cm in the laboratory. The field test of the complete system in shallow water (<2 m) indicates absolute vertical accuracy of 10-20 cm. Much of this error is attributed to the fathometer. Careful surveying and equipment setup can minimize systematic error and yield much smaller average errors.

  4. Perception of pitch location within a speaker's F0 range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorof, Douglas N.; Whalen, D. H.

    2005-04-01

    Fundamental frequency (F0) is used for many purposes in speech, but its linguistic significance is based on its relation to the speaker's range, not its absolute value. While it may be that listeners can gauge a specific pitch relative to a speaker's range by recognizing it from experience, whether they can do the same for an unfamiliar voice is an open question. The present experiment explored that question. Twenty native speakers of English (10 male, 10 female) produced the vowel /opena/ with a spoken (not sung) voice quality at varying pitches within their own ranges. Listeners then judged, without familiarization or context, where each isolated F0 lay within each speaker's range. Correlations were high both for the entire range (0.721) and for the range minus the extremes (0.609). Correlations were somewhat higher when the F0s were related to the range of all the speakers, either separated by sex (0.830) or pooled (0.848), but several factors discussed here may help account for this pattern. Regardless, the present data provide strong support for the hypothesis that listeners are able to locate an F0 reliably within a range without external context or prior exposure to a speaker's voice. .

  5. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  6. Imperfect pitch: Gabor's uncertainty principle and the pitch of extremely brief sounds.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2016-02-01

    How brief must a sound be before its pitch is no longer perceived? The uncertainty tradeoff between temporal and spectral resolution (Gabor's principle) limits the minimum duration required for accurate pitch identification or discrimination. Prior studies have reported that pitch can be extracted from sinusoidal pulses as brief as half a cycle. This finding has been used in a number of classic papers to develop models of pitch encoding. We have found that phase randomization, which eliminates timbre confounds, degrades this ability to chance, raising serious concerns over the foundation on which classic pitch models have been built. The current study investigated whether subthreshold pitch cues may still exist in partial-cycle pulses revealed through statistical integration in a time series containing multiple pulses. To this end, we measured frequency-discrimination thresholds in a two-interval forced-choice task for trains of partial-cycle random-phase tone pulses. We found that residual pitch cues exist in these pulses but discriminating them requires an order of magnitude (ten times) larger frequency difference than that reported previously, necessitating a re-evaluation of pitch models built on earlier findings. We also found that as pulse duration is decreased to less than two cycles its pitch becomes biased toward higher frequencies, consistent with predictions of an auto-correlation model of pitch extraction. PMID:26022837

  7. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-04

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP.

  8. Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

    1994-09-01

    Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

  9. SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, David L.; Anderson, Phillip C.

    2002-01-01

    This final research report summarizes the scientific work performed by The Aerospace Corporation on SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions. The period of performance was from June 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001.

  10. Empire expands on its 15% pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1981-10-01

    Empire Energy operates two mines, Eagle No. 5 and Eagle No. 9, in northwest Colorado, near Craig. Under new ownership, will seek to raise output from its pitching seams through greater use of continuous miners and diesel equipment.

  11. Method for extruding pitch based foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extruding pitch based foam is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: forming a viscous pitch foam; passing the precursor through an extrusion tube; and subjecting the precursor in said extrusion tube to a temperature gradient which varies along the length of the extrusion tube to form an extruded carbon foam. The apparatus includes an extrusion tube having a passageway communicatively connected to a chamber in which a viscous pitch foam formed in the chamber paring through the extrusion tube, and a heating mechanism in thermal communication with the tube for heating the viscous pitch foam along the length of the tube in accordance with a predetermined temperature gradient.

  12. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  13. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association—the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders—remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means ‘teacher’ and ‘to try’ when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  14. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  15. Cam-Operated Pitch-Change Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, P. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A pitch-change apparatus for a ducted thrust fan having a plurality of variable pitch blades employs a camming ring mounted coaxially at the hub at an axially fixed station along the hub axis for rotation about the hub axis both with the blades and relative to the blades. The ring has a generally spherical outer periphery and a plurality of helical camming grooves extending in a generally spherical plane on the periphery. Each of the variable pitch blades is connected to a pitch-change horn having a cam follower mounted on its outer end, and the camming ring and the horns are so arranged about the hub axis that the plurality of followers on the horns engage respectively the plurality of helical camming grooves. Rotary drive means rotates the camming ring relative to the blades to cause blade pitch to be changed through the cooperative operation of the camming grooves on the ring and the cam followers on the pitch-change horns.

  16. Familiarity and preference for pitch probability profiles.

    PubMed

    Cui, Anja-Xiaoxing; Collett, Meghan J; Troje, Niko F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2015-05-01

    We investigated familiarity and preference judgments of participants toward a novel musical system. We exposed participants to tone sequences generated from a novel pitch probability profile. Afterward, we either asked participants to identify more familiar or we asked participants to identify preferred tone sequences in a two-alternative forced-choice task. The task paired a tone sequence generated from the pitch probability profile they had been exposed to and a tone sequence generated from another pitch probability profile at three levels of distinctiveness. We found that participants identified tone sequences as more familiar if they were generated from the same pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to. However, participants did not prefer these tone sequences. We interpret this relationship between familiarity and preference to be consistent with an inverted U-shaped relationship between knowledge and affect. The fact that participants identified tone sequences as even more familiar if they were generated from the more distinctive (caricatured) version of the pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to suggests that the statistical learning of the pitch probability profile is involved in gaining of musical knowledge. PMID:25838257

  17. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  18. Meet the APS Journal Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors of the APS journals invite you to join them for conversation. The Editors will be available to answer questions, hear your ideas, and discuss any comments about the journals. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served.

  19. A Neuronal Network Model for Pitch Selectivity and Representation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengcheng; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among convergent auditory nerve fibers across frequency channels. Their selectivity for only very fast rising slopes of convergent input enables these slope-detectors to distinguish the most prominent coincidences in multi-peaked input time courses. Pitch can then be estimated from the first-order interspike intervals of the slope-detectors. The regular firing pattern of the slope-detector neurons are similar for sounds sharing the same pitch despite the distinct timbres. The decoded pitch strengths also correlate well with the salience of pitch perception as reported by human listeners. Therefore, our model can serve as a neural representation for pitch. Our model performs successfully in estimating the pitch of missing fundamental complexes and reproducing the pitch variation with respect to the frequency shift of inharmonic complexes. It also accounts for the phase sensitivity of pitch perception in the cases of Schroeder phase, alternating phase and random phase relationships. Moreover, our model can also be applied to stochastic sound stimuli, iterated-ripple-noise, and account for their multiple pitch perceptions. PMID:27378900

  20. Adaptive back-stepping pitch angle control for wind turbine based on a new electro-hydraulic pitch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Ya-jing; Lei, Peng-fei; Liu, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    A new electro-hydraulic pitch system is proposed to smooth the output power and drive-train torque fluctuations for wind turbine. This new pitch system employs a servo-valve-controlled hydraulic motor to enhance pitch control performances. This pitch system is represented by a state-space model with parametric uncertainties and nonlinearities. An adaptive back-stepping pitch angle controller is synthesised based on this state-space model to accurately achieve the desired pitch angle control regardless of such uncertainties and nonlinearities. This pitch angle controller includes a back-stepping procedure and an adaption law to deal with such uncertainties and nonlinearities and hence to improve the final pitch control performances. The proposed pitch system and the designed pitch angle controller have been validated for achievable and efficient power and torque regulation performances by comparative experimental results under various operating conditions.

  1. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  2. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  3. The thickness of musical pitch: psychophysical evidence for linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Shayan, Shakila; Majid, Asifa; Casasanto, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Do people who speak different languages think differently, even when they are not using language? To find out, we used nonlinguistic psychophysical tasks to compare mental representations of musical pitch in native speakers of Dutch and Farsi. Dutch speakers describe pitches as high (hoog) or low (laag), whereas Farsi speakers describe pitches as thin (nazok) or thick (koloft). Differences in language were reflected in differences in performance on two pitch-reproduction tasks, even though the tasks used simple, nonlinguistic stimuli and responses. To test whether experience using language influences mental representations of pitch, we trained native Dutch speakers to describe pitch in terms of thickness, as Farsi speakers do. After the training, Dutch speakers' performance on a nonlinguistic psychophysical task resembled the performance of native Farsi speakers. People who use different linguistic space-pitch metaphors also think about pitch differently. Language can play a causal role in shaping nonlinguistic representations of musical pitch. PMID:23538914

  4. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  5. High-speed pitch angle sorter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Torbert, R. B.; Vandiver, James

    1991-01-01

    A high-speed method was developed to compress the two-dimensional angular distribution of space particles gathered by space plasma instrumentation into the angle distribution, where the pitch angle is polar angle with respect to the ambient magnetic field. The pitch angle sorter can handle rates of up to 2 MHz and it is designed to accommodate high angular resolution plasma analyzers that are placed on a rotating spacecraft. This compression is achieved by relying on digitally encoded lookup tables to eliminate all arithmetic operations while applying the high symmetry of this compression to reduce the amount of digital memory.

  6. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  7. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  8. High performance pitch-based carbon fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Tadokoro, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Hirotaka; Furuyama, Masatoshi

    1996-12-31

    The high performance pitch-based carbon fiber with smaller diameter, six micro in developed by Nippon Graphite Fiber Corporation. This fiber possesses high tensile modulus, high tensile strength, excellent yarn handle ability, low thermal expansion coefficient, and high thermal conductivity which make it an ideal material for space applications such as artificial satellites. Performance of this fiber as a reinforcement of composites was sufficient. With these characteristics, this pitch-based carbon fiber is expected to find wide variety of possible applications in space structures, industrial field, sporting goods and civil infrastructures.

  9. Intonation in unaccompanied singing: accuracy, drift, and a model of reference pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Matthias; Frieler, Klaus; Dixon, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation and intonation drift in unaccompanied singing, and proposes a simple model of reference pitch memory that accounts for many of the effects observed. Singing experiments were conducted with 24 singers of varying ability under three conditions (Normal, Masked, Imagined). Over the duration of a recording, ∼50 s, a median absolute intonation drift of 11 cents was observed. While smaller than the median note error (19 cents), drift was significant in 22% of recordings. Drift magnitude did not correlate with other measures of singing accuracy, singing experience, or the presence of conditions tested. Furthermore, it is shown that neither a static intonation memory model nor a memoryless interval-based intonation model can account for the accuracy and drift behavior observed. The proposed causal model provides a better explanation as it treats the reference pitch as a changing latent variable. PMID:24993224

  10. Investigation into the Role of Dragonfly Wing Flexibility During Passive Wing Pitch Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Yousaf; Williams, Ventress; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Wing deformation is a characteristic part of flapping wing flight. In dragonflies, a torsion wave can be observed propagating from the tip to the root during stroke reversal. In this paper, we utilize high-speed photogrammetry and 3d surface reconstruction techniques to quantify wing deformation and kinematics of a dragonfly. We then use finite elements in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation to estimate strain energy in the wing during wing pitch reversal. We use this data to analyze the role of wing structure in facilitating wing rotation and bringing about the characteristic torsion wave. The influence of the elastic force in facilitating wing rotation is then compared with inertial and aerodynamic forces as well. A quantitative look into the variation of strain energy within the insect wing during wing rotation could lead to more efficient design of dynamic wing pitching mechanisms. Supported by NSF CBET-1343154.

  11. The effects of stride technique and pitch location on slo-pitch batting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom; Gervais, Pierre; Baudin, Pierre; Bouffard, Marcel

    2011-11-01

    In slo-pitch softball, the ball is delivered in an arc trajectory with a moderate velocity; hence, batters have time to adjust their stride technique based on the pitched ball location. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of stride technique and pitched ball location on the mechanics of slo-pitch batting. A two-way ANOVA of two locations of pitch (inside and outside) x three strides (open, parallel, and closed) repeated measure study was conducted in this study. The results showed that the stride technique and pitched ball location did not have a consistent impact on the participants across different batting conditions, so the study recommends slo-pitch batters to explore different stride techniques when striking the ball. Further, to better understand the generalizability of the findings, the results indicated that participants were quite homogeneous as a group. Hence, coaches and educators may apply the findings from this study to other players with similar skill level. PMID:22303786

  12. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  13. Euphorbesulins A-P, Structurally Diverse Diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Wu, Yan; Dalal, Seema; Cassera, Maria B; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-08-26

    Aqueous ethanol extracts of powdered twigs of Euphorbia esula afforded 16 new diterpenoids, named euphorbesulins A-P. These euphorbesulins included presegetane (1-3), jatrophane (4-14), paraliane (15), and isopimarane (16) diterpenoids as well as six known analogues. Compounds 1-3 represent a rare type of presegetane diterpenoid. Their structures were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray crystallography. Diterpenoid 7 showed low nanomolar antimalarial activity, while the remaining compounds showed only moderate or no antimalarial activity. PMID:27447736

  14. Perceptual fusion of polyphonic pitch in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Patrick J; Guo, Benjamin Z; Limb, Charles J

    2009-11-01

    In music, multiple pitches often occur simultaneously, an essential feature of harmony. In the present study, the authors assessed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive polyphonic pitch. Acoustically presented stimuli consisted of one, two, or three superposed tones with different fundamental frequencies (f(0)). The normal hearing control group obtained significantly higher mean scores than the CI group. CI users performed near chance levels in recognizing two- and three-pitch stimuli, and demonstrated perceptual fusion of multiple pitches as single-pitch units. These results suggest that limitations in polyphonic pitch perception may significantly impair music perception in CI users. PMID:19894787

  15. Tests of 250-nm pitch multilayer gratings in the XUV low-energy range on the Super-ACO Storage Ring at LURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, P.; Schirmann, D.; Dalmasso, J. M.; Malek, C. Khan; Berrouane, H.; Barchewitz, R.

    1992-04-01

    Two laminar amplitude multilayer gratings with 250-nm pitch were produced using UV holography and reactive ion etching. The diffraction properties of these structures were measured at 150 eV using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results, giving the position and absolute reflectivity of the various orders, are discussed within a kinematical model.

  16. Prelinguistic Pitch Patterns Expressing "Communication" and "Apprehension"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether pitch patterns of prelinguistic vocalizations could discriminate between social vocalizations, uttered apparently with the intention to communicate, and "private" speech, related to solitary activities as an expression of "thinking". Four healthy ten month old English-speaking infants (2 boys and 2 girls) were…

  17. Expectations for Melodic Contours Transcend Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Jackson E.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good “melodic continuation” involve melodic contour – the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show with two experiments that the generalization of contour perception to non-traditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for three-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the three auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that 1) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and 2) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. PMID:25365571

  18. Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. PMID:25365571

  19. Auditory Inspection Time, Intelligence and Pitch Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An auditory inspection time (AIT) test, pitch discrimination tests, and verbal and non-verbal mental ability tests were administered to 59 undergraduates and 119 12-year-old school children. Results indicate that AIT correlations with intelligence are due to AIT being an index of information intake speeds. (TJH)

  20. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  1. Effect of Tempo on Pitch Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated the perception of music majors and nonmusic majors concerning their ability to discriminate the way in which altered musical excerpts differed in pitch or tempo (or both) from preceding presentations. Concludes that both groups responded similarly across conditions and replications, and that tempo changes were…

  2. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  3. LDEF yaw and pitch angle estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Quantification of the LDEF yaw and pitch misorientations is crucial to the knowledge of atomic oxygen exposure of samples placed on LDEF. Video camera documentation of the LDEF spacecraft prior to grapple attachment, atomic oxygen shadows on experiment trays and longerons, and a pinhole atomic oxygen camera placed on LDEF provided sources of documentation of the yaw and pitch misorientation. Based on uncertainty-weighted averaging of data, the LDEF yaw offset was found to be 8.1 plus or minus 0.6 degrees, allowing higher atomic oxygen exposure of row 12 than initially anticipated. The LDEF pitch angle offset was found to be 0.8 plus or minus 0.4 degrees, such that the space end was tipped forward toward the direction of travel. The resulting consequences of the yaw and pitch misorientation of LDEF on the atomic oxygen fluence is a factor of 2.16 increase for samples located on row 12, and a factor of 1.18 increase for samples located on the space end compared to that which would be expected for perfect orientation.

  4. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  5. Coaching in the AP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many parallels exist between quality coaches and quality classroom teachers--especially AP teachers, who often feel the pressure to produce positive test results. Having developed a series of techniques and strategies for building a team-oriented winning culture on the field, Jim Fornaciari writes about how he adapted those methods to work in the…

  6. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  7. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  8. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  9. Voice source characterization using pitch synchronous discrete cosine transform for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, A G; Abhiram, B; Prasanna, S R Mahadeva

    2015-06-01

    A characterization of the voice source (VS) signal by the pitch synchronous (PS) discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. With the integrated linear prediction residual (ILPR) as the VS estimate, the PS DCT of the ILPR is evaluated as a feature vector for speaker identification (SID). On TIMIT and YOHO databases, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based classifier, it performs on par with existing VS-based features. On the NIST 2003 database, fusion with a GMM-based classifier using MFCC features improves the identification accuracy by 12% in absolute terms, proving that the proposed characterization has good promise as a feature for SID studies. PMID:26093457

  10. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kathryn E.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  11. Global and local pitch perception in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global condition). Compared to normally developing children, dyslexics showed robust pitch perception deficits in the local but not the global condition. This finding was replicated in a simple pitch direction task, which minimizes sequencing and short term memory. Results are consistent with a left-hemisphere deficit in dyslexia because local pitch changes are supposedly processed by the left hemisphere, whereas global pitch changes are processed by the right hemisphere. The present data suggest a link between impaired pitch processing and abnormal phonological development in children with dyslexia, which makes pitch pattern processing a potent tool for early diagnosis and remediation of dyslexia. PMID:22204845

  12. Dialectal differences in hemispheric specialization for Japanese lexical pitch accent.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Utsugi, Akira; Yamane, Naoto; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Language experience can alter perceptual abilities and the neural specialization for phonological contrasts. Here we investigated whether dialectal differences in the lexical use of pitch information lead to differences in functional lateralization for pitch processing. We measured cortical hemodynamic responses to pitch pattern changes in native speakers of Standard (Tokyo) Japanese, which has a lexical pitch accent system, and native speakers of 'accentless' dialects, which do not have any lexical tonal phenomena. While the Standard Japanese speakers showed left-dominant responses in temporal regions to pitch pattern changes within words, the accentless dialects speakers did not show such left-dominance. Pitch pattern changes within harmonic-complex tones also elicited different brain activation patterns between the two groups. These results indicate that the neural processing of pitch information differs depending on the listener's native dialect, and that listeners' linguistic experiences may further affect the processing of pitch changes even for non-linguistic sounds. PMID:24139706

  13. On Older Listeners' Ability to Perceive Dynamic Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jing; Wright, Richard; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Natural speech comes with variation in pitch, which serves as an important cue for speech recognition. The present study investigated older listeners' dynamic pitch perception with a focus on interindividual variability. In particular, we asked whether some of the older listeners' inability to perceive dynamic pitch stems from the higher…

  14. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure— (1) Safe...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and...

  18. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure— (1) Safe...

  19. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure— (1) Safe...

  20. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of...

  2. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of...

  5. Pitch attitude stabilization system utilizing engine pressure ratio feedback signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, W. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The changes in the engine pressure ratio signals which result from thrust changes are used to generate a pitch stabilization signal. The signal is combined with other pitch control signals to automatically counteract pitching moments resulting from the changes in engine thrust.

  6. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  7. Pitch, Loudness, and Turn Regulation in Akan Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between turn-regulation, the phonetic features of pitch, and loudness is examined in a study of two recorded natural conversations in Akan. Analysis of patterns in turn-delimitation suggests that (1) diminuendo loudness, a low pitch height, and falling pitch movement are treated by turn-occupants and their co-participants as…

  8. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and...

  11. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure- (1) Safe...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of...

  13. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, they must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1) Separate control of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and... synchronization of all propellers. (d) The propeller speed and pitch controls must be to the right of, and...

  16. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will ensure— (1) Safe...

  17. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that... the all engine(s) operating climb speed specified in § 23.65, the propeller must limit the engine...

  18. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  19. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statepitch height (highpitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  20. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  1. Acuity of mental representations of pitch.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr

    2012-04-01

    Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

  2. Prelinguistic pitch patterns expressing 'communication' and 'apprehension'.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2006-02-01

    This study examined whether pitch patterns of prelinguistic vocalizations could discriminate between social vocalizations, uttered apparently with the intention to communicate, and 'private' speech, related to solitary activities as an expression of 'thinking'. Four healthy ten month old English-speaking infants (2 boys and 2 girls) were simultaneously video- and audiorecorded in their homes under two conditions: (A) when the infant was playing with mother, and (B) when the infant was alone. One hundred and fifty-six vocalizations were classified as 'communicative', if accompanied by non-vocal communicative behaviour, or as 'investigative', if accompanied by explorative activities. For the acoustic analysis, an automatic PITCH PATTERN RECOGNITION (PPR) software system was developed. The PPR-system could distinguish 'communicative' from 'investigative' vocalizations with an overall accuracy of 91.67%. These findings confirm that prelinguistic vocalizations might serve both as means of purposeful communication and as a tool of thought. These are the functions later assumed by language. PMID:16566325

  3. Rapid pitch correction in choir singers.

    PubMed

    Grell, Anke; Sundberg, Johan; Ternström, Sten; Ptok, Martin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    Highly and moderately skilled choral singers listened to a perfect fifth reference, with the instruction to complement the fifth such that a major triad resulted. The fifth was suddenly and unexpectedly shifted in pitch, and the singers' task was to shift the fundamental frequency of the sung tone accordingly. The F0 curves during the transitions often showed two phases, an initial quick and large change followed by a slower and smaller change, apparently intended to fine-tune voice F0 to complement the fifth. Anesthetizing the vocal folds of moderately skilled singers tended to delay the reaction. The means of the response times varied in the range 197- 259 ms depending on direction and size of the pitch shifts, as well as on skill and anesthetization. PMID:19603897

  4. Attending to pitch information inhibits processing of pitch information: the curious case of amusia.

    PubMed

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    In normal listeners, the tonal rules of music guide musical expectancy. In a minority of individuals, known as amusics, the processing of tonality is disordered, which results in severe musical deficits. It has been shown that the tonal rules of music are neurally encoded, but not consciously available in amusics. Previous neurophysiological studies have not explicitly controlled the level of attention in tasks where participants ignored the tonal structure of the stimuli. Here, we test whether access to tonal knowledge can be demonstrated in congenital amusia when attention is controlled. Electric brain responses were recorded while asking participants to detect an individually adjusted near-threshold click in a melody. In half the melodies, a note was inserted that violated the tonal rules of music. In a second task, participants were presented with the same melodies but were required to detect the tonal deviation. Both tasks required sustained attention, thus conscious access to the rules of tonality was manipulated. In the click-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in both groups. In the pitch-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an ERAN and P600 in controls but not in amusics. These results indicate that pitch regularities are represented in the cortex of amusics, but are not consciously available. Moreover, performing a pitch-judgment task eliminated the ERAN in amusics, suggesting that attending to pitch information interferes with perception of pitch. We propose that an impaired top-down frontotemporal projection is responsible for this disorder. PMID:25740512

  5. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  6. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  7. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2003-12-02

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  8. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2003-12-16

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  9. Nucleation and growth of mesophase in thermolysis of petroleum pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, M.A.; Amerik, Y.B.; Anisimov, M.A.; Grishin, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper aims at determining the induction period and the rate of formation of the mesophase in thermolysis of pitches from residues differing in origin. In the thermolysis of isotropic petroleum residues that are mainly of secondary origin, an anistropic phase is formed, the so-called mesophase, similar in strucure to liquid crystals. IR spectroscopic data indicate a considerable content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the pitches. These results also indicate the predominance of aromatic hydrocarbons in the pitches. The formation of an anisotropic phase in the thermolysis of petroleum pitches is explained by the presence of ''blanks'' in these pitches--planar polyaromatic hydrocarbon fragments with a paraffinic-napthenic framework.

  10. Carbonization behavior of pitches containing fine molybdenum particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Wang, Xiangsheng; Kabe, Toshiaki . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Shono, Hiroaki . Mineral Fiber Research Lab.)

    1993-08-01

    In the carbonization of coal tar pitch and naphthalene pitch containing fine molybdenum particles, it was found by using a tritium tracer method that the fine molybdenum particles added into pitch in advance can selectively catalyze the dehydrogenation and polycondensation of saturated hydrocarbons below 700 C, and thereby the carbonization yield of coal tar pitch containing partially saturated structures or aliphatic side chains in its component molecules increased. Further, it could be inferred that the fine molybdenum particles mainly accelerate the release of the hydrogen which is difficult to isotopically exchange with water in the preparation of tritiated pitch in the presence of Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  11. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly with either cues. When pitch and loudness cues were co-varied, CI performance significantly improved, suggesting that CI users were able to integrate the two cues. PMID:24437857

  12. Through pitch monitoring by optical scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, R.; Hartig, C.; Grasshof, G.; Sass, B.; Koch, F.; Xu, Z.-.; Shen, Z.; Engelmann, J.

    2015-03-01

    Scatterometry critical dimension (SCD) technology in state of the art semiconductor manufacturing is a well-accepted and powerful technique to determine profile properties such as critical dimensions, sidewall angles, trench depths as well as layer thicknesses of microelectronic structures. The amount and combination of information receivable via SCD measurements makes it, as long as interpreted correctly and incoming process variations especially incoming material variations are well understood, superior to other measurement techniques such as critical dimension scanning electron microscopy (CDSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM). For high throughput inline process monitoring and feedback SCD models are usually generated for uniform gratings having fixed pitches representing dense areas of the microelectronic chip design. However, for purposes such as improvement in process tool matching, wafer uniformity or optical proximity correction (OPC) it is of great value if the measured test patterns do have different layout properties being representative for other design elements and styles as well. In this paper a through pitch SCD measurement within the shallow trench isolation (STI) layer on the 28nm node is presented. This approach allows to interpret, to tune and to monitor process tool behavior for different pattern densities using only one single specially designed lithography mask. Two different use cases are shown: for varying pitch sizes either the designed line CD or the designed space CD is kept constant. General SCD modelling approaches and examples to illustrate the key idea and practical use will be provided.

  13. Flapping propulsion with tip pitch control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    The effect of flexibility in the propulsion performance and efficiency of oscillating pitching foils has received a large amount of attention in the past years. Scientists have used simplified robotic models that mimic the kinematics of flying and swimming animals, in order to get inspiration to build more efficient engineering systems. Compliance is one of the aspects that has received more attention, as it seems to be a common feature in nature's flyers and swimmers. Active or passive control elements are also common in nature. We will show how thrust generation in a pitching fin, can be greatly affected by controlling the tip pitch motion dynamically and independently of the fin itself. This is in fact a controlled local change of curvature of the end of the fin. A robotic system has been designed in a way that not only flapping amplitudes and frequencies can be controlled, but also the amplitudes and frequencies of the tip and the phase difference between the tip and the fin. We measured thrust forces and the vortex dynamics in the near wake of the system, by using planar DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) in a wide variety of flapping situations with tip control. Funding from Spanish Ministry of Science through Grant DPI2012-37904 is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  15. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  16. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  17. Cortical encoding of pitch: Recent results and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Kerry M.M.; Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that the key predictor of the pitch of a sound is its periodicity. Neural structures which support pitch perception must therefore be able to reflect the repetition rate of a sound, but this alone is not sufficient. Since pitch is a psychoacoustic property, a putative cortical code for pitch must also be able to account for the relationship between the amount to which a sound is periodic (i.e. its temporal regularity) and the perceived pitch salience, as well as limits in our ability to detect pitch changes or to discriminate rising from falling pitch. Pitch codes must also be robust in the presence of nuisance variables such as loudness or timbre. Here, we review a large body of work on the cortical basis of pitch perception, which illustrates that the distribution of cortical processes that give rise to pitch perception is likely to depend on both the acoustical features and functional relevance of a sound. While previous studies have greatly advanced our understanding, we highlight several open questions regarding the neural basis of pitch perception. These questions can begin to be addressed through a cooperation of investigative efforts across species and experimental techniques, and, critically, by examining the responses of single neurons in behaving animals. PMID:20457240

  18. Finding the pitch of the missing fundamental in infants.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-06-17

    Pitch perception is critical for the perception of speech and music, for object identification, and for auditory scene analysis, whereby representations are derived for each sounding object in the environment from the complex sound wave that reaches the ears. The perceived pitch of a complex sound corresponds to its fundamental frequency. However, removal of energy at the fundamental does not alter the pitch because adults use the harmonics to derive the pitch (Bendor and Wang, 2005; Trainor, 2008). Although sound frequency is represented subcortically, the integration of harmonics into a representation of pitch does not occur until auditory cortex (Bendor and Wang, 2005). Given that auditory cortex is immature in young infants, we examined the development of cortical representations for pitch by measuring electrophysiological (EEG) responses to pitch changes that required processing the pitch of the missing fundamental. Adults and infants 4 months and older showed a mismatch negativity response to these pitch changes, but 3-month-old infants did not. Thus, cortical representations of the pitch of the missing fundamental emerge between 3 and 4 months of age, indicating that there is a profound change in auditory perception for pitch in early infancy. PMID:19535583

  19. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  20. Cortical pitch response components show differential sensitivity to native and nonnative pitch contours.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T; Suresh, Chandan H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate how nonspeech pitch contours of varying shape influence latency and amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) components differentially as a function of language experience. Stimuli included time-varying, high rising Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and linear rising ramp (Linear), and steady-state (Flat). Both the latency and magnitude of CPR components were differentially modulated by (i) the overall trajectory of pitch contours (time-varying vs. steady-state), (ii) their pitch acceleration rates (changing vs. constant), and (iii) their linguistic status (lexical vs. non-lexical). T2 elicited larger amplitude than Linear in both language groups, but size of the effect was larger in Chinese than English. The magnitude of CPR components elicited by T2 were larger for Chinese than English at the right temporal electrode site. Using the CPR, we provide evidence in support of experience-dependent modulation of dynamic pitch contours at an early stage of sensory processing. PMID:25306506

  1. Cortical pitch response components show differential sensitivity to native and nonnative pitch contours

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Suresh, Chandan H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate how nonspeech pitch contours of varying shape influence latency and amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) components differentially as a function of language experience. Stimuli included time-varying, high rising Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and linear rising ramp (Linear), and steady-state (Flat). Both the latency and magnitude of CPR components were differentially modulated by (i) the overall trajectory of pitch contours (time-varying vs. steady-state), (ii) their pitch acceleration rates (changing vs. constant), and (iii) their linguistic status (lexical vs. non-lexical). T2 elicited larger amplitude than Linear in both language groups, but size of the effect was larger in Chinese than English. The magnitude of CPR components elicited by T2 were larger for Chinese than English at the right temporal electrode site. Using the CPR, we provide evidence in support of experience-dependent modulation of dynamic pitch contours at an early stage of sensory processing. PMID:25306506

  2. A role for the intraparietal sulcus in transforming musical pitch information.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicholas E V; Zatorre, Robert J

    2010-06-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the neural substrates of relative pitch. Musicians and nonmusicians performed 2 same/different discrimination tasks (simple and transposed melody) that differed in whether they required precise encoding and comparison of relative pitch structure, along with 2 control tasks (rhythm and phoneme). The transposed melody task involved a musical transposition of 4 semitones between the target and comparison patterns, requiring listeners to use interval information rather than the absolute value of the individual pitches. Contrasting the transposed melody to the simple melody condition revealed greater activation in the cortex within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) bilaterally; control tasks did not elicit significant activity in the IPS. Moreover, a whole-brain voxel-wise regression analysis of brain oxygenation level-dependent signal showed that activity within the right IPS predicted task performance for both musicians and nonmusicians specifically in the transposed melody condition. Successful performance of the transposed melody task requires encoding and comparison of auditory patterns having different tonal reference points-thus simple tonal memory is not sufficient. Our results point to a role for the IPS in transforming high-level auditory information. We suggest that this area may support a general capacity for transformation and comparison of systematically related stimulus attributes. PMID:19789184

  3. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  4. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  5. Analytical study on mesocarbon microbeads derived from coal tar pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M.

    1999-07-01

    Pitches have been recognized as excellent precursors for carbon materials and their properties are considered to be influential on the properties and function of carbon material. For this reason, their detailed characterization is being required. Successful pitch characterization must satisfy the following points: (1) very complicated pitches can be clearly distinguished; (2) the performance of the final carbon product can be predicted by characterizing the precursor pitch at its molecular level; and (3) a satisfactory explanation can be provided for chemical and physical behavior of pitches for a given utilization process based on their structural differences. Successful pitch characterization is quite difficult to be attained because pitches are very complex mixtures containing several hundred compounds with different functionalities. Thus, the methods for their characterization are limited to the measurements of average structural parameters, such as softening point (SP), H/C atomic ratio, quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) fractions, aromaticity, carbon yield, etc.. Although these parameters can give a fairly good evaluation about pitch quality, they can not always explain why pitches with similar characteristics on traditional characterization techniques display a significantly different behavior. This fact provides a challenging subject in the field of pitch characterization. At the same time, there is a possibility that in a given case satisfactory important factors remain undetected due to the limitation of analytical techniques, thus leading to serious problems in the pitch utilization. Therefore, it seems to be essential to know, for a given utilization of pitches, which of the pitch properties normally measured is important and how this affects the behavior of pitch. Another serious difficulty in pitch characterization is the fact that pitches are normally not completely soluble in solvents. There is no single analytical technique which can

  6. A Structural Theory of Pitch1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Jonathan; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Musical notes can be ordered from low to high along a perceptual dimension called “pitch”. A characteristic property of these sounds is their periodic waveform, and periodicity generally correlates with pitch. Thus, pitch is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound’s waveform. However, the existence and salience of pitch also depends in a complex way on other factors, in particular harmonic content. For example, periodic sounds made of high-order harmonics tend to have a weaker pitch than those made of low-order harmonics. Here we examine the theoretical proposition that pitch is the perceptual correlate of the regularity structure of the vibration pattern of the basilar membrane, across place and time—a generalization of the traditional view on pitch. While this proposition also attributes pitch to periodic sounds, we show that it predicts differences between resolved and unresolved harmonic complexes and a complex domain of existence of pitch, in agreement with psychophysical experiments. We also present a possible neural mechanism for pitch estimation based on coincidence detection, which does not require long delays, in contrast with standard temporal models of pitch. PMID:26464959

  7. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    PubMed

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator. PMID:12964399

  8. Design of the small pixel pitch ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhai, Yongcheng; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2014-11-01

    Since the technology trend of the third generation IRFPA towards resolution enhancing has steadily progressed,the pixel pitch of IRFPA has been greatly reduced.A 640×512 readout integrated circuit(ROIC) of IRFPA with 15μm pixel pitch is presented in this paper.The 15μm pixel pitch ROIC design will face many challenges.As we all known,the integrating capacitor is a key performance parameter when considering pixel area,charge capacity and dynamic range,so we adopt the effective method of 2 by 2 pixels sharing an integrating capacitor to solve this problem.The input unit cell architecture will contain two paralleled sample and hold parts,which not only allow the FPA to be operated in full frame snapshot mode but also save relatively unit circuit area.Different applications need more matching input unit circuits. Because the dimension of 2×2 pixels is 30μm×30μm, an input stage based on direct injection (DI) which has medium injection ratio and small layout area is proved to be suitable for middle wave (MW) while BDI with three-transistor cascode amplifier for long wave(LW). By adopting the 0.35μm 2P4M mixed signal process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 7.8Me- per pixel with 2.2V output range for MW and 7.3 Me- per pixel with 2.6V output range for LW. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 5V power supply and achieves less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  9. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  10. Development of a Passively Varying Pitch Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzen, Stearns Beamon

    Small general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial systems are often equipped with sophisticated navigation, control, and other avionics, but retain propulsion systems consisting of retrofitted radio control and ultralight equipment. Consequently, new high performance airframes often rely on relatively primitive propulsive technology. This trend is beginning to shift with recent advances in small turboprop engines, fuel injected reciprocating engines, and improved electric technologies. Although these systems are technologically advanced, they are often paired with standard fixed pitch propellers. To fully realize the potential of these aircraft and the new generation of engines, small propellers which can efficiently transmit power over wide flight envelopes and a variety of power settings must be developed. This work demonstrates a propeller which passively adjusts to incoming airflow at a low penalty to aircraft weight and complexity. This allows the propeller to operate in an efficient configuration over a wide flight envelope, and can prevent blade stall in low-velocity / highly-loaded thrust cases and over-speeding at high flight speeds. The propeller incorporates blades which pivot freely on a radial axis and are aerodynamically tailored to attain and maintain a pitch angle yielding favorable local blade angles of attack, matched to changing inflow conditions. This blade angle is achieved through the use of reflexed airfoils designed for a positive pitching moment, comparable to those used on many tailless flying wings. By setting the axis of rotation at a point forward of the blade aerodynamic center, the blades will naturally adjust to a predetermined positive lift 'trim' condition. Then, as inflow conditions change, the blade angle will automatically pivot to maintain the same angle with respect to incoming air. Computational, wind tunnel, and flight test results indicate that the extent of efficient propeller operation can be increased dramatically as

  11. Helicopter Pitch-Control Mechanism Reduces Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H.

    1986-01-01

    Large forces accommodated without increasing weight of helicopter structure. New mechanism yields stiffer control and improves accuracy of pitch changes under load. As result, heavy casting not for gearbox, nor extra reinforcing members needed for fuselage bulkheads, stringers, skin, and other parts. In new mechanism, reaction forces developed in rotor hub. Long load paths to gearbox and fuselage elminated. Reaction member rigidly attached to hub and rotates with it. At lower end of reaction member, bearing forms bridge to fuselage through stationary beam and antirotation link. Beam connected to reaction plate through rods.

  12. Higher harmonic rotor blade pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewans, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Tests of a model 'Reverse Velocity Rotor' system at high advance ratios and with twice-per-revolution cyclic pitch control were made under joint Navy-NASA sponsorship in the NASA, Ames 12 ft. pressure tunnel. The results showed significant gains in rotor performance at all advance ratios by using twice-per-revolution control. Detailed design studies have been made of alternative methods of providing higher harmonic motion including four types of mechanical systems and an electro-hydraulic system. The relative advantages and disadvantages are evaluated on the basis of stiffness, weight, volume, reliability and maintainability.

  13. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space ("APS") for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of `unique solvability' and `identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  14. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  15. Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyland, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.

  16. Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillman, Birgit E.; Tinker, Flemming

    1999-11-01

    The various properties of polishing pitches have different advantages and are selected according to the type of work intended. It is important to check pitch properties before a pitch lap is poured; to ensure that the final polishing lap properties will be as desired. A simple penetrometer test is utilized as a quality control tool for measuring the hardness (viscosity) of various types of pitch as received from the manufacturer. Only a small sample, 20 grams, is needed for this test. Another simple method for determining pitch quality is the measurement of the softening point. A description of this method and typical results will be described. Lastly, the 'tackiness' of pitch and its importance will be discussed.

  17. Aerodynamic pitching damping of vehicle-inspired bluff bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubokura, Makoto; Cheng, Seeyuan; Nakashima, Takuji; Nouzawa, Takahide; Okada, Yoshihiro

    2010-11-01

    Aerodynamic damping mechanism of road vehicles subjected to pitching oscillation was investigated by using large-eddy simulation technique. The study was based on two kinds of simplified vehicle models, which represent real sedan-type vehicles with different pitching stability in the on-road test. The simplified vehicle modes were developed so as to reproduce the characteristic flow structures above the trunk deck of the real vehicles measured in a wind-tunnel at the static case without oscillation. The forced sinusoidal pitching oscillation was imposed on the models and their pitching damping factors were evaluated through the phase-averaged pitching moment. Then flow structures in the wake of the models were extracted and its contribution to the damping mechanism was discussed. It was found that slight difference of the front and rear pillars' shape drastically affects the flow structures in the wake of the models, which enhance or restrain the vehicles' pitching instability.

  18. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; VESTERGAARD, MARTIN D.; DENHAM, SUSAN L.; SZILLER, ISTVÁN; WINKLER, ISTVÁN

    2010-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation ofanearly negative andalater positive discriminative responsebydeviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities. PMID:19055501

  19. Segmentation and frequency domain ML pitch estimation of speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Salim A.

    The rate of oscillation of the vocal cords and its inverse value, the pitch period, are important speech features that are useful for speech analysis/synthesis, speech recognition, and speech coding. An automatic approach for the estimation of the pitch period in continuous speech is presented. The proposed approach considers the segmentation of the speech signal into homogeneous regions and the detection of segments that are generated by vocal cord oscillations prior to pitch estimation. The pitch period of voiced segments is estimated in the frequency domain using a maximum likelihood (ML) procedure. The estimated pitch period is chosen to maximize a likelihood function over the range of expected pitch periods. An efficient simplified realization of the generalized likelihood ratio segmentation method is also described.

  20. Enhancement of temporal cues to pitch in cochlear implants: effects on pitch ranking.

    PubMed

    Vandali, Andrew E; van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2012-07-01

    The abilities to hear changes in pitch for sung vowels and understand speech using an experimental sound coding strategy (eTone) that enhanced coding of temporal fundamental frequency (F0) information were tested in six cochlear implant users, and compared with performance using their clinical (ACE) strategy. In addition, rate- and modulation rate-pitch difference limens (DLs) were measured using synthetic stimuli with F0s below 300 Hz to determine psychophysical abilities of each subject and to provide experience in attending to rate cues for the judgment of pitch. Sung-vowel pitch ranking tests for stimuli separated by three semitones presented across an F0 range of one octave (139-277 Hz) showed a significant benefit for the experimental strategy compared to ACE. Average d-prime (d') values for eTone (d' = 1.05) were approximately three time larger than for ACE (d' = 0.35). Similar scores for both strategies in the speech recognition tests showed that coding of segmental speech information by the experimental strategy was not degraded. Average F0 DLs were consistent with results from previous studies and for all subjects were less than or equal to approximately three semitones for F0s of 125 and 200 Hz. PMID:22779486

  1. Effect of pitching history on the flow topology for freely pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Swathi; Mulleners, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Insect flapping flight represents an interesting aerodynamic problem because of the characteristic unsteadiness and the low Reynolds number of the airflow. The time dependent wing kinematics play a prominent role in the generation and evolution of the leading edge vortex (LEV). The changes in unsteady flow attributes due to differences in the time dependent wing kinematics pose an interesting case for study. Variations in the temporal evolution of the wing's angle of attack lead to changes in the size, position and strength of the LEV. Time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry was conducted on a freely pitching wing to gain insight into how the pitching history affects the vortex dynamics. To quantify the observed trends, a topological analysis of the instantaneous flow around the pitching wing is conducted. The isolated singular points (nodes, saddles, and foci) of a instantaneous vector field are analysed. Based on the type and distribution of the critical points, a better understanding of the emergence and spatio-temporal development of the prominent vortical structures is obtained. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition is carried out to study the influence of temporal changes in pitch on the dynamic behaviour of the vortical structures.

  2. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  3. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  4. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  5. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    PubMed

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. PMID:26961952

  6. Nanocal calibration and pitch recertification of a Hitachi microscale standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeremin, Dmitry; Nikitin, Arkady; Sicignano, Al; Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Tracy, Bryan

    2004-05-01

    The pitch of a Hitachi Standard Micro Scale was measured using NanoCal and a LEO 1560 SEM. The pitch pedigree and certification were intentionally withheld from Nanometrology team members to enable independent measurement and certification of an unknown Hitachi Micro Scale standard during this work. NanoCal allows one to achieve pitch measurements with sub-nanometer accuracy and precision as well as to perform SEM magnification calibration with the precision and accuracy required for sub 90 nm SEM metrology.

  7. Pitch Discrimination: An Independent Factor in Cochlear Implant Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kenway, Bruno; Tam, Yu Chuen; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Harris, Frances; Gray, Roger; Birchall, John; Carlyon, Robert; Axon, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in pitch-ranking ability across a range of speech understanding performance levels and as a function of electrode position. Study Design: An observational study of a cross-section of cochlear implantees. Setting: Tertiary referral center for cochlear implantation. Patients: A total of 22 patients were recruited. All three manufacturers’ devices were included (MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria, n = 10; Advanced Bionics, California, USA, n = 8; and Cochlear, Sydney, Australia, n = 4) and all patients were long-term users (more than 18 months). Twelve of these were poor performers (scores on BKB sentence lists <60%) and 10 were excellent performers (BKB >90%). Intervention: After measurement of threshold and comfort levels, and loudness balancing across the array, all patients underwent thorough pitch-ranking assessments at 80% of comfort levels. Main Outcome Measure: Ability to discriminate pitch across the electrode array, measured by consistency in discrimination of adjacent pairs of electrodes, as well as an assessment of the pitch order across the array using the midpoint comparison task. Results: Within the poor performing group there was wide variability in ability to pitch rank, from no errors, to a complete inability to reliably and consistently differentiate pitch change across the electrode array. Good performers were overall significantly more accurate at pitch ranking (p = 0.026). Consistent pitch ranking was found to be a significant independent predictor of BKB score, even after adjusting for age. Users of the MED-EL implant experienced significantly more pitch confusions at the apex than at more basal parts of the electrode array. Conclusions: Many cochlear implant users struggle to discriminate pitch effectively. Accurate pitch ranking appears to be an independent predictor of overall outcome. Future work will concentrate on manipulating maps based upon pitch discrimination findings in an attempt to improve

  8. A new nonlinear model for pitch perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; González, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    The ability of the auditory system to perceive the fundamental frequency of a sound even when this frequency is removed from the stimulus is an interesting phenomenon related to the pitch of complex sounds. This capability is known as residue or virtual pitch perception and was first reported last century in the pioneering work of Seebeck. It is residue perception that allows one to listen to music with small transistor radios, which in general have a very poor and sometimes negligible response to low frequencies. The first attempt, due to von Helmholtz, to explain the residue as a nonlinear effect in the ear considered it to originate from difference combination tones. But later experiments showed that the residue does not coincide with a difference combination tone, and nonlinear theories were abandoned. However, in this paper we use recent results from the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems to show that physical frequencies produced by generic nonlinear oscillators acted upon by two independent periodic excitations can reproduce with great precision most of the experimental data about the residue.

  9. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  10. Does fundamental-frequency discrimination measure virtual pitch discrimination?

    PubMed

    Micheyl, Christophe; Divis, Kristin; Wrobleski, David M; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    Studies of pitch perception often involve measuring difference limens for complex tones (DLCs) that differ in fundamental frequency (F0). These measures are thought to reflect F0 discrimination and to provide an indirect measure of subjective pitch strength. However, in many situations discrimination may be based on cues other than the pitch or the F0, such as differences in the frequencies of individual components or timbre (brightness). Here, DLCs were measured for harmonic and inharmonic tones under various conditions, including a randomized or fixed lowest harmonic number, with and without feedback. The inharmonic tones were produced by shifting the frequencies of all harmonics upwards by 6.25%, 12.5%, or 25% of F0. It was hypothesized that, if DLCs reflect residue-pitch discrimination, these frequency-shifted tones, which produced a weaker and more ambiguous pitch than would yield larger DLCs than the harmonic tones. However, if DLCs reflect comparisons of component pitches, or timbre, they should not be systematically influenced by frequency shifting. The results showed larger DLCs and more scattered pitch matches for inharmonic than for harmonic complexes, confirming that the inharmonic tones produced a less consistent pitch than the harmonic tones, and consistent with the idea that DLCs reflect F0 pitch discrimination. PMID:20968365

  11. Factors influencing electrical place pitch perception in bimodal listeners.

    PubMed

    Plant, Kerrie L; McDermott, Hugh J; van Hoesel, Richard J M; Dawson, Pamela W; Cowan, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Factors that might affect perceptual pitch match between acoustic and electric stimulation were examined in 25 bimodal listeners using magnitude estimation. Pre-operative acoustic thresholds in both ears, and duration of severe-profound loss, were first examined as correlates with degree of match between the measured pitch and that predicted by the spiral ganglion frequency-position model. The degree of match was examined with respect to (1) the ratio between the measured and predicted pitch percept on the most apical electrode and (2) the ratio between the slope of the measured and predicted pitch function. Second, effect of listening experience was examined to assess whether adaptation occurred over time to match the frequency assignment to electrodes. Pre-experience pitch estimates on the apical electrode were within the predicted range in only 28% of subjects, and the slope of the electrical pitch function was lower than predicted in all except one subject. Subjects with poorer hearing tended to have a lower pitch and a shallower electrical pitch function than predicted by the model. Pre-operative hearing thresholds in the contralateral ear and hearing loss duration were not correlated with the degree of pitch match, and there was no significant group effect of listening experience. PMID:25190394

  12. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  13. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  14. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  15. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  16. Native Experience with a Tone Language Enhances Pitch Discrimination and the Timing of Neural Responses to Pitch Change

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Stanley, Emily M.; Narayana, Shalini; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations. PMID:21886629

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200 Meters above Sea Level in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Farias, María E.; Daniel, Rolf; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini. PMID:24285657

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of pAP13, a Large Linear Plasmid of a Brevibacterium Strain Isolated from a Saline Lake at 4,200 Meters above Sea Level in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julian Rafael; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Farias, María E; Daniel, Rolf; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    pAP13 is an 89-kb linear plasmid hosted by Brevibacterium sp. strain Ap13, an actinobacterium isolated from the feces of a flamingo from an extremely high-altitude lake in Argentina. Because of the ecological importance of the genus Brevibacterium, the absolute lack of information concerning Brevibacterium linear plasmids, and the possible ecological significance of this unusual plasmid, pAP13 was completely sequenced, including the inversely oriented termini. PMID:24285657

  19. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF PITCH VOLUME IN SOUTHEASTERN CONFERENCE BASEBALL PITCHERS

    PubMed Central

    Love, Shawn; Aytar, Aydan; Bush, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: Representative data on typical pitch volume for collegiate pitchers functioning in their specific roles is sparse and is needed for training specificity. Objective: To report pitch volumes in Division I collegiate pitchers. The authors hypothesize that pitcher role will result in different pitch volumes. Methods: Pitchers from twelve Division I collegiate baseball teams pitch volume during the 2009 baseball season was retrospectively reviewed through each team's website. The number of pitches and innings pitched for each pitcher were recorded. Pitchers were categorized based on their role as “Starter-only” (n=15), “Reliever-only” (n=76), or “Combined Starter/Reliever” (n=94) and compared using ANOVA. Results: “Starter-only” pitchers threw the most pitches (97±10) and pitched the most innings (6.0±1.0) per appearance (p=<.001). “Combined Starter/Reliever” functioning as a starter threw significantly more pitches (68±19) and pitched more innings (4.0±1.3) per appearance compared to “Combined Starter/Reliever” functioning as a reliever and “Reliever-only” pitchers (p=<.001). The cumulative volume during a 13 week regular season revealed that “Starter-only” pitchers threw significantly more total pitches (1204±387) compared to “Combined Starter/Reliever” pitchers (613±182) who threw significantly more than “Reliever-only” pitchers (254±77) (P<.001). Discussion: Pitcher's specific roles and representative volumes should be used to design training and rehabilitation programs. Comparison of this data to reported adolescent pitch volumes reveal that adolescent pitch volume per appearance approaches collegiate levels. Conclusions: Collegiate pitcher roles dictate their throwing volume. Starter-only pitchers (8%) throw the greatest cumulative number of pitches and should be trained differently than the majority of college pitchers (92%) who function primarily as a reliever or in combination starter/reliever roles

  20. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  1. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  2. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  3. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  4. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  5. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  6. SVGA AMOLED with world's highest pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and early evaluation results of the world's highest pixel pitch full-color 800x3x600- pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) color microdisplay for consumer and environmentally demanding applications. The design premises were aimed at improving small area uniformity as well as reducing the pixel size while expanding the functionality found in existing eMagin Corporations' microdisplay products without incurring any power consumption degradation when compared to existing OLED microdisplays produced by eMagin. The initial results of the first silicon prototype presented here demonstrate compliance with all major objectives as well as the validation of a new adaptive gamma correction technique that can operate automatically over temperature.

  7. The Kinetic Chain in Overhand Pitching

    PubMed Central

    Seroyer, Shane T.; Nho, Shane J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a coordinated effort of muscle units from the entire body, culminating with explosive motion of the upper extremity. The throwing motion occurs at a rapid pace, making analysis difficult in real time. Electromyographic studies and high-speed video recordings have provided invaluable details regarding the involved musculature, the sequence of muscle involvement, and associated kinematic variables. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of the kinetic chain—that is, a detailed description of the muscular coordination during each phase of pitching—and to describe specific types of pitches. An enhanced understanding of the components of the kinetic chain and the phases of the throwing motion can provide important information for rehabilitation, performance enhancement, and injury prevention. PMID:23015931

  8. Force measurement in heaving and pitching foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Enrique; Najdzin, Derek; Leftwich, Megan C.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2012-11-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of a cambering hydrofoil built to simulate the movement of flukes on cetaceans. The mechanism is a 10 bar assembly that allows a hydrofoil to move in a cambered pitching and heaving motion similar to that of a dolphin. The mechanism sits on a force-balance with six strain gages that together measure the three forces and three moments experienced by the fin during a cycle of motion. These gages are attached to a traveling mechanism that rest on a water flume. To analyze the efficiency of the hydrofoil we took measurements at various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. These measurements were done twice were compared to the thrust produced by a rigid (non-cambered) hydrofoil at the same conditions.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  10. Psychometric function of jittered rate pitch discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The impact of jitter on rate pitch discrimination (JRPD) is still a matter of debate. Previous studies have used adaptive procedures to assess pitch discrimination abilities of jittered rate pulses (Dobie and Dillier, 1985; Chen et al., 2005) or have used jitter detection thresholds (Fearn, 2001). Previous studies were conducted in a relatively small number of subjects using either a single-electrode cochlear implant (Dobie and Dillier, 1985, n = 2) or the Nucleus multi-channel devices (Fearn, 2001, n = 3; Chen et al., 2005, n = 5). The successful application of an adaptive procedure requires a monotone psychometric function to achieve asymptotic results. The underlying psychometric function of rate jitter has not been investigated so far. In order to close this knowledge gap, the present study determines psychometric functions by measuring of JRPD with a fixed stimulus paradigm. A rather large range of temporal, Gaussian distributed jitter standard deviation 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ms was applied to electrical pulse patterns. Since the shape of the underlying probability density function (PDF) may also effect JRPD, a uniform PDF was alternatively applied. 7 CI users (8 ears, high-level performers with open-speech perception, MED-EL Pulsar/Sonata devices, Innsbruck, Austria) served as subjects for the experiment. JRPD was assessed with a two-stage forced choice procedure. Gross results showed decreasing JRPD with increasing amounts of jitter independent of the applied jitter distribution. In conclusion, pulse rate jitter affects JRPD and therefore should be considered in current coding strategies. PMID:24821551

  11. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  12. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  13. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33 Section 23.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits....

  14. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers. 35.21 Section 35.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure...

  15. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Effective April 1, 1984, visible and audible pitch alarms, with a time delay of not greater than 8 seconds... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17...

  16. Cortical Basis for Dichotic Pitch Perception in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Marita; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Madler, Burkhard; Edgell, Dorothy; Bjornson, Bruce; Giaschi, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined auditory processing deficits in dyslexia using a dichotic pitch stimulus and functional MRI. Cortical activation by the dichotic pitch task occurred in bilateral Heschl's gyri, right planum temporale, and right superior temporal sulcus. Adolescents with dyslexia, relative to age-matched controls, illustrated greater…

  17. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference. PMID:26677643

  18. Editorial Commentary: Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Over the course of 90 pitches to simulate an adolescent male pitching in a baseball game, there is an increase in fatigue and pain, a decrease in velocity, and some changes indicative of lower extremity fatigue without any change in upper extremity kinematics. PMID:27151449

  19. Global and Local Pitch Perception in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global…

  20. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and the audiogram.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Tyler, Richard S; Ji, Haihong; Coelho, Claudia; Gehringer, Anne K; Gogel, Stephanie A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the audiogram in 195 patients. Patients with tone-like tinnitus reported a higher pitch (mean = 5385 Hz) compared to those with a noise-like quality (mean = 3266 Hz). Those with a flat audiogram were more likely to report: a noise-like tinnitus, a unilateral tinnitus, and have a pitch < 2000 Hz. The average duration of bilateral tinnitus (12 years) was longer than that of unilateral tinnitus (5 years). Older subjects reported a less severe tinnitus handicap questionnaire score. Patients with a notched audiogram often reported a pitch pitch >or=8000 Hz. We failed to find a relationship between the pitch and the edge of a high frequency hearing loss. Some individuals did exhibit a pitch at the low frequency edge of a hearing loss, but we could find no similar characteristics among these subjects. It is possible that a relationship between pitch and audiogram is present only in certain subgroups. PMID:19842803

  1. Velocity vector LDA measurement inside a pitched blade impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptacnik, Michal; Lamka, Jaromir; Fort, Ivan

    1993-02-01

    The integral quantities of flow in a mixing system with a pitched blade impeller are generally known, but the flow pattern inside and in the close neighborhood of the impeller is not well documented. This paper describes results of pitched blade impeller synchronous measurements obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry.

  2. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    PubMed

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite. PMID:10540274

  3. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  4. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. PMID:25599381

  5. AP Music Theory in Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucia, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that an Advanced Placement (AP) course in music theory offers student musicians opportunities to gain new insight into melody, harmony, and structure. Describes content and teaching methods used in an AP music theory program. Discusses necessary teacher characteristics and maintains that both students and teachers benefit from the course.…

  6. Toward lattice QCD simulation on AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    AP1000 is Fujitsu Laboratory's experimental parallel computer consisting of up to 1024 microcomputers called cells. It is found that each AP1000 cell can sustain two to three megaflops computational speed for full QCD lattice numerical simulations in IEEE 64-bit floating point format

  7. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  8. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-04-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  9. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  10. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  11. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  12. The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    1999-03-10

    We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

  13. Pitch-Perfect: How Do Flies Control Their Pitch Angle During Aerial Stumbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Samuel; Canale, Luca; Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-11-01

    The successful flight of flapping-wing insects is contingent upon a complex and beautiful relationship between sensory input, neural response, and muscular actuation. In particular, the inherent instabilities of flapping-wing flight require insects like D. melanogaster to constantly sense, process, and adjust for in-flight stumbles. Here we present an analysis of the mechanisms for pitch control in D. melanogaster. By gluing small ferromagnetic pins to the backs of the flies and applying an external magnetic field, we induce torques along the flies' pitch axis during free flight. Using an automated hull reconstruction technique developed in the lab, we analyze these torque events and the flies' subsequent recoveries in order to characterize the flies' response to external perturbations. Ultimately, we aim to develop a reduced-order controller model that will capture the salient aspects of the flies' recovery mechanism.

  14. Combustion Response of AP Composite Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shusser, Michael; Cohen, Norman S.; Culick, E. C.

    2000-01-01

    The Cohen & Strand model for AP composite propellants is applied as boundary conditions, one for AP and one for binder, in solving the heat conduction equation in each to compute linear and non-linear combustion response properties for each and for the aggregate propellant. Iterations couple AP and binder through the quasi-steady flame processes. Illustrative results for linear response functions (pressure-coupled and velocity-coupled) are presented for a monomodal AP propellant varying AP size, pressure and crossflow speed, and examples of non-linear responses to arbitrary waveforms are shown. A quantitative comparison with response function data is limited to one well-characterized research formulation. Mechanistic implications are discussed, including recommendations for future modeling work.

  15. Pitch and Timbre Interfere When Both Are Parametrically Varied

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Valeria C.; Balaban, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch and timbre perception are both based on the frequency content of sound, but previous perceptual experiments have disagreed about whether these two dimensions are processed independently from each other. We tested the interaction of pitch and timbre variations using sequential comparisons of sound pairs. Listeners judged whether two sequential sounds were identical along the dimension of either pitch or timbre, while the perceptual distances along both dimensions were parametrically manipulated. Pitch and timbre variations perceptually interfered with each other and the degree of interference was modulated by the magnitude of changes along the un-attended dimension. These results show that pitch and timbre are not orthogonal to each other when both are assessed with parametrically controlled variations. PMID:24466328

  16. Perception of Words and Pitch Patterns in Song and Speech

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Julia; Sammler, Daniela; Bangert, Marc; Goldhahn, Dirk; Lohmann, Gabriele; Turner, Robert; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words and pitch patterns. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to isolate the neural correlates of the word- and pitch-based discrimination between song and speech, corrected for rhythmic differences in both. Therefore, six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy were created: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; and as a control the pure musical or speech rhythm. Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in processing song and speech. While the left IFG coded for spoken words and showed predominance over the right IFG in prosodic pitch processing, an opposite lateralization was found for pitch in song. The IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the IPS and the lateralized activity of the IFG. PMID:22457659

  17. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  18. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  19. Sub-nanometer pitch calibration and data quality evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Chih-Ming; Wang, Yu-hsi; Huang, Jaffee; Hu, Jimmy; Huang, Jacky; Gau, Tsai-Sheng; Lin, Burn J.

    2008-03-01

    Average CD of CD SEM and scatterometry CD (OCD) have been adopted for advanced CD control. The advantages and disadvantages of these two CD metrologies have been well discussed. The target of CD uniformity (CDU) for advanced technology has been driven to 1 nm, i.e. about three and half the size of a silicon atom, which is 0.29 nm. In the real production environment, engineers need to face sub-nanometer (< 1 nm) CD variations and do the necessary process corrections to meet the 1-nm CDU requirement. In other words, advanced CD process control has already been in the world of atomic scale. It turns out that methodology to ensure the accuracy of sub-nanometer CD has become essential for advanced CD control. In this paper, we introduced a methodology to produce 0.25, 0.5, and 1 nm programmed pitch offsets through mask design. These offsets are attainable with current process capability. Pitch offsets instead of line/space width offsets were used because the pitch is relatively process insensitive. The pitch has already been widely used as a CD SEM magnification calibration standard, e.g. Hitachi m-scale 240-nm pitch and VLSI 100-nm pitch standards. We produced large and small pitch splits to meet different magnification linearity requirements. We also used optical CD to verify the programmed pitch offset. Using the raw spectrum of OCD, systematic pitch signal changes in 0.25-nm steps can be detected, ensuring that 0.25-nm pitch offset standards are meaningful. Interestingly, 0.25 nm is smaller than the 0.29-nm Si atom. We also used this standard wafer to do the sampling size or data quality evaluation for different CD SEM measurement methodologies, e.g. 150K by 150K or 80K by 35K magnifications that in turn dictates the sample size. Pitch sensitivity is strongly related to the sampling size and line-edge roughness (LER). For example, 0.25-nm pitch sensitivity needs a larger sampling size than those of 0.5-nm and 1- nm pitch sensitivities. By means of this standard

  20. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  1. Pitch range variation in English tonal contrasts: continuous or categorical?

    PubMed

    Dilley, Laura C

    2010-01-01

    The importance of pitch range variation for intonational meaning and theory is well known; however, whether pitch range is a phonetic dimension which is treated categorically in English remains unclear. To test this possibility, three intonation continua varying in pitch range were constructed which had endpoints with contrastive representations under autosegmental-metrical (AM) theory: H* vs. L+H*, H* with 'peak delay' vs. L*+H, and %H L* vs. L*. The prediction derived from AM theory was that the reproduction of continuous pitch range variation should show a discrete pattern reflecting a change in the phonological representation of tonal sequences and in the number of tonal targets across each continuum. Participants' reproductions of each stimulus set showed continuous variation in pitch range, suggesting that pitch range is a gradient phonetic dimension in English conveying semantic contrast, similar to the formant space for vowels. Moreover, the gradience observed in productions across all parts of the pitch range suggests that contours within each series had the same number of tonal targets. The results support a version of AM theory in which rises and falls are usually comprised of two tonal targets, with strictly monotonic f(0) interpolation between them. PMID:20798570

  2. Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Measurements of Galaxies in Different Wavelengths of Light to Investigate a Prediction of Density Wave Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Imani, Hamed; Davis, Benjamin L.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Spiral structure in disk galaxies has been an important study of astronomy for decades. In understanding this structure one of the major parameters is the pitch angle of spiral arms. The density wave theory was proposed by C.Lin and F.Shu in the mid-1960s to explain the spiral arm structure of spiral galaxies [1]. A prediction of this theory is that the pitch angle of spiral arms for galaxies with blue-light wavelength images should be smaller than for infrared-light, so we have tighter spiral arms in blue band images. Young (blue) stars in arms of the galaxies move head of the old (red) stellar populations, clouds and dust. This implies that blue stars should exhibit tighter arms. In ref [2], E.M Garcia et al (2014) investigate the behavior of the pitch angle of spiral arms depending on optical wavelength. They worked on five galaxies and their images band-pass wavelength are in the optical range and their results show that just three of those five galaxies are consistent with density wave theory.In this research, we worked with a bigger samples and for each galaxy we used an optical wavelength image (B-Band: 445 nm) and another image from the Spitzer Space Telescope in a deep infrared range (Infrared: 8.0 μm) and we measured the pitch angle with the 2DFFT code [3]. Our results show that for optical range images we have smaller pitch angle compared to the infrared range and all of our measurements support with the density wave theory. Our results for 42 NGC galaxies show that spiral arms for images with optical range wavelength are clearly tighter typically by a few degrees than spiral arms in infrared range wavelength.Reference:[1]. Bertin, G. and Lin, C. (1996), MIT Press[2]. E.M Garcia et al, 2014 ApJ 793 L19[3]. Benjamin L. Davis et al. 2012 ApJS 199 33

  3. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  4. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  5. Effect of pitch in multislice spiral/helical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Vannier, Michael W.

    1999-09-01

    To understand the effect of pitch on raw data interpolation in multi-slice spiral/helical CT, and provide guidelines for scanner design and protocol optimization. Multi-slice spiral CT is mainly characterized by the three parameters: the number of detector arrays, the detector collimation, and the table increment per X-ray source rotation. The pitch in multi-slice spiral CT is defined as the ratio of the table increment over the detector collimation. In parallel to the current framework for studying longitudinal image resolution, the central fan- beam rays of direct and opposite directions are considered, assuming a narrow cone-beam angle. Generally speaking, sampling in the Radon domain by the direct and opposite central rays is non-uniform along the longitudinal axis. Using a recently developed methodology for quantifying the sensitivity of signal reconstruction from non-uniformly sampled finite points, the effect of pitch on raw data interpolation is analyzed in multi-slice spiral CT. Unlike single-slice spiral CT, in which image quality deceases monotonically as the pitch increases, the sensitivity of raw data interpolation in multi-slice spiral CT increases in an alternating way as the pitch increases, suggesting that image quality does not decrease monotonically in this case. The most favorable pitch can be found from the sensitivity-pitch plot for any given set of multi-slice spiral CT parameters. An example for four-slice spiral CT is provided. The study on the pitch effect using the sensitivity analysis approach reveals the fundamental characteristics of raw data interpolation in multi-slice spiral CT, and gives insights into interaction between pitch and image quality. These results may be valuable for design of multi-slice spiral CT scanners and imaging protocol optimization in clinical applications.

  6. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0. PMID:24070593

  7. Aerodynamic Performance of Two Variable-Pitch Fan Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center is investigating a variety of fan stages applicable for short haul aircraft. These low-pressure-ratio low-speed fan stages may require variable-pitch rotor blades to provide optimum performance for the varied flight demands and for thrust reversal on landing. A number of the aerodynamic and structural compromises relating to the variable-pitch rotor blades are discussed. The aerodynamic performance of two variable-pitch fan stages operated at several rotor blade setting angles for both forward and reverse flow application are presented. Detailed radial surveys are presented for both forward and reverse flow.

  8. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Blamey, Peter J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B

    2016-04-01

    Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes) as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy. PMID:27049657

  9. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Blamey, Peter J.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Grayden, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons’ action potentials (spikes) as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy. PMID:27049657

  10. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  11. (Very) Slow Rotation of Magnetic Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.

    2015-04-01

    To this date, 33 magnetic Ap stars that have periods of variation longer than 30 days are known. They represent a considerable fraction of the total number of Ap stars whose period has been reliably determined. All the available evidence unambiguously indicates that the observed variations of those long-period Ap stars result from the changing aspect of their visible hemisphere as they rotate, thus that the oblique rotator model is applicable throughout the whole range of periods of variation of the Ap stars. We show that the periods of the most slowly rotating Ap stars must be of the order of 300 years, and that some may even be longer, possibly up to 1000 years. The 5 to 6 orders of magnitude spanned by the rotation periods of the Ap stars present a major challenge for the understanding of their origin and their evolution. To guide the theoretical developments, observational hints may be found in possible differences between the magnetic properties of stars that have rotation periods in different ranges. Such differences are starting to emerge from the existing data. To increase their significance level, study of the longest-period stars must be continued over their full rotation cycle. Failure to secure observations now may leave critical data missing for several decades, or even centuries.

  12. A Computationally Efficient Method for Polyphonic Pitch Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruohua; Reiss, Joshua D.; Mattavelli, Marco; Zoia, Giorgio

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for polyphonic pitch estimation. The method employs the Fast Resonator Time-Frequency Image (RTFI) as the basic time-frequency analysis tool. The approach is composed of two main stages. First, a preliminary pitch estimation is obtained by means of a simple peak-picking procedure in the pitch energy spectrum. Such spectrum is calculated from the original RTFI energy spectrum according to harmonic grouping principles. Then the incorrect estimations are removed according to spectral irregularity and knowledge of the harmonic structures of the music notes played on commonly used music instruments. The new approach is compared with a variety of other frame-based polyphonic pitch estimation methods, and results demonstrate the high performance and computational efficiency of the approach.

  13. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that...

  14. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that...

  15. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that...

  16. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is shown to be extremely remote under § 35.15. (b) For propellers incorporating a method to select... manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position must be such that...

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; González, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-06-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  18. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs. PMID:24616491

  19. The effect of inharmonic partials on pitch of piano tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Strong, William J.

    2005-05-01

    Piano tones have partials whose frequencies are sharp relative to harmonic values. A listening test was conducted to determine the effect of inharmonicity on pitch for piano tones in the lowest three octaves of a piano. Nine real tones from the lowest three octaves of a piano were analyzed to obtain frequencies, relative amplitudes, and decay rates of their partials. Synthetic inharmonic tones were produced from these results. Synthetic harmonic tones, each with a twelfth of a semitone increase in the fundamental, were also produced. A jury of 21 listeners matched the pitch of each synthetic inharmonic tone to one of the synthetic harmonic tones. The effect of the inharmonicity on pitch was determined from an average of the listeners' results. For the nine synthetic piano tones studied, pitch increase ranged from approximately two and a half semitones at low fundamental frequencies to an eighth of a semitone at higher fundamental frequencies. .

  20. The Role of Pitch and Timbre in Voice Gender Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.; Belin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Voice gender perception can be thought of as a mixture of low-level perceptual feature extraction and higher-level cognitive processes. Although it seems apparent that voice gender perception would rely on low-level pitch analysis, many lines of research suggest that this is not the case. Indeed, voice gender perception has been shown to rely on timbre perception and to be categorical, i.e., to depend on accessing a gender model or representation. Here, we used a unique combination of acoustic stimulus manipulation and mathematical modeling of human categorization performances to determine the relative contribution of pitch and timbre to this process. Contrary to the idea that voice gender perception relies on timber only, we demonstrate that voice gender categorization can be performed using pitch only but more importantly that pitch is used only when timber information is ambiguous (i.e., for more androgynous voices). PMID:22347205

  1. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  2. Human vertical eye movement responses to earth horizontal pitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Petropoulos, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical eye movements in humans produced in response to head-over-heels constant velocity pitch rotation about a horizontal axis resemble those from other species. At 60 degrees/s these are persistent and tend to have non-reversing slow components that are compensatory to the direction of rotation. In most, but not all subjects, the slow component velocity was well characterized by a rapid build-up followed by an exponential decay to a non-zero baseline. Super-imposed was a cyclic or modulation component whose frequency corresponded to the time for one revolution and whose maximum amplitude occurred during a specific head orientation. All response components (exponential decay, baseline and modulation) were larger during pitch backward compared to pitch forward runs. Decay time constants were shorter during the backward runs, thus, unlike left to right yaw axis rotation, pitch responses display significant asymmetries between paired forward and backward runs.

  3. A sawtooth waveform inspired pitch estimator for speech and music.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Arturo; Harris, John G

    2008-09-01

    A sawtooth waveform inspired pitch estimator (SWIPE) has been developed for speech and music. SWIPE estimates the pitch as the fundamental frequency of the sawtooth waveform whose spectrum best matches the spectrum of the input signal. The comparison of the spectra is done by computing a normalized inner product between the spectrum of the signal and a modified cosine. The size of the analysis window is chosen appropriately to make the width of the main lobes of the spectrum match the width of the positive lobes of the cosine. SWIPE('), a variation of SWIPE, utilizes only the first and prime harmonics of the signal, which significantly reduces subharmonic errors commonly found in other pitch estimation algorithms. The authors' tests indicate that SWIPE and SWIPE(') performed better on two spoken speech and one disordered voice database and one musical instrument database consisting of single notes performed at a variety of pitches. PMID:19045655

  4. Predictive processing of pitch trends in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Háden, Gábor P; Németh, Renáta; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-11-11

    The notion of predictive sound processing suggests that the auditory system prepares for upcoming sounds once it has detected regular features within a sequence. Here we investigated whether predictive processes are operating at birth in the human auditory system. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from healthy newborns to occasional ascending pitch steps occurring in the 2nd or the 5th position within trains of tones with otherwise monotonously descending pitch. If the trains were processed in a predictive manner only deviant pitch steps occurring in the later train position would elicit the discriminative mismatch response (MMR). Deviants delivered in the 5th but not in the 2nd position of the tone trains elicited a significant MMR response. These results suggest that newborns represent pitch trends within sound sequences and they process them in a predictive manner. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25749483

  5. Hub-mounted actuators for blade pitch collective control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffery, Philip A. E. (Inventor); Luecke, Greg R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Blade collective pitch control is provided for a rotor system by rotary actuators located between adjacent blades. Each actuator is connected to the leading edge of one adjacent blade and the trailing edge of the other adjacent blade.

  6. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E.

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur’s business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs. PMID:24616491

  7. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037

  8. Collisionless pitch-angle scattering of runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a toroidicity induced broadening of the pitch-angle distribution of runaway electrons. This collisionless pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.

  9. Enhanced brainstem encoding predicts musicians' perceptual advantages with pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2011-02-01

    Important to Western tonal music is the relationship between pitches both within and between musical chords; melody and harmony are generated by combining pitches selected from the fixed hierarchical scales of music. It is of critical importance that musicians have the ability to detect and discriminate minute deviations in pitch in order to remain in tune with other members of their ensemble. Event-related potentials indicate that cortical mechanisms responsible for detecting mistuning and violations in pitch are more sensitive and accurate in musicians as compared with non-musicians. The aim of the present study was to address whether this superiority is also present at a subcortical stage of pitch processing. Brainstem frequency-following responses were recorded from musicians and non-musicians in response to tuned (i.e. major and minor) and detuned (± 4% difference in frequency) chordal arpeggios differing only in the pitch of their third. Results showed that musicians had faster neural synchronization and stronger brainstem encoding for defining characteristics of musical sequences regardless of whether they were in or out of tune. In contrast, non-musicians had relatively strong representation for major/minor chords but showed diminished responses for detuned chords. The close correspondence between the magnitude of brainstem responses and performance on two behavioral pitch discrimination tasks supports the idea that musicians' enhanced detection of chordal mistuning may be rooted at pre-attentive, sensory stages of processing. Findings suggest that perceptually salient aspects of musical pitch are not only represented at subcortical levels but that these representations are also enhanced by musical experience. PMID:21198980

  10. Enhanced brainstem encoding predicts musicians’ perceptual advantages with pitch

    PubMed Central

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2010-01-01

    Important to Western tonal music is the relationship between pitches both within and between musical chords; melody and harmony are generated by combining pitches selected from the fixed hierarchical scales of music. It is of critical importance that musicians have the ability to detect and discriminate minute deviations in pitch in order to remain in tune with other members of their ensemble. Event-related potentials indicate that cortical mechanisms responsible for detecting mistuning and violations in pitch are more sensitive and accurate in musicians as compared to non-musicians. The aim of the present study was to address whether this superiority is also present at a subcortical stage of pitch processing. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded from musicians and non-musicians in response to tuned (i.e., major and minor) and detuned (±4% difference in frequency) chordal arpeggios differing only in the pitch of their third. Results showed that musicians had faster neural synchronization and stronger brainstem encoding for defining characteristics of musical sequences regardless of whether they were in or out of tune. In contrast, non-musicians had relatively strong representation for major/minor chords but showed diminished responses for detuned chords. The close correspondence between the magnitude of brainstem responses and performance on two behavioral pitch discrimination tasks supports the idea that musicians’ enhanced detection of chordal mistuning may be rooted at pre-attentive, sensory stages of processing. Findings suggest that perceptually salient aspects of musical pitch are not only represented at subcortical levels but that these representations are also enhanced by musical experience. PMID:21198980

  11. Fixed pitch rotor performance of large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Corrigan, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental fixed pitch wind turbine performance data is presented for both the DOE/NASA Mod-0 and the Danish Gedser wind turbines. Furthermore, a method for calculating the output power from large fixed pitch wind turbines is presented. Modifications to classical blade element momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident in high winds (low tip speed ratios) where aerodynamic stall occurs as the blade experiences high angles of attack.

  12. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  13. MTF study of planar small pixel pitch quantum IR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, O.; Baier, N.; Ferron, A.; Rochette, F.; Berthoz, J.; Rubaldo, L.; Cluzel, R.

    2014-06-01

    The actual trend in quantum IR detector development is the design of very small pixel pitch large arrays. From previously 30μm pitch, the standard pixel pitch is today 15μm and is expected to decrease to 12μm in the next few years. Furthermore, focal plane arrays (FPA) with pixel pitch as small as small as 10μm has been demonstrated. Such ultra-small pixel pitches are very small compared to the typical length ruling the electrical characteristics of the absorbing materials, namely the minority carrier diffusion length. As an example for low doped N type HgCdTe or InSb material, this diffusion length is of the order of 30 to 50μm, i.e. 3 to 5 times the targeted pixel pitches. This has strong consequences on the modulation transfer function (MTF) for planar structures, where the lateral extension of the photodiode is limited by diffusion. For such aspect ratios, the self-confinement of neighboring diodes may not be efficient enough to maintain optimal MTF. Therefore, this issue has to be addressed in order to take full benefits of the pixel pitch reduction in terms of image resolution. This paper aims at investigating the MTF evolution of HgCdTe and InSb FPAs decreasing the pixel pitch below 15μm. Both experimental measurements and finite element simulations are used to discuss this issue. Different scenarii will be compared, namely deep mesa etch between pixels, internal drift, surface recombination, thin absorbing layers.

  14. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Sung Young; Min, Byunggak; Kim, Bongsoo; in, Insik

    2015-07-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA.

  15. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Sung Young; Min, Byunggak; Kim, Bongsoo; In, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA. PMID:26156067

  16. 2DFFT: Measuring Galactic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2016-08-01

    2DFFT utilizes two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms; this provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature and allows comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. 2DFFT requires fourn.c from Numerical Recipes in C (Press et al. 1989).

  17. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and hearing sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Giriraj Singh; Searchfield, Grant D; Stinear, Cathy M

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is the phantom perception of sounds. No single theory explaining the cause of tinnitus enjoys universal acceptance, however, it is usually associated with hearing loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tinnitus pitch and audiometry, minimum masking levels (MML), tinnitus loudness, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). This was a retrospective analysis of participant's records from the University of Auckland Hearing and Tinnitus Clinic database. The sample consisted of 192 participants with chronic tinnitus (more than 18 months) who had comprehensive tinnitus assessment from March 2008 to January 2011. There were 116 males (mean = 56.5 years, SD = 12.96) and 76 females (mean = 58.7 years, SD = 13.88). Seventy-six percent of participants had a tinnitus pitch ≥8 kHz. Tinnitus pitch was most often matched to frequencies at which hearing threshold was 40-60 (T50) dBHL. There was a weak but statistically significant positive correlation between tinnitus pitch and T50 (r = 0.15 at p < 0.05). No correlation was found between tinnitus pitch and DPOAEs, MML, audiometric edge and worst threshold. The strongest audiometric predictor for tinnitus pitch was the frequency at which threshold was approximately 50 dBHL. We postulate that this may be due to a change from primarily outer hair cell damage to lesions including inner hair cells at these levels of hearing loss. PMID:23404467

  18. Radiation Belt Electron Pitch Angle Measurements from the GOES Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions provide important information regarding the source and loss processes that control the electron flux levels. As the flux levels vary, it is important to understand the extent to which the distinctive pitch angle distributions are formed through specific source and loss processes versus adiabatic drifts. In addition, pitch angle information is critical when mapping electron fluxes from one location to another. In this presentation, we give an analysis of the pitch angle distribution of >2 MeV electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES satellites. Although the current GOES satellites are three-axis stabilized during normal operation, extensive data coverage is available during on-orbit storage of the satellites when they were spinning. During these times, well resolved pitch angle distributions have been obtained using the simultaneous electron and magnetic field measurements. These measurements are available from late 1998 to the present, allowing us to characterize the radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions as a function of local time, flux level, and geomagnetic activity during key phases of the current solar cycle.

  19. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  20. Speech synthesis with pitch modification using harmonic plus noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehana, Parveen K.; Pandey, Prem C.

    2003-10-01

    In harmonic plus noise model (HNM) based speech synthesis, the input signal is modeled as two parts: the harmonic part using amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the fundamental and the noise part using an all-pole filter excited by random white Gaussian noise. This method requires relatively less number of parameters and computations, provides good quality output, and permits pitch and time scaling without explicit estimation of vocal tract parameters. Pitch scaling to synthesize the speech with interpolated original amplitudes and phases at the multiples of the scaled pitch frequency results in an unnatural quality. Our investigation for obtaining natural quality output showed that the frequency scale of the amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the original signal needed to be modified by a speaker dependent warping function. The function was obtained by studying the relationship between pitch frequency and formant frequencies for the three cardinal vowels naturally occurring with different pitches in a passage with intonation. Listening tests showed that good quality speech was obtained by linear frequency scaling of the amplitude and phase spectra, by the same factor as the pitch-scaling.

  1. Relative saliency of pitch versus phonetic cues in infancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Gina; Kuhl, Patricia; Sundara, Megha

    2005-09-01

    Infants in their first year are highly sensitive to different acoustic components of speech, including phonetic detail and pitch information. The present investigation examined whether relative sensitivity to these two dimensions changes during this period, as the infant acquires language-specific phonetic categories. If pitch and phonetic discrimination are hierarchical, then the relative salience of pitch and phonetic change may become reversed between 8 and 12 months of age. Thirty-two- and 47-week-old infants were tested using an auditory preference paradigm in which they first heard a recording of a person singing a 4-note song (i.e., ``go-bi-la-tu'') and were then presented with both the familiar and an unfamiliar, modified version of that song. Modifications were either a novel pitch order (keeping syllables constant) or a novel syllable order (keeping melody constant). Compared to the younger group, older infants were predicted to show greater relative sensitivity to syllable order than pitch order, in accordance with an increased tendency to attend to linguistically relevant information (phonetic patterns) as opposed to cues that are initially more salient (pitch patterns). Preliminary data show trends toward the predicted interaction, with preference patterns commensurate with previously reported data. [Work supported by the McDonnell Foundation and NIH.

  2. Processing of pitch and time sequences in music.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R

    2008-08-15

    Pitch and duration -- either as written symbols or in auditory form -- are the basic structural properties in tones that form a melodic sequence. From the cognitive perspective, it is still a matter of debate whether, and at which processing stage, these two factors are processed independently or interdependently. The present study addresses this issue from the neuroscientist's point of view by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in musicians and non-musicians. Either the pitches or the durations of the tones, or both, were permuted randomly over a set of melodies in order to remove all sequential ordering with respect to these factors. Effects of both, pitch and time order, on the peak amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 complex were observed. ANOVA revealed that sequential processing may depend on the different levels of skill in analytical hearing. For musicians, strong interaction effects for all three ERP components corroborated the interdependence of pitch and time processing. Musicians also seem to rely on coherent time structure more than non-musicians and showed enlarged P1 and P2 components whenever tone duration, either with or without preserved pitch, was at random. Non-musicians tend to use ordered pitch relations for perceptual orientation, and main effects without any interactions might indicate some kind of independent processing of both dimensions at some processing stages. PMID:18584960

  3. A post-processing algorithm for time domain pitch trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specker, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a powerful post-processing algorithm for time-domain pitch trackers. On two successive passes, the post-processing algorithm eliminates errors produced during a first pass by a time-domain pitch tracker. During the second pass, incorrect pitch values are detected as outliers by computing the distribution of values over a sliding 80 msec window. During the third pass (based on artificial intelligence techniques), remaining pitch pulses are used as anchor points to reconstruct the pitch train from the original waveform. The algorithm produced a decrease in the error rate from 21% obtained with the original time domain pitch tracker to 2% for isolated words and sentences produced in an office environment by 3 male and 3 female talkers. In a noisy computer room errors decreased from 52% to 2.9% for the same stimuli produced by 2 male talkers. The algorithm is efficient, accurate, and resistant to noise. The fundamental frequency micro-structure is tracked sufficiently well to be used in extracting phonetic features in a feature-based recognition system.

  4. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  5. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). PMID:26196069

  6. Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-03-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

  7. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  8. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  10. Perceptual Distortions in Pitch and Time Reveal Active Prediction and Support for an Auditory Pitch-Motion Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Molly J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2013-01-01

    A number of accounts of human auditory perception assume that listeners use prior stimulus context to generate predictions about future stimulation. Here, we tested an auditory pitch-motion hypothesis that was developed from this perspective. Listeners judged either the time change (i.e., duration) or pitch change of a comparison frequency glide relative to a standard (referent) glide. Under a constant-velocity assumption, listeners were hypothesized to use the pitch velocity (Δf/Δt) of the standard glide to generate predictions about the pitch velocity of the comparison glide, leading to perceptual distortions along the to-be-judged dimension when the velocities of the two glides differed. These predictions were borne out in the pattern of relative points of subjective equality by a significant three-way interaction between the velocities of the two glides and task. In general, listeners’ judgments along the task-relevant dimension (pitch or time) were affected by expectations generated by the constant-velocity standard, but in an opposite manner for the two stimulus dimensions. When the comparison glide velocity was faster than the standard, listeners overestimated time change, but underestimated pitch change, whereas when the comparison glide velocity was slower than the standard, listeners underestimated time change, but overestimated pitch change. Perceptual distortions were least evident when the velocities of the standard and comparison glides were matched. Fits of an imputed velocity model further revealed increasingly larger distortions at faster velocities. The present findings provide support for the auditory pitch-motion hypothesis and add to a larger body of work revealing a role for active prediction in human auditory perception. PMID:23936462

  11. Neural Networks Involved in Voluntary and Involuntary Vocal Pitch Regulation in Experienced Singers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In an fMRI experiment, we tested experienced singers with singing tasks to investigate neural correlates of voluntary and involuntary vocal pitch regulation. We shifted the pitch of auditory feedback (plus or minus 25 or 200 cents), and singers either: (1) ignored the shift and maintained their vocal pitch or (2) changed their vocal pitch to…

  12. Dynamics of high-bypass-engine thrust reversal using a variable-pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Sagerser, D. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The test program demonstrated that successful and rapid forward-to reverse-thrust transients can be performed without any significant engine operational limitations for fan blade pitch changes through either feather pitch or flat pitch. For through-feather-pitch operation with a flight inlet, fan stall problems were encountered, and a fan blade overshoot technique was used to establish reverse thrust.

  13. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  14. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  15. Simplified SBLOCA Analysis of AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William L.

    2004-07-01

    The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant design that uses passive safety features such as a multi-stage, automatic depressurization system (ADS) and gravity-driven, safety injection from core make-up tanks (CMTs) and an in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) to mitigate SBLOCA events. The period of most safety significance for AP1000 during a SBLOCA event is typically associated with the actuation of the fourth stage of the ADS and subsequent transition from CMT to IRWST safety injection. As this period of a SBLOCA is generally of a quasi-steady nature, the integral performance of the AP1000 can be understood and evaluated with a simplified model of the reactor vessel, ADS, and safety injection from the CMTs and IRWST. The simplified model of the AP1000 consists of a series of steady state simulations that uses drift flux in the core region and homogeneous treatment of the core exit region including the ADS flow paths to generate a family of core flow demand curves as a function of system pressure (i.e. mass flow required to satisfy core cooling). These core flow demand curves are plotted against passive safety system supply curves from the CMTs and IRWST to demonstrate the adequacy of the integral performance of the AP1000 during the most important phase of a SBLOCA. (author)

  16. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  17. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  18. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  19. Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

  20. Laa1p, a Conserved AP-1 Accessory Protein Important for AP-1 Localization in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, G. Esteban

    2006-01-01

    AP-1 and Gga adaptors participate in clathrin-mediated protein transport between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Both adaptors contain homologous domains that act to recruit accessory proteins involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation, but the spectrum of known adaptor-binding partners is limited. This study describes an evolutionarily conserved protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Laa1p (Yjl207cp), that interacts and functions specifically with AP-1. Deletion of LAA1, when combined with a conditional mutation in clathrin heavy chain or deletion of GGA genes, accentuated growth defects and increased disruption of clathrin-dependent α-factor maturation and transport of carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole. In contrast, such genetic interactions were not observed between deletions of LAA1 and AP-1 subunit genes. Laa1p preferentially interacted with AP-1 compared with Gga proteins by glutathione S-transferase-fusion affinity binding and coimmunoprecipitations. Localization of AP-1 and Laa1p, but not Gga proteins, was highly sensitive to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) activation. Importantly, deletion of LAA1 caused mislocalization of AP-1, especially in cells at high density (postdiauxic shift), but it did not affect Gga protein distribution. Our results identify Laa1p as a new determinant of AP-1 localization, suggesting a model in which Laa1p and Arf cooperate to direct stable association of AP-1 with appropriate intracellular membranes. PMID:16687571

  1. Intuitive visualizations of pitch and loudness in speech.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Beijer, Lilian J; Seuskens, Wiel; Rietveld, Toni C M; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Visualizing acoustic features of speech has proven helpful in speech therapy; however, it is as yet unclear how to create intuitive and fitting visualizations. To better understand the mappings from speech sound aspects to visual space, a large web-based experiment (n = 249) was performed to evaluate spatial parameters that may optimally represent pitch and loudness of speech. To this end, five novel animated visualizations were developed and presented in pairwise comparisons, together with a static visualization. Pitch and loudness of speech were each mapped onto either the vertical (y-axis) or the size (z-axis) dimension, or combined (with size indicating loudness and vertical position indicating pitch height) and visualized as an animation along the horizontal dimension (x-axis) over time. The results indicated that firstly, there is a general preference towards the use of the y-axis for both pitch and loudness, with pitch ranking higher than loudness in terms of fit. Secondly, the data suggest that representing both pitch and loudness combined in a single visualization is preferred over visualization in only one dimension. Finally, the z-axis, although not preferred, was evaluated as corresponding better to loudness than to pitch. This relation between sound and visual space has not been reported previously for speech sounds, and elaborates earlier findings on musical material. In addition to elucidating more general mappings between auditory and visual modalities, the findings provide us with a method of visualizing speech that may be helpful in clinical applications such as computerized speech therapy, or other feedback-based learning paradigms. PMID:26370217

  2. Lumbopelvic control and pitching performance of professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; McKenzie, Christopher S; Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the correlation between lumbopelvic control during a single-leg balancing task and in-game pitching performance in Minor-League baseball pitchers. Seventy-five healthy professional baseball pitchers performed a standing lumbopelvic control test during the last week of spring training for the 2008 and 2009 seasons while wearing a custom-designed testing apparatus, the "Level Belt." With the Level Belt secured to the waist, subjects attempted to transition from a 2-leg to a single-leg pitching stance and balance while maintaining a stable pelvic position. Subjects were graded on the maximum sagittal pelvic tilt from a neutral position during the motion. Pitching performance, number of innings pitched (IP), and injuries were compared for all subjects who pitched at least 50 innings during a season. The median Level Belt score for the study group was 7°. Two-sample t-tests with equal variances were used to determine if pitchers with a Level Belt score <7° or ≥7° were more likely to perform differently during the baseball season, and chi-square analysis was used to compare injuries between groups. Subjects scoring <7° on the Level Belt test had significantly fewer walks plus hits per inning than subjects scoring ≥7° (walks plus hits per inning pitched, 1.352 ± 0.251 vs. 1.584 ± 0.360, p = 0.013) and significantly more IP during the season (IP, 78.89 ± 38.67 vs. 53.38 ± 42.47, p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the number of pitchers injured between groups. These data suggest that lumbopelvic control influences overall performance for baseball pitchers and that a simple test of lumbopelvic control can potentially identify individuals who have a better chance of pitching success. PMID:21760550

  3. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  4. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  5. On the periodic variations of geomagnetic activity indices Ap and ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1998-05-01

    Yearly averages of geomagnetic activity indices Ap for the years 1967-1984 are compared to the respective averages of 2·Bs, where v is the solar wind velocity and Bs is the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component. The correlation of both quantities is known to be rather good. Comparing the averages of Ap with 2 and Bs separately we find that, during the declining phase of the solar cycle, 2 and during the ascending phase Bs have more influence on Ap. According to this observation (using Fourier spectral analysis) the semiannual and 27 days, Ap variations for the years 1932-1993 were analysed separately for years before and after sunspot minima. Only those time-intervals before sunspot minima with a significant 27-day recurrent period of the IMF sector structure and those intervals after sunspot minima with a significant 28-28.5-day recurrent period of the sector structure were used. The averaged spectra of the two Ap data sets clearly show a period of 27 days before and a period of 28-29 days after sunspot minimum. Moreover, the phase of the average semiannual wave of Ap is significantly different for the two groups of data: the Ap variation maximizes near the equinoxes during the declining phase of the sunspot cycle and near the beginning of April and October during the ascending phase of the sunspot cycle, as predicted by the Russell-McPherron (R-M) mechanism. Analysing the daily variation of ap in an analogue manner, the same equinoctial and R-M mechanisms are seen, suggesting that during phases of the solar cycle, when ap depends more on the IMF-Bs component, the R-M mechanism is predominant, whereas during phases when ap increases as v increases the equinoctial mechanism is more likely to be effective.

  6. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  7. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  8. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  9. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  10. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  11. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  12. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  13. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  14. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  15. ap-9-(meta-tert-butylphenyl)fluorene.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; McLean, Aaron W; Meyers, Cal Y

    2003-10-01

    The title compound, C(23)H(22), (I), crystallizes in an ap conformationThe designations sp (synperiplanar) and ap (antiperiplanar) for these fluorene rotamers are in accordance with Rule E-6.6, IUPAC Tentative Rules, Section E, Fundamental Stereochemistry [J. Org. Chem. (1970), 35, 2861]. and its melt readily recrystallizes on cooling, in contrast to the corresponding 9-fluorenol compound, (II), which is sp and which melts without decomposition and fails to recrystallize over a long period. Both of these differences are ascribed to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in (II), which is absent in (I) and which leads to distinctly different molecular packing in the two compounds. PMID:14532663

  16. Glenohumeral Rotational Motion and Strength and Baseball Pitching Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Addressing loss of shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff weakness in injury-prevention programs might be an effective strategy for preventing throwing arm injuries in baseball pitchers. However, the influence of these clinical measures on pitching biomechanics is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder rotational motion and strength and 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics and to evaluate the presence of coupling between the shoulder and the elbow during pitching to provide insight into the influence of clinical shoulder characteristics on elbow biomechanics. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 27 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age  =  16 ± 1.1 years, height  =  183 ± 7 cm, mass  =  83 ± 12 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included shoulder internal- and external-rotation range of motion and peak isometric internal- and external-rotator strength. Three-dimensional upper extremity biomechanics were assessed as participants threw from an indoor pitching mound to a target at regulation distance. Linear regressions were used to assess the influence of clinical measures on the peak shoulder internal and external rotation moments and the peak elbow-adduction moment. Results: We found a positive relationship between clinically measured internal-rotator strength and shoulder external-rotation moment (R2  =  0.181, P  =  .04) during pitching. We also noted an inverse relationship between clinically measured external-rotation motion and the elbow-adduction moment (R2  =  0.160, P  =  .04) and shoulder internal-rotation moment (R2  =  0.250, P  =  .008) during pitching. We found a positive relationship between peak shoulder internal-rotation moment and the peak elbow-adduction moment (R2  =  0.815, P < .001) during pitching. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the

  17. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.

    2014-11-01

    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  18. Effect of Configuration Pitching Motion on Twin Tail Buffet Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of dynamic pitch-up motion of delta wing on twin-tail buffet response is investigated. The computational model consists of a delta wing-twin tail configuration. The computations are carried out on a dynamic multi-block grid structure. This multidisciplinary problem is solved using three sets of equations which consists of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the aeroelastic equations, and the grid displacement equations. The configuration is pitched-up from zero up to 60 deg. angle of attack, and the freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.3 and 1.25 million, respectively. With the twin tail fixed as rigid surfaces and with no-forced pitch-up motion, the problem is solved for the initial flow conditions. Next, the problem is solved for the twin-tail response for uncoupled bending and torsional vibrations due to the unsteady loads on the twin tail and due to the forced pitch-up motion. The dynamic pitch-up problem is also solved for the flow response with the twin tail kept rigid. The configuration is investigated for inboard position of the twin tail which corresponds to a separation distance between the twin tail of 33% wing chord. The computed results are compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Re-examining the upper limit of temporal pitch.

    PubMed

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P

    2014-12-01

    Five normally hearing listeners pitch-ranked harmonic complexes of different fundamental frequencies (F0s) filtered in three different frequency regions. Harmonics were summed either in sine, alternating sine-cosine (ALT), or pulse-spreading (PSHC) phase. The envelopes of ALT and PSHC complexes repeated at rates of 2F0 and 4F0. Pitch corresponded to those rates at low F0s, but, as F0 increased, there was a range of F0s over which pitch remained constant or dropped. Gammatone-filterbank simulations showed that, as F0 increased and the number of harmonics interacting in a filter dropped, the output of that filter switched from repeating at 2F0 or 4F0 to repeating at F0. A model incorporating this phenomenon accounted well for the data, except for complexes filtered into the highest frequency region (7800-10 800 Hz). To account for the data in that region it was necessary to assume either that auditory filters at very high frequencies are sharper than traditionally believed, and/or that the auditory system applies smaller weights to filters whose outputs repeat at high rates. The results also provide evidence on the highest pitch that can be derived from purely temporal cues, and corroborate recent reports that a complex pitch can be derived from very-high-frequency resolved harmonics. PMID:25480066

  20. Simulating the pitch sensitivity of twisted nematics of patchy rods.

    PubMed

    Růžička, Štěpán; Wensink, Henricus H

    2016-06-21

    Stiff, elongated biomolecules such as filamentous viruses, DNA or cellulose nanocrystals are known to form liquid crystals often exhibiting a helical supramolecular organization. Little is known about the microscopic origin, size and handedness of the helical pitch in these, so-called cholesteric phases. Experimental observations in chiral lyotropics suggest that long-ranged chiral forces of electrostatic origin acting between the mesogens are responsible for such organization. Using large-scale computer simulation we study the sensitivity of the pitch imparted by soft microscopic helices and confirm that the helical sense is sensitive to a change of packing fraction, magnitude of the molecular pitch and amplitude of the chiral interactions. In particular, we find evidence that the cholesteric helix sense may change spontaneously upon variation of particle density, at fixed molecular chirality. These pitch inversions have been reported in recent theoretical studies but simulation evidence remains elusive. We rationalize these sudden changes in the supramolecular helical symmetry on the basis of detailed measurements of the mean-torque generated by the twisting of the helices. The simulation methodology employed does not require confining the twisted nematic in a slab geometry and allows for a simultaneous measurement of the pitch and the twist elastic constant. We find that the twist elastic constant increases almost linearly with density suggesting that twisted nematic shows no signs of anomalous stiffening due to pre-smectic fluctuations at higher packing fraction. PMID:27184814

  1. Pitch underlies activation of the vocal system during affective vocalization.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Affective prosody is that aspect of speech that conveys a speaker's emotional state through modulations in various vocal parameters, most prominently pitch. While a large body of research implicates the cingulate vocalization area in controlling affective vocalizations in monkeys, no systematic test of functional homology for this area has yet been reported in humans. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activations when subjects produced affective vocalizations in the form of exclamations vs non-affective vocalizations with similar pitch contours. We also examined the perception of affective vocalizations by having participants make judgments about either the emotions being conveyed by recorded affective vocalizations or the pitch contours of the same vocalizations. Production of affective vocalizations and matched pitch contours activated a highly overlapping set of brain areas, including the larynx-phonation area of the primary motor cortex and a region of the anterior cingulate cortex that is consistent with the macro-anatomical position of the cingulate vocalization area. This overlap contradicts the dominant view that these areas form two distinct vocal pathways with dissociable functions. Instead, we propose that these brain areas are nodes in a single vocal network, with an emphasis on pitch modulation as a vehicle for affective expression. PMID:26078385

  2. Re-examining the upper limit of temporal pitch

    PubMed Central

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Five normally-hearing listeners pitch-ranked harmonic complexes of different fundamental frequencies (F0s) filtered in three different frequency regions. Harmonics were summed either in sine, alternating sine-cosine (ALT), or pulse-spreading (PSHC) phase. The envelopes of ALT and PSHC complexes repeated at rates of 2F0 and 4F0. Pitch corresponded to those rates at low F0s, but, as F0 increased, there was a range of F0s over which pitch remained constant or dropped. Gammatone-filterbank simulations showed that, as F0 increased and the number of harmonics interacting in a filter dropped, the output of that filter switched from repeating at 2F0 or 4F0 to repeating at F0. A model incorporating this phenomenon accounted well for the data, except for complexes filtered into the highest frequency region (7800-10800 Hz). To account for the data in that region it was necessary to assume either that auditory filters at very high frequencies are sharper than traditionally believed, and/or that the auditory system applies smaller weights to filters whose outputs repeat at high rates. The results also provide new evidence on the highest pitch that can be derived from purely temporal cues, and corroborate recent reports that a complex pitch can be derived from very-high-frequency resolved harmonics. PMID:25480066

  3. Dynamic pitching effect on a laminar separation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nati, A.; de Kat, R.; Scarano, F.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2015-09-01

    The unsteady effect of a periodic pitching motion on the characteristic of a laminar separation bubble on the suction side of a SD7003 aerofoil is investigated by means of time-resolved planar and tomographic particle image velocimetry. The measurements provide information on the separation, transition and vortex roll-up onset as well as the spanwise distribution of vortical structures, for both the dynamic pitching between 4° and 8° and corresponding cases at a static pitch angle. During pitching, a clear hysteresis behaviour is observed for the vortex roll-up position and shedding frequency, showing a strongly delayed recovery of the shear layer with respect to the steady aerofoil case. The development of the shear layer transition exhibits initially 2D Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers that are interrupted, forming Λ-shaped rollers, which eventually evolve into 3D arch-shaped hairpin structures. The 3D analysis of undulated rollers allowed the determination of the rollers streamwise spatial separation for both static and pitching aerofoil cases.

  4. Harmonic fusion and pitch affinity: Is there a direct link?

    PubMed

    Bonnard, Damien; Dauman, René; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Simultaneous pure tones approximately one octave apart tend to be fused perceptually and to evoke a single pitch sensation. Besides, sequentially presented pure tones show a subjective "affinity" or similarity in pitch when their frequency ratio is close to one octave. The aim of the study reported here was to determine if these two perceptual phenomena are directly related. Each stimulus was a triplet of simultaneous or successive pure tones forming frequency ratios varying across stimuli between 0.96 and 1.04 octaves. The tones were presented at a low sensation level (15 dB) within broadband threshold-equalizing noise, in order to prevent them from interacting in the cochlea when they were simultaneous. A large set of stimulus comparisons made by 18 listeners indicated that: (1) when the tones were simultaneous, maximal fusion was obtained for a mean frequency ratio deviating by less than 0.2% from one octave, and fusion decreased less rapidly above this frequency ratio than below it; (2) when the tones were presented successively, maximal pitch affinity was obtained for a mean frequency ratio significantly larger than one octave, and pitch affinity decreased more rapidly above this frequency ratio than below it. The differences between the results obtained for simultaneous and successive tones suggest that harmonic fusion and pitch affinity are unrelated phenomena. PMID:26341475

  5. Should We Limit Innings Pitched Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure amongst major league baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched following UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR. Purpose: To determine whether the number of innings pitched or number of pitches thrown in the first full season following UCLR, as well as the pitcher’s overall MLB career, correlated with need for a revision UCLR Hypothesis: Number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown following UCLR will not affect whether a pitcher undergoes a revision UCLR. Methods: Methods: All MLB pitchers between 1974-2015 who pitched at least one full season following UCLR were included. Pitch counts and innings pitched for the first full season following UCLR as well as total pitch count and total innings pitched following UCLR were recorded. Pitch counts and innings pitched were compared amongst players who required revision UCLR and those who did not. Results: Results: Overall, 154 pitchers were included. Of these, 135 pitchers did not require revision UCLR while 19 underwent revision UCLR. No significant difference existed between pitchers who underwent revision UCLR and those who did not in: number of innings pitched in the season following UCLR (p=0.9016), number of pitches thrown in the season following UCLR (p=0.7337), number of innings pitched in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.6945), and number of pitches thrown in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.4789). Furthermore, no difference existed in revision rate between pitchers who pitched more or less than 180 innings in the first full season following UCLR (p=0.6678). Conclusion: Conclusion: The number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown in the first full season as well as over a player’s career following UCLR does not appear to increase a player’s risk of revision UCLR.

  6. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  7. Target pitch angle for the microburst escape maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the constant pitch attitude strategy as a possible non-precision maneuver for recovery from inadvertent wind shear encounters. The Wind Shear Training Aid published by the FAA recommends that upon encountering a severe wind shear, the pilot should apply maximum thrust and rotate the aircraft to an initial pitch target angle of 15 degrees. The 15 degrees target was identified through rigorous analyses using six-degree-of-freedom flight simulators and microburst models representative of actual accident cases. It was found that 15 degrees was an effective target for a wide range of shears, and was generally applicable to most jet transports. This work was undertaken to examine the issue of recovery performance in wind shear of other classes of aircraft - notably turboprop commuters and propeller-driven general aviation planes. It should be possible to postulate a target pitch angle (TPA) for such aircraft, as well.

  8. Electrically tuned photoluminescence in large pitch cholesteric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Middha, Manju Kumar, Rishi Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Cholesteric liquid crystals are known as 1-D photonic band gap materials due to their periodic helical supramolecular structure and larger birefringence. Depending upon the helical twisted pitch length, they give the characteristic contrast due to selective Bragg reflections when viewed through the polarizing optical microscope and hence affect the electro-optic properties. So the optimization of chiral dopant concentration in nematic liquid crystal leads to control the transmission of polarized light through the microscope. Hence transmission based polarizing optical microscope is used for the characterization of helical pitch length in the optical texture. The unwinding of helical pitch was observed with the application of electric field which affects the intensity of photoluminescence.

  9. Linguistic status of timbre influences pitch encoding in the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Smalt, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to assess the effects of the linguistic status of timbre on pitch processing in the brainstem. Brainstem frequency-following responses were evoked by the Mandarin high rising lexical tone superimposed on a native vowel quality ([i]), nonnative vowel quality ([œ]), and iterated rippled noise (non-speech). Results revealed that voice fundamental frequency magnitudes were larger when concomitant with a native vowel quality as compared to either nonnative vowel quality or non-speech timbre. Such experience-dependent effects suggest that subcortical sensory encoding of pitch interacts with timbre in the human brainstem. As a consequence, responses of the perceptual system can be differentially shaped to pitch patterns in relation to the linguistic status of their concomitant timbre. PMID:21934635

  10. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed. Comparisons are made to the more conventional pitch control mechanisms.

  11. Visual field influence on manual roll and pitch stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.-K.; Young, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Human control performance in nulling perceived tilt angles was investigated for combinations of pseudo-random vestibular disturbances and different waveforms of low frequency wide visual field motions. For both roll and pitch axes, subjects tilted the trainer in which they were seated in the direction of field rotation. This visual bias was much stronger for pitch backwards with upward field rotation. Frequency response analysis showed the dominance of visual cues at low frequencies (below 0.06 Hz) and the reliance on vestibular information in the high frequency range for both axes. Models suggest that operator balancing responses at high frequencies are mainly processed by the semicircular canals rather than the otolith organs. The results also suggest that the subject tends to rely less on the otolith organs for pitch perception than for roll.

  12. Vortex scale of unsteady separation on a pitching airfoil.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2002-10-01

    The streaklines of unsteady separation on two kinds of pitching airfoils, the NACA65-0910 and a blunt trailing edge airfoil, were studied by dye flow visualization and by the Schlieren method. The latter visualized the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The results of these visualization studies allow a comparison between the dynamic behavior of the streakline of unsteady separation and that of the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The influence of the airfoil configuration on the flow characteristics was also examined. Furthermore, the scale of a discrete vortex forming the recirculation region was investigated. The non-dimensional pitching rate was k = 0.377, the angle of attack alpha(m) = 16 degrees and the pitching amplitude was fixed to A = +/-6 degrees for Re = 4.0 x 10(3) in this experiment. PMID:12495998

  13. Timbral influences on vocal pitch-matching accuracy.

    PubMed

    Watts, Christopher R; Hall, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how vocal fundamental frequency control was influenced by the timbre of target auditory stimuli. Nineteen female participants were asked to vocally reproduce the pitch of target tones, which consisted of female, male, violin, and clarinet timbres at three different fundamental frequencies. Results revealed that the participants were significantly more accurate at matching the pitch of female target tones compared to the instrumental timbres. This was interpreted as being due to an effect of spectral similarity of the female timbre to that of the female participants. The results of this study support the hypothesis of a perceptual integrality between timbre and pitch, and that stimulus timbre can influence the accuracy of vocal reproduction. PMID:18569646

  14. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  15. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  16. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  17. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  18. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  19. Boosting Black Academic Achievement and AP Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Minority students were about 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. But the composition of its honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity: Few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses as seniors. This paper…

  20. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  1. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  2. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  3. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased. PMID:26227537

  4. Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  5. Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  6. Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Berthoz, A.; Igarashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Both yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interactions at two separate frequencies of chair rotation (0.2 and 0.8 Hz) in combination with a single velocity of optokinetic stimulus (36 degrees/s) were used to investigate the effects of sustained weightlessness on neural strategies adopted by astronaut subjects to cope with the stimulus rearrangement of spaceflight. Pitch and yaw oscillation in darkness at 0.2 and 0.8 Hz without optokinetic stimulation, and constant velocity linear optokinetic stimulation at 18, 36, and 54 degrees/s presented relative to the head with the subject stationary, were used as controls for the visual-vestibular interactions. The results following 8 days of space flight showed no significant changes in: (1) either the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, or bias; (2) the yaw visual-vestibular response (VVR); or (3) the horizontal or vertical optokinetic (OKN) slow phase velocity (SPV). However, significant changes were observed: (1) when during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz late inflight, the contribution of the optokinetic input to the combined oculomotor response was smaller than during the stationary OKN SPV measurements, followed by an increased contribution during the immediate postflight testing; and (2) when during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz, the component of the combined oculomotor response due to the underlying vertical VOR was more efficiently suppressed early inflight and less suppressed immediately postflight compared with preflight observations. The larger OKN response during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz and the better suppression of VOR during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz postflight are presumably due to the increased role of vision early inflight and immediately after spaceflight, as previously observed in various studies. These results suggest that the subjects adopted a neural strategy to structure their spatial orientation in weightlessness by reweighting visual, otolith, and perhaps tactile/somatic signals.

  7. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  8. Why do pitched horizontal lines have such a small effect on visually perceived eye level?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, R. B.; Welch, R. B.; Clark, V. D.

    2000-01-01

    In two experiments, visually perceived eye level (VPEL) was measured while subjects viewed two-dimensional displays that were either upright or pitched 20 degrees top-toward or 20 degrees top-away from them. In Experiment 1, it was demonstrated that binocular exposure to a pair of pitched vertical lines or to a pitched random dot pattern caused a substantial upward VPEL shift for the top-toward pitched array and a similarly large downward shift for the top-away array. On the other hand, the same pitches of a pair of horizontal lines (viewed binocularly or monocularly) produced much smaller VPEL shifts. Because the perceived pitch of the pitched horizontal line display was nearly the same as the perceived pitch of the pitched vertical line and dot array, the relatively small influence of pitched horizontal lines on VPEL cannot be attributed simply to an underestimation of their pitch. In Experiment 2, the effects of pitched vertical lines, dots, and horizontal lines on VPEL were again measured, together with their effects on resting gaze direction (in the vertical dimension). As in Experiment 1, vertical lines and dots caused much larger VPEL shifts than did horizontal lines. The effects of the displays on resting gaze direction were highly similar to their effects on VPEL. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that VPEL shifts caused by pitched visual arrays are due to the direct influence of these arrays on the oculomotor system and are not mediated by perceived pitch.

  9. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  10. Losses of ring current ions by strong pitch angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walt, M.; Voss, H. D.

    High angular resolution measurements of 155 keV ions in the ring current during the magnetic storm of August 6, 1998 show filled loss cones indicating that very rapid pitch angle scattering is taking place above the satellite location. The measurements were made with the SEPS detector on the Polar satellite during its passages through the ring current regions, usually at magnetic latitudes near ±45° and at magnetic local times of about 04:00 and 16:00 hrs. The observed strong pitch angle scattering implies a trapping lifetime of less than an hour and may explain the early rapid recovery of Dst during magnetic storms.

  11. Dynamically Tuned Blade Pitch Links for Vibration Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milgram, Judah; Chopra, Inderjit; Kottapalli, Sesi

    1994-01-01

    A passive vibration reduction device in which the conventional main rotor blade pitch link is replaced by a spring/damper element is investigated using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. A case study is conducted for a modern articulated helicopter main rotor. Correlation of vibratory pitch link loads with wind tunnel test data is satisfactory for lower harmonics. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics had little effect on the correlation. In the absence of pushrod damping, reduction in pushrod stiffness from the baseline value had an adverse effect on vibratory hub loads in forward flight. However, pushrod damping in combination with reduced pushrod stiffness resulted in modest improvements in fixed and rotating system hub loads.

  12. Pitch and roll hydrodynamics of a pericell hovercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, David D.

    1986-12-01

    Pitch and roll responses of hovercraft have been extremely difficult to predict due to the complexity of hydrodynamic analyses on one hand and the difficulties of appropriate cushion scale modeling on the other. The paper presents comparisons of pitch and roll stiffness coefficients for overwater and overland operations. Data are presented from model-scale and full-scale trials and analytic-numerical modeling. The effects of model-scale on the cushion dynamics relative to rotational responses are presented and the important characteristics of overwater and overland responses are discussed.

  13. Pitch and roll hydrodynamics of a pericell hovercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.

    Pitch and roll responses of hovercraft have been extremely difficult to predict due to the complexity of hydrodynamic analyses on one hand and the difficulties of appropriate cushion scale modeling on the other. The paper presents comparisons of pitch and roll stiffness coefficients for overwater and overland operations. Data are presented from model-scale and full-scale trials and analytic-numerical modeling. The effects of model-scale on the cushion dynamics relative to rotational responses are presented and the important characteristics of overwater and overland responses are discussed.

  14. Dynamic Stall of a Pitching and Horizontally Oscillating Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinat, G.; Braza#, M.; Harran, G.; Sevrain, A.; Tzabiras, G.; Hoarau, Y.; Favier, D.

    This paper provides a study of the dynamic stall of a pitching airfoil and of a pitching and horizontally oscillating airfoil at 105 Reynolds number by means of nbumerical simulation. Three turbulence models are compared in both cases: URANS Spalart-Allmaras model, URANS k—ɛ Chien model and URANS=OES model. results are in accordance with experimental data but spalart model seems to be too much viscous to provide good results and overpredict hysteresis cycle observed where URANS=OES seems to be viscousless. URANS k—ɛ Chien model is providing the best results.

  15. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  16. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  17. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  18. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  19. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  20. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  1. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  2. Absolute enantioselective separation: optical activity ex machina.

    PubMed

    Bielski, Roman; Tencer, Michal

    2005-11-01

    The paper describes methodology of using three independent macroscopic factors affecting molecular orientation to accomplish separation of a racemic mixture without the presence of any other chiral compounds, i. e., absolute enantioselective separation (AES) which is an extension of a concept of applying these factors to absolute asymmetric synthesis. The three factors may be applied simultaneously or, if their effects can be retained, consecutively. The resulting three mutually orthogonal or near orthogonal directors constitute a true chiral influence and their scalar triple product is the measure of the chirality of the system. AES can be executed in a chromatography-like microfluidic process in the presence of an electric field. It may be carried out on a chemically modified flat surface, a monolithic polymer column made of a mesoporous material, each having imparted directional properties. Separation parameters were estimated for these media and possible implications for the natural homochirality are discussed. PMID:16342798

  3. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  4. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  5. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  6. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  8. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  9. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  10. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  11. Absolute distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides absolute distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.

  12. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  13. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. PMID:26303957

  14. Absolute dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.

    2000-06-01

    The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The absolute signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the absolute calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the absolute response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.

  15. Pitch Adaptation Patterns in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users: Over Time and After Experience

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Lina A.J.; Ito, Rindy A.; Eggleston, Jessica L.; Liao, Selena; Becker, Jillian J.; Lakin, Carrie E.; Warren, Frank M.; McMenomey, Sean O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pitch plasticity has been observed in Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) users. Does pitch plasticity also occur in bimodal CI users with traditional long-electrode CIs, and is pitch adaptation pattern associated with electrode discrimination or speech recognition performance? Objective Characterize pitch adaptation patterns in long-electrode CI users, correlate these patterns with electrode discrimination and speech perception outcomes, and analyze which subject factors are associated with the different patterns. Methods Electric-to-acoustic pitch matches were obtained in 19 subjects over time from CI activation to at least 12 months after activation, and in a separate group of 18 subjects in a single visit after at least 24 months of CI experience. Audiometric thresholds, electrode discrimination performance, and speech perception scores were also measured. Results Subjects measured over time had pitch adaptation patterns that fit one of the following categories: 1) “Pitch-adapting”, i.e. the mismatch between perceived electrode pitch and the corresponding frequency-to-electrode allocations decreased; 2) “Pitch-dropping”, i.e. the pitches of multiple electrodes dropped and converged to a similar low pitch; 3) “Pitch-unchanging”, i.e. electrode pitches did not change. Subjects measured after CI experience had a parallel set of adaptation patterns: 1) “Matched-pitch”, i.e. the electrode pitch was matched to the frequency allocation; 2) “Low-pitch”, i.e. the pitches of multiple electrodes were all around the lowest frequency allocation; 3) “Nonmatched-pitch”, i.e. the pitch patterns were compressed relative to the frequency allocations and did not fit either the matched-pitch or low-pitch categories. Unlike Hybrid CI users which were mostly in the pitch-adapting/matched-pitch category, the majority of bimodal CI users were in the latter two categories, pitch-dropping/low-pitch or pitch-unchanging/nonmatched-pitch. Subjects with pitch

  16. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    PubMed

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws. PMID:9167819

  17. Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil by Distributed Bleed Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2013-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil model are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using distributed active bleed. Bleed flow on the suction surface downstream of the leading edge is driven by pressure differences across the airfoil and is regulated by low-power louver actuators. The bleed interacts with cross flows to effect time-dependent variations of the vorticity flux and thereby alters the local flow attachment, resulting in significant changes in pre- and post-stall lift and pitching moment (over 50% increase in baseline post-stall lift). The flow field over the airfoil is measured using high-speed (2000 fps) PIV, resolving the dynamics and characteristic time-scales of production and advection of vorticity concentrations that are associated with transient variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments. In particular, it is shown that the actuation improves the lift hysteresis and pitch stability during the oscillatory pitching by altering the evolution of the dynamic stall vortex and the ensuing flow attachment during the downstroke. Supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

  18. Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

  19. Embedded pitch adapters for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullan, Miguel; Benitez, Victor; Pellegrini, Giulio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Lacasta, Carlos; Soldevila, Urmila; Garcia, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In the current ATLAS tracker modules, sensor bonding pads are placed on their corresponding strips and oriented along the strips. This creates a difference in pitch and orientation between sensor bond pads and readout electronics bond pads. Therefore, a pitch adapter (PA), or “fan-in”, is needed. The purpose of these PA is the electrical interconnection of every channel from the detector bonding pads to the read-out chips, adapting the different pad pitch. Our new approach is to build those PAs inside the sensor; this is what we call Embedded Pitch Adapters. The idea is to use an additional metal layer in order to define a new group of pads, connected to the strips via tracks with the second metal. The embedded PAs have been fabricated on 4-in. prototype sensors for the ATLAS-Upgrade Endcap Tracker to test their performance and suitability. The tests confirm proper fabrication of the second metal tracks, and no effects on detector performance. No indication of cross-talk between first and second metal channels has been observed. A small indication of possible signal pick-up from the bulk has been observed in a few channels, which needs to be further investigated.

  20. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  1. 18. LOOKING SOUTH AT STEEPLY PITCHED, GABLED ROOF. THE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING SOUTH AT STEEPLY PITCHED, GABLED ROOF. THE UPPER DORMERS PROVIDE LIGHT IN THE LOBBY AND THE LOWER DORMERS OPEN INTO SOME OF THE ORIGINAL GUEST ROOMS IN THE INN. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY- PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  2. Laryngeal electromyographic responses to perturbations in voice pitch auditory feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanjun; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Bove, Michel; Larson, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that intrinsic laryngeal muscles are involved in producing voice fundamental frequency (F0) responses to perturbations in voice pitch auditory feedback. Electromyography (EMG) recordings of the cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles were made with hooked-wire electrodes, while subjects sustained vowel phonations at three different voice F0 levels (conversational, high pitch in head register, and falsetto register) and received randomized pitch shifts (±100 or ±300 cents) in their voice auditory feedback. The median latencies from stimulus onset to the peak in the EMG and voice F0 responses were 167 and 224 ms, respectively. Among the three different F0 levels, the falsetto register produced compensatory EMG responses that occurred prior to vocal responses and increased along with rising voice F0 responses and decreased for falling F0 responses. For the conversational and high voice levels, the EMG response timing was more variable than in the falsetto voice, and changes in EMG activity with relevance to the vocal responses did not follow the consistent trend observed in the falsetto condition. The data from the falsetto condition suggest that both the cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles are involved in generating the compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted voice feedback. PMID:21682416

  3. Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

  4. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  5. Comparison of Two Independent LIDAR-Based Pitch Control Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. Feedforward controller A uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. Feedforward controller B uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  6. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section 401.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17...

  7. Comparison of Two Independent Lidar-Based Pitch Control Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.; Wright, A. D.; Jonkman, B.; Kelley, N.; Simley, E.

    2012-01-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. One uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. The other uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  8. Development in Children's Interpretation of Pitch Cues to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Young infants respond to positive and negative speech prosody (A. Fernald, 1993), yet 4-year-olds rely on lexical information when it conflicts with paralinguistic cues to approval or disapproval (M. Friend, 2003). This article explores this surprising phenomenon, testing one hundred eighteen 2- to 5-year-olds' use of isolated pitch cues to…

  9. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  10. The Relationship between Pitch and Space in Congenital Amusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Cocchini, Gianna; Stewart, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia manifests as a lifelong difficulty in making sense of musical sound. The extent to which this disorder is accompanied by deficits in visuo-spatial processing is an important question, bearing on the issue of whether pitch processing draws on supramodal spatial representations. The present study assessed different aspects of…

  11. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  12. Interaction forces between talc and pitch probed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wallqvist, Viveca; Claesson, Per M; Swerin, Agne; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C

    2007-04-10

    Colloidal wood resin components present in pulp are collectively called "pitch". The presence of pitch may cause severe problems due to deposits in and on the paper machine. There is thus a need for controlling pitch aggregation and adsorption. To be able to develop more efficient pitch control systems, one needs to develop the understanding of pitch-pitch interactions and of the interactions between pitch and other materials. With this general goal in mind, we present methods for preparing geometrically well-defined pitch particles attached to atomic force microscopy tips. This has enabled us to investigate the interactions between pitch and talc, an additive commonly used for pitch control. We have used model pitch particles consisting of one component only (abietic acid), a mixture of components (collophonium), and particles prepared from real pitch deposits. We show that the forces acting between pitch and talc are attractive and, once the initial approach is made, exert this attraction out to large distances of separation. We present evidence that the formation of bridging air bubbles or cavities is responsible for this interaction. PMID:17352501

  13. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  14. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  15. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  16. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

  17. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  18. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  19. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  20. Functional development in the infant brain for auditory pitch processing.

    PubMed

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Nakano, Tamami; Taga, Gentaro

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how the developing brain processes auditory information is a critical step toward the clarification of infants' perception of speech and music. We have reported that the infant brain perceives pitch information in speech sounds. Here, we used multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the infant brain is sensitive to information of pitch changes in auditory sequences. Three types of auditory sequences with distinct temporal structures of pitch changes were presented to 3- and 6-month-old infants: a long condition of 12 successive tones constructing a chromatic scale (600 ms), a short condition of four successive tones constructing a chromatic scale (200 ms), and a random condition of random tone sequences (50 ms per tone). The difference among the conditions was only in the sequential order of the tones, which causes pitch changes between the successive tones. We found that the bilateral temporal regions of both ages of infants showed significant activation under the three conditions. The stimulus-dependent activation was observed in the right temporoparietal region of the both infant groups; the 3- and 6-month-old infants showed the most prominent activation under the random and short conditions, respectively. Our findings indicate that the infant brain, which shows functional differentiation and lateralization in auditory-related areas, is capable of responding to more than single tones of pitch information. These results suggest that the right temporoparietal region of the infants increases sensitivity to auditory sequences, which have temporal structures similar to those of syllables in speech sounds, in the course of development. PMID:21488136

  1. Blade-Pitch Control for Quieting Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D.; Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing the noise generated by a tilt-rotor aircraft during descent involves active control of the blade pitch of the rotors. This method is related to prior such noise-reduction methods, of a type denoted generally as higher-harmonic control (HHC), in which the blade pitch is made to oscillate at a harmonic of the frequency of rotation of the rotor. A tilt-rotor aircraft is so named because mounted at its wing tips are motors that can be pivoted to enable the aircraft to take off and land like a helicopter or to fly like a propeller airplane. When the aircraft is operating in its helicopter mode, the rotors generate more thrust per unit rotor-disk area than helicopter rotors do, thus producing more blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. BVI is a major source of noise produced by helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft during descent: When a rotor descends into its own wake, the interaction of each blade with the blade-tip vortices generated previously gives rise to large air-pressure fluctuations. These pressure fluctuations radiate as distinct, impulsive noise. In general, the pitch angle of the rotor blades of a tilt-rotor aircraft is controlled by use of a swash plate connected to the rotor blades by pitch links. In both prior HHC methods and the present method, HHC control signals are fed as input to swash-plate control actuators, causing the rotor-blade pitch to oscillate. The amplitude, frequency, and phase of the control signal can be chosen to minimize BVI noise.

  2. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  3. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  4. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness. PMID:22403701

  5. Pitch and Tempo Discrimination in Recorded Orchestral Music among Musicians and Nonmusicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.

    1984-01-01

    Both musicians and nonmusicians identified correctly the examples of decreased pitch levels significantly more than pitch increase examples. However, tempo increase examples were identified more accurately than tempo decreases by each group. (Author/RM)

  6. The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.

    1989-03-01

    The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.

  7. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  8. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  9. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  10. Absolute angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding absolute reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  13. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    PubMed

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance. PMID:26999033

  14. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  15. Dual-frequency-moiré based absolute position sensing for lens focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Didi; Wang, Yahui; Di, Chengliang

    2015-10-01

    Micro motor, a typical equipment to adjust the zoom lens, together with a position feedback sensor constitute the closed position loop, which is the key factor to perform successfully accurate lens focusing. Traditionally, the incremental grating ruler tends to be adopted as the position sensor, which continues counting the number of grating pitches on a dynamic one-dimensional moving platform. Instead of incremental counting, this paper proposes a dual-frequency-moiré based absolute position sensing method for reading immediate position at static environment. According to the relative positions of two kind of moiré, the absolute position of the measurement point can be retrieve at nano-meters level through look-up table. By the way, the measurement range can be expanded to millimeters level satisfying the demands of lens focusing, and furthermore the measurement efficiency is improved greatly without dynamic moving. In order to verify the performances of proposed method, a model of dual-frequency-moiré is built, and theological principles are deduced. Finally, the simulation results indicate that, with established configurations, dual-frequency-moiré could measure position within 0~5000μm. At the same time, the measurement accuracy achieves nano-meters level.

  16. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  17. Determination of the absolute contours of optical flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primak, W.

    1969-01-01

    Emersons procedure is used to determine true absolute contours of optical flats. Absolute contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.

  18. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  19. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2005-10-26

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the absolute values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945

  20. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485