Science.gov

Sample records for absolute pressure gauge

  1. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  2. Final report on EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010: Key and supplementary comparison of national pressure standards in the range 1 Pa to 15 kPa of absolute and gauge pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajíček, Zdeněk; Bergoglio, Mercede; Jousten, Karl; Otal, Pierre; Sabuga, Wladimir; Saxholm, Sari; Pražák, Dominik; Vičar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a EURAMET comparison of five European National Metrology Institutes in low gauge and absolute pressure in gas (nitrogen), denoted as EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010. Its main intention is to state equivalence of the pressure standards, in particular those based on the technology of force-balanced piston gauges such as e.g. FRS by Furness Controls, UK and FPG8601 by DHI-Fluke, USA. It covers the range from 1 Pa to 15 kPa, both gauge and absolute. The comparison in absolute mode serves as a EURAMET Key Comparison which can be linked to CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 via PTB. The comparison in gauge mode is a supplementary comparison. The comparison was carried out from September 2008 till October 2012. The participating laboratories were the following: CMI, INRIM, LNE, MIKES, PTB-Berlin (absolute pressure 1 kPa and below) and PTB-Braunschweig (absolute pressure 1 kPa and above and gauge pressure). CMI was the pilot laboratory and provided a transfer standard for the comparison. This transfer standard was also the laboratory standard of CMI at the same time, which resulted in a unique and logistically difficult star comparison. Both in gauge and absolute pressures all the participating institutes successfully proved their equivalence with respect to the reference value and all also proved mutual bilateral equivalences in all the points. All the participating laboratories are also equivalent with the reference values of CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 in the relevant points. The comparison also proved the ability of FPG8601 to serve as a transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  4. Very small ionization pressure gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A very small ionization pressure gauge has been developed to operate in the pressure range 10/sup -6/ Torr to 100..mu... A metal construction and external cooling fins result in a very rugged device with exceptionally small outgassing properties. The gauge also incorporates a replaceable filament-grid assembly on a single plug which allows the simple replacement of both the filament and the grid when needed.

  5. 49 CFR 229.107 - Pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure gauge. 229.107 Section 229.107....107 Pressure gauge. (a) Each steam generator shall have an illuminated steam gauge that correctly indicates the pressure. The steam pressure gauge shall be graduated to not less than one and one-half...

  6. 49 CFR 229.107 - Pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure gauge. 229.107 Section 229.107....107 Pressure gauge. (a) Each steam generator shall have an illuminated steam gauge that correctly indicates the pressure. The steam pressure gauge shall be graduated to not less than one and one-half...

  7. 49 CFR 229.107 - Pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure gauge. 229.107 Section 229.107....107 Pressure gauge. (a) Each steam generator shall have an illuminated steam gauge that correctly indicates the pressure. The steam pressure gauge shall be graduated to not less than one and one-half...

  8. 49 CFR 229.107 - Pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure gauge. 229.107 Section 229.107....107 Pressure gauge. (a) Each steam generator shall have an illuminated steam gauge that correctly indicates the pressure. The steam pressure gauge shall be graduated to not less than one and one-half...

  9. 49 CFR 229.107 - Pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure gauge. 229.107 Section 229.107....107 Pressure gauge. (a) Each steam generator shall have an illuminated steam gauge that correctly indicates the pressure. The steam pressure gauge shall be graduated to not less than one and one-half...

  10. SENSITIVE PRESSURE GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Ball, W.P.

    1961-01-01

    An electron multiplier device is described. It has a plurality of dynodes between an anode and cathode arranged to measure pressure, temperature, or other environmental physical conditions that proportionately iinfuences the quantity of gas molecules between the dynodes. The output current of the device is influenced by the reduction in electron multiplication at the dynodes due to energy reducing collisions of the electrons with the gas molecules between the dynodes. More particularly, the current is inversely proportional to the quantity of gas molecules, viz., the gas pressure. The device is, hence, extremely sensitive to low pressures.

  11. Fast Neutral Pressure Gauges in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; R. Gernhardt; T. Provost; T.R. Jarboe; V. Soukhanovskii

    2004-04-26

    Successful operation in NSTX of two prototype fast-response micro ionization gauges during plasma operations has motivated us to install five gauges at different toroidal and poloidal locations to measure the edge neutral pressure and its dependence on the type of discharge (L-mode, H-mode, CHI) and the fueling method and location. The edge neutral pressure is also used as an input to the transport analysis codes TRANSP and DEGAS-2. The modified PDX-type Penning gauges are well suited for pressure measurements in the NSTX divertor where the toroidal field is relatively high. Behind the NSTX outer divertor plates where the field is lower, an unshielded fast ion gauge of a new design has been installed. This gauge was developed after laboratory testing of several different designs in a vacuum chamber with applied magnetic fields.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1370 - Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. 154.1370 Section 154.1370 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1370 Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. Each pressure gauge and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1370 - Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. 154.1370 Section 154.1370 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1370 Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. Each pressure gauge and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1370 - Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. 154.1370 Section 154.1370 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1370 Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. Each pressure gauge and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1370 - Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. 154.1370 Section 154.1370 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1370 Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. Each pressure gauge and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1370 - Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. 154.1370 Section 154.1370 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1370 Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge marking. Each pressure gauge and...

  17. Self-modulating pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, D. Jr.; Lanni, C.P.

    1979-08-07

    An ion gauge is disclosed having a reduced x-ray limit and means for measuring that limit. The gauge comprises an ion gauge of the Bayard-Alpert type having a short collector and having means for varying the grid-collector voltage. The x-ray limit (i.e. the collector current resulting from x-rays striking the collector) may then be determined by the formula: I/sub x/ = ..cap alpha..I/sub l/ - I/sub h//..cap alpha.. - l where: I/sub x/ = x-ray limit, I/sub l/ and I/sub h/ = the collector current at the lower and higher grid voltage respectively; and, ..cap alpha.. = the ratio of the collector current due to positive ions at the higher voltage to that at the lower voltage.

  18. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas pressure gauge (e.g., bourdon tube pressure gauge) is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  2. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  3. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  4. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  5. Critical Assessment of Pressure Gauges for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares, Francisco L.; Tafalla, David; Garcia-Cortes, Isabel

    2008-03-12

    The density and flux of molecular species in ITER, largely dominated by the molecular form of the main plasma components and the He ash, is a valuable parameter of relevance not only for operation purposes but also for validating existing neutral particle models of direct implications in divertor performance. An accurate and spatially resolved monitoring of this parameter implies the proper selection of pressure gauges able to cope with the very unique and aggressive environment to be expected in a fusion reactor. To date, there is no standard gauge fulfilling all the requirements, which encompass high neutron and gamma fluxes, together with strong magnetic field and temperature excursions and dusty environment. In the present work, a review of the challenges to face in the measurement of neutral pressure in ITER, together with existing technologies and developments to be made in some of them for their application to the task is presented. Particular attention is paid to R and D needs of existing concepts with potential use in future designs.

  6. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2610 Gas pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A gas... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-07-01

    Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.

  11. Comparison in gas media (absolute and gauge mode)in the range from 25 kPa TO 200 kPa (EURAMET.M.P-K8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuethrich, C.; Alisic, S.; Altintas, A.; van Andel, I.; C, In­Mook; Eltawil, A. A.; Farár, P.; Hetherington, P.; Koçaş, I.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Otal, P.; Prazak, D.; Sabuga, W.; Salustiano, R.; Sandu, I.; Sardi, M.; Saxholm, S.; Setina, J.; Spohr, I.; Steindl, D.; Testa, N.; Vámossy, C.; Grgec Bermanec, L.

    2016-01-01

    It was decided at the EURAMET TC-M meeting in Torino in 2006 to realize a comparison in gauge and absolute pressure up to 200 kPa as it would allow a link to the CCM.P-K6 and CCM.P-K2 comparisons to be established. This project interested a lot of laboratories from the beginning with 23 participants, 22 of which have submitted results. The circulation of the transfer standard began in July 2009 and lasted until January 2012. No major problems occurred during the transport. The measurand of the comparison is the effective area of a piston-cylinder determined in gauge and absolute pressure from 25 kPa to 200 kPa with pressure steps of 25 kPa. The transfer standard is a gas lubricated tungsten carbide piston-cylinder with an effective area of ~9.8 cm2, fabricated by DH Instruments and compatible with a PG-7601 pressure balance. Some participants used their own pressure balance while a pressure balance with a reference vacuum sensor has been circulated for the participants not equipped with this system. One participant (SMU, Slovakia) has never provided the measurement results and another participant (FORCE Technology, Denmark) submitted a revised set of measurement results after the pilot laboratory mentioned that the equivalence was not met. After the determination of the reference value, all the 22 participants who delivered the results in gauge pressure demonstrated equivalence respective to the reference value on most of the range. In absolute pressure the equivalence is demonstrated, for all nominal pressures, by all 17 participants who submitted results. The comparison is linked to the CCM.P-K6 for gauge pressure and to CCM.P-K2 for absolute pressure. The link does not strongly affect the equivalence of the results and an excellent degree of equivalence is achieved in gauge and absolute pressure. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb

  12. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  13. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  14. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narducci, M.; Yu-Chia, L.; Fang, W.; Tsai, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa-1 in the pressure range of 0-300 kPa.

  15. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  16. Design and implementation of a vacuum compatible laser-basedsub-nm resolution absolute distance measurement gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Denham, Paul E.; Rekawa, Senajith

    2004-02-16

    We describe the design and implementation of a vacuum compatible laser-based absolute distance measurement gauge with sub-nm resolution. The present system is compatible with operation in the 10{sup -8} Torr range and with some minor modifications could be used in the 10{sup -9} Torr range. The system is based on glancing incidence reflection and dual segmented diode detection. The system has been implemented as a focus sensor for extreme ultraviolet interferometry and microlithography experiments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility and 1{sigma} operational measurement noise floor of 0.26 nm has been demonstrated.

  17. Carbon Resistor Pressure Gauge Calibration at Low Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B; Vandersall, K S; Niles, A M; Greenwood, D W; Garcia, F; Forbes, J W

    2001-06-22

    The 470 Ohm carbon resistor gauge has been used in the stress range up to approximately 4-5 GPa for highly heterogeneous materials and/or divergent flow experiments. The attractiveness of the gauge is due to its rugged nature, simple construction, low cost, reproducibility, and survivability in dynamic events. The associated drawbacks are a long time response to pressure equilibration and gauge resistance hysteresis. In the range below 0.4 GPa, the gauge calibration has been mainly extrapolated into this regime. Because of the need for calibration data within this low stress regime, calibration experiments were performed using a split-Hopkinson bar, drop tower apparatus, and a gas pressure chamber. Since the performance of the gauge at elevated temperatures is a concern, the change in resistance due to heating at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Details of the various calibration arrangements and the results will be discussed and compared a calibration curve fit to previously published calibration data.

  18. Method for estimating absolute lung volumes at constant inflation pressure.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Barrow, R E

    1979-10-01

    A method has been devised for measuring functional residual capacity in the intact killed animal or absolute lung volumes in any excised lung preparation without changing the inflation pressure. This is achieved by titrating the absolute pressure of a chamber in which the preparation is compressed until a known volume of air has entered the lungs. This technique was used to estimate the volumes of five intact rabbit lungs and five rigid containers of known dimensions by means of Boyle's law. Results were found to agree to within +/- 1% with values determined by alternative methods. In the discussion the advantage of determining absolute lung volumes at almost any stage in a study of lung mechanics without the determination itself changing inflation pressure and, hence, lung volume is emphasized. PMID:511699

  19. 31. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE AND ASSOCIATED VALVES AND TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE AND ASSOCIATED VALVES AND TUBING FOR STRETCH SLING CYLINDER. GAUGE LOCATED IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 78. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 74. LIQUID NITROGEN TANK, REGULATOR VALVES, AND PRESSURE GAUGES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. LIQUID NITROGEN TANK, REGULATOR VALVES, AND PRESSURE GAUGES FOR LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming into the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. 32. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE INSTALLED ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF PRESSURE GAUGE INSTALLED ON BUNKER PERISCOPE IN 1991 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4310... gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4310... gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  6. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  7. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  8. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  9. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  10. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  11. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  12. Low-coherence interferometric absolute distance gauge for study of MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walecki, Wojciech J.; Lai, Kevin; Pravdivtsev, Alexander; Souchkov, Vitali; Van, Phuc; Azfar, Talal; Wong, Tim; Lau, S. H.; Koo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The most commonly employed tools for wafer thickness and topography metrology are based on capacitance method, which due to physical size of probes, and may not be suitable for direct measurement of multi-layer non-conductive wafers or Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) structures. Recently developed that low coherence interferometry provides solution, which overcomes limitations of these methods. Selected MEMS applications including characterization of deep (high aspect) trenches and membrane structures have been also developed. The above listed applications were limited to measurements of relative distance between two optical interfaces in material transparent at the wavelength of probing radiation. Absolute distance gauging by fiber optic low coherence interferometer is difficult due to large thermal drift (of the order of 0.04 mm/K). We demonstrate that this drift is a result of thermal changes of refractive index of fiber optic glass. We present solution eliminating this drift is based on introduction of the additional reference plane in the signal arm of the Michelson interferometer. Use of this reference plane eliminates influence of changes of refractive index of glass fibers on result of measurement and improves thermal stability of low coherence interferometer by three orders of magnitude.

  13. 80. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PRESSURE GAUGE IN NITROGEN AND HELIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PRESSURE GAUGE IN NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE AND TRANSFER CONTROL SKIDS ON NORTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 70. DETAIL OF OXYGEN TRANSFER PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. DETAIL OF OXYGEN TRANSFER PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF SKID ON RIGHT IN CA-133-1-C-69 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 73. DETAIL OF LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. DETAIL OF LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF WEST SIDE OF CENTER SKID IN CA-133-1-C-69 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Measurement of neutral gas pressure in the D-module of GAMMA 10/PDX by using ASDEX type fast ionization gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, K.; Fukumoto, M.; Islam, M. M.; Islam, M. S.; Shimizu, K.; Fukui, K.; Ohuchi, M.; Nojiri, K.; Terakado, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ezumi, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases. Rapid increase of the gas pressure under the plasma flow was also observed.

  17. Pressure Testing of a Minimum Gauge PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew J.; Rouse, Marshall; Linton, Kim A.; Li, Victor P.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced aircraft configurations that have been developed to increase fuel efficiency require advanced, novel structural concepts capable of handling the unique load conditions that arise. One such concept is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) developed by the Boeing Company. The PRSEUS concept is being investigated by NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program for use in a hybrid-wing body (HWB) aircraft. This paper summarizes the analysis and test of a PRSEUS panel subjected to internal pressure, the first such pressure test for this structural concept. The pressure panel used minimum gauge skin, with stringer and frame configurations consistent with previous PRSEUS tests. Analysis indicated that for the minimum gauge skin panel, the stringer locations exhibit fairly linear response, but the skin bays between the stringers exhibit nonlinear response. Excellent agreement was seen between nonlinear analysis and test results in the critical portion at the center of the panel. The pristine panel was capable of withstanding the required 18.4 psi pressure load condition without exhibiting any damage. The impacted panel was capable of withstanding a pressure load in excess of 28 psi before initial failure occurred at the center stringer, and the panel was capable of sustaining increased pressure load after the initial failure. This successful PRSEUS panel pressure panel test was a critical step in the building block approach for enabling the use of this advanced structural concept on future aircraft, such as the HWB.

  18. Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Gauging of an Isothermal Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurized with Gaseous Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging of a liquid oxygen/liquid nitrogen tank pressurized with gaseous helium that was supplied by a high-pressure cryogenic tank simulating a cold helium supply bottle on a spacecraft. The fluid inside the test tank was kept isothermal by frequent operation of a liquid circulation pump and spray system, and the propellant tank was suspended from load cells to obtain a high-accuracy reference standard for the gauging measurements. Liquid quantity gauging errors of less than 2 percent of the tank volume were obtained when quasi-steady-state conditions existed in the propellant and helium supply tanks. Accurate gauging required careful attention to, and corrections for, second-order effects of helium solubility in the liquid propellant plus differences in the propellant/helium composition and temperature in the various plumbing lines attached to the tanks. On the basis of results from a helium solubility test, a model was developed to predict the amount of helium dissolved in the liquid as a function of cumulative pump operation time. Use of this model allowed correction of the basic PVT gauging calculations and attainment of the reported gauging accuracy. This helium solubility model is system specific, but it may be adaptable to other hardware systems.

  19. 49 CFR 192.741 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.741 Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges... equipped with telemetering or recording pressure gauges to indicate the gas pressure in the district. (b... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating...

  20. 49 CFR 192.741 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.741 Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges... equipped with telemetering or recording pressure gauges to indicate the gas pressure in the district. (b... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating...

  1. Absolute vertical uplift rates in western Washington inferred from historical leveling and tide gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, S.; Weldon, R.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new uplift rate map for western Washington based on reanalysis of water levels from the 12 major NOAA tide gauges, three new water level series that combine NOAA’s historical records and our temporarily deployed gauges (at Cape Disappointment, Olympia, and Point Grenville), and reinterpretation of repeated 1st and 2nd order NGS leveling lines. As previous studies have concluded, EW gradients in the vertical deformation field are consistent with strain accumulation across the Cascadia subduction zone interface; however, uplift rates are highly variable along the outer Washington coast, ranging from approximately +4 to -2 mm/yr, suggesting significant changes in the depth of locking along strike. Improved measure of uplift rates from water level changes are accomplished by aggressively editing available hourly data and applying a transfer function approach to better remove tides, ocean and atmospheric “noise”. The analysis allows uplift to be determined from shorter and less complete records and in some cases permits the identification of transients like slow earthquakes. As we found in a similar study in Oregon (Burgette et al, JGR, 2009), releveled lines need to be anchored to as many tide gauges as possible to remove systematic error, and repeated releveling (especially of tidal benchmarks) is required to identify the few stable benchmarks that link water levels at the tidal stations to each other through time and to the regional NGS leveling lines. A portion of the westernmost Washington coast, from an approximate latitude of 47.4 to 47.9 N, is subsiding, and tilts suggest that the peak in uplift rate is well onshore, indicating that the locked zone extends onshore, in contrast to most previous studies. To the north, the peak in uplift approximately passes through Neah Bay (the NW corner of the Olympic Peninsula, lat. 48.3 N), and to the south the peak is offshore from Grays Harbor (lat. 47 N) to the Columbia River (lat. 46.2 N). A north

  2. Absolute gauge block calibration using ultra-precise optical frequency synthesizer locked to a femtosecond comb.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hatem; Farid, Niveen; Terra, Osama

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we report a gauge block (GB) calibration that is traceable to the SI unit of time, the second. Four ultra-stable optical telecommunication wavelengths near 1556 nm are obtained by locking a narrow-tuning-range fiber laser to a fiber-based femtosecond frequency comb. Since the GB calibration system does not operate at this region of spectrum, the superior frequency stability of the laser is transferred to the 778 nm region by using a waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. After applying the locking scheme, the stability and accuracy of the laser become better than 8×10(-12). The frequency-doubled light is sent through 30 m optical fiber to a GB interferometer, which is installed at a different laboratory in the same building. Using this calibration scheme, a GB with a nominal length of 100 mm is calibrated with an uncertainty of ±52  nm. This uncertainty value is still comparable to or even better than other metrology laboratories for a similar block length.

  3. Ruby and Sm:YAG fluorescence pressure gauges up to 120 GPa and 700 K

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Qingguo; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia

    2011-08-15

    Diamond anvil cell (DAC) technique relies on pressure determination based on use of pressure gauges. Fluorescence-based gauges, such as ruby and Sm doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Sm:YAG), are frequently used in the high pressure research. Here we present the results of DAC experiments which allowed extending calibration curves of the fluorescence frequency versus pressure up to 120 GPa at high temperatures up to 700 K for both for ruby and Sm:YAG. Cubic boron nitride was used as the reference gauge.

  4. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  5. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  6. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  7. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  8. 49 CFR 393.51 - Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signals, air pressure and vacuum gauges... and vacuum gauges. (a) General Rule. Every bus, truck and truck tractor, except as provided in.... (d) Vacuum brakes. A commercial motor vehicle (regardless of the date it was manufactured)...

  9. Selection and static calibration of the Marsh J1678 pressure gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxendine, Charles R.; Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    During the experimental testing of the ultralight, it was determined that a pressure gauge would be required to monitor the simulated flight loads. After analyzing several factors, which are indicated in the discussion section of this report, the Marsh J1678 pressure gauge appeared to be the prominent candidate for the task. However, prior to the final selection, the Marsh pressure gauge was calibrated twice by two different techniques. As a result of the calibration, the Marsh gauge was selected as the appropriate measuring device during the structural testing of the ultralight. Although, there are commerical pressure gauges available on the market that would have proven to be more efficient and accurate. However, in order to obtain these characteristics in a gauge, one has to pay the price on the price tag, and this value is an exponential function of the degree of accuracy efficiency, precision, and many other features that may be designed into the gauge. After analyzing the extent of precision and accuracy that would be required, a more expensive gauge wouldn't have proven to be a financial benefit towards the outcome of the experiment.

  10. Optimization of pressure gauge locations for water distribution systems using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Chang, Dong Eil; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2012-12-01

    It is essential to select the optimal pressure gauge location for effective management and maintenance of water distribution systems. This study proposes an objective and quantified standard for selecting the optimal pressure gauge location by defining the pressure change at other nodes as a result of demand change at a specific node using entropy theory. Two cases are considered in terms of demand change: that in which demand at all nodes shows peak load by using a peak factor and that comprising the demand change of the normal distribution whose average is the base demand. The actual pressure change pattern is determined by using the emitter function of EPANET to reflect the pressure that changes practically at each node. The optimal pressure gauge location is determined by prioritizing the node that processes the largest amount of information it gives to (giving entropy) and receives from (receiving entropy) the whole system according to the entropy standard. The suggested model is applied to one virtual and one real pipe network, and the optimal pressure gauge location combination is calculated by implementing the sensitivity analysis based on the study results. These analysis results support the following two conclusions. Firstly, the installation priority of the pressure gauge in water distribution networks can be determined with a more objective standard through the entropy theory. Secondly, the model can be used as an efficient decision-making guide for gauge installation in water distribution systems.

  11. Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

    2006-04-15

    Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK.

  12. Pressure transducer with Au-Ni thin-film strain gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Rajanna, K.; Mohan, S. ); Nayak, M.M.; Gunasekaran, N.; Muthunayagam, A.E. )

    1993-03-01

    The behavior of a pressure transducer with Au-Ni (89:11) film as strain gauges have been studied. The effects of post-deposition heat treatment on the resistance of the thin-film strain gauges and hence the output performance of the pressure transducer are discussed. The effect of a repeated number of pressure cycles carried out over a period of eight months has also been reported. The maximum nonlinearity and the hysteresis is improved from 0.92% FSO to 0.06% FSO after 1,000 pressure cycles. The output behavior of the pressure transducer with temperature has also been studied.

  13. A development of a mobile hydraulic pressure gauge for seafloor geodetic measurements and data evaluation of field studies conducted in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Machida, Y.; Nishida, S.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Kawaguchi, K.

    2015-12-01

    A precise hydraulic pressure measurement is important in order to obtain geophysical knowledge associated with the occurrence of large interplate earthquakes. However, pressure measurements contain instrumental drift in a sensor in addition to the pressure changes related to a crustal deformations. Therefore a correction of the drift using an absolute calibration system is necessary. We developed a mobile pressure gauge. The mobile pressure gauge has a quartz water pressure meter (Paroscientific Inc. 410K) as a pressure sensor with pressure holding system due to heating of a pressure piping. The system enables us to maintain a constant pressure of a target field pressure from a laboratory to a seafloor in order to eliminate effects of pressure hysteresis of the sensor. Laboratory experiments showed a temperature characteristics and hysteresis of the sensor in addition to the pressure hysteresis. Because a temperature of the sensor is affected by an outside temperature which ranges from 2 degrees (at the bottom of the sea) to room temperature, we need to calibrate outputs values of the sensor using calibration values estimated by laboratory experiments. These procedure would improve the measurement accuracy and contribute to obtaining a small amount of crustal deformations related to occurrence of large interplate earthquakes. In the Nankai trough, we deployed a long-term borehole monitoring system with pressure gauges into the C0002 boreholes. Because the data are available in a real time, the observatory is good target for the calibration study. During the KY15-05 cruise, we deployed the mobile pressure gauge on the C0002 observatory using a ROV twice. A repeatability measurements between two dives indicates 2.55 hPa, which is equivalent to 2.55 cm converted into cm. And a repeatability measurements before and after the cruise indicates 3.56 hPa. In the presentation, we examine the calibration results with consideration of a characteristics of the pressure sensor

  14. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes. PMID:27401161

  15. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes.

  16. Carbon Resistor Pressure Gauge Calibration at Stresses Up to 1 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Niles, A M; Greenwood, D W; Cunningham, B; Garcia, F; Forbes, J W

    2002-03-05

    Calibration of the 470-Ohm carbon resistor gauge is desired in the low stress region up to 1 GPa. A split-Hopkinson pressure bar, drop tower apparatus, gas pressure chamber, and gas gun have been used to perform the calibration experiments. The gauge behavior at elevated temperature was also investigated by heating the resistors to 200 C at atmospheric pressure while observing the resistance change. The motivation for this calibration work arises from the desire to increase the number of data points in the low stress regime to better establish the accuracy and precision of the gauge. Details of the various calibration arrangements and the results are discussed and compared to calibration curves fit to previously published calibration data. It was found that in most cases, the data from this work fit the calibration curves fit to previously published data rather well.

  17. Long-term stability and zero drift of digital barometric pressure gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, M.; Kobata, T.; Fujii, K.

    2015-04-01

    Several digital pressure gauges at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) have been calibrated in the barometric pressure range on a regular basis for over ten years. The long-term stability of the zero and span readings for these pressure gauges was evaluated using their historical calibration data. The evaluation showed that most of the gauges have quite good long-term stabilities for the span readings, but some have large zero drifts with rates of about (10 to 50) Pa yr-1. This paper discusses the causes for this drift: it can be explained by the combination of a small leak and gas emissions from the sensor volume, which are estimated from the typical drift rates. The zero drift of a particular gauge is well-approximated by an exponential function of time; the fitting function may give a good estimation of the zero drift in the future. This indicates that continuous characterization of a pressure gauge may enable appropriate correction of the indication and provide users more reliable data with less calibration work.

  18. Fabrication of capacitive absolute pressure sensors by thin film vacuum encapsulation on SOI substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsito, Luca; Mancarella, Fulvio; Roncaglia, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of absolute capacitive pressure sensors fabricated by polysilicon low-pressure chemical vapour deposition vacuum packaging on silicon-on-insulator substrates. The fabrication process proposed is carried out at wafer level and allows obtaining a large number of miniaturized sensors per substrate on 1  ×  2 mm2 chips with high yield. The sensors present average pressure sensitivity of 8.3 pF/bar and average pressure resolution limit of 0.24 mbar within the measurement range 200–1200 mbar. The temperature drift of the sensor prototypes was also measured in the temperature range 25–45 °C, yielding an average temperature sensitivity of 67 fF K‑1 at ambient pressure.

  19. Fabrication of capacitive absolute pressure sensors by thin film vacuum encapsulation on SOI substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsito, Luca; Mancarella, Fulvio; Roncaglia, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of absolute capacitive pressure sensors fabricated by polysilicon low-pressure chemical vapour deposition vacuum packaging on silicon-on-insulator substrates. The fabrication process proposed is carried out at wafer level and allows obtaining a large number of miniaturized sensors per substrate on 1  ×  2 mm2 chips with high yield. The sensors present average pressure sensitivity of 8.3 pF/bar and average pressure resolution limit of 0.24 mbar within the measurement range 200-1200 mbar. The temperature drift of the sensor prototypes was also measured in the temperature range 25-45 °C, yielding an average temperature sensitivity of 67 fF K-1 at ambient pressure.

  20. Relative and absolute sea level rise in western Canada and northwestern United States from a combined tide gauge-GPS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, Stephane; Jones, Casey; Thomson, Richard E.

    2008-11-01

    Empirical studies and climate models suggest large variations of absolute sea level (ASL) changes between oceanic basins. Such potential variations raise concern on the applicability of global mean ASL predictions to specific regions and on estimates of relative sea level (RSL) hazards. We address this issue for the western Canada and northwestern United States coastline by estimating the 20th century ASL rate using a combination of 34 colocated tide gauge and Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. The tide gauge data are quality controlled and corrected for spatially and temporally correlated sea level transients in order to derive robust RSL trends and standard errors. Reference frame and other GPS-specific issues are considered as part of the error budget in absolute GPS vertical velocities. Our combined tide gauge-GPS analysis, aligned to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000, indicates a northeast Pacific ASL rise of 1.8 ± 0.2 mm/a through the 20th century, which is similar to accepted rates for the global eustatic mean. For the period 1993-2003, we find a regional ASL rate of -4.4 ± 0.5 mm/a consistent with satellite altimetry. On the basis of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report 4 mean scenario and our assessment of coastal motions from GPS and tide gauge data, we derive a map of predicted 21st century RSL rise in western Canada and the northwestern United States. Variations in coastal uplift strongly affect spatial RSL patterns. Subsidence of southern Puget Sound may significantly increase RSL rise in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area. Conversely, tectonic uplift along parts of the outer west coast may reduce future RSL rise by up to 50-100%.

  1. Pico Gauges for Minimally Invasive Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure Measurements1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, Jan; Mullendore, Daniel L.; Jensen, Kaare H.; Knoblauch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pressure has a multitude of functions in cells surrounded by a cell wall or similar matrix in all kingdoms of life. The functions include cell growth, nastic movements, and penetration of tissue by parasites. The precise measurement of intracellular pressure in the majority of cells, however, remains difficult or impossible due to their small size and/or sensitivity to manipulation. Here, we report on a method that allows precise measurements in basically any cell type over all ranges of pressure. It is based on the compression of nanoliter and picoliter volumes of oil entrapped in the tip of microcapillaries, which we call pico gauges. The production of pico gauges can be accomplished with standard laboratory equipment, and measurements are comparably easy to conduct. Example pressure measurements are performed on cells that are difficult or impossible to measure with other methods. PMID:25232014

  2. A new primary standard oil manometer for absolute pressure up to 10 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhua; Yang, Yuanchao; Wang, Jinku; Sun, Junfeng

    2015-02-01

    The National Institute of Metrology has developed a new oil manometer that covers the absolute pressure range from 100 Pa up to 10 kPa. The manometer is based on the ultrasonic measurement of transit time in oil columns, and a novel dual U-tube system has been designed to measure the speed of sound in real time as the pressure changes. The working fluid, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, was chosen for its sufficiently low vapor pressure and low sound attenuation. Each tube has a coating of Teflon to resist wetting by the oil. To obtain a uniform and stable temperature environment, the dual U-tube system is located inside a guard vacuum chamber that is wrapped with foam and aluminium foil. A vertical temperature difference of less than 20 mK, a horizontal temperature difference of less than 5 mK and a temperature stability better than 10 mK were achieved. The overall standard (k = 1) uncertainty of the oil manometer is estimated to be approximately (0.015 + 1.63  ×  10-5 p Pa-1) Pa for absolute pressure measurements.

  3. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Water level indicators. (Modifies PG-60.1... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and...

  4. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Water level indicators. (Modifies PG-60.1... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and...

  5. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Water level indicators. (Modifies PG-60.1... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and...

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Water level indicators. (Modifies PG-60.1... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 52.01-1) except as noted otherwise in this section. (b) Water level indicators. (Modifies PG-60.1... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  9. Fabrication of capacitive absolute pressure sensor using Si-Au eutectic bonding in SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryeol Lee, Kang; Kim, Kunnyun; Park, Hyo-Derk; Kim, Yong Kook; Choi, Seung-Woo; Choi, Woo-Beom

    2006-04-01

    A capacitive absolute pressure sensor was fabricated using a large deflected diaphragm with a sealed vacuum cavity formed by removing handling silicon wafer and oxide layers from a SOI wafer after eutectic bonding of a silicon wafer to the SOI wafer. The deflected displacements of the diaphragm formed by the vacuum cavity in the fabricated sensor were similar to simulation results. Initial capacitance values were about 2.18pF and 3.65pF under normal atmosphere, where the thicknesses of the diaphragm used to fabricate the vacuum cavity were 20 µm and 30 µm, respectively. Also, it was confirmed that the differences of capacitance value from 1000hPa to 5hPa were about 2.57pF and 5.35pF, respectively.

  10. Flexible gastrointestinal motility pressure sensors based on aluminum thin-film strain-gauge arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L. R.; Sousa, P. J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Minas, G.

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on an innovative approach to measuring intraluminal pressure in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially monitoring GI motility and peristaltic movements. The proposed approach relies on thin-film aluminum strain gauges deposited on top of a Kapton membrane, which in turn lies on top of an SU-8 diaphragm-like structure. This structure enables the Kapton membrane to bend when pressure is applied, thereby affecting the strain gauges and effectively changing their electrical resistance. The sensor, with an area of 3.4 mm2, is fabricated using photolithography and standard microfabrication techniques (wet etching). It features a linear response (R2 = 0.9987) and an overall sensitivity of 2.6 mV mmHg-1. Additionally, its topology allows a high integration capability. The strain gauges’ responses to pressure were studied and the fabrication process optimized to achieve high sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried out by a microcontroller, with a 10-bit ADC and a sample rate of 250 Hz. The pressure signals are then presented in a user-friendly interface, developed using the Integrated Development Environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians.

  11. Progressive resistance neck exercises using a compressible ball coupled with an air pressure gauge.

    PubMed

    Axen, K; Haas, F; Schicchi, J; Merrick, J

    1992-01-01

    Strength training of neck muscles, a potentially important approach to injury prevention and rehabilitation, has been limited by the lack of a convenient means of instituting progressive resistance exercise (PRE) programs. By positioning a compressible ball coupled with an air pressure gauge between the head and a wall, eight men, ranging in age from 21 to 46 years, initially measured the maximum voluntary pressure (MVP) generated within the ball (a measure of neck muscle force), while maximally flexing, extending, and laterally flexing their head into the ball. In accordance with PRE principles, they then performed three sets of 10 repetitions of each motion while maintaining ball pressure at 60-80% of the measured MVP. This training program, consisting of three to five sessions per week for 4-7 weeks: 1) increased the MVPs for flexion [to 156 +/- 9% (SE) pretraining, p < 0.05], extension [to 162 +/- 11% (SE) pretraining, p < 0.05], and lateral flexion [to 173 +/- 12% (SE) pretraining, p < 0.05]; and 2) decreased the disparity between the MVPs for left and right lateral flexion, indicating that the weaker side showed greater improvement than the stronger side (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that progressive resistance neck exercises, facilitated by a compressible ball coupled with an air pressure gauge, can markedly increase neck muscle strength and decrease lateral force imbalance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(6):275-280.

  12. An improvised pressure gauge for regional nerve blockade/anesthesia injections: an initial study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jayaprakash; Ankireddy, Hari; Wilkes, Antony; Williams, David; Lim, Michael

    2015-12-01

    High injection pressure is one of the warning signs of intraneural injection, with animal models suggesting pressures higher than 69 or 176 kPa as high risk, and is normally detected subjectively and inaccurately. We describe a system improvised from common clinical components that uses Boyle's law to objectively measure injection pressure. The objectives of the study were to (1) Validate our improvised pressure gauge (IPG) by comparing the injection pressure as calculated by Boyle's law against the measured pressure and (2) Use the IPG to measure the range of injection pressures by two groups of anesthetic professionals using the "syringe feel" technique. Our IPG system consists of an extended 1 ml syringe attached to a 3-way stopcock, inserted between the syringe containing the local anesthetic injectate and the needle. The IPG was validated against a pressure calibration reference. 20 anesthesiologists and 20 anesthetic assistants were recruited to apply pressure to the 20 ml syringe in vitro while blinded to the attached IPG. The pressures were measured on three separate occasions for each participant. There was good agreement (<8 percent difference) between the measured and theoretical pressure values. Anesthesiologists exceeded the threshold of 69 kPa in 18 of a total of 60 attempts whereas anesthetic assistants exceeded the threshold in 30 attempts out of 60 attempts. Anesthetic assistants exerted a higher overall pressure of 80 kPa compared to 51 kPa for anesthesiologists-this was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Our improvised system is easily and rapidly assembled from common clinical equipment and shows promise as a monitor for inadvertent intraneural injection.

  13. An improvised pressure gauge for regional nerve blockade/anesthesia injections: an initial study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jayaprakash; Ankireddy, Hari; Wilkes, Antony; Williams, David; Lim, Michael

    2015-12-01

    High injection pressure is one of the warning signs of intraneural injection, with animal models suggesting pressures higher than 69 or 176 kPa as high risk, and is normally detected subjectively and inaccurately. We describe a system improvised from common clinical components that uses Boyle's law to objectively measure injection pressure. The objectives of the study were to (1) Validate our improvised pressure gauge (IPG) by comparing the injection pressure as calculated by Boyle's law against the measured pressure and (2) Use the IPG to measure the range of injection pressures by two groups of anesthetic professionals using the "syringe feel" technique. Our IPG system consists of an extended 1 ml syringe attached to a 3-way stopcock, inserted between the syringe containing the local anesthetic injectate and the needle. The IPG was validated against a pressure calibration reference. 20 anesthesiologists and 20 anesthetic assistants were recruited to apply pressure to the 20 ml syringe in vitro while blinded to the attached IPG. The pressures were measured on three separate occasions for each participant. There was good agreement (<8 percent difference) between the measured and theoretical pressure values. Anesthesiologists exceeded the threshold of 69 kPa in 18 of a total of 60 attempts whereas anesthetic assistants exceeded the threshold in 30 attempts out of 60 attempts. Anesthetic assistants exerted a higher overall pressure of 80 kPa compared to 51 kPa for anesthesiologists-this was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Our improvised system is easily and rapidly assembled from common clinical equipment and shows promise as a monitor for inadvertent intraneural injection. PMID:25940665

  14. Development of miniaturized, spectroscopically assisted Penning gauges for fractional helium and hydrogen neutral pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, K.; Kremeyer, T.; Schmitz, O.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wenzel, U.

    2016-11-01

    Direct measurements of the helium (He) fractional neutral pressure in the neutral gas around fusion devices is challenging because of the small mass difference between the abundant D2 molecules and the He ash which will be produced by deuterium-tritium fusion. To study He exhaust, an in situ Penning gauge system is being developed at UW-Madison that is optimized for good pressure and high spectroscopic sensitivity. Three different anode geometries have been studied regarding their vacuum electrostatic fields, light output, and ion current. The light output of the two new anode configurations are at least one order of magnitude above the currently available designs, hence improving the spectroscopic sensitivity at similar total neutral pressure resolution.

  15. A thin-film aluminum strain gauges array in a flexible gastrointestinal catheter for pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. J.; Silva, L. R.; Pinto, V. C.; Goncalves, L. M.; Minas, G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to measure the pressure patterns associated with the motility and peristaltic movements in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This approach is based on inexpensive and easy to fabricate thin-film aluminum strain gauge pressure sensors using a flexible polyimide film (Kapton) as substrate and SU-8 structural support. These sensors are fabricated using well-established and standard photolithographic and wet etching techniques. Each sensor has a 3.4 mm2 area, allowing a fabrication process with a high level of sensors integration (four sensors in 1.7 cm), which is suitable for placing them in a single catheter. These strain gauges bend when pressure is applied and, consequently, their electrical resistance is changed. The fabricated sensors feature an almost linear response (R 2  =  0.9945) and an overall sensitivity of 6.4 mV mmHg-1. Their readout and control electronics were developed in a flexible Kapton ribbon cable and, together with the sensors, bonded and wrapped around a catheter-like structure. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried by a microcontroller with a 10 bit ADC at a sample rate of 250 Hz per-1 sensor. The signals are presented in a user friendly interface developed using the integrated development environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians.

  16. A thin-film aluminum strain gauges array in a flexible gastrointestinal catheter for pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. J.; Silva, L. R.; Pinto, V. C.; Goncalves, L. M.; Minas, G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to measure the pressure patterns associated with the motility and peristaltic movements in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This approach is based on inexpensive and easy to fabricate thin-film aluminum strain gauge pressure sensors using a flexible polyimide film (Kapton) as substrate and SU-8 structural support. These sensors are fabricated using well-established and standard photolithographic and wet etching techniques. Each sensor has a 3.4 mm2 area, allowing a fabrication process with a high level of sensors integration (four sensors in 1.7 cm), which is suitable for placing them in a single catheter. These strain gauges bend when pressure is applied and, consequently, their electrical resistance is changed. The fabricated sensors feature an almost linear response (R 2  =  0.9945) and an overall sensitivity of 6.4 mV mmHg‑1. Their readout and control electronics were developed in a flexible Kapton ribbon cable and, together with the sensors, bonded and wrapped around a catheter-like structure. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried by a microcontroller with a 10 bit ADC at a sample rate of 250 Hz per‑1 sensor. The signals are presented in a user friendly interface developed using the integrated development environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians.

  17. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A.; Paul, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  18. Quartz Tuning Fork Pressure Gauge for High-Pressure Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, J.; Velasco, A.; Taborek, P.

    2016-08-01

    We have measured the quality factor Q and the frequency f of a 32-kHz quartz tuning fork immersed in liquid ^4 He between 0.9 and 3.0 K, over pressures ranging from the saturated vapor pressure to ≈ 25 atm. At constant pressure, as a function of temperature, the quality factor and frequency have strong features related to the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction. At constant temperature, Q depends on the superfluid fraction, while the frequency is a smooth function of pressure. The behavior is explained using a simple hydrodynamic model. The liquid helium viscosity is obtained from measured values of Q, and together with tabulated values of the helium density as a function of pressure and temperature, the frequency shift can be parameterized as a function of temperature and pressure. The observed sensitivity is ≈ 7.8 Hz/atm. The quartz tuning fork provides a compact low power method of measuring the pressure in the bulk liquid.

  19. Long-term Observation of Seafloor Disturbances by Array of Pressure Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a seafloor array system of pressure gauges to record disturbances on both the oceanic and solid-Earth sides. The array consists of 10 high-resolution pressure gauges (PARO-8B7000-I-005) in a regular triangle configuration with site intervals of 10 km. The targeted disturbances on the oceanic side include infragravity waves, tsunamis and low-mode internal tides. Those on the solid-Earth side include P-wave families and Rayleigh waves, in particular, the Airy phase of suboceanic Rayleigh waves at periods around 10 s. We confirmed using data from the Nankai Trough seafloor network of pressure gauges (DONET) that our system should enable us to retrieve accurately the first-mode internal tides with the signal power four orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding semidiurnal surface tides. We installed this system around (32.4N, 140.3E, 1500-2200m depths) on the upper slope of the Izu-Bonin Trench in May 2014. The system was recovered in May-June 2015 and reinstalled around (31.2N, 141.7E, 4700-5700m depths) on the lower slope of this trench in a hope to recover in June 2016 (see Figure). The already recovered data contains records of the tsunami earthquake of May 02, 2015, at epicentral distances around 90 km. Its seismic magnitude was only 5.7, yet the tsunami height was 0.5 m at the 170km-distant island. Our pressure records show P-wave families followed by dispersive tsunami wave trains with amplitudes about 200 Pa successively passing through the array. Although P-wave families of comparable amplitudes were recorded by the M5.6 near-trench low-angle thrust earthquake of May 10, 2015, at epicentral distances around 160 km, they were not followed by any visible tsunami signals. These observations imply merits of sea-bottom pressure array, including easiness of comparing amplitudes of seismic waves and tsunamis on the same record and capability of tracing two-dimensional tsunami propagation through the array as a function of period.

  20. Double Ionization Gauge for Atmosphere Density/Pressure Measurements On Board the Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, V.; Shturkov, O.; Balugin, N.; Zhurin, S.; Kusov, A.

    2015-09-01

    A description of the ionization gauge for atmospheric density/pressure measurements on board a Russian meteorological rocket is presented. Its operation is based on the principle employed in an ionization gauge. The measuring density/pressure range is 1 06 102 kg/m3 / 10 ~ - 10 mm Hg. There are two output channels for ion and electron current measurements, respectively. The calibration curves are in a fairly good agreement with the classical electron impact ionization theory. The calibration error is less than 7%, that has been definitely confirmed through laboratory bench calibration. This rocket-borne device does not require pre-flight sealing. It greatly simplifies the design of the flight device. The ionization source is an electron flux emitted from the surface of a semi-impermeable metal plate under the influence of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The vUv radiation source is a portable glow-discharge krypton lamp. The flight instrument has been tested for shock loads up to 200 g for rocket measurement applications.

  1. Lava lake level as a gauge of magma reservoir pressure and eruptive hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting volcanic activity relies fundamentally on tracking magma pressure through the use of proxies, such as ground surface deformation and earthquake rates. Lava lakes at open-vent basaltic volcanoes provide a window into the uppermost magma system for gauging reservoir pressure changes more directly. At Kīlauea Volcano (Hawaiʻi, USA) the surface height of the summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater fluctuates with surface deformation over short (hours to days) and long (weeks to months) time scales. This correlation implies that the lake behaves as a simple piezometer of the subsurface magma reservoir. Changes in lava level and summit deformation scale with (and shortly precede) changes in eruption rate from Kīlauea's East Rift Zone, indicating that summit lava level can be used for short-term forecasting of rift zone activity and associated hazards at Kīlauea.

  2. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Negative gauge pressure comparison: range -95 kPa to +95 kPa (EURAMET Project 1131)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantanen, Markku; Saxholm, Sari; Altintas, Aykurt; Pavis, Richard; Peterson, Guliko

    2010-01-01

    A pressure comparison in the negative gauge pressure range was arranged in 2009. The participating laboratories were CMI/Czech Republic, FORCE Technology/Denmark, AS Metrosert/Estonia and MIKES/Finland. Negative gauge pressures are a common range for pressure calibrations although uncertainty requirements are generally not very high. The results from the four participating laboratories suggest that calibrations in the negative gauge pressure range are not as easy as expected. Some of the claimed uncertainties were perhaps too optimistic, and the large variation in the results made it difficult to generate consistent reference values. The agreement of the results at positive gauge pressures on the same transfer standard was much better. Obviously there is a need for further comparisons in the negative gauge pressure range. The transfer standard was a multifunction calibrator Beamex MC5 equipped with an internal pressure module for the range -100 kPa to 104 kPa in the gauge mode. The resolution of the display was 0.001 kPa. The stability of the transfer standard was good. The comparison was registered as EURAMET Project No. 1131 and as the supplementary comparison EURAMET.M.P-S8 in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  4. Long term observation in the Nankai Trough region using broadband ocean bottom seismometers and pressure gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahigashi, K.; Machida, Y.; Isse, T.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shinohara, M.; Shiobara, H.; Kanazawa, T.; Uehira, K.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, low-frequency earthquakes and slow slip events are recognized in deep region of the plate boundary between the landward plate and the subducting Philippine plate below the southwestern Japan [e.g., Obara, 2002; Kawasaki, 2004]. The very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) occurring close to the Nankai Trough are also reported by using the broadband seismograph data obtained in the land area [e.g., Obara and Ito, 2005]. Such unusual seismic events might reflect coupling properties at the plate boundary. It is important to understand such events for consideration of the subduction process and estimation of generation mechanism of the interplate earthquake in the Nankai Trough. Because the VLFEs in the Nankai Trough region occurred far from land seismic stations, observations using broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometers (BBOBSs) near the trough are needed to understand such VLFE activities. In December 2008, we started an observation campaign off Kii Peninsula. For the first observation, three BBOBSs with Guralp CMG-3T sensors, and six 1Hz type Long-term OBSs were used. The spatial intervals among OBSs were about 20km. In 2009, we recovered them. The data recorded by each OBS were merged and continuous records were reproduced. VLFEs with predominant frequency of 0.01-0.1 Hz were found from continuous records in March 2009. The occurrence of the VLFE has a temporal change. In addition, seismicity of ordinary micro-earthquakes became high simultaneously during the VLFE activities. In November 2009, we started the second observation off Cape Muroto, the westward of the first observation, using three BBOBSs with pressure gauge, and five Long-term OBSs. The subducting seamount was found by an OBS survey in this region [Kodaira et al., 2000]. In February 2011, all the OBS were retrieved. We obtained consecutive data of seismometer and pressure gauge. We can identify a tunami signal from 2010 Chile Earthquake (Mw8.8).In February 2001, we deployed five BBOBSs in the same

  5. Tsunami data assimilation of Cascadia seafloor pressure gauge records from the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Sheehan, Anne F.; Satake, Kenji; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mulia, Iyan Eka; Maeda, Takuto

    2016-05-01

    We use tsunami waveforms recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges offshore Oregon and California from the 2012 Haida Gwaii, Canada, earthquake to simulate the performance of two different real-time tsunami-forecasting methods. In the first method, the tsunami source is first estimated by inversion of recorded tsunami waveforms. In the second method, the array data are assimilated to reproduce tsunami wavefields. These estimates can be used for forecasting tsunami on the coast. The dense seafloor array provides critical data for both methods to produce timeliness (>30 min lead time) and accuracy in both timing and amplitude (>94% confidence) tsunami forecasts. Real-time tsunami data on dense arrays and data assimilation can be tested as a possible new generation tsunami warning system.

  6. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.; Borkowski, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with acetylene, important in both atmospheric and combustion chemistry, is determined for temperatures between 228 and 413 K. The flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique was employed at five temperatures over wide ranges of pressure and acetylene concentrations, with the OH produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons measured by multiscaling techniques. Results indicate that, except at the lowest temperature, the bimolecular rate constant for the reaction depends strongly on total pressure, with the pressure effect becoming more pronounced with increasing temperature. At limiting high pressures, the rate constant is found to be equal to 6.83 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -12th exp (-646 + or - 47/T) cu cm/molecule per sec, where T is the temperature. Results thus demonstrate the importance of environmental conditions in theoretical studies of atmospheric and combustion product compositions

  7. Acoustic travel time gauges for in-situ determination of pressure and temperature in multi-anvil apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Qi, Xintong; Zou, Yongtao; Liebermann, Robert C.; Li, Baosheng; Kung, Jennifer; Yu, Tony; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-08-14

    In this study, we developed a new method for in-situ pressure determination in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus using an acoustic travel time approach within the framework of acoustoelasticity. The ultrasonic travel times of polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calibrated against NaCl pressure scale up to 15 GPa and 900 °C in a Kawai-type double-stage multi-anvil apparatus in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation, thereby providing a convenient and reliable gauge for pressure determination at ambient and high temperatures. The pressures derived from this new travel time method are in excellent agreement with those from the fixed-point methods. Application of this new pressure gauge in an offline experiment revealed a remarkable agreement of the densities of coesite with those from the previous single crystal compression studies under hydrostatic conditions, thus providing strong validation for the current travel time pressure scale. The travel time approach not only can be used for continuous in-situ pressure determination at room temperature, high temperatures, during compression and decompression, but also bears a unique capability that none of the previous scales can deliver, i.e., simultaneous pressure and temperature determination with a high accuracy (±0.16 GPa in pressure and ±17 °C in temperature). Therefore, the new in-situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pressure gauge is expected to enable new and expanded opportunities for offline laboratory studies of solid and liquid materials under high pressure and high temperature in multi-anvil apparatus.

  8. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  9. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  10. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  11. Research on the FBG strain gauge used for the safety monitoring of high-temperature pressure pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qing-mu; Liu, Yue-ming; He, Zheng-yan; Chen, Zhong-you; Huang, Chang-qing; Lou, Jun; Tian, Wei-jian

    2012-10-01

    High temperature pressure pipes were widely used in the chemical, oil companies and power plants, but the pipe burst incidents occurred from time to time, which had caused some damages on people's lives and property. Thus, in this paper, with the aim to solve this problem, a FBG (FBG: Fiber Bragg Grating) strain gauge structure which consists of three FBGs is designed and fabricated based on the theoretical strain and stress analysis. The strain gauge can be used for the real-time surface strain monitoring of high temperature pressure pipes. In the strain gauge, the elastic hightemperature alloy(10MoWVNb) is chosen as the substrate. The three FBGs with a similar performance are fabricated on the substrate with the high-temperature glue. Among the three FBGs, FBG1 is used for the horizontal strain sensing of high temperature pressure pipes., FBG2 is used for the longitudinal strain of high temperature pressure pipes, and FGB3 is used for temperature compensation. The strain gauge has a feature of high temperature resistance, temperature compensation and two-dimensional strain measurement. The experiment result shows that : the sensing ranges of temperature is 0~300°C, the transverse strain sensitivity is 1.110nm/μɛ, the temperature sensitivity is 0.0213nm/°C; The longitudinal strain sensitivity is 1.104nm/μɛ, the temperature sensitivity is 0.0212nm/°C; the temperature sensitivity is 0.0103nm/°C. Therefore, the strain gauge can meet the needs of the high temperature and pressure pipes.

  12. Effect of Static Pressure on Absolute Paleointesity Determinations with Implications for Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, M.; Gilder, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorites store information about the magnetic fields present in the solar system. However, most meteorites have experienced pressure/shock, which will influence the magnetic properties of the remanence carrying minerals. Here, we quantify the effect that relatively low pressure has on paleointensity recording with relevance to meteorites that have no petrographic evidence for shock. Thellier-type experiments were carried out on 40 samples containing thermally stable titanomagnetite similar to that found in some achondrites. Pressure cycling was performed under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions. We also tested the effect of pressure cycling when the maximum compression axis was imposed parallel and perpendicular to the magnetization direction. The initial zero pressure experiment correctly reproduced the laboratory field imparted on the samples. Paleointensity values decrease 10%/GPa under hydrostatic conditions with no observable directional dependence between the direction of the magnetization with the maximum compression axis. Non-hydrostatic pressures have a significantly greater effect - paleointensity decreases 20%/GPa on average, with only a slight difference when pressure is imposed parallel to the magnetization direction, whereas the pressure demagnetization effect is more substantial. Interestingly, the data become more linear (higher quality factors) as pressure increases. We explain this phenomenon through a numerical model that shows the mean blocking temperatures become lower with increasing pressure. This reduces the difference between mean blocking and unblocking, which eliminates the sagging (curvature) seen in Arai plots.Considering that samples from meteorites classified as unshocked may have experienced pressures up to 5 GPa, paleointensity estimates derived from meteorites should be considered as minimum values.

  13. Spinning rotor gauge based vacuum gauge calibration system at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; George, Siju; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; M, Himabindu

    2012-11-01

    The Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is an indigenously built medium sized fusion device at IPR designed for plasma duration of 1000 seconds. It consists of two large vacuum chambers - Vacuum Vessel (16 m3) and Cryostat (39 m3) which will be pumped to UHV and HV pressures respectively using a set of turbo molecular pumps, Cryo-pumps and Roots pumps. The total as well as the partial pressure measurement in these chambers will be carried out using a set of Pirani gauges, Bayard Alpert type gauges, Capacitance manometers and Residual Gas Analyzers (RGA). A reliable and accurate pressure measurement is essential for successful operation of SST-1 machine. For this purpose a gauge calibration system is set up in SST-1 Vacuum laboratory based on Spinning Rotor Gauge which can measure absolute pressure in the range 1.0 mbar to 1.0 × 10-7 mbar. This system is designed to calibrate up to five gauges simultaneously for different gases in different operating pressure ranges of the gauges. This paper discusses the experimental set-up and the procedure adopted for the calibration of such vacuum gauges.

  14. Elasticity of MgO to 11 GPa with an independent absolute pressure scale: Implications for pressure calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Woody, K; Kung, J

    2006-01-01

    P and S wave velocities and unit cell parameters (density) of MgO are measured simultaneously up to 11 GPa using combined ultrasonic interferometry and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The elastic bulk and shear moduli as well as their pressure derivatives are obtained by fitting the measured velocity and density data to the third-order finite strain equations, yielding K0S = 163.5(11) GPa, K'0S = 4.20(10), G0 = 129.8(6) GPa, and G'0 = 2.42(6), independent of pressure. These properties are subsequently used in a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to determine the sample pressures at the observed strains. Comparison of the 300K isothermal compression of MgO indicates that current pressure scales from recent studies are in better than 1.5% agreement. We find that pressures derived from secondary pressure standards (NaCl, ruby fluorescence) at 300K are lower than those from current MgO scales by 5-8% ({approx}6% on average) in the entire pressure range of the current experiment. If this is taken into account, discrepancy in previous static compression studies on MgO at 300K can be reconciled, and a better agreement with the present study can be achieved.

  15. Investigation of diaphragm deflection of an absolute MEMS capacitive polysilicon pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walk, C.; Goehlich, A.; Giese, A.; Goertz, M.; Vogt, H.; Kraft, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics of circular shaped polysilicon pressure sensor diaphragms operating in the non-tactile mode. Using a phase shifting interferometer the main characteristics of diaphragms were investigated under applied pressure with respect to sensitivity, initial deflection and cavity height. Diaphragms with a thickness of 1 μm and a diameter of 96 μm were investigated in an intended pressure range of applied pressure of about 700 - 2000 hPa. Process parameters with major impact on performance and yield limitations were identified. These include the variance in diaphragm sensitivity and the impact of the variance of the sacrificial oxide layer defining the diaphragm cavity height on the contact pressure point. The sensitivity of these diaphragms including the variance was found to be - 19.8 ± 1.3 nm per 100 hPa. The impact of variance in the cavity height on the contact pressure point was found to be about 3.7 ± 0.5 hPa per nm. Summarizing both impacts a maximum variation of the contact pressure point of more than 450 hPa is possible to occur considering a nominal deflection of 300 nm. By optimizing the process of diaphragm deposition the variance in the sensitivity of the diaphragm was decreased by a factor of 2. A semi - empirical formula was evaluated that describes the deflection including initial deflection due to intrinsic stress and the process variations. A validation to the experimental obtained deflection lines showed a good agreement with deviations of less than 2 % for radial ranges of maximum deflection.

  16. Effect of static pressure on absolute paleointensity recording with implications for meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic stress on the recording process of magnetic field intensity with particular relevance for meteorites that experienced pressures lower than 5 GPa corresponding to the lowest shock stage classification (S1) in meteorites. Thermal remanent magnetizations were imparted on natural obsidian samples containing pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite, analogous to some achondritic meteorites. Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were carried out at ambient conditions after pressure cycling to 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 GPa. Each experiment used 10 samples to assess reproducibility, which is better than ±5%. The recorded paleointensity decreased 10%/GPa under hydrostatic stress and 20%/GPa under nonhydrostatic stress, leading to the fundamental conclusion that paleointensity results from meteorites may be appreciably underestimated. Pressure cycling shifts the blocking and unblocking spectra, thereby producing more linear slopes on an Arai diagram with increasing strain. We explain why, for samples with a single magnetization component that does not alter, a two-step paleointensity protocol sufficiently resolves the true paleointensity. Moreover, we propose that pressure cycling of pseudo-single domain bearing samples will remove the inherent curvature of the Arai slope, thereby allowing one to obtain a more accurate estimate of the true paleointensity. This likely also holds true for samples possessing multidomain grains. Conversely, linear trends on Arai plots in meteorites might have their origin in a pressure effect that does not necessarily reflect the ubiquitous presence of single domain particles.

  17. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  18. EURAMET.M.P-S9: comparison in the negative gauge pressure range -950 to 0 hPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxholm, S.; Otal, P.; AltintaS, A.; Bermanec, L. G.; Durgut, Y.; Hanrahan, R.; Kocas, I.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Pražák, D.; Sandu, I.; Åetina, J.; Spohr, I.; Steindl, D.; Tammik, K.; Testa, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison in the negative gauge pressure range was arranged in the period 2011 - 2012. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this comparison: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), DANIAmet-FORCE (Denmark), EIM (Greece), HMI/FSB-LPM (Croatia), INM (Romania), IPQ (Portugal), LNE (France), MCCAA (Malta), METROSERT (Estonia), MIKES (Finland), MIRS/IMT/LMT (Slovenia), NSAI (Ireland) and UME (Turkey). The project was divided into two loops: Loop1, piloted by MIKES, and Loop2, piloted by LNE. The results of the two loops are reported separately: Loop1 results are presented in this paper. The transfer standard was Beamex MC5 no. 25516865 with internal pressure module INT1C, resolution 0.01 hPa. The nominal pressure range of the INT1C is -1000 hPa to +1000 hPa. The nominal pressure points for the comparison were 0 hPa, -200 hPa, -400 hPa, -600 hPa, -800 hPa and -950 hPa. The reference values and their uncertainties as well as the difference uncertainty between the laboratory results and the reference values were determined from the measurement data by Monte Carlo simulations. Stability uncertainty of the transfer standard was included in the final difference uncertainty. Degrees of equivalences and mutual equivalences between the laboratories were calculated. Each laboratory reported results for all twelve measurement points, which means that there were 168 reported values in total. Some 163 of the 168 values (97 %) agree with the reference values within the expanded uncertainties, with a coverage factor k = 2. Among the laboratories, four different methods were used to determine negative gauge pressure. It is concluded that special attention must be paid to the measurements and methods when measuring negative gauge pressures. There might be a need for a technical guide or a workshop that provides information about details and practices related to the measurements of negative gauge pressure, as well as differences between the different methods. The comparison is

  19. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  20. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  1. The 2ν{sub 3} Raman overtone of sulfur hexafluoride: Absolute spectra, pressure effects, and polarizability properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysos, M. Rachet, F.; Kremer, D.

    2014-03-28

    Of the six normal vibrations of SF{sub 6}, ν{sub 3} has a key role in the mechanisms of radiative forcing. This vibration, though inactive in Raman, shows up through the transition 2ν{sub 3} allowing for a complementary view on the asymmetric stretch of the molecule. Here, we look back into this topic, which has already caught some interest in the past but with some points been left out. We make a systematic incoherent-light-scattering analysis of the overtone with the use of different gas pressures and polarization orientations for the incident beam. Absolute-scale isotropic and anisotropic spectra are reported along with natural and pressure-induced widths and shifts, and other spectral features such as the peaks corresponding to the (experimentally indistinguishable) interfering channels E{sub g} and F{sub 2g} hitherto seen solely as two-photon IR-absorption features. We make the first-ever prediction of the SF{sub 6} polarizability second derivative with respect to the ν{sub 3}-mode coordinate and we develop a heuristic argument to explain why the superposition of the three degenerate stretching motions that are related to the ν{sub 3} mode cannot but generate a polarized Raman band.

  2. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). 153.372 Section 153.372 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  3. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). 153.372 Section 153.372 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  4. A review of the fundamental methods for measuring gauge pressures up to 1 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peggs, G. N.

    1980-12-01

    The review focuses on such small pressure measurement methods as liquid column manometry, pressure balance techniques, measurement by bell-type manometers, and methods based on gas laws. Uncertainties associated with the various methods are estimated, and methods for the calibration of pressure measuring devices are discussed along with the performance and design features of the various types of standards. It is shown that liquid-column manometers offer the most easily realized fundamental standards utilizing commonly used measurement techniques, while pressure balance techniques offer more flexibility for operating over a wide pressure range and also provide a degree of control.

  5. A self-contained, portable variable-pressure hydrostatic cell for use in low gauge pressure electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and photoacoustic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Barbara; Wright, Forrest; Barber, Gary; Latcha, Michael; Kobus, Chris; Grim, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    A simple, manually adjustable hydrostatic cell for electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and photoacoustic studies in absolute pressure ranges from 40 kPa to 5.5 MPa is described. The cell consists of two 3-mm-thick quartz windows enclosing a 1.3-cm-diameter hole bored through a 2.54-cm-long cube block of stainless steel. Four 3-mm-diameter counterbored and taper-threaded holes on the cube walls provide minimally intrusive, chemically inert ports for temperature and acoustical monitoring. Pressure is easily varied within the cell by means of a stainless steel threaded shaft with an O-ring seal at the end, situated inside a matched internally threaded housing. An example of photoacoustic waveforms acquired under conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure is provided.

  6. First application of tsunami back-projection and source inversion for the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake using tsunami data recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Sheehan, A. F.; Mulia, I. E.; Heidarzadeh, M.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Adaption of absolute or differential pressure gauges (APG or DPG) to Ocean Bottom Seismometers has provided the opportunity to study tsunamis. Recently we extracted tsunami waveforms of the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake recoded by the APG and DPG of Cascadia Initiative program (Sheehan et al., 2015, SRL). We applied such dense tsunami observations (48 stations) together with other records from DARTs (9 stations) to characterize the tsunami source. This study is the first study that used such a large number of offshore tsunami records for earthquake source study. Conventionally the curves of tsunami travel times are drawn backward from station locations to estimate the tsunami source region. Here we propose a more advanced technique called tsunami back-projection to estimate the source region. Our image produced by tsunami back-projection has the largest value or tsunami centroid that is very close to the epicenter and above the Queen Charlotte transform fault (QCF), whereas the negative values are mostly located east of Haida Gwaii in the Hecate Strait. By using tsunami back-projection we avoid picking initial tsunami phase which is a necessary step in the conventional method that is rather subjective. The slip distribution of the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake estimated by tsunami waveform inversion shows large slip near the trench (4-5 m) and also on a plate interface southeast the epicenter (3-4 m) below QCF. From the slip distribution, the calculated seismic moment is 5.4 × 1020 N m (Mw 7.8). The steep bathymetry offshore Haida Gwaii and the horizontal movement caused by the earthquake possibly affects the sea surface deformation. The potential tsunami energy calculated from the sea-surface deformation of pure faulting is 2.20 × 1013 J, while that from the bathymetry effect is 0.12 × 1013 J or about 5% of the total potential energy. The significant deformation above the steep slope is confirmed by another tsunami inversion that disregards fault

  7. The StenTec gauge for measuring static intra-access pressure ratio (P(Ia Ratio) ) of fistulas and grafts.

    PubMed

    Ash, Stephen R; Dhamija, Rajiv; Zaroura, Mohamad Y; Hentschel, Dirk M

    2012-07-01

    The StenTec™ Gauge provides a method to determine the static intra-access pressure ratio (P(Ia Ratio) ) within a fistula or graft. The StenTec Gauge estimates the peak systolic pressure within the fistula or graft by measurement of the distance that the blood-air interface progresses into the tubing of the fistula needle, after the needle is inserted "dry" into the fistula or graft and before the cap is removed from the tubing. The peak systolic pressure is graphically compared with the systolic arterial blood pressure of the patient, to determine P(Ia Ratio) . For best accuracy, the StenTec Gauge should be chosen that best matches the internal volume of the fistula needle tubing (2.3-2.6 ml for 12-inch tubing and 3.6 ml for 16-inch tubing) and the approximate elevation of the city in which it is used (0-1000, 1000-3000, and 3000-6000 feet above sea level). In this article, we explain the rationale for this method of surveillance, evidence for accuracy of the StenTec Gauge, and the correlation of changes in the P(Ia Ratio) to the development of stenosis in a fistula or graft. PMID:22356546

  8. Final report of EURAMET 1197: Supplementary bilateral comparison of hydraulic gauge pressure standards up to 50 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgut, Yasin; Petrovski, Nenad; Kacarski, Vanco

    2012-01-01

    Interlaboratory comparisons are important for the laboratories to assess their own measurement capability. It is equally important for the accreditation bodies and assessors during the audit process of a laboratory to judge whether the laboratory is doing well. As per accreditation rules, it is mandatory for the testing and calibration laboratories to participate in such comparisons from time to time. In this report, results of the bilateral interlaboratory comparison in pressure area in hydraulic media up to 50 MPa gauge between UME (Turkey) and BOM (The FYR of Macedonia) are presented. The artefact used for the comparison was a digital pressure calibrator and its drift was taken into account in the calculation. Results show that all En values lie in acceptable limits. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Burnett Method with Absolute Pressure Transducer and Measurements for PVT Properties of Nitrogen and Hydrogen up to 473 K and 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, N.; Shindo, K.; Motomura, K.; Shinzato, K.; Kohno, M.; Takata, Y.; Fujii, M.

    2012-01-01

    A measurement method for PVT properties of high-temperature and high-pressure gases was developed by simplifying the Burnett method and revising the data acquisition procedure. Instead of a differential pressure transducer, which is traditionally used, an absolute pressure transducer is used in the present method, and the measurement of pressure becomes easier. However, the absolute pressure transducer is placed outside the constant temperature bath because of the difficulty of its use in high-temperature surroundings, and some parts with different temperatures from the sample vessels exist as dead space. The present method takes into account the effect of the dead space in the data acquisition procedure. Nitrogen was measured in the temperature range from 353 K to 473 K and at pressures up to 100 MPa to determine the apparatus constants, and then, hydrogen was measured at 473 K and up to 100 MPa. The determined densities are in agreement within uncertainties of 0.07% to 0.24% ( k = 2), both with the latest equation of state and existing measured data.

  10. Investigation of 10-Stage Axial-Flow X24C-2 Compressor. 1; Performance at Inlet Pressure of 21 Inches Mercury Absolute and Inlet Temperature of 538 R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    The performance at inlet pressure of 21 inches mercury absolute and inlet temperature of 538 R for the 10-stage axial-flow X24C-2 compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was investigated. the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency for a given speed generally occurred at values of pressure coefficient fairly close to 0.35.For this compressor, the efficiency data at various speeds could be correlated on two converging curves by the use of a polytropic loss factor derived.

  11. Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive: Pressure Gauge Experiments and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2002-04-02

    Safety issues related to thermal cook-off are important for handling and storing explosive devices. Violence of event as a function of confinement is important for prediction of collateral events. There are major issues, which require an understanding of the following events: (1) transit to detonation of a pressure wave from a cook-off event, (2) sensitivity of HMX based explosives changes with thermally induced phase transitions and (3) the potential danger of neighboring explosive devices being affected by a cook-off reaction. Results of cook-off events of known size, confinement and thermal history allows for development and/or calibrating computer models for calculating events that are difficult to measure experimentally.

  12. The major influence of the atmosphere on intracranial pressure: an observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbowski, Leszek

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the atmosphere on human physiology has been studied widely within the last years. In practice, intracranial pressure is a pressure difference between intracranial compartments and the surrounding atmosphere. This means that gauge intracranial pressure uses atmospheric pressure as its zero point, and therefore, this method of pressure measurement excludes the effects of barometric pressure's fluctuation. The comparison of these two physical quantities can only take place through their absolute value relationship. The aim of this study is to investigate the direct effect of barometric pressure on the absolute intracranial pressure homeostasis. A prospective observational cross-sectional open study was conducted in Szczecin, Poland. In 28 neurosurgical patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial intraventricular pressure was monitored in a sitting position. A total of 168 intracranial pressure and atmospheric pressure measurements were performed. Absolute atmospheric pressure was recorded directly. All values of intracranial gauge pressure were converted to absolute pressure (the sum of gauge intracranial pressure and local absolute atmospheric pressure). The average absolute mean intracranial pressure in the patients is 1006.6 hPa (95 % CI 1004.5 to 1008.8 hPa, SEM 1.1), and the mean absolute atmospheric pressure is 1007.9 hPa (95 % CI 1006.3 to 1009.6 hPa, SEM 0.8). The observed association between atmospheric and intracranial pressure is strongly significant (Spearman correlation r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and all the measurements are perfectly reliable (Bland-Altman coefficient is 4.8 %). It appears from this study that changes in absolute intracranial pressure are related to seasonal variation. Absolute intracranial pressure is shown to be impacted positively by atmospheric pressure.

  13. Student Award Finalist: Reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasmas with water admixtures for biomedical applications: Absolute measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Sandra; Bredin, J.; West, A.; Niemi, K.; Dedrick, J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Foucher, M.; Booth, J.-P.; Wagenaars, E.; Gans, T.; O'Connell, D.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the production of atomic oxygen (O), hydroxyl (OH) and atomic hydrogen (H) in an rf atmospheric-pressure plasma operated in helium with water admixtures. These species, and their longer-lived products, are known to influence biological systems. Absolute measurements of species densities are required to develop these plasmas for therapeutics. Accurate determination of radical densities is challenging at elevated pressures in complex gas mixtures due to collisional quenching. We measure radical densities using VUV high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, UV broadband absorption spectroscopy, and picosecond two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (ps-TALIF). These diagnostics are the most suitable techniques allowing direct, absolute and 2-dimensional spatial resolution measurements at atmospheric pressure. Ps-TALIF also enables measurements of the lifetimes of laser-excited states of O and H, providing insight into the chemical kinetics and ambient air diffusion into the plasma jet region. Good agreement has been found between the measurements and a numerical chemical-kinetic simulation. Funding from the UK EPSRC (EP/K018388/1 & EP/H003797/1), the York-Paris Low Temperature Plasma Collaborative Research Centre and financial state aid managed by the laboratory of excellence Plas@Par (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).

  14. A New Algorithm for Real-Time Tsunami Forecast Using a Dense Network of Cabled Ocean-Bottom Pressure Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Suzuki, W.

    2014-12-01

    We started to develop a new algorithm for real-time tsunami forecast based on offshore tsunami observations with 150 cabled ocean-bottom pressure gauges of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2012, AGU). The most important concept on the new algorithm is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first construct a tsunami scenario bank (TSB). It contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the 150 stations and maximum coastal tsunami heights, calculated using nonlinear long-wave theory with runup boundary condition from any possible tsunami sources (fault models) that affect target coastal regions. From TSB, then we quickly explore a range of several suitable tsunami scenarios, that can explain offshore observations. At the same time, maximum possible tsunami heights along the target coastlines, coupled with selected scenarios, are predicted. In the near future, it is possible to forecast real-time tsunami inundation by adding its component in TSB under the same strategy. In this study, we focus on near-field tsunami occurring off the Pacific coast of Tohoku and Hokkaido. Provisionally, we generate 1848 tsunami scenarios, prepared for a research project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Japan (Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS), to construct TSB. For a given pseudo "observed waveforms", the developing algorithm rapidly picks up an allowable range of tsunami scenarios from TSB. In this procedure, we use multiple indexes such as correlation coefficient, sum of squared residual, as well as geometric mean and geometric standard deviation in ratios of scenarios to observations. Use of multiple indexes rather than any single index as linear inversion does reinforce to obtain robust tsunami forecast.

  15. Absolute OH concentration profiles measurements in high pressure counterflow flames by coupling LIF, PLIF, and absorption techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matynia, A.; Idir, M.; Molet, J.; Roche, C.; de Persis, S.; Pillier, L.

    2012-08-01

    A high-pressure combustion chamber enclosing counterflow burners was set-up at ICARE-CNRS laboratory. It allows the stabilization of flat twin premixed flames at atmospheric and high pressure. In this study, lean and stoichiometric methane/air counterflow premixed flames were studied at various pressures (0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa). Relative OH concentration profiles were measured by Laser Induced Fluorescence. Great care was attached to the determination of the fluorescence signal by taking into account the line broadening and deexcitation by quenching which both arise at high pressure. Subsequently, OH profiles were calibrated in concentration by laser absorption technique associated with planar laser induced fluorescence. Results are successfully compared with literature. The good quality of the results attests of the experimental set-up ability to allow the study of flame structure at high pressure.

  16. Effect of External Pressure and Catheter Gauge on Flow Rate, Kinetic Energy, and Endothelial Injury During Intravenous Fluid Administration in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Chan, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Huang, Go-Shine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (IV) catheter gauge and pressurization of IV fluid (IVF) bags on fluid flow rate have been studied. However, the pressure needed to achieve a flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 gauge (G) catheter through smaller G catheters and the potential for endothelial damage from the increased kinetic energy produced by higher pressurization are unclear. Constant pressure on an IVF bag was maintained by an automatic adjustable pneumatic pressure regulator of our own design. Fluids running through 16 G, 18 G, 20 G, and 22 G catheters were assessed while using IV bag pressurization to achieve the flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 G catheter. We assessed flow rates, kinetic energy, and flow injury to rabbit inferior vena cava endothelium. By applying sufficient external constant pressure to an IVF bag, all fluids could be run through smaller (G) catheters at the flow rate in a 16 G catheter. However, the kinetic energy increased significantly as the catheter G increased. Damage to the venous endothelium was negligible or minimal/patchy cell loss. We designed a new rapid infusion system, which provides a constant pressure that compresses the fluid volume until it is free from visible residual fluid. When large-bore venous access cannot be obtained, multiple smaller catheters, external pressure, or both should be considered. However, caution should be exercised when fluid pressurized to reach a flow rate equivalent to that in a 16 G catheter is run through a smaller G catheter because of the profound increase in kinetic energy that can lead to venous endothelium injury.

  17. Final report on supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S6 in gas gauge pressure from 10 MPa to 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Olson, Douglas A.; Iizumi, Hideaki; Driver, Robert Greg; Kojima, Momoko

    2016-01-01

    A supplementary comparison of gas high-pressure standards was conducted between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP), in order to determine their degrees of equivalence in the pressure range from 10 MPa to 100 MPa in gauge mode. The pilot institute was NMIJ/AIST. The measurements were carried out from July 2014 to October 2014. Both participating institutes used pressure balances as their pressure standards. Different gases were used for the pressure medium: NMIJ/AIST used Nitrogen, while NIST used Helium. A set of two pressure monitors was used as the transfer standard. The pressure monitors were found sufficiently stable during the measurements. Characteristics of the pressure monitors were evaluated at the pilot institute, and then used for data corrections and uncertainty estimations. In particular, the effect of the gas medium on the pressure monitors was found to be significant, and then all the measurement data were corrected to those with Nitrogen. The degrees of equivalence between the two institutes were evaluated by the relative differences of the participant's results and their associated expanded (k = 2) uncertainties. The gas pressure standards in the range 10 MPa to 100 MPa for gauge mode of the two participating institutes were found to be equivalent within their claimed uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Effect of External Pressure and Catheter Gauge on Flow Rate, Kinetic Energy, and Endothelial Injury During Intravenous Fluid Administration in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Chan, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Huang, Go-Shine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (IV) catheter gauge and pressurization of IV fluid (IVF) bags on fluid flow rate have been studied. However, the pressure needed to achieve a flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 gauge (G) catheter through smaller G catheters and the potential for endothelial damage from the increased kinetic energy produced by higher pressurization are unclear. Constant pressure on an IVF bag was maintained by an automatic adjustable pneumatic pressure regulator of our own design. Fluids running through 16 G, 18 G, 20 G, and 22 G catheters were assessed while using IV bag pressurization to achieve the flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 G catheter. We assessed flow rates, kinetic energy, and flow injury to rabbit inferior vena cava endothelium. By applying sufficient external constant pressure to an IVF bag, all fluids could be run through smaller (G) catheters at the flow rate in a 16 G catheter. However, the kinetic energy increased significantly as the catheter G increased. Damage to the venous endothelium was negligible or minimal/patchy cell loss. We designed a new rapid infusion system, which provides a constant pressure that compresses the fluid volume until it is free from visible residual fluid. When large-bore venous access cannot be obtained, multiple smaller catheters, external pressure, or both should be considered. However, caution should be exercised when fluid pressurized to reach a flow rate equivalent to that in a 16 G catheter is run through a smaller G catheter because of the profound increase in kinetic energy that can lead to venous endothelium injury. PMID:26674456

  19. Absolute rate of the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene from 198 to 320 K at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The rate constant for the H+C2H4 reaction has been measured as a function of temperature. Experiments were performed with high pressures of Ar heat bath gas at seven temperatures from 198 to 320 K with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) technique. Pressures were chosen so as to isolate the addition rate constant k1. The results are well represented by an Arrhenius expression. The results are compared with other studies and are theoretically discussed.

  20. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  1. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  2. Final report on bilateral supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S5 in hydraulic gauge pressure from 1 MPa to 10 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, J.; Yang, Y.; Sabuga, W.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S5 for hydraulic gauge pressure in the range of 1 MPa to 10 MPa, which is a bilateral comparison carried out at the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany (PTB) during the period June 2014 to June 2015. NIM piloted the comparison and provided the transfer standard, which was a piston-cylinder assembly (PCA) of 1 cm2 nominal effective area built in a hydraulic pressure balance manufactured by Fluke Corporation. The laboratory standards of NIM and PTB are both hydraulic pressure balances equipped with PCAs, of which the nominal effective area is 1 cm2 for NIM and 5 cm2 for PTB. The results of the comparison successfully demonstrated that the hydraulic gauge pressure standards of NIM and PTB in the range of 1 MPa to 10 MPa are equivalent within their claimed uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute pressure does not increase the radiation sensitivity of normal brain in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Routh, A.; Kapp, J.P.; Smith, E.E.; Bebin, J.; Barnes, T.; Hickman, B.T.

    1984-07-01

    Cranial radiation was administered to CD Fisher rats at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 atmospheres oxygen pressure. Life span following radiation was recorded. Surviving animals were killed at 28 weeks and the brains were examined independently by two neuropathologists. Survival time was significantly less in animals receiving higher doses of radiation but showed no relationship to the oxygen pressure in the environment of the animal at the time radiation was administered. Microscopic examination of the brain did not reveal any differences in animals radiated in a normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen environment. It is concluded that hyperbaric oxygen does not sensitize the normal brain to the effects of ionizing radiation.

  4. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  5. Submarine Rescue Decompression Procedure from Hyperbaric Exposures up to 6 Bar of Absolute Pressure in Man: Effects on Bubble Formation and Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  6. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  7. Fault diagnosis for manifold absolute pressure sensor(MAP) of diesel engine based on Elman neural network observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingmin; Zhang, Fujun; Cui, Tao; Zhou, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    Intake system of diesel engine is a strong nonlinear system, and it is difficult to establish accurate model of intake system; and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can't be diagnosed easily using model-based methods. Thus, a fault diagnosis method based on Elman neural network observer is proposed. By comparing simulation results of intake pressure based on BP network and Elman neural network, lower sampling error magnitude is gained using Elman neural network, and the error is less volatile. Forecast accuracy is between 0.015-0.017 5 and sample error is controlled within 0-0.07. Considering the output stability and complexity of solving comprehensively, Elman neural network with a single hidden layer and with 44 nodes is presented as intake system observer. By comparing the relations of confidence intervals of the residual value between the measured and predicted values, error variance and failures in various fault types. Then four typical MAP faults of diesel engine can be diagnosed: complete failure fault, bias fault, precision degradation fault and drift fault. The simulation results show: intake pressure is observable and selection of diagnostic strategy parameter reasonably can increase the accuracy of diagnosis; the proposed fault diagnosis method only depends on data and structural parameters of observer, not depends on the nonlinear model of air intake system. A fault diagnosis method is proposed not depending system model to observe intake pressure, and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can be diagnosed based on residuals.

  8. Picosecond-TALIF and VUV absorption measurements of absolute atomic nitrogen densities from an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet with He/O2/N2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew; Niemi, Kari; Schröter, Sandra; Bredin, Jerome; Gans, Timo; Wagenaars, Erik

    2015-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen species (RONS) from RF atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are important in biomedical applications as well as industrial plasma processing such as surface modification. Atomic oxygen has been well studied, whereas, despite its importance in the plasma chemistry, atomic nitrogen has been somewhat neglected due to its difficulty of measurement. We present absolute densities of atomic nitrogen in APPJs operating with He/O2/N2 gas mixtures in open air, using picosecond Two-photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence (ps-TALIF) and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. In order to apply the TALIF technique in complex, He/O2/N2 mixtures, we needed to directly measure the collisional quenching effects using picosecond pulse widths (32ps). Traditional calculated quenching corrections, used in nanosecond TALIF, are inadequate due to a lack of quenching data for complex mixtures. Absolute values for the densities were found by calibrating against a known density of Krypton. The VUV absorption experiments were conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Atomic nitrogen densities were on the order of 1020 m-3 with good agreement between TALIF and VUV absorption. UK EPSRC grant EP/K018388/1.

  9. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Burton, Sarah D.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    We report quantitative broadband infrared spectra of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with all spectra pressure broadened to atmospheric pressure. The spectra were generated by flowing a concentrated solution (83 weight%) of H2O2 into a gently heated disseminator and diluting with a flow of pure nitrogen carrier gas. The water vapor lines were subtracted from the resulting spectra to yield the spectrum of pure H2O2. Comparison with previous results for the ν6 band strength (including hot bands) compares favorably with the results of Klee et al. [(1999) J. Mol. Spectr. 195, 154] as well as HITRAN. The present results are 433 and 467 cm-2 atm-1 (±8% and ±3% at 298 and 323 K, respectively) for the band strength, matching well the Klee value (S = 467 cm-2 atm-1 at 296 K) for the integrated band. Other bands in the 520-7500 cm-1 interval and their potential for atmospheric monitoring are discussed.

  10. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + C2H2 from 210-361 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of chlorine compounds in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. However, while some reactions have been studied extensively, the kinetic data for the reaction of Cl with C2H2 is sparse with only three known determinations of the rate constant k3. The reactions involved are Cl + C2H2 yields reversibly ClC2H2(asterisk) (3a) and ClC2H2(asterisk) + M yields ClC2H2 + M (3b). In the present study, flash photolysis coupled with chlorine atomic resonance fluorescence have been employed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of k3 with the third body M = Ar. Room temperature values are also reported for M = N2. The pressure dependence observed in the experiments confirms the expectation that the reaction involves addition of Cl to the unsaturated C2H2 molecule followed by collisional stabilization of the resulting adduct radical.

  11. Absolute OH density measurements in an atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air with water electrode by broadband UV absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2015-10-01

    Spatially resolved absolute OH radical density measurements are performed in an atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in ambient air with water electrode by broadband UV absorption spectroscopy. The radial distributions of OH density and gas temperature are obtained for the positive column, anode and cathode regions both for water-cathode and water-anode discharges. It is found that for both polarities of the water electrode the radial profiles of the ground state OH density and gas temperature are significantly broader than the total discharge emission intensity and the emission intensity originating from OH(\\text{A}{}2{{\\text{ }Σ\\text{ }}+} ) only. Exceptional large OH densities exceeding 1023 m-3 are found. The OH kinetics are discussed in detail.

  12. Absolute calibration of OH density in a nanosecond pulsed plasma filament in atmospheric pressure He-H2O: comparison of independent calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreycken, T.; van der Horst, R. M.; Sadeghi, N.; Bruggeman, P. J.

    2013-11-01

    The absolute density of OH radicals generated in a nanosecond pulsed filamentary discharge in atmospheric pressure He +0.84% H2O is measured independently by UV absorption and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) calibrated with Rayleigh scattering. For the calibration of LIF with Rayleigh scattering, two LIF models, with six levels and four levels, are studied to investigate the influence of the rotational and vibrational energy transfers. In addition, a chemical model is used to deduce the OH density in the afterglow from the relative LIF intensity as function of time. The different models show good correspondence and by comparing these different methods, the accuracy and the effect of assumptions on the obtained OH density are discussed in detail. This analysis includes an analysis of the sensitivity to parameters used in the LIF models.

  13. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The Stefan Boltzmann law in a small box and the pressure deficit in hot SU(N) lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando

    2007-05-01

    The blackbody radiation in a box L3 with periodic boundary conditions in thermal equilibrium at a temperature T is affected by finite-size effects. These bring about modifications of the thermodynamic functions which can be expressed in a closed form in terms of the dimensionless parameter LT. For instance, when LT ~ 4—corresponding to the value where the most reliable SU(N) gauge lattice simulations have been performed above the deconfining temperature Tc—the deviation of the free energy density from its thermodynamic limit is about 5%. This may account for almost half of the pressure deficit observed in lattice simulations at T ~ 4Tc.

  14. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  15. Final report on APMP.M.P-S4: Results of the bilateral supplementary comparison on pressure measurements in the range (60 to 350) kPa of gauge pressure in gas media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priruenrom, T.; Sabuga, W.; Konczak, T.

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S4 on pressure measurements in the range (60 to 350) kPa of gauge pressure in gas media was organized by National Institute of Metrology of Thailand, NIMT, as the pilot laboratory, comparing with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt of Germany, PTB. The objective of this comparison is to check equivalence of gas pressure standards between NIMT and PTB. The period of measurement covered November to December 2012. NIMT provided a transfer standard, which was a WC-WC piston-cylinder assembly (PCA) with a nominal effective area of 10 cm2 manufactured by Fluke Corporation, DHI. The measurements were performed at pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350) kPa. The NIMT laboratory standard used was a pressure balance with a PCA of 10 cm2 manufactured by DHI and identified by serial number 0693. The PTB laboratory standard used was a pressure balance with a PCA of 10 cm2 manufactured by Desgranges et Huot (DH) and identified by serial number 288. The results of this comparison show that the relative difference of the effective area values obtained by NIMT and PTB is not larger than 4.3 ppm, which corresponds to En = 0.26. Therefore, it confirms that the gas pressure standards maintained by the two institutes, NIMT and PTB, in the pressure range (60 to 350) kPa in gauge mode are equivalent under their uncertainties claimed. The result of this comparison is essential to support the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) of NIMT in this pressure range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  17. Absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure He-H2O RF glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Cunge, Gilles; Sadeghi, Nader

    2012-06-01

    The measurement of radical densities in atmospheric-pressure plasmas has gained increasing importance in recent years in view of their crucial role in many applications. In this paper we present absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure RF glow discharges in mixtures of He and H2O. The use of a 310 nm light-emitting diode as a light source and a very high resolution spectrometer (2.6 pm resolution) made the estimation of the total OH density possible by simultaneously measuring the absorption rates of different spectrally resolved rotational lines of the OH(A-X) transition. For different RF powers and water concentrations, OH densities and gas temperatures ranging between 6 × 1019and 4 × 1020 m-3 and 345 and 410 K, respectively, were obtained. The gas temperature Tg was also measured by three different methods. Tg deduced from the rotational temperature of N2(C-B) emission, nitrogen being present as a trace impurity, provided the most reliable value. The rotational temperature Tr of the ground state OH(X) presented values with a maximum deviation of 25 K compared with Tg. To obtain the gas temperature from the emission intensities of OH(A-X) rotational lines, the recorded intensities of different lines must be corrected for the effect of self-absorption inside the plasma.

  18. Pressure Measurements in a PBX 9501 Gauged Acceptor When Impacted by a Steel Plate that is Accelerated by a Thermally Cooked Off PBX 9501 Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Urtiew, P A; Vandersall, K S; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M

    2002-03-11

    Measuring the violence of a thermal explosion of a cased explosive is important for evaluating safety issues of explosive devices in fires. A sympathetic initiation scenario was studied here where a 9.0 cm diameter by 2.5 cm thick disc of PBX 9501 donor charge encased in a 304 stainless steel assembly was heated on top and bottom flat surfaces until it thermally exploded. The initial heating rate at the metal/explosive interface was 5 C per minute until it reaches 170 C; then this temperature is held for 35 minutes to allow temperature equilibration to within a few degrees throughout the explosive. The heating resumed at a rate of 1 C per minute until the PBX 9501 donor thermally exploded. A PBX 9501 acceptor charge with carbon resistor and manganin foil pressure gauges inserted at various depths was placed at a 10 cm standoff distance from the donor charge's top steel cover plate. Piezoelectric arrival time pins were placed in front of the acceptor surface to measure the velocity and shape of the impacting plate. The stainless steel cover plate of the donor charge had a nominal velocity of 0.55 {+-} 0.04 mm/{micro}s upon impact and was non-symmetrically warped. The impact of the tilted curved plate induced a three-dimensional compression wave into the acceptor. The rise times of the pressure waves were nominally 1.5 {micro}s with the closest carbon resistor gauges giving peak pressure of 10 kb that decayed to 3 kb for a wave run distance of 2.4 cm.

  19. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism). PMID:27364351

  20. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  1. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism).

  2. Absolute OH density measurements in the effluent of a cold atmospheric-pressure Ar-H2O RF plasma jet in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreycken, Tiny; Mensink, Rob; van der Horst, Ruud; Sadeghi, Nader; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2013-10-01

    Absolute OH densities are obtained in a radio-frequency-driven Ar-H2O atmospheric-pressure plasma jet by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), calibrated by Rayleigh scattering and by UV broadband absorption. The measurements are carried out in ambient air and the effect of air entrainment into the Ar jet is measured by analyzing the time-resolved fluorescence signals. The OH densities are obtained for different water vapor concentrations admixed to the Ar and as a function of the axial distance from the nozzle. A sensitivity analysis to deduce the accuracy of the model-calculated OH density from the LIF measurement is reported. It is found that the UV absorption and the LIF results correspond within experimental accuracy close to the nozzle and deviate in the far effluent. The possible reasons are discussed. The OH densities found in the plasma jet are in the range (0.1-2.5) × 1021 m-3 depending on the water concentration and plasma conditions.

  3. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2015-08-03

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  4. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  5. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Study of Barite as a Pressure Gauge Using a Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Wang, Duojun; Zheng, Haifei

    2016-02-01

    In situ Raman measurements of barite were performed at temperatures in the range of 298-673 K and pressures in the range of 105-1217 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell combined with laser Raman spectroscopy. The Raman frequency and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the most intense ν1 Raman peak for barite as a function of pressure and temperature were obtained. In the experimental P-T ranges, the ν1Raman band systematically shifted toward low wavenumbers with increasing pressure and temperature. The positive pressure dependence of ν1Raman frequency indicates stress-induced shortening of the S-O bond, whereas the negative temperature dependence shows temperature-induced expansion of the S-O bond. In contrast, the observed ν1Raman band became broadened, which should be attributed to the reduced ordering of molecular structure. Based on the obtained data, the established relationships among the Raman shift or the FWHM, pressure and temperature can be used to obtain good estimates of the internal pressure in natural barite-bearing fluid inclusions or hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. This is a sensitive and reliable approach to the accurate determination of geological pressure. PMID:26903568

  6. Source depth dependence of micro-tsunamis recorded with ocean-bottom pressure gauges: The January 28, 2000 Mw 6.8 earthquake off Nemuro Peninsula, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirata, K.; Takahashi, H.; Geist, E.; Satake, K.; Tanioka, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Mikada, H.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-tsunami waves with a maximum amplitude of 4-6 mm were detected with the ocean-bottom pressure gauges on a cabled deep seafloor observatory south of Hokkaido, Japan, following the January 28, 2000 earthquake (Mw 6.8) in the southern Kuril subduction zone. We model the observed micro-tsunami and estimate the focal depth and other source parameters such as fault length and amount of slip using grid searching with the least-squares method. The source depth and stress drop for the January 2000 earthquake are estimated to be 50 km and 7 MPa, respectively, with possible ranges of 45-55 km and 4-13 MPa. Focal depth of typical inter-plate earthquakes in this region ranges from 10 to 20 km and stress drop of inter-plate earthquakes generally is around 3 MPa. The source depth and stress drop estimates suggest that the earthquake was an intra-slab event in the subducting Pacific plate, rather than an inter-plate event. In addition, for a prescribed fault width of 30 km, the fault length is estimated to be 15 km, with possible ranges of 10-20 km, which is the same as the previously determined aftershock distribution. The corresponding estimate for seismic moment is 2.7??1019 Nm with possible ranges of 2.3??1019-3.2??1019Nm. Standard tide gauges along the nearby coast did not record any tsunami signal. High-precision ocean-bottom pressure measurements offshore thus make it possible to determine fault parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in subduction zones using open-ocean tsunami waveforms. Published by Elsevier Science B. V.

  7. 49 CFR 178.338-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trycock line, or a differential pressure liquid level gauge must be used as the primary control for... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-14 Gauging devices. (a) Liquid level gauging devices... gauging devices, which accurately indicate the maximum permitted liquid level at the loading pressure,...

  8. 49 CFR 178.338-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trycock line, or a differential pressure liquid level gauge must be used as the primary control for... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-14 Gauging devices. (a) Liquid level gauging devices... gauging devices, which accurately indicate the maximum permitted liquid level at the loading pressure,...

  9. 49 CFR 178.338-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trycock line, or a differential pressure liquid level gauge must be used as the primary control for... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-14 Gauging devices. (a) Liquid level gauging devices... gauging devices, which accurately indicate the maximum permitted liquid level at the loading pressure,...

  10. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  11. Analysis of the most recent data of Cascais Tide Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Carlos; Taborda, Rui; Mendes, Virgílio B.

    2010-05-01

    In order to meet international standards and to integrate sea level changes and tsunami monitoring networks, Cascais tide gauge, one of the oldest in the world, has been upgraded in 2003 with new acoustic equipment with digital data acquisition, temperature and air-pressure sensors, and internet connection for real time data. The new tide gauge is located very close to the old analogical gauge, which is still working. Datum links between both gauges and the permanent GPS station of Cascais were made and height differences between gauges and the GPS station have been monitored to verify site stability and to estimate the absolute vertical velocity of the site, and therefore, the absolute sea level changes. Tide gauge data from 2000 to 2009 has been analyzed and relative and absolute sea level rise rates have been estimated. The estimation of sea level rise rate with the short baseline of 10 years is made with the daily mean sea level data corrected from the inverse barometric effect. The relative sea level trend is obtained from a 60-day moving average run over the corrected daily mean sea level. The estimated rate has shown greater stability in contrast to the analysis of daily mean sea level raw data, which shows greater variability and uncertainty. Our results show a sea level rise rate of 2.6 mm/year (± 0.3 mm/year), higher than previous rates (2.1 mm/year for 1990 decade and 1.6 mm/year from 1920 to 2000), which is compatible with a sea level rise acceleration scenario. From the analysis of Cascais GPS data, for the period 1990.0 to 2010.0 we obtain an uplift rate of 0.3 mm/year leading to an absolute sea level rise of 2.9 mm/year for Cascais, under the assumption, as predicted by the ICE-5G model, that Cascais has no vertical displacement caused by the post-glacial isostatic adjustment.

  12. Report on the calibration of two spinning-rotor gauges for the BIPM very low pressure intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redgrave, F.; Nash, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Calibrations were carried out as part of an intercomparison of very low pressure standards. The transfer standards supplied consisted of two spinning-rotor gage balls and fingers. The intercomparison was performed using argon as the test gas. Additional calibrations were carried out using hydrogen.

  13. Identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Hiserodt, R D; Swijter, D F; Mussinan, C J

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the first high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the identification of atranorin and related potential allergens in oakmoss absolute. Oakmoss absolute is ubiquitous in the fragrance industry and is a key component in many fine perfumes. However, oakmoss absolute causes an allergic response in some individuals. Research is focused toward establishing the identity of the compounds causing the allergic response so a quality controlled oakmoss with reduced allergenic potential can be prepared. Consequently a highly selective and specific analytical method is necessary to support this effort. This is not available with the existing HPLC methods using UV detection. PMID:10949477

  14. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1984-01-01

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.

  15. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1984-09-18

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.

  16. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  17. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-10 - Special gauge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-10 Special gauge requirements. (a) Where pressure-reducing valves are employed, a pressure gauge must be provided on the low-pressure side... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special gauge requirements. 56.50-10 Section...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-10 - Special gauge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-10 Special gauge requirements. (a) Where pressure-reducing valves are employed, a pressure gauge must be provided on the low-pressure side... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special gauge requirements. 56.50-10 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... See § 173.315(h) of this subchapter. (b) Pressure gauges. (1) See § 173.315(h) of this subchapter. (2... service must be provided with a suitable pressure gauge. A shut-off valve must be installed between the pressure gauge and the cargo tank. (c) Orifices. See § 173.315(h) (3) and (4) of this subchapter....

  1. 49 CFR 178.338-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gauging devices, which accurately indicate the maximum permitted liquid level at the loading pressure, in... trycock line, or a differential pressure liquid level gauge must be used as the primary control for... filling. (2) The design pressure of each liquid level gauging device must be at least that of the tank....

  2. Measuring Pressure Has a New Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Force-Balanced Piston Gauge (FPG) tests and calibrates instrumentation operating in the low pressure range. The system provides a traceable, primary calibration standard for measuring pressures in the range of near 0 to 15 kPa (2.2 psi) in both gauge and absolute measurement modes. The hardware combines a large area piston-cylinder with a load cell measuring the force resulting from pressures across the piston. The mass of the piston can be tared out, allowing measurement to start from zero. A pressure higher than the measured pressure, which keeps the piston centered, lubricates an innovative conical gap located between the piston and the cylinder, eliminating the need for piston rotation. A pressure controller based on the control of low gas flow automates the pressure control. DHI markets the FPG as an automated primary standard for very low-gauge and absolute pressures. DHI is selling the FPG to high-end metrology laboratories on a case by case basis, with a full commercial release to follow.

  3. Absolute number density calibration of the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp and the calculated effect of argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W.; McClean, R.E. ); Oldenborg, R.C. )

    1991-03-21

    The absolute number density calibration for the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp (Photron superlamp) is determined and found to be the same as that of a standard hollow cathode lamp. Comparisons of the calibrations to theoretical calculations are found to be quite satisfactory. The effects of argon pressures in the absorption cell on the calibration are examined theoretically by using a simple Lorentzian broadening and shifting model. These calculations show the expected reduction in sensitivity and increasing linearity of Beer-Lambert plots with increasing argon pressure.

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-14 - Gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauging devices. 178.337-14 Section 178.337-14... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-14 Gauging devices. (a) Liquid level gauging devices. See § 173.315(h) of this subchapter. (b) Pressure gauges. (1) See § 173.315(h) of...

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. First experimental determination of the absolute gas-phase rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone (4H2B) at 294 K by vapor pressure measurements of 4H2B.

    PubMed

    El Dib, Gisèle; Sleiman, Chantal; Canosa, André; Travers, Daniel; Courbe, Jonathan; Sawaya, Terufat; Mokbel, Ilham; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2013-01-10

    The reaction of the OH radicals with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was investigated in the gas phase using an absolute rate method at room temperature and over the pressure range 10-330 Torr in He and air as diluent gases. The rate coefficients were measured using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) of H(2)O(2) to produce OH and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure the OH temporal profile. An average value of (4.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained. The OH quantum yield following the 266 nm pulsed laser photolysis of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was measured for the first time and found to be about 0.3%. The investigated kinetic study required accurate measurements of the vapor pressure of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, which was measured using a static apparatus. The vapor pressure was found to range from 0.056 to 7.11 Torr between 254 and 323 K. This work provides the first absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone with OH and the first experimental saturated vapor pressures of the studied compound below 311 K. The obtained results are compared to those of the literature and the effects of the experimental conditions on the reactivity are examined. The calculated tropospheric lifetime obtained in this work suggests that once emitted into the atmosphere, 4H2B may contribute to the photochemical pollution in a local or regional scale.

  7. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  8. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Malcolm J.; Bellman, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  9. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.

    1982-09-27

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  10. Bakeable McLeod gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreisman, W. S. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A low pressure gauge of the McLeod type demonstrating superior performance and measuring characteristics is described. A mercury reservoir which is kept in a vacuum at all times as well as bakeable glass components to reduce contamination are featured.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  18. Absolute CH radical concentrations in rich low-pressure methane-oxygen-argon flames via cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the A transition

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Thomas, Jr; Andrew McIlroy

    1999-11-22

    We measure cavity ringdown spectra of the A{sup 2}{Delta}-X{sup 2}II transition of the methylidyne (CH) radical in a series of rich low-pressure methane-oxygen-argon flames and demonstrate that the technique is sensitive, quantitative, and straightforward in its implementation and interpretation. As a line-of-sight technique, it complements imaging techniques, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence. Our results generally agree with chemical kinetic models for methane oxidation that have appeared in the literature, but suggest some refinements are necessary. Additional examination of the CH + O{sub 2} reaction rate as a function of temperature is advised. Our results are consistent with those of Derzy et al. using the C{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-X{sup 2}II transition for stoichiometric, low-pressure flames which include nitrogen. Our results for rich flames, as with earlier experiments for singlet methylene, suggest that flame chemical kinetic models need to be adjusted to account for flame chemistry for stoichiometries richer than {phi} = 1.5.

  19. Absolute OH and O radical densities in effluent of a He/H2O micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Schröder, D.; Schneider, S.; Willems, G.; Pajdarová, A.; Vlček, J.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

    2016-08-01

    The effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium with admixtures of water vapor (≲ {{10}4} ppm) has been analyzed by means of cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to measure hydroxyl (OH) radical densities, and by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to measure atomic oxygen (O) densities. Additionally, the performance of the bubbler as a source of water vapor in the helium feed gas has been carefully characterized and calibrated. The largest OH and O densities in the effluent of 2× {{10}14}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} and 3.2× {{10}13}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , respectively, have been measured at around 6000 ppm. The highest selectivity is reached around 1500 ppm, where the OH density is at  ∼63% of its maximum value and is 14 times larger than the O density. The measured density profiles and distance variations are compared to the results of a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and reaction kinetics in the plasma effluent. It is shown that the main loss of OH radicals in the effluent is their mutual reaction. In the case of O, reactions with other species than OH also have to be considered to explain the density decay in the effluent. The results presented here provide additional information for understanding the plasma-chemical processes in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas. They also open the way to applying μ-APPJ with He/H2O as a selective source of OH radicals.

  20. PVT gauging with liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dresar, Neil T.

    2006-02-01

    Experimental results are presented for pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) liquid quantity gauging of a 0.17 m 3 liquid nitrogen tank pressured with ambient temperature helium in the normal gravity environment. A previously reported PVT measurement procedure has been improved to include helium solubility in liquid nitrogen. Gauging data was collected at nominal tank fill levels of 80%, 50% and 20% and at nominal tank pressures of 0.3, 1.0, and 1.7 MPa. The test tank was equipped with a liquid pump and spray manifold to circulate and mix the fluid contents and therefore create near-isothermal conditions throughout the tank. Silicon diode sensors were distributed throughout the tank to monitor temperatures. Close-spaced arrays of silicon diode point sensors were utilized to precisely detect the liquid level at the nominal 80%, 50%, and 20% fill levels. The tests simulated the cryogenic tank-side conditions only; helium mass added to the tank was measured by gas flowmeters rather than using pressure and temperature measurements from a dedicated helium supply bottle. Equilibrium data for cryogenic nitrogen and helium mixtures from numerous sources was correlated to predict soluble helium mole fractions. Results show that solubility should be accounted for in the PVT gauging calculations. Mole fractions predicted by Dalton's Law were found to be in good agreement with the compiled equilibrium data within the temperature-pressure range of interest. Therefore, Dalton's Law was deemed suitable for calculating ullage composition. Gauging results from the PVT method agreed with the reference liquid level measurements to within 3%.

  1. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  2. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  3. The Kirchhoff gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Heras, Jose A. . E-mail: heras@phys.lsu.edu

    2006-05-15

    We discuss the Kirchhoff gauge in classical electrodynamics. In this gauge, the scalar potential satisfies an elliptical equation and the vector potential satisfies a wave equation with a nonlocal source. We find the solutions of both equations and show that, despite of the unphysical character of the scalar potential, the electric and magnetic fields obtained from the scalar and vector potentials are given by their well-known retarded expressions. We note that the Kirchhoff gauge pertains to the class of gauges known as the velocity gauge.

  4. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (protected), electronic probe, magnetic, differential pressure cell. (d) Isolated or indirect. A gauging... through the sounding tube due to pressure build up in the cargo tank vapor space. (See § 151.03-43)...

  5. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (protected), electronic probe, magnetic, differential pressure cell. (d) Isolated or indirect. A gauging... through the sounding tube due to pressure build up in the cargo tank vapor space. (See § 151.03-43)...

  6. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (protected), electronic probe, magnetic, differential pressure cell. (d) Isolated or indirect. A gauging... through the sounding tube due to pressure build up in the cargo tank vapor space. (See § 151.03-43)...

  7. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (protected), electronic probe, magnetic, differential pressure cell. (d) Isolated or indirect. A gauging... through the sounding tube due to pressure build up in the cargo tank vapor space. (See § 151.03-43)...

  8. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  9. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  10. 29. An early picture of the Panellit gauges in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. An early picture of the Panellit gauges in the control room of a typical 105 reactor building, in this case 105-F in February 1945. There was one gauge for each of the pile's 2,004 process tubes. Each gauge monitored the tube's water pressure to ensure adequate cooling. Notice the wooden ladder, which operators could use when reading or adjusting the gauges. In later years, a large sign was installed across the top of the wall of gauges that read "Caution: Bumping This Panel Can Scram The Reactor." D-8311 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. Relational mechanics as a gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Absolute space is eliminated from the body of mechanics by gauging translations and rotations in the Lagrangian of a classical system. The procedure implies the addition of compensating terms to the kinetic energy, in such a way that the resulting equations of motion are valid in any frame. The compensating terms provide inertial forces depending on the total momentum P, intrinsic angular momentum J and intrinsic inertia tensor I. Therefore, the privileged frames where Newton's equations are valid ( Newtonian frames) are completely determined by the matter distribution of the universe ( Machianization). At the Hamiltonian level, the gauge invariance leads to first class constraints that remove those degrees of freedom that make no sense once the absolute space has been eliminated. This reformulation of classical mechanics is entirely relational, since it is a dynamics for the distances between particles. It is also Machian, since the rotation of the rest of the universe produces centrifugal effects. It then provides a new perspective to consider the foundational ideas of general relativity, like Mach's principle and the weak equivalence principle. With regard to the concept of time, the absence of an absolute time is known to be a characteristic of parametrized systems. Furthermore, the scale invariance of those parametrized systems whose potentials are inversely proportional to the squared distances can be also gauged by introducing another compensating term associated with the intrinsic virial G ( shape-dynamics).

  12. More on Gribov copies and propagators in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Fixing a gauge in the nonperturbative domain of Yang-Mills theory is a nontrivial problem due to the presence of Gribov copies. In particular, there are different gauges in the nonperturbative regime which all correspond to the same definition of a gauge in the perturbative domain. Gauge-dependent correlation functions may differ in these gauges. Two such gauges are the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge, both corresponding to the perturbative Landau gauge. These, and their numerical implementation, are described and presented in detail. Other choices will also be discussed. This investigation is performed, using numerical lattice gauge theory calculations, by comparing the propagators of gluons and ghosts for the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the propagators are different in the far infrared and even at energy scales of the order of half a GeV. In particular, the finite-volume effects are also modified. This is observed in two and three dimensions. Some remarks on the four-dimensional case are provided as well.

  13. Rain Gauges Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  14. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under flow or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the fluid in the container is measured before and after removal of the gas; the pressure and temperature of gas in the accumulator is measured before and after compression of the gas into the accumulator from the container. These pressure and temperature measurements are used in determining the volume of gas in the container, whereby the volume of liquid in the container can be determined from the difference between the known volume of the container and the volume of gas in the container. Gas from the accumulator may be communicated into the container in a similar process as a verification of the gauging of the liquid volume, or as an independent process for determining the volume of liquid in the container.

  15. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under low or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the fluid in the container is measured before and after removal of the gas; the pressure and temperature of the gas in the accumulator is measured before and after compression of the gas into the accumulator from the container. These pressure and temperature measurements are used to determine the volume of gas in the container, whereby the volume of the liquid in the container can be determined from the difference between the known volume of the container and the volume of gas in the container. Gas from the accumulator may be communicated into the container in a similar process as a verification of the gauging of the liquid volume, or as an independent process for determining the volume of liquid in the container.

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-10 - Special gauge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Where pressure-reducing valves are employed, a pressure gauge must be provided on the low-pressure side of the reducing station. (b) Fuel oil service, fire, cargo and fuel oil transfer and boiler feed pumps must be provided with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pump. Additional...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-10 - Special gauge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Where pressure-reducing valves are employed, a pressure gauge must be provided on the low-pressure side of the reducing station. (b) Fuel oil service, fire, cargo and fuel oil transfer and boiler feed pumps must be provided with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pump. Additional...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-10 - Special gauge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Where pressure-reducing valves are employed, a pressure gauge must be provided on the low-pressure side of the reducing station. (b) Fuel oil service, fire, cargo and fuel oil transfer and boiler feed pumps must be provided with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pump. Additional...

  19. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  20. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  1. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  2. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  3. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MaCarthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  4. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  5. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  6. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  7. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  8. Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  9. Natural Poincare gauge model

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J.G.

    1986-05-15

    Because it acts on space-time and is not semisimple, the Poincare group cannot lead to a gauge theory of the usual kind. A candidate model is discussed which keeps itself as close as possible to the typical gauge scheme. Its field equations are the Yang-Mills equations for the Poincare group. It is shown that there exists no Lagrangian for these equations.

  10. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  11. Gauge/Gravity Duality (Gauge Gravity Duality)

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2010-02-24

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  12. Axisymmetric magnetic gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.L.; Alrick, K.R.; Fritz, J.N.

    1994-05-01

    Axisymmetric magnetic (ASM) gauges are useful diagnostic tools in the study of the conversion of energy from underground explosions to distant seismic signals. Requiring no external power, they measure the strength (particle velocity) of the emerging shock wave under conditions that would destroy most instrumentation. Shock pins are included with each gauge to determine the angle of the shock front. For the Non-Proliferation Experiment, two ASM gauges were installed in the ANFO mixture to monitor the detonation wave and 10 were grouted into boreholes at various ranges in the surrounding rock (10 to 64 m from the center of explosion). These gauges were of a standard 3.8-inch-diameter design. In addition, two unique Jumbo ASM gauges (3-ft by 3-ft in cross section) were grouted to the wall of a drift at a range of 65 m. We discuss issues encountered in data analysis, present the results of our measurements, and compare these results with those of model simulations of the experiment.

  13. Diagrammatic analysis of QCD gauge transformations and gauge cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y. J.; Lam, C. S.

    1996-02-01

    Diagrammatic techniques are invented to implement QCD gauge transformations. These techniques can be used to discover how gauge-dependent terms are canceled among diagrams to yield gauge-invariant results in the sum. In this way a multiloop pinching technique can be developed to change ordinary vertices into background-gauge vertices. The techniques can also be used to design new gauges to simplify calculations by reducing the number of gauge-dependent terms present in the intermediate steps. Two examples are discussed to illustrate this aspect of the applications. ¢ 1996 The American Physical Society.

  14. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  15. Pressure Gauges Monitor Leakage Past Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    Method devised to measure leakage of gas past each of two sets of primary and secondary seals into common volume from which aggregate flow measured. Although method applicable only to specific combination of flow configuration and thermal conditions, it serves as example of more general approach involving use of statistical analysis to extract additional information from measurements.

  16. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  17. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  18. Miniature convection cooled plug-type heat flux gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1994-02-01

    Tests and analysis of a new miniature plug-type heat flux gauge configuration are described. This gauge can simultaneously measure heat flux on two opposed active surfaces when heat flux levels are equal to or greater than about 0.2 MW/m(sup 2). The performance of this dual active surface gauge was investigated over a wide transient and steady heat flux and temperature range. The tests were performed by radiatively heating the front surface with an argon arc lamp while the back surface was convection cooled with air. Accuracy is about +20 percent. The gauge is responsive to fast heat flux transients and is designed to withstand the high temperature (1300 K), high pressure (15 MPa), erosive and corrosive environments in modern engines. This gauge can be used to measure heat flux on the surfaces of internally cooled apparatus such as turbine blades and combustors used in jet propulsion systems and on the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles. Heat flux measurement accuracy is not compromised when design considerations call for various size gauges to be fabricated into alloys of various shapes and properties. Significant gauge temperature reductions (120 K), which can lead to potential gauge durability improvement, were obtained when the gauges were air-cooled by forced convection.

  19. Miniature Convection Cooled Plug-type Heat Flux Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1994-01-01

    Tests and analysis of a new miniature plug-type heat flux gauge configuration are described. This gauge can simultaneously measure heat flux on two opposed active surfaces when heat flux levels are equal to or greater than about 0.2 MW/m(sup 2). The performance of this dual active surface gauge was investigated over a wide transient and steady heat flux and temperature range. The tests were performed by radiatively heating the front surface with an argon arc lamp while the back surface was convection cooled with air. Accuracy is about +20 percent. The gauge is responsive to fast heat flux transients and is designed to withstand the high temperature (1300 K), high pressure (15 MPa), erosive and corrosive environments in modern engines. This gauge can be used to measure heat flux on the surfaces of internally cooled apparatus such as turbine blades and combustors used in jet propulsion systems and on the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles. Heat flux measurement accuracy is not compromised when design considerations call for various size gauges to be fabricated into alloys of various shapes and properties. Significant gauge temperature reductions (120 K), which can lead to potential gauge durability improvement, were obtained when the gauges were air-cooled by forced convection.

  20. Fabrication and calibration of integrated Cu-Cr thermocouple gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, T. C.; Flattery, J.; Ghosh, P. K.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1988-10-01

    We report here the design, fabrication, and testing of an integrated thermocouple gauge. The gauge uses a thin-film Cr heater and a thin-film Cu-Cr differential thermocouple on a 5-×3-mm glass substrate. The thermocouple measures the difference between the heater and the substrate temperature. Calibration of the thin-film Cu-Cr thermocouple gauge was done by using a standard K-type thermocouple as reference. At a constant difference temperature the measured power input to the heater is a function of the surrounding vapor pressure. The thermocouple gauge was calibrated using a McLeod gauge with He, Ar, N2, H2O, and CO2 gases. Our measurements show that the range of the gauge can possibly be extended to the μTorr range. This gauge uses a standard thin-film processing technique for fabrication resulting in a lower cost of production. Also, small size makes this gauge versatile and unique in comparison to many commercial gauges.

  1. Full and partial gauge fixing

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzad, A.

    2007-08-15

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system enables us to use either a full gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined, or a partial gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism, and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and full or partial gauges are distinguished.

  2. Extended gauge sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1995-02-01

    Present and future prospects for the discovery of new gauge bosons, Z{prime} and W{prime}, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to hadron and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider searches for the W{prime} of the Left-Right Symmetric Model.

  3. Finite quantum gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Piva, Marco; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular, Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of the running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction. Our calculations are done in D =4 , but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely, the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite, we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular, in QED. Without any potential, the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).

  4. Global Equity Gauge Alliance.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    The lack of attention to equity in health, health care and determinants of health is a burden to the attainment of good health in many countries. With this underlying problem as a basis, a series of meetings took place between 1999 and 2000, culminating in the creation the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA). G EGA is an international network of groups in developing countries, mainly Asia, Africa and Latin America, which develop projects designed to confront and mitigate inequities in health, know as Equity Gauges. Equity Gauges aim to contribute towards the sustained decline in inequities in both the broad sociopolitical determinants of health, as well as inequities in the health system. Their approach is based on three broad spheres of action, known as "pillars": 1) measurement and monitoring, 2) advocacy, and 3) community empowerment. Through a series of examples from local or national level gauges, this paper showcases their work promoting the interaction between research and evidence-based policy formulation and implementation, and the interaction between the community and policy makers. PMID:17665716

  5. Fast Neutral Pressure Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; T. Provost; R. Gernhardt; T.R. Jarboe; M.G. Bell

    2002-08-06

    Several fast neutral pressure gauges have been installed on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] to measure the vessel and divertor pressure during inductive and coaxial helicity injected (CHI) plasma operations. Modified, PDX [Poloidal Divertor Experiment]-type Penning gauges have been installed on the upper and lower divertors. Neutral pressure measurements during plasma operations from these and from two shielded fast Micro ion gauges at different toroidal locations on the vessel mid-plane are described. A new unshielded ion gauge, referred to as the In-vessel Neutral Pressure (INP) gauge is under development.

  6. Some comments on unitarity gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Osorio, M. A.; Martinez-Pascual, E.; Toscano, J. J.

    2004-04-01

    A pedagogical discussion on the unitarity gauge within the context of Hamiltonian path integral formalism is presented. A model based on the group O(N), spontaneously broken down to the subgroup O(N - 1), is used to illustrate the main aspects of this gauge-fixing procedure. Among the issues, discussed with some extent, are: (1) the structure of model's constraints following the Dirac's method, (2) the gauge-fixing procedure, using the unitarity gauge for the massive gauge fields and the Coulomb one for the massless gauge fields, (3) the absence of BRST symmetry in this gauge-fixing procedure and its implications on the renormalizability of the theory, and (4) the static role of the ghost and anti-ghost fields associated with the massive gauge fields and how their contributions can be eliminated by using the dimensional regularization scheme.

  7. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  8. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....635 cm (approx. 0.25 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure is 28 kPa gauge (approx. 4 psig) or less; or (2) 0.140 cm (approx. 0.055 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure exceeds 28 kPa... system must have the following: (a) A permanently installed closed gauging system. (b) A vapor...

  9. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....635 cm (approx. 0.25 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure is 28 kPa gauge (approx. 4 psig) or less; or (2) 0.140 cm (approx. 0.055 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure exceeds 28 kPa... system must have the following: (a) A permanently installed closed gauging system. (b) A vapor...

  10. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....635 cm (approx. 0.25 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure is 28 kPa gauge (approx. 4 psig) or less; or (2) 0.140 cm (approx. 0.055 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure exceeds 28 kPa... system must have the following: (a) A permanently installed closed gauging system. (b) A vapor...

  11. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....635 cm (approx. 0.25 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure is 28 kPa gauge (approx. 4 psig) or less; or (2) 0.140 cm (approx. 0.055 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure exceeds 28 kPa... system must have the following: (a) A permanently installed closed gauging system. (b) A vapor...

  12. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....635 cm (approx. 0.25 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure is 28 kPa gauge (approx. 4 psig) or less; or (2) 0.140 cm (approx. 0.055 in.) diameter when the cargo's vapor pressure exceeds 28 kPa... system must have the following: (a) A permanently installed closed gauging system. (b) A vapor...

  13. Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Tereza; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mihara, Antonio

    2007-02-27

    The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

  14. 27 CFR 19.289 - Production gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production gauge. 19.289... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Rules for Gauging § 19.289 Production gauge. (a) General requirements for production gauges. A proprietor must gauge all spirits by...

  15. Whistle Gauge Measures Flow And Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.

    1989-01-01

    Simple, rugged gauge used to measure speed of flow and temperature of steam or other gas flowing through pipes of arbitrary diameter, from 1 to 28 in. or larger. Specially designed, instrumented whistle - has no moving parts, small, nonobstruction, operates at high temperature and pressure, and cleans itself. Does not operate at zero flow, but at moderate flows (tens of meters per second) generates intense sound for use in measurements. Consists of slanted ring groove of depth D and pressure taps in wall of pipe carrying flow to be measured. Resonant wavelength of sound generated by ring groove depends primarily on size and shape of groove and approximately equal to 4D.

  16. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  17. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  18. Ballistic impulse gauge

    DOEpatents

    Ault, S.K.

    1993-12-21

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring. 4 figures.

  19. Ballistic impulse gauge

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring.

  20. Anomalous gauge boson interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Barklow, T.; Baur, U. |

    1995-03-01

    We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is {approximately} 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than {Omicron}(10{sup {minus}2}). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed.

  1. Gauge/Gravity Duality

    ScienceCinema

    Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics

    2016-07-12

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  2. Gauge Blocks - A Zombie Technology.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems. PMID:27096119

  3. Hot gauge theories and ZN phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Ian I.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper several aspects of ZN symmetry in gauge theories at high temperatures are discussed. The metastable ZN bubbles in SU(N) gauge theories with fermions may have, generically, unacceptable thermodynamic behavior. Their free energy F~T4, with a positive proportionality constant. This leads not only to negative pressure but also to negative specific heat and, more seriously, to negative entropy. We argue that although such domains are important in the Euclidean theory, they cannot be interpreted as physical domains in Minkowski space. A related problem is connected with the analysis of the high-temperature limit of the confining phase. Using two-dimensional QCD with adjoint fermions as a toy model we shall demonstrate that in the light fermion limit there is no breaking of the ZN symmetry in the high-temperature limit and thus there are no ZN bubbles.

  4. Mass Gauging Demonstrator for Any Gravitational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a mass gauging interferometry system used to determine the volume contained within a tank. By using an optical interferometric technique to determine gas density and/or pressure a much smaller compression volume or higher fidelity measurement is possible. The mass gauging interferometer system is comprised of an optical source, a component that splits the optical source into a plurality of beams, a component that recombines the split beams, an optical cell operatively coupled to a tank, a detector for detecting fringes, and a means for compression. A portion of the beam travels through the optical cell operatively coupled to the tank, while the other beam(s) is a reference.

  5. Sea Level Rise and Land Subsidence Contributions to the Signals from the Tide Gauges of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The tide gauges measure the local oscillations of the sea level vs. the tide gauge instrument. The tide gauge instrument is generally subjected to the general subsidence or uplift of the nearby inland, plus some additional subsidence for land compaction and other localised phenomena. The paper proposes a non-linear model of the relative sea level oscillations including a long term trend for the absolute sea level rise, another term for the subsidence of the instrument, and finally a sinusoidal approximation for the cyclic oscillations of periodicities up to decades. This non-linear model is applied to the tide gauges of China. The paper shows that the limited information available for China does not permit to infer any proper trend for the relative rates of rise, as the tide gauge records are all short or incomplete and the vertical movement of the tide gauge instruments is unassessed. The only tide gauge record of sufficient length that may be assembled for China is obtained by combining the North Point and Quarry Bay tide gauges in Hong Kong (NPQB). This NQPB composite tide gauge record is shown to have similarities with the tide gauge records of Sydney, equally in the West pacific, and San Diego, in the east Pacific, oscillating about the longer term trend mostly determined by the local subsidence. As it is very well known that China generally suffers of land subsidence, and the tide gauge installations may suffer of additional subsidence vs. the inland, it may be concluded from the analysis of the other worldwide tide gauges that the sea levels of China are very likely rising about the same amount of the subsidence of the tide gauges, with the sea level acceleration component still negligible.

  6. Massive gauge-flation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Carlos M.; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2016-06-01

    Gauge-flation model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory offers an interesting scenario for realizing inflation within a particle physics context, allowing us to investigate interesting possible connections between inflation and the subsequent evolution of the Universe. Difficulties, however, arise at the perturbative level, thus motivating a modification of the original model. In order to agree with the latest Planck observations, we modify the model such that the new dynamics can produce a relation between the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r allowed by the data. By including an identical mass term for each of the fields of the system, we find interesting dynamics leading to slow-roll inflation of the right length. The presence of the mass term has the potential to modify the ns versus r relation so as to agree with the data. As a first step, we study the model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory, finding the conditions required for slow-roll inflation and the number of e-foldings of inflation. Numerical solutions are used to explore the impact of the mass term. We conclude that the massive version of gauge-flation offers a viable inflationary model.

  7. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2002-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  8. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  9. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  10. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  11. A Carbon Nanotube Electron Source Based Ionization Vacuum Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Changkun Dong; Ganapati Myneni

    2003-10-01

    The results of fabrication and performance of an ionization vacuum gauge using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electron source are presented. The electron source was constructed with multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT), which were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The electron emission of the source was stable in vacuum pressure up to 10-7 Torr, which is better than the metal field emitters. The measurement linearity of the gauge was better than {+-}10% from 10-6 to 10-10 Torr. The gauge sensitivity of 4 Torr-1 was achieved under 50 {micro}A electron emission in nitrogen. The gauge is expected to find applications in vacuum measurements from 10-7 Torr to below 10-11 Torr.

  12. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-07-28

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.

  13. Anomalous gauge boson couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Rizzo, T.; Baur, U.

    1997-01-13

    The measurement of anomalous gauge boson self couplings is reviewed for a variety of present and planned accelerators. Sensitivities are compared for these accelerators using models based on the effective Lagrangian approach. The sensitivities described here are for measurement of {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} parameters {kappa}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub V}, etc., defined in the text. Pre-LHC measurements will not probe these coupling parameters to precision better than O(10{sup -1}). The LHC should be sensitive to better than O(10{sup -2}), while a future NLC should achieve sensitivity of O(10{sup -3}) to O(10{sup -4}) for center of mass energies ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV.

  14. Quartic gauge boson couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Jian

    1998-08-01

    We review the recent progress in studying the anomalous electroweak quartic gauge boson couplings (QGBCs) at the LHC and the next generation high energy e±e- linear colliders (LCs). The main focus is put onto the strong electroweak symmetry breaking scenario in which the non-decoupling guarantees sizable new physics effects for the QGBCs. After commenting upon the current low energy indirect bounds and summarizing the theoretical patterns of QGBCs predicted by the typical resonance/non-resonance models, we review our systematic model-independent analysis on bounding them via WW-fusion and WWZ/ZZZ-production. The interplay of the two production mechanisms and the important role of the beam-polarization at the LCs are emphasized. The same physics may be similarly and better studied at a multi-TeV muon collider with high luminosity.

  15. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  16. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  17. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  18. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  19. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  20. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. Low Power, Wide Dynamic Range Carbon Nanotube Vacuum Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Manohara, Harish M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation presents carbon nanotube vacuum pressure sensor gauges that operate at low power and exhibit a wide-dynamic range based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The fabrication facility, and the formation process are shown. Pressure sensitivity was found to increase rapidly as the bias power was increased. In addition, by etching part of the thermal SiO2 beneath the tubes and minimizing heat conduction through the substrate, pressure sensitivity was extended toward lower pressures. Results are compared to a conventional thin film meander resistor, which was fabricated and whose pressure response was also measured for comparative purposes.

  4. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  5. Computerized Techniques for Calibrating Pressure Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure balances are generally calibrated by the cross-floating technique, where the forces acting on two similar devices in hydrostatic equilibrium are compared. It is a skilled and time-consuming process which has not previously lent itself to significant automation; computers have mostly been used only to calculate results after measurements have been taken. The objective of the present work was to develop real-time computerized measurement techniques to ease the calibration task, which would fully integrate into a single package with versatile software for calculating and displaying results. The calibration process is now conducted by studying graphical computer displays which derive their inputs from differential-pressure transducers and capacitance or optical displacement sensors. The mass imbalance between oil-operated pressure balances is calculated by interpolating between changes in piston rate-of-fall. Differential-pressure transducers are used to estimate mass imbalances between gas-operated balances, and a quick in situ method for determining their sensitivity has been developed. The new techniques have been successfully applied to a variety of pressure balance designs and substantial reductions in calibration times have been achieved. Reduced levels of scatter have revealed small systematic differences between gauge and absolute modes of operation.

  6. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  7. Gauge invariants and correlators in flavoured quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.

  8. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  9. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  10. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * I. Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Forces, and Gauge Unification * II. The Emergence of Spontaneously Broken SU(2)×U(1) Gauge Theory * III. The Present and Its Problems * IV. Direct Extrapolation from the Electroweak to the Electronuclear * A. The three ideas * B. Tests of electronuclear grand unification * V. Elementarity: Unification with Gravity and Nature of Charge * A. The quest for elementarity, prequarks (preons and pre-preons * B. Post-Planck physics, supergravity, and Einstein's dreams * C. Extended supergravity, SU(8) preons, and composite gauge fields * Appendix A: Examples of Grand Unifying Groups * Appendix B: Does the Grand Plateau really exist * References

  11. Gauging Growth: How to Judge No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Wright, Joseph; Gesicki, Kathryn; Kang, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Many policymakers feel pressure to claim that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is boosting student performance, as Congress reconsiders the federal government's role in school reform. But how should politicians and activists gauge NCLB's effects? The authors offer evidence on three barometers of student performance, drawing from the National Assessment…

  12. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  13. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  14. Beyond the standard gauging: gauge symmetries of Dirac sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Deser, Andreas; Jonke, Larisa; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the general conditions that have to be met for a gauged extension of a two-dimensional bosonic σ-model to exist. In an inversion of the usual approach of identifying a global symmetry and then promoting it to a local one, we focus directly on the gauge symmetries of the theory. This allows for action functionals which are gauge invariant for rather general background fields in the sense that their invariance conditions are milder than the usual case. In particular, the vector fields that control the gauging need not be Killing. The relaxation of isometry for the background fields is controlled by two connections on a Lie algebroid L in which the gauge fields take values, in a generalization of the common Lie-algebraic picture. Here we show that these connections can always be determined when L is a Dirac structure in the H-twisted Courant algebroid. This also leads us to a derivation of the general form for the gauge symmetries of a wide class of two-dimensional topological field theories called Dirac σ-models, which interpolate between the G/G Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the (Wess-Zumino-term twisted) Poisson sigma model.

  15. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  16. Fractal calculus involving gauge function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2016-08-01

    Henstock-Kurzweil integral or gauge integral is the generalization of the Riemann integral. The functions which are not integrable because of singularity in the senses of Lebesgue or Riemann are gauge integrable. In this manuscript, we have generalized Fα-calculus using the gauge integral method for the integrating of the functions on fractal set subset of real-line where they have singularities. The suggested new method leads to the wider class of functions on the fractal subset of real-line that are *Fα-integrable. Using gauge function we define *Fα-derivative of functions their Fα-derivative is not exist. The reported results can be used for generalizing the fundamental theorem of Fα-calculus.

  17. Sequestered gravity in gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Benakli, Karim; Quiros, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel mechanism of supersymmetry breaking embeddable in string theory and simultaneously sharing the main advantages of (sequestered) gravity and gauge mediation. It is driven by a Scherk-Schwarz deformation along a compact extra dimension, transverse to a brane stack supporting the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This fixes the magnitude of the gravitino mass, together with that of the gauginos of a bulk gauge group, at a scale as high as 10^{10} GeV. Supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the observable sector dominantly by gauge interactions using massive messengers transforming non-trivially under the bulk and Standard Model gauge groups and leading to a neutralino LSP as dark matter candidate. The Higgsino mass μ and soft Higgs-bilinear B_μ term could be generated at the same order of magnitude as the other soft terms by effective supergravity couplings as in the Giudice-Masiero mechanism.

  18. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saye, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  19. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Saye, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  20. "Zero-Mass" Noninvasive Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2009-01-01

    Extremely lightweight, compact, noninvasive, rugged, relatively inexpensive strain-gauge transducers have been developed for use in measuring pressures of fluids in tubes. These gauges were originally intended for measuring pressures of spacecraft-propulsion fluids, but they are also attractive for use in numerous terrestrial applications especially those involving fluids that are extremely chemically reactive, fluids that must be isolated for hygienic purposes, fluids that must be allowed to flow without obstruction, and fluid-containing tubes exposed to severe environments. A basic pressure transducer of this type comprises one or more pair(s) of thin-film strain gauges integral with a tube that contains the fluid of interest. Following established strain-gauge practice, the gauges in each pair are connected into opposite arms of a Wheatstone bridge (see figure). Typically, each pressure transducer includes one pair (the active pair) of strain gauges for measuring the hoop stress proportional to the pressure of the fluid in the tube and another pair (the dummy pair) of strain gauges that are nominally unstrained: The dummy gauges are mounted on a substrate that is made of the same material as that of the tube. The substrate is welded to the tube at only one spot so that stresses and strains are not coupled from the tube into the substrate. The dummy strain gauges measure neutral strains (basically, strains associated with thermal expansion), so that the neutral-strain contribution can be subtracted out of the final gauge reading.

  1. Hard amplitudes in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.J.

    1991-03-01

    In this lecture series 1 presents recent developments in perturbation theory methods for gauge theories for processes with many partons. These techniques and results are useful in the calculation of cross sections for processes with many final state partons which have applications in the study of multi-jet phenomena in high-energy colliders. The results illuminate many important and interesting properties of non-abelian gauge theories. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Manganin Gauge and Reactive Flow Modeling Study of the Shock Initiation of PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, C. M.; Forbes, J. W.; Garcia, F.; Urtiew, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    A series of 101mm diameter gas gun experiments was fired using manganin pressure gauges embedded in the HMX-based explosive PBX 9501 at initial temperatures of 20degC and 50degC. Flyer plate impact velocities were chosen to produce impact pressure levels in PBX 9501 at which the growth of explosive reaction preceding detonation was measured on most of the gauges and detonation pressure profiles were recorded on some of the gauges placed deepest into the explosive targets. All measured pressure histories for initial temperatures of 25degC and 50degC were essentially identical. Measured run distances to detonation at three input shock pressures agreed with previous results. An existing Ignition and Growth reactive flow computer model for shock initiation and detonation of PBX 9501, which was developed based on LANL embedded particle velocity gauge data, was tested on these pressure gauge results. The agreement was excellent, indicating that the embedded pressure and particle velocity gauge techniques yielded consistent results.

  3. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges. (a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than...

  4. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges. (a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than...

  5. 27 CFR 19.91 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or wine shall be made in accordance with 27 CFR part 30 and as provided in this part. However, the... alcoholic flavoring materials be gauged by the methods provided in 27 CFR part 30. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859..., Wines Or Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.91 Gauging. (a) Gauging of spirits and wine. Gauges shall...

  6. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges. (a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than...

  7. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  8. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  9. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  10. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  11. 49 CFR 230.43 - Gauge siphon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained...

  12. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  13. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  14. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  15. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  16. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812

  17. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  18. Compression mass gauge testing in a liquid hydrogen dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, J. M.; Rogers, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes testing that was conducted using a mass gauge in a liquid hydrogen environment. The mass gauge, herein referred to as the 'compressibility gauge,' is being developed as a means to accurately determine the mass of liquid contained in a tank in a low-gravity environment. The concept is based on the thermodynamic principle that the pressure of gas or vapor changes when its volume changes. Previous work has been conducted by Southwest Research Institute in collaboration with NASA Lewis Research Center. This consisted of testing the concept with water and other cryogenic simulant fluids. The purpose of conducting liquid hydrogen tests is to test the concept in actual cryogenic conditions, and address hardware issues that arise in fabricating a test article for use in liquid hydrogen.

  19. Estimating Rain Rates from Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianxin; Fisher, Brad L.; Wolff, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the cubic spline based operational system for the generation of the TRMM one-minute rain rate product 2A-56 from Tipping Bucket (TB) gauge measurements. Methodological issues associated with applying the cubic spline to the TB gauge rain rate estimation are closely examined. A simulated TB gauge from a Joss-Waldvogel (JW) disdrometer is employed to evaluate effects of time scales and rain event definitions on errors of the rain rate estimation. The comparison between rain rates measured from the JW disdrometer and those estimated from the simulated TB gauge shows good overall agreement; however, the TB gauge suffers sampling problems, resulting in errors in the rain rate estimation. These errors are very sensitive to the time scale of rain rates. One-minute rain rates suffer substantial errors, especially at low rain rates. When one minute rain rates are averaged to 4-7 minute or longer time scales, the errors dramatically reduce. The rain event duration is very sensitive to the event definition but the event rain total is rather insensitive, provided that the events with less than 1 millimeter rain totals are excluded. Estimated lower rain rates are sensitive to the event definition whereas the higher rates are not. The median relative absolute errors are about 22% and 32% for 1-minute TB rain rates higher and lower than 3 mm per hour, respectively. These errors decrease to 5% and 14% when TB rain rates are used at 7-minute scale. The radar reflectivity-rainrate (Ze-R) distributions drawn from large amount of 7-minute TB rain rates and radar reflectivity data are mostly insensitive to the event definition.

  20. The use of intraluminal strain gauges for recording ambulant small bowel motility.

    PubMed

    Gill, R C; Kellow, J E; Browning, C; Wingate, D L

    1990-04-01

    Perfused-tube manometry has hitherto been the standard technique for recording intraluminal intestinal pressure in humans, but it is unsuitable for ambulant use. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of resistive strain gauge transducers attached to a fine catheter to detect pressure change. Simultaneous strain gauge and perfused-tube manometry was performed on six fasting subjects; in four, strain gauge activation was continuous and in two, the transducers were activated in a pulsed mode with data encoded as a pulse train with an approximate frequency of 20 Hz. Eight thousand eight hundred eighty-eight pressure waves were recorded by strain gauge, of which 96% were detected by perfused-tube manometry. There was good agreement in both phases II and III of the migrating motor complex. The amplitude of pressure waves recorded by strain gauge was slightly but significantly greater. A proportion (14-17%) of pressure waves recorded by strain gauge were bifid; this was not seen with the perfused tube. These differences are best explained by the greater sensitivity and more rapid rise time of the strain gauges. There was no loss of fidelity in the pulse-interval recording mode. A seventh subject underwent a continuous 72-h recording with the strain gauge catheter attached to a battery-operated encoder and magnetic tape cassette recorder and was freely ambulant during this period. The procedure was well tolerated and motility patterns could be clearly identified. We conclude that intraluminal strain gauge catheters are suitable for prolonged use in ambulant subjects and produce data that are closely comparable to the data acquired from perfused-tube manometry under laboratory conditions. PMID:2333973

  1. Electromagnetic hydrophone with tomographic system for absolute velocity field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Gilles, Bruno; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2012-06-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  2. Quantum gauge theories from geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galehouse, Daniel C.

    2006-03-01

    Geometrical theories have been developed to describe quantum interacting particles with full mathematical covariance. They possess a sophisticated gauge structure that derives from the fundamental properties of the geometry. These theories are all implicitly quantized and come in three known types: Weyl, non-compactified Kaluza-Klein, and, as presented here, Dirac. The spin one-half particle is a conformal wave in an eight dimensional Riemannian space. The coordinates transform locally as spinors and project into space time to give the known gravitational and electromagnetic forces. The gauge structure of the weak interactions appears as well, as in this space the electron transforms into a neutrino under hyper-rotations. The possibility of including the strong interactions and the corresponding gauge system is discussed.

  3. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  4. Machine vision inspection system for automobile gauge panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Dong-Wen; Shi, Hao

    1995-03-01

    A machine vision inspection system is designed and built for automatic inspection at the end of automobile gauge panel production line. The inspection items on the gauge panel are pointing errors on all scales of 5 indicators and possible damage or missing assembled warning lights and light bulbs for indicators. Image acquisition camera is set to have a small field of view, a CNC system is established to drive the camera focusing on any target on the gauge panel. The position of the camera is close-loop controlled by a image character feedback control strategy. Automatic calibration is performed by using a stochastic adaptive control scheme. A two-CPU computer system is established to assure real time image processing and CNC control as well as test signal source management working in parallel way. Precision test signal source for speedometer, petrol gauge, oil pressure indicator, water-thermometer and rheometer are designed and made integrated under computer management and control. Each scale and pointer on the gauge panel has a set of image processing parameters, therefore a learning sequence method is designed to reduce programming load and increase flexibility which allows quick adaptation to various products inspection.

  5. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  6. Comparison of 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakic children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xie, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness and safety of pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge tansconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system and 20-gauge vitrectomy system for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in pseudophakic children. METHODS Retrospectively study. Pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy system was performed for PCO in the study group (32 eyes). Patients in the control group (34 eyes) underwent capsulotomy and vitrectomy using standard 20-gauge vitrectomy system, providing a comparison between 2 groups with regard to preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and intraoperative and postoperative complications. The two groups were performed consequentially. The patients ages ranged from 2 to 13y (means: 6.61±2.73y). Surgical technique, intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, IOP, and recurrent PCO were recorded. RESULTS The surgical procedure was performed uneventfully in all patients. Visual acuity improved significantly in both groups. BCVA improved in 22 eyes (81.5%) in the study group and in 28 eyes (87.5%) in the control group. There was no statistical difference of visual acuity that were attainable in two groups (H=0.115, P=0.909). Mean postoperative IOP showed no significant difference between the groups at 1wk. All sort of PCO were accomplished by 20-gauge system, while 25-gauge system was effective for pearls style and 2 grade of fibrous PCO, and was insufficient to grade 3 of PCO. In the study group two cases were not accomplished by 25-gauge system while 20-gauge system conquered them. Compared with the control group, mean operative time for opening and closing the sclerotomy in the study group was considerably reduced. The mean follow-up was 38.2mo (range: 8-79mo). During the follow-up period, no incision leakage, corneal edema, vitreous loss, IOL damage, retinal detachment, recurrent PCO, or other complications were

  7. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  8. Dark coupling and gauge invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Rigolin, S. E-mail: llopezho@ulb.ac.be E-mail: stefano.rigolin@pd.infn.it

    2010-11-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  9. Interferometry with synthetic gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Galitski, Victor M.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a compact atom interferometry scheme for measuring weak, time-dependent accelerations. Our proposal uses an ensemble of dilute trapped bosons with two internal states that couple to a synthetic gauge field with opposite charges. The trapped gauge field couples spin to momentum to allow time-dependent accelerations to be continuously imparted on the internal states. We generalize this system to reduce noise and estimate the sensitivity of such a system to be S{approx}10{sup -7}(m/s{sup 2}/{radical}(Hz)).

  10. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Renormalization in Coulomb gauge QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andrasi, A.; Taylor, John C.

    2011-04-15

    Research Highlights: > The Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge of QCD contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term. > We investigate the UV divergences from higher order graphs. > We find that they cannot be absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. - Abstract: In the Coulomb gauge of QCD, the Hamiltonian contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term, which may alternatively be derived from a careful treatment of ambiguous Feynman integrals at 2-loop order. We investigate how and if UV divergences from higher order graphs can be consistently absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. We find that they cannot.

  12. Dynamics of gauge field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marcianò, Antonino

    2015-05-05

    We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.

  13. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  14. Supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory with arbitrary gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    A new universal model to implement the Seiberg-Witten approach to low-energy properties of the supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory with an arbitrary compact simple gauge group, classical or exceptional, is suggested. It is based on the hyperelliptic curve, whose genus equals the rank of the gauge group. The weak and strong coupling limits are reproduced. The magnetic and electric charges of light dyons, which are present in the proposed model comply with recent predictions derived from the general properties of the theory. The discrete chiral symmetry is implemented, the duality condition is reproduced, and connections between monodromies at weak and strong coupling are established. It is found that the spectra of monopoles and dyons are greatly simplified when vectors representing the scalar and dual fields in the Cartan algebra are aligned along the Weyl vector. This general feature of the theory is used for an additional verification of the model. The model predicts the identical analytic structures of the coupling constants for the theories based on the SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups.

  15. Improvement of the Gyocenter-Gauge (G-Gauge) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi; Qin, Hong

    2011-10-01

    The gyrocenter-gauge (g-gauge) algorithm was improved to simulate rf waves propagating in the three-dimensional sheared magnetic field. The conventional local gyro-center coordinate system (X , Y , Z , μ , θ , u) is constructed on the local magnetic field. When particle travel in a sheared magnetic field, the coordinates of particles must be transformed between different local coordinate systems. To avoid these transformation, a new geometric approach is developed to construct a global Cartesian gyro-center coordinate system (X , Y , Z ,vx ,vy ,vz) , where (X , Y , Z) is the coordinate of the gyro-center, and (vx ,vy ,vz) is the velocity of particle. In the g-gauge theory, the perturbation of distribution function, is obtained from the Lie derivative of gyro-center distribution function F along the perturbing vector field G. The evolution of the first order perturbed distribution contains a term LτLG F =L[τ, G] F , where τ is the Hamilton vector field of unperturbed world-line of particles. It is proved that vector field [τ , G] may be directly solved from the electromagnetic fields. In the improved algorithm, LG F is calculated by integrating along the unperturbed world-line. The improved g-gauge algorithm has been successfully applied to study the propagation and evolution of rf waves in three-dimensional inhomogeneous magnetic field.

  16. Operation of cold-cathode gauges in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Goerz, D.A.; Pickles, W.L.

    1985-11-11

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B), under construction at LLNL, requires measurement of the neutral gas density in high magnetic fields near the plasma at several axial regions. This Background Gas Pressure (BGP) diagnostic will help us understand the role of background neutrals in particle and power balance, particularly in the maintenance of the cold halo plasma that shields the hot core plasma from the returning neutrals. It consists of several cold-cathode, magnetron-type gauges stripped of their permanent magnets, and utilizes the MFTF-B ambient B-field in strengths of 5 to 25 kG. Similar gauges have operated in TMX-U in B-fields up to 3 kG. To determine how well the gauges will perform, we assembled a test stand which operated magnetron gauges in an external, uniform magnetic field of up to 30 kG, over a pressure range of 1E-8 T to 1E-5 T, at several cathode voltages. This paper describes the test stand and presents the results of the tests.

  17. Operation of cold-cathode gauges in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. R., Jr.; Goerz, D. A.; Pickles, W. L.

    1985-11-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B), under construction at LLNL, requires measurement of the neutral gas density in high magnetic fields near the plasma at several axial regions. This Background Gas Pressure (BGP) diagnostic will help us understand the role of background neutrals in particle and power balance, particularly in the maintenance of the cold halo plasma that shields the hot core plasma from the returning neutrals. It consists of several cold-cathode, magnetron-type gauges stripped of their permanent magnets, and utilizes the MFTF-B ambient B-field in strengths of 5 to 25 kG. Similar gauges have operated in TMX-U in B-fields up to 3 kG. To determine how well the gauges will perform, we assembled a test stand which operated magnetron gauges in an external, uniform magnetic field of up to 30 kG, over a pressure range of 1E-8 T to 1E-5 T, at several cathode voltages. This paper describes the test stand and presents the results of the tests.

  18. Embedded strain gauges for condition monitoring of silicone gaskets.

    PubMed

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term. PMID:25014099

  19. Embedded Strain Gauges for Condition Monitoring of Silicone Gaskets

    PubMed Central

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term. PMID:25014099

  20. Meteorology Gauges for Spatial Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursel, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometers have been commercially available for many years. In addition, many versions have been built at JPL for various projects. This activity is aimed at improving the accuracy of such interferometers from the 1-30 nanometer level to the picometer level for use in the proposes Stellar Interferometry Mission (SIM) as metrology gauges.

  1. Gauge fields, nonlinear realizations, supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    This is a brief survey of the all-years research activity in the Sector "Supersymmetry" (the former Markov Group) at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The focus is on the issues related to gauge fields, spontaneously broken symmetries in the nonlinear realizations approach, and diverse aspects of supersymmetry.

  2. Gauged multisoliton baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilenka, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of U (1 ) gauged modification of the 2 +1 -dimensional planar Skyrme model with a particular choice of the symmetry breaking potential term which combines a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. In the absence of the gauge interaction, the multisolitons of the model are aloof, as they consist of the individual constituents which are well separated. A peculiar feature of the model is that there are usually several different stable static multisoliton solutions of rather similar energy in a topological sector of given degree. We investigate the pattern of the solutions and find new previously unknown local minima. It is shown that coupling of the aloof planar multi-Skyrmions to the magnetic field strongly affects the pattern of interaction between the constituents. We analyze the dependency of the structure of the solutions, their energies, and magnetic fluxes on the strength of the gauge coupling. It is found that, generically, in the strong coupling limit, the coupling to the gauge field results in effective recovery of the rotational invariance of the configuration.

  3. Supersymmetric composite gauge fields with compensators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    We study supersymmetric composite gauge theory, supplemented with compensator mechanism. As our first example, we give the formulation of N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian composite gauge theory without the kinetic term of a non-Abelian gauge field. The important ingredient is the Proca-Stueckelberg-type compensator scalar field that makes the gauge-boson field equation non-singular, i.e., the field equation can be solved for the gauge field algebraically as a perturbative expansion. As our second example, we perform the gauging of chiral-symmetry for N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions by a composite gauge field. These results provide supporting evidence for the consistency of the mechanism that combines the composite gauge field formulations and compensator formulations, all unified under supersymmetry.

  4. Inter-comparison of automatic rain gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    The Ocean Acoustics Division (OAD) of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML), in cooperation with NOAA/NESDIS and NASA, has deployed six rain gauges for calibration and intercomparison purposes. These instruments include: (1) a weighing rain gauge, (2) a RM Young Model 50202 capacitance rain gauge, (3) a ScTI ORG-705 (long path) optical rain gauge, (4) a ScTI ORG-105 (mini-ORG) optical rain gauge, (5) a Belfort Model 382 tipping bucket rain gauge, and (6) a Distromet RD-69 disdrometer. The system has been running continuously since July 1993. During this time period, roughly 150 events with maximum rainfall rate over 10 mm/hr and 25 events with maximum rainfall rates over 100 mm/hr have been recorded. All rain gauge types have performed well, with intercorrelations 0.9 or higher. However, limitations for each type of rain gauge have been observed.

  5. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  6. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  7. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  8. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  9. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  10. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  11. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  12. Orthogonal stack of global tide gauge sea level data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trupin, A.; Wahr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Yearly and monthly tide gauge sea level data from around the globe are fitted to numerically generated equilibrium tidal data to search for the 18.6 year lunar tide and 14 month pole tide. Both tides are clearly evident in the results, and their amplitudes and phases are found to be consistent with a global equilibrium response. Global, monthly sea level data from outside the Baltic sea and Gulf of Bothnia are fitted to global atmospheric pressure data to study the response of the ocean to pressure fluctuations. The response is found to be inverted barometer at periods greater than two months. Global averages of tide gauge data, after correcting for the effects of post glacial rebound on individual station records, reveal an increase in sea level over the last 80 years of between 1.1 mm/yr and 1.9 mm/yr.

  13. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  14. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  15. Gauge Configurations for Lattice QCD from The Gauge Connection

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Gauge Connection is an experimental archive for lattice QCD and a repository of gauge configurations made freely available to the community. Contributors to the archive include the Columbia QCDSP collaboration, the MILC collaboration, and others. Configurations are stored in QCD archive format, consisting of an ASCII header which defines various parameters, followed by binary data. NERSC has also provided some utilities and examples that will aid users in handling the data. Users may browse the archive, but are required to register for a password in order to download data. Contents of the archive are organized under four broad headings: Quenched (more than 1200 configurations); Dynamical, Zero Temperature (more than 300 configurations); MILC Improved Staggered Asqtad Lattices (more than 7000 configurations); and Dynamical, Finite Temperature (more than 1200 configurations)

  16. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  17. 27 CFR 19.768 - Gauge record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proprietor shall prepare a gauge record to show: (a) Serial number, commencing with “1” at the start of each calendar or fiscal year; (b) Reason for making the gauge: (1) Production gauge and entry for deposit in the... the production account for redistillation; (4) Repackaging of spirits of 190 degrees or more of...

  18. 27 CFR 19.304 - Production gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules for Production of Spirits § 19.304 Production gauge. A proprietor must gauge all spirits by determining the quantity... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production gauge....

  19. 27 CFR 19.304 - Production gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production gauge. 19.304... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules for Production of Spirits § 19.304 Production gauge. A proprietor must gauge all spirits by determining the...

  20. Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Hideo; Nozawa, Masato

    2015-05-18

    We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.

  1. Gauge Adjusted Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP_GAUGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega, T.; Ushio, T.; Yoshida, S.; Kawasaki, Z.; Kubota, T.; Kachi, M.; Aonashi, K.; Shige, S.

    2013-12-01

    precipitation instantaneously, while the ground based rain gauges collects precipitation particles for one hour at a certain point. This discrepancy can cause the mismatch between the two estimates, and we need to fill the gap of the precipitation estimates between the satellite and rain gauge attributable to the spatial and temporal resolution difference. To that end, the gauge adjusted product named as GSMaP_Gauge has been developed. In this product, the CPC global gauge data analysis by Xie et al. (2007) and Chen et al. (2008) is used for the adjustment of the GSMaP_MVK data. In this presentation, the algorithm concept, examples of the product, and some validation results are presented.

  2. General gauge mediation and deconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2010-11-01

    We locate a supersymmetry breaking hidden sector and supersymmetric standard model on different lattice points of an orbifold moose. The hidden sector is encoded in a set of current correlators and the effects of the current correlators are mediated by the lattice site gauge groups with "lattice hopping" functions and through the bifundamental matter that links the lattice sites together. We show how the gaugino mass, scalar mass and Casimir energy of the lattice can be computed for a general set of current correlators and then give specific formulas when the hidden sector is specified to be a generalised messenger sector. The results reproduce the effect of five dimensional gauge mediation from a purely four dimensional construction.

  3. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K.; Douglas, Pamela K.; Friston, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics—based on approximate Bayesian inference—has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception. PMID:26953636

  4. Gauge mediated mini-split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  5. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl J

    2016-03-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics--based on approximate Bayesian inference--has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception. PMID:26953636

  6. On lattice chiral gauge theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.

  7. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl J

    2016-03-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics--based on approximate Bayesian inference--has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception.

  8. Non-Abelian gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies, which has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem to be very close at hand. However, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e. quantum simulators , are currently developed in many leading laboratories. Many schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots, photonic networks, or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in the presence of gauge fields. In the quantum simulation framework, the generated (synthetic) gauge fields may be Abelian, in which case they are the direct analogues of the vector potentials commonly associated with magnetic fields. In condensed matter physics, strong magnetic fields lead to a plethora of fascinating phenomena, among which the most paradigmatic is perhaps the quantum Hall effect. The standard Hall effect consists in the appearance of a transverse current, when a longitudinal voltage difference is applied to a conducting sample. For quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors at low temperatures placed in very strong magnetic fields, the transverse conductivity, the ratio between the transverse current and the applied voltage, exhibits perfect and robust quantization, independent for instance of the material or of its geometry. Such an integer quantum Hall effect, is now understood as a deep consequence of underlying topological order. Although such a system is an insulator in the bulk, it supports topologically robust edge excitations which carry the Hall current. The robustness of these chiral excitations against backscattering explains the universality of the quantum Hall effect. Another

  9. Novel Principle of Contactless Gauge Block Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Řeřucha, Šimon; Mikel, Břetislav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel principle of contactless gauge block calibration is presented. The principle of contactless gauge block calibration combines low-coherence interferometry and laser interferometry. An experimental setup combines Dowell interferometer and Michelson interferometer to ensure a gauge block length determination with direct traceability to the primary length standard. By monitoring both gauge block sides with a digital camera gauge block 3D surface measurements are possible too. The principle presented is protected by the Czech national patent No. 302948. PMID:22737012

  10. Small neutrino masses and gauge coupling unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Fonseca, Renato M.; González-Canales, Félix; Valle, José W. F.

    2015-02-01

    The physics responsible for gauge coupling unification may also induce small neutrino masses. We propose a novel gauge-mediated radiative seesaw mechanism for calculable neutrino masses. These arise from quantum corrections mediated by new S U (3 )C⊗S U (3 )L⊗U (1 )X (3-3-1) gauge bosons and the physics driving gauge coupling unification. Gauge couplings unify for a 3-3-1 scale in the TeV range, making the model directly testable at the LHC.

  11. Development and Design of a Zero-G Liquid Quantity Gauge for a Solar Thermal Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.; Taylor, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-g applications is described. The gauge, named the Compression Mass Gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of +/- 1% of tank volume. Southwest Research Institute (Tm) and NASA-GRC (Glenn Research Center) have developed several previous breadboard and engineering development gauges and tested them in cryogenic hydrogen and nitrogen to establish the gauge capabilities, to resolve several design issues, and to formulate data processing algorithms. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future X program for a flight demonstration on the USAF (United States Air Force) / Boeing Solar Thermal Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This paper reviews the design trade studies needed to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on CMG power, volume, and mass, and describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  12. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  13. Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.

    1973-07-01

    Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.

  14. Rain gauge calibration and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, John

    1994-01-01

    Prior to the Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE), 42 Model 100 series optical gauges were tested in the rain simulator facility at Wallops Island before shipment to the field. Baseline measurements at several rain rates were made simultaneously with collector cans, tipping bucket, and a precision weighing gauge and held for post-COARE evaluation with a repeat set of measurements that were to be recorded after the instruments were returned. This was done as a means of detecting any calibration changes that might have occurred while deployed. Although it was known that the artificial rain in the simulator did not contain the required exponential distribution for accurate optical rain gauge rate measurements, use of the facility was necessary because it was the only means available for taking controlled observations with instruments that were received, tested, and shipped out in groups over a period of months. At that point, it was believed that these measurements would be adequately precise for detecting performance changes over time. However, analysis of the data by STI now indicates that this may not be true. Further study of the data will be undertaken to resolve this.

  15. Tensor gauge condition and tensor field decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ben-Chao; Chen, Xiang-Song

    2015-10-01

    We discuss various proposals of separating a tensor field into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant components. Such tensor field decomposition is intimately related to the effort of identifying the real gravitational degrees of freedom out of the metric tensor in Einstein’s general relativity. We show that as for a vector field, the tensor field decomposition has exact correspondence to and can be derived from the gauge-fixing approach. The complication for the tensor field, however, is that there are infinitely many complete gauge conditions in contrast to the uniqueness of Coulomb gauge for a vector field. The cause of such complication, as we reveal, is the emergence of a peculiar gauge-invariant pure-gauge construction for any gauge field of spin ≥ 2. We make an extensive exploration of the complete tensor gauge conditions and their corresponding tensor field decompositions, regarding mathematical structures, equations of motion for the fields and nonlinear properties. Apparently, no single choice is superior in all aspects, due to an awkward fact that no gauge-fixing can reduce a tensor field to be purely dynamical (i.e. transverse and traceless), as can the Coulomb gauge in a vector case.

  16. Method of attaching strain gauges to various materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Timothy D.; Fox, Robert L.; Buckley, John D.

    1988-08-01

    A method is provided to bond strain gauges to various materials. First, a tape with an adhesive backing is placed across the inside of the fixture frame. The strain gauge is flatly placed against the adhesive backing and coated with a thin, uniform layer of adhesive. The tape is then removed from the fixture frame and placed, strain gauge side down, on the material to be tested. If the material is a high reluctance material, the induction heating source is placed on the tape. If the material is a low reluctance material, a plate with a ferric side and a rubber side is placed, ferric side down, onto the tape. The induction heating source is then placed upon the rubber side. If the material is an insulator material, a ferric plate is placed on the tape. The induction heating source is then placed on the ferric plate. The inductive heating source then generates frequenty from 60 to 70 kilocycles to inductively heat either low reluctance material, ferric side, of ferric plate and provides incidental pressure of approximately five pounds per square inch to the tape for two minutes, thoroughly curing the adhesive. The induction heating source, and, if necessary, the plate or ferric plate, are then removed from the tape after one minute. The tape is then removed from the bonded strain gauge.

  17. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  18. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  19. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  20. Stochastic Simulation of Precipitation Fields Conditioned on Radar and Gauge Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, T.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    the total absolute uncertainty ɛghich is defined bygG = R + ɛnto an absolute and a relative part G = R × (1 + ɛ1) + ɛ2 ɛ2 can then be used to adjust small radar precipitation rates, while ɛ1 is used to correct towards the gauge measurement if radar estimates are large. For the simulation ɛ1 and ɛ2 are calculated from gauge measurements and co-located radar observations. The results are used to condition a stochastic simulator. The simulated fields of ɛ1 and ɛ2 are then applied onto the radar field. The main property of the resulting ensemble is that its mean is identical to the value of the gauge measurement at the gauge locations. This way, the ensemble mean can be used as a deterministic, gauge adjusted field in a meaningful way even if the ensemble members themselves cannot be used. In our presentation we will show an analysis of the spatial and temporal structure of the separated uncertainty terms as well as simulation results for hourly data.

  1. Dynamical symmetry breaking in chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups G . If the gauge coupling for a factor group Gi⊂G becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the Gi symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries Gj⊂G . Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of G and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  2. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  3. Introduction to lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1987-01-01

    The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off approx. = 1/..cap alpha.., where ..cap alpha.. is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit ..cap alpha.. ..-->.. 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This will be the emphasis of the first lecture. In the second lecture, the author reviews the essential ingredients of formulating QCD on the lattice and discusses scaling and the continuum limit. In the last lecture the author summarizes the status of some of the main results. He also mentions the bottlenecks and possible directions for research. 88 refs.

  4. Anatomy of a gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kreimer, Dirk . E-mail: kreimer@ihes.fr

    2006-12-15

    We exhibit the role of Hochschild cohomology in quantum field theory with particular emphasis on gauge theory and Dyson-Schwinger equations, the quantum equations of motion. These equations emerge from Hopf- and Lie algebra theory and free quantum field theory only. In the course of our analysis, we exhibit an intimate relation between the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the couplings and the existence of Hopf sub-algebras defined on the sum of all graphs at a given loop order, surpassing the need to work on single diagrams.

  5. Superpotentials for Quiver Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Fidkowski, Lukasz M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-10

    We compute superpotentials for quiver gauge theories arising from marginal D-Brane decay on collapsed del Pezzo cycles S in a Calabi-Yau X. This is done using the machinery of A{sub {infinity}} products in the derived category of coherent sheaves of X, which in turn is related to the derived category of S and quiver path algebras. We confirm that the superpotential is what one might have guessed from analyzing the moduli space, i.e., it is linear in the fields corresponding to the Exts of the quiver and that each such Ext multiplies a polynomial in Exts equal to precisely the relation represented by the Ext.

  6. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since the early 1960s. Together with a digital data logger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the wide use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported regarding their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effects of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were considered in this study. The pressure transducers were tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  7. Altered Maxwell equations in the length gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H. R.

    2013-09-01

    The length gauge uses a scalar potential to describe a laser field, thus treating it as a longitudinal field rather than as a transverse field. This distinction is manifested by the fact that the Maxwell equations that relate to the length gauge are not the same as those for transverse fields. In particular, a source term is necessary in the length-gauge Maxwell equations, whereas the Coulomb-gauge description of plane waves possesses the basic property of transverse fields that they propagate with no source terms at all. This difference is shown to be importantly consequential in some previously unremarked circumstances; and it explains why the Göppert-Mayer gauge transformation does not provide the security that might be expected of full gauge equivalence.

  8. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  9. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  10. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  11. Holledge gauge failure testing using concurrent information processing algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.; Daniel, W.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Jannarone, R.J.; Joshi, S.N.; Palakodety, S.S.; Qian, D.

    1996-04-11

    For several decades, computerized information processing systems and human information processing models have developed with a good deal of mutual influence. Any comprehensive psychology text in this decade uses terms that originated in the computer industry, such as ``cache`` and ``memory``, to describe human information processing. Likewise, many engineers today are using ``artificial intelligence``and ``artificial neural network`` computing tools that originated as models of human thought to solve industrial problems. This paper concerns a recently developed human information processing model, called ``concurrent information processing`` (CIP), and a related set of computing tools for solving industrial problems. The problem of focus is adaptive gauge monitoring; the application is pneumatic pressure repeaters (Holledge gauges) used to measure liquid level and density in the Defense Waste Processing Facility and the Integrated DWPF Melter System.

  12. The Planar Gauge in a New Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibbrandt, George; Nyeo, Su-Long

    The main feature of the planar gauge, apart from the decoupling of ghosts, is the nontransversality of the Yang-Mills self-energy with the resulting appearance of a pincer diagram in the Ward identity. We employ the general prescription for axial-type gauges, recently developed by one of the authors, to check this Ward identity and derive BRS-invariant counterterms in the planar gauge.

  13. The planar gauge in a new formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Leibbrandt, G.; Nyeo, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    The main feature of the planar gauge, apart from the decoupling of ghosts, is the nontransversatility of the Yang-Mills self-energy with the resulting appearance of a pincer diagram in the Ward identity. The authors employ the general prescription for axial-type gauges, recently developed by one of the authors, to check this Ward identity and derive BRS-invariant counterterms in the planar gauge.

  14. Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.; Valencia, G.

    1994-12-31

    We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z {yields} {bar {integral}}{integral} partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII.

  15. Adaptive gauge cooling for complex Langevin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, L.; Aarts, G.; Seiler, E.; Sexty, D.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    In the case of nonabelian gauge theories with a complex weight, a controlled exploration of the complexified configuration space during a complex Langevin process requires the use of SL(N,C) gauge cooling, in order to minimize the distance from SU(N). Here we show that adaptive gauge cooling can lead to an efficient implementation of this idea. First results for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nonzero theta-term are presented as well.

  16. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  17. 27 CFR 19.618 - Gauge record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... formula number for denatured spirits; (f) The proof of distillation (not required for denatured spirits... identification, tank number, volumetric or weight gauge details, proof, and wine gallons; (2)...

  18. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  19. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  20. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  2. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  3. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  4. Extended gauge sectors at future colliders: Report of the New Gauge Boson Subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The author summarizes the results of the New Gauge Boson Subgroup on the physics of extended gauge sectors at future colliders as presented at the 1996 Snowmass workshop. He discusses the direct and indirect search reaches for new gauge bosons at both hadron and lepton colliders as well as the ability of such machines to extract detailed information on the couplings of these particles to the fermions and gauge bosons of the Standard Model. 41 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  10. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  11. Thread gauge for tapered threads

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1994-01-11

    The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads.

  12. Thread gauge for tapered threads

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1994-01-11

    The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads. 13 figures.

  13. Microfabricated pressure and shear stress sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microfabricated pressure sensor. The pressure sensor comprises a raised diaphragm disposed on a substrate. The diaphragm is configured to bend in response to an applied pressure difference. A strain gauge of a conductive material is coupled to a surface of the raised diaphragm and to at least one of the substrate and a piece rigidly connected to the substrate.

  14. Numerical techniques for lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1981-02-06

    The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice is reviewed. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then discussed for these systems. Finally, the Monte Carlo methods are combined with renormalization group analysis to give strong numerical evidence for confinement of quarks by non-Abelian gauge fields.

  15. Neutralino Dark Matter in Gauge Messenger Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung

    2008-11-23

    The lightest neutralino is one of the best candidate for dark matter. In gauge messenger models, It is generic that bino and wino masses are almostly degenerate. Because of this, neutralino annihilation becomes more efficient. Also, gauge messenger models have squeezed mass spectrum so that there are many resonance and co-annihilation regions, and can give correct amount of neutralino relic density.

  16. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  17. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  18. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  19. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  20. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  1. 27 CFR 19.319 - Production gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production gauge. 19.319... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.319 Production gauge. (a) General... production is completed. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, quantities may...

  2. A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bodwin, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    We present a method for implementing gauge theories of chiral fermions on the lattice. Discussed topics include: the lattice as a UV regulator, a chiral QED model, modification of the fermion determinant, large gauge-field momenta, and a non-perturbative problem.

  3. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  4. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  5. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  7. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  8. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  10. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  11. Nonquadratic gauge fixing and ghosts for gauge theories on the hypersphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2011-10-15

    It has been suggested that using a gauge fixing Lagrangian that is not quadratic in a gauge fixing condition is most appropriate for gauge theories formulated on a hypersphere. We reexamine the appropriate ghost action that is to be associated with gauge fixing, applying a technique that has been used for ensuring that the propagator for a massless spin-two field is transverse and traceless. It is shown that this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian leads to two pair of complex Fermionic ghosts and two Bosonic real ghosts.

  12. Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories?

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota M; Kaplan, David B

    2016-05-27

    We propose a nonperturbative gauge-invariant regulator for d-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in d+1 dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one d-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local d-dimensional interpretation only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction would imply the existence of mirror fermions in the standard model that are invisible except for interactions induced by vacuum topology, and which could gravitate differently than conventional matter. PMID:27284646

  13. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A

    2016-07-12

    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:27295541

  14. Flavor mixing in gauge-Higgs unification

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Y.; Kurahashi, N.; Lim, C. S.; Maru, N.; Tanabe, K.

    2012-07-27

    Gauge-Higgs unification is the fascinating scenario solving the hierarchy problem without supersymmetry. In this scenario, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet is identified with extra component of the gauge field in higher dimensions and its mass becomes finite and stable under quantum corrections due to the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. On the other hand, Yukawa coupling is provided by the gauge coupling, which seems to mean that the flavor mixing and CP violation do not arise at it stands. In this talk, we discuss that the flavor mixing is originated from simultaneously non-diagonalizable bulk and brane mass matrices. Then, this mechanism is applied to various flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) processes via Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson exchange at tree level and constraints for compactification scale are obtained.

  15. Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2011-02-15

    There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.

  16. Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Asorey, M.; García-Álvarez, D.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin-3 gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.

  17. On gauge independence for gauge models with soft breaking of BRST symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A consistent quantum treatment of general gauge theories with an arbitrary gauge-fixing in the presence of soft breaking of the BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is developed. It is based on a gauged (involving a field-dependent parameter) version of finite BRST transformations. The prescription allows one to restore the gauge-independence of the effective action at its extremals and therefore also that of the conventional S-matrix for a theory with BRST-breaking terms being additively introduced into a BRST-invariant action in order to achieve a consistency of the functional integral. We demonstrate the applicability of this prescription within the approach of functional renormalization group to the Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The Gribov-Zwanziger action and the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for a many-parameter family of gauges, including the Coulomb, axial and covariant gauges, are derived perturbatively on the basis of finite gauged BRST transformations starting from Landau gauge. It is proved that gauge theories with soft breaking of BRST symmetry can be made consistent if the transformed BRST-breaking terms satisfy the same soft BRST symmetry breaking condition in the resulting gauge as the untransformed ones in the initial gauge, and also without this requirement.

  18. Topological Quantum Phase Transition in Synthetic Non-Abelian Gauge Potential: Gauge Invariance and Experimental Detections

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153

  19. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle.

  20. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  1. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  2. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  3. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  4. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  5. 49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which...

  6. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  7. A SENSOR FOR MEASURING PRESSURE IN A SEALED CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN; SEXTON; BALL; DOUGLAS; OHL

    2001-02-01

    A magnetically coupled pressure (MCPG) gauge has been developed that will measure changes of pressure inside a sealed container without penetrating the walls of the container and transmit the measured values to a readout attached to the external walls of the container. The gauge uses no electrical power. The gauge described in this paper was configured to measure the pressure in a specially designed stainless steel container called the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). The MCO was designed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, to store the Site's decaying fuel rods on an interim basis. The magnetically coupled pressure gauge is comprised of a sender unit and a readout unit. The sender includes a Bourdon tube enclosed within a small, ported stainless steel cylinder and is installed within the pressure boundary of the MCO. In place of an indicating needle on a conventional pressure gauge, the sender uses a magnet. The readout unit consists of a simple compass-type needle, scaled to read on a pressure scale instead of magnetic direction. An extensive series of calibration tests of the gauge over a range of different magnetic orientations and pressure ranges have shown that the precision and accuracy of the gauge is, on average, better than 10% of full scale. This paper will describe the gauge and its performance in the MCO application. The magnetically coupled pressure gauge can be adapted to measure pressure in other types of DOE and industrial storage and transportation containers in which penetration of the walls is not desired. The technology used to measure pressure can also be used to measure other physical properties inside a sealed container (e.g., temperature). The only requirement is that the container be constructed of a material that is essentially transparent to magnetic flux.

  8. Non-Abelian gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies, which has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem to be very close at hand. However, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e. quantum simulators , are currently developed in many leading laboratories. Many schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots, photonic networks, or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in the presence of gauge fields. In the quantum simulation framework, the generated (synthetic) gauge fields may be Abelian, in which case they are the direct analogues of the vector potentials commonly associated with magnetic fields. In condensed matter physics, strong magnetic fields lead to a plethora of fascinating phenomena, among which the most paradigmatic is perhaps the quantum Hall effect. The standard Hall effect consists in the appearance of a transverse current, when a longitudinal voltage difference is applied to a conducting sample. For quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors at low temperatures placed in very strong magnetic fields, the transverse conductivity, the ratio between the transverse current and the applied voltage, exhibits perfect and robust quantization, independent for instance of the material or of its geometry. Such an integer quantum Hall effect, is now understood as a deep consequence of underlying topological order. Although such a system is an insulator in the bulk, it supports topologically robust edge excitations which carry the Hall current. The robustness of these chiral excitations against backscattering explains the universality of the quantum Hall effect. Another

  9. Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

  10. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  11. Gauge Factor and Stretchability of Silicon-on-Polymer Strain Gauges

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shixuan; Lu, Nanshu

    2013-01-01

    Strain gauges are widely applied to measure mechanical deformation of structures and specimens. While metallic foil gauges usually have a gauge factor slightly over 2, single crystalline silicon demonstrates intrinsic gauge factors as high as 200. Although silicon is an intrinsically stiff and brittle material, flexible and even stretchable strain gauges have been achieved by integrating thin silicon strips on soft and deformable polymer substrates. To achieve a fundamental understanding of the large variance in gauge factor and stretchability of reported flexible/stretchable silicon-on-polymer strain gauges, finite element and analytically models are established to reveal the effects of the length of the silicon strip, and the thickness and modulus of the polymer substrate. Analytical results for two limiting cases, i.e., infinitely thick substrate and infinitely long strip, have found good agreement with FEM results. We have discovered that strains in silicon resistor can vary by orders of magnitude with different substrate materials whereas strip length or substrate thickness only affects the strain level mildly. While the average strain in silicon reflects the gauge factor, the maximum strain in silicon governs the stretchability of the system. The tradeoff between gauge factor and stretchability of silicon-on-polymer strain gauges has been proposed and discussed. PMID:23881128

  12. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  13. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  14. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  15. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  16. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  17. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  18. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  19. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  20. Toward the camera rain gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamano, P.; Croci, A.; Laio, F.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel technique based on the quantitative detection of rain intensity from images, i.e., from pictures taken in rainy conditions. The method is fully analytical and based on the fundamentals of camera optics. A rigorous statistical framing of the technique allows one to obtain the rain rate estimates in terms of expected values and associated uncertainty. We show that the method can be profitably applied to real rain events, and we obtain promising results with errors of the order of ±25%. A precise quantification of the method's accuracy will require a more systematic and long-term comparison with benchmark measures. The significant step forward with respect to standard rain gauges resides in the possibility to retrieve measures at very high temporal resolution (e.g., 30 measures per minute) at a very low cost. Perspective applications include the possibility to dramatically increase the spatial density of rain observations by exporting the technique to crowdsourced pictures of rain acquired with cameras and smartphones.

  1. Gauge equivalence in two-dimensional gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, T. ); Igarashi, Y. ); Kubo, J. ); Tabei, T. )

    1993-08-15

    Two-dimensional quantum gravity is identified as a second-class system which we convert into a first-class system via the Batalin-Fradkin (BF) procedure. Using the extended phase space method, we then formulate the theory in the most general class of gauges. The conformal gauge action suggested by David, Distler, and Kawai is derived from first principles. We find a local, light-cone gauge action whose Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance implies Polyakov's curvature equation [partial derivative][sub [minus

  2. Origin of gauge invariance in string theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  6. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  7. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  8. High-resolution satellite-gauge merged precipitation climatologies of the Tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, Bastian; Buytaert, Wouter; Zulkafli, Zed; Lavado, Waldo; Willems, Bram; Robles, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Juan-Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Satellite precipitation products are becoming increasingly useful to complement rain gauge networks in regions where these are too sparse to capture spatial precipitation patterns, such as in the Tropical Andes. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (TPR) was active for 17 years (1998-2014) and has generated one of the longest single-sensor, high-resolution, and high-accuracy rainfall records. In this study, high-resolution (5 km) gridded mean monthly climatological precipitation is derived from the raw orbital TPR data (TRMM 2A25) and merged with 723 rain gauges using multiple satellite-gauge (S-G) merging approaches. The resulting precipitation products are evaluated by cross validation and catchment water balances (runoff ratios) for 50 catchments across the Tropical Andes. Results show that the TPR captures major synoptic and seasonal precipitation patterns and also accurately defines orographic gradients but underestimates absolute monthly rainfall rates. The S-G merged products presented in this study constitute an improved source of climatological rainfall data, outperforming the gridded TPR product as well as a rain gauge-only product based on ordinary Kriging. Among the S-G merging methods, performance of inverse distance interpolation of satellite-gauge residuals was similar to that of geostatistical methods, which were more sensitive to gauge network density. High uncertainty and low performance of the merged precipitation products predominantly affected regions with low and intermittent precipitation regimes (e.g., Peruvian Pacific coast) and is likely linked to the low TPR sampling frequency. All S-G merged products presented in this study are available in the public domain.

  9. Gauging Components for 'State-of-the-Art' Propellant Management oNext Generation Satellite Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthijssen, R.; van Put, P.

    2004-10-01

    Since the introduction of the re-orbiting requirement at end-of-life for geostationary spacecrafts, increased attention has been paid to accurate and reliable on- board propellant gauging. Several gauging systems have been developed and are in use with different degrees of accuracy and complexity. Increasing predictions on the remaining propellant allow far more efficient satellite replacement planning and might lead to a reduction of the amount of spacecrafts. A High Accuracy Pressure Transducer has been developed and qualified that provides a pressure reading accuracy down to two orders of magnitude better than traditional ones. The pressure transducer is a key element for the widely used pVT-methodology. In addition to the improved pressure gauging technique, the measurement accuracy of total propellant consumption is mainly dictated by the prediction of propellant consumption during Liquid Apogee Engine Firing. An Ultrasonic Flow Meter has been developed and qualified that provides a direct mass flow measurement during geostationary transfer, hence represents a gain in the global propellant gauging end accuracy.

  10. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  11. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  12. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  13. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  14. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  15. Adequacy and complication rates with 14- vs. 16-gauge automated needles in percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Svetha; Whittier, William L; Korbet, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    In performing percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of native kidneys, an increasing use of 16-gauge automated biopsy needles has been observed. We compare the adequacy and safety of PRBs in adults performed with a 14-gauge (n = 82) vs. 16-gauge (n = 55) automated needle using real-time ultrasound (US) from 1/2010 to 12/2013. Baseline clinical and laboratory data along with outcome data (renal US 1-hour postbiopsy, biopsy adequacy, and safety) were collected prospectively. There was no difference in age, gender, blood pressure, serum creatinine, or pre-PRB hemoglobin at baseline for PRBs performed with a 14- vs. 16-gauge needle. The number of glomeruli obtained per biopsy was similar (29 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 14, p = 0.6) and adequate tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 99% and 100% of biopsies. The clinical complication (8.5% vs. 9.1%, p = 1.0), transfusion (7.3% vs. 7.2%, p = 1.0), and embolization (3.7% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.6) rates were not significantly different for 14- vs. 16-gauge needles, but by routine renal US 1-hour post-PRB, a perinephric hematoma was demonstrated more often in biopsies done with the 14-gauge needle (39% vs. 22%, P 0.04). Thus, while the success of PRB of native kidneys is similar for both needle gauges, the potential for complication may be less using a 16-gauge automated needle.

  16. Demonstration of a multi-channel, low-profile wire gauge for tracing wave development and detonation turning in explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Bradley E; Novak, Alan M; Zucker, Jonathan M; Parker, Jr, Gary R; Dickson, Peter; Foley, Timothy J; Trebs, Adam A

    2010-01-01

    The multi-channel low-profile wire gauge is a device which measures high pressure wave position via the continuous variation in length of a conductor in conjunction with a fiducial, allowing in situ measurement of wave front curvature during wave development. The gauge's low profile ({approx}250 {micro}m) and high resolution measurements (up to 0.5 nanoseconds) make it minimally intrusive and highly responsive, with a typically wave position accuracy of {+-}1 mm. Gauge construction and data analysis methods are described and waveforms are presented for Detasheet and N-9 explosives.

  17. Development and Design of Zero-g Liquid Quantity Gauge for Solar Thermal Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-gravity (zero-g) applications are described. The gauge, named the compression mass gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of 11 percent of tank volume. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future-X program for a flight demonstration on the United States Air Force-Boeing Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This report reviews the design trade studies needed for the CMG to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on its power, volume, and mass and also describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  18. Comparison of bulk- and surface-micromachined pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H.; Monk, D.J.; O`Brien, G.; Miller, T.F.

    1998-08-01

    Two piezoresistive micromachined pressure sensors were compared: a commercially available bulk-micromachined (BM) pressure sensor and an experimental surface-micromachined (SM) pressure sensor. While the SM parts had significantly smaller die sizes, they were outperformed in most areas by the BM parts. This was due primarily to the smaller piezoresistive gauge factor in the polysilicon piezoresistors in the SM parts compared to the single crystal strain gauge used in the BM parts.

  19. Absolute shielding scale for 31P from gas-phase NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.; De Dios, Angel; Keith Jameson, A.

    1990-04-01

    Differences in the 31P nuclear shielding in the zero-pressure limit have been measured in seven compounds. An absolute 31P shielding scale based on the PH 3 molecular beam data is established and the absolute shielding of the standard liquid reference (85% aqueous H 3PO 4) is found to be 328.35 ppm, based on PH 3 being 594.45 ± 0.63 ppm. Comparisons with ab initio calculations show that calculations using local origins (the IGLO method) are in good agreement with experiment.

  20. Observing Infrasound and Atmospheric Pressure with the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F. L.; Hedlin, M. A.; Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.

    2010-12-01

    We are creating a real-time infrasound array whose sensing elements are co-located with the 400 seismic stations in the USArray Transportable Array component of the NSF EarthScope program. This continuously sampled array, of an unprecedented scale, will provide opportunities for groundbreaking and interdisciplinary research in atmospheric acoustics, atmospheric science, and seismology. Such an array will sample mean (absolute) values and fluctuations of the surface air pressure with nominal 70 km station spacing, with a dynamic range of about 7 orders of magnitude, and with a sampling frequency of up to 40 Hz. All samples will be synchronized to UTC. This dense network of infrasound sensors will permit us to study the nature of long-range infrasound propagation from regional to continental distances, and study the sources of infrasound signals, using actual acoustic data, free of concerns about seismic-to-acoustic coupling. All new TA stations deployed starting this fall will have a Quanterra Environmental Processor with internal VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauge, Setra 278 absolute microbarometer, and NCPA Infrasound Microphone. We will present data from field tests and from the newly deployed instrumentation.

  1. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  2. Quarks in Coulomb gauge perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2009-02-15

    Coulomb gauge quantum chromodynamics within the first order functional formalism is considered. The quark contributions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations are derived and one-loop perturbative results for the two-point functions are presented.

  3. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... specify otherwise for particular drawbridges, clearance gauges shall be designed, installed, and... appropriate bridge....

  4. Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H < 0.1, and predicts Z‧ bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  5. Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.

  6. Monopoles, Abelian projection, and gauge invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Claudio; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lepori, Luca; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2010-04-15

    A direct connection is proved between the non-Abelian Bianchi Identities (NABI's) and the Abelian Bianchi identities for the 't Hooft tensor. As a consequence, the existence of a nonzero magnetic current is related to the violation of the NABI's and is a gauge-invariant property. The construction allows us to show that not all Abelian projections can be used to expose monopoles in lattice configurations: each field configuration with nonzero magnetic charge identifies its natural projection, up to gauge transformations which tend to unity at large distances. It is shown that the so-called maximal-Abelian gauge is a legitimate choice. It is also proven, starting from the NABI, that monopole condensation is a physical gauge-invariant phenomenon, independent of the choice of the Abelian projection.

  7. Gauge-invariant decomposition of nucleon spin

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, M.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the relation between the known decompositions of the nucleon spin into its constituents, thereby clarifying in what respect they are common and in what respect they are different essentially. The decomposition recently proposed by Chen et al. can be thought of as a nontrivial generalization of the gauge-variant Jaffe-Manohar decomposition so as to meet the gauge-invariance requirement of each term of the decomposition. We however point out that there is another gauge-invariant decomposition of the nucleon spin, which is closer to the Ji decomposition, while allowing the decomposition of the gluon total angular momentum into the spin and orbital parts. After clarifying the reason why the gauge-invariant decomposition of the nucleon spin is not unique, we discuss which decomposition is more preferable from an experimental viewpoint.

  8. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  9. Dynamic Force Measurement with Strain Gauges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bruce E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of four strain gauges, a Wheatstone bridge, and an oscilloscope to measure forces dynamically. Included is an example of determining the centripetal force of a pendulum in a general physics laboratory. (CC)

  10. Anomalies, gauge field topology, and the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael

    2011-04-15

    Motivated by the connection between gauge field topology and the axial anomaly in fermion currents, I suggest that the fourth power of the naive Dirac operator can provide a natural method to define a local lattice measure of topological charge. For smooth gauge fields this reduces to the usual topological density. For typical gauge field configurations in a numerical simulation, however, quantum fluctuations dominate, and the sum of this density over the system does not generally give an integer winding. On cooling with respect to the Wilson gauge action, instanton like structures do emerge. As cooling proceeds, these objects tend shrink and finally 'fall through the lattice.' Modifying the action can block the shrinking at the expense of a loss of reflection positivity. The cooling procedure is highly sensitive to the details of the initial steps, suggesting that quantum fluctuations induce a small but fundamental ambiguity in the definition of topological susceptibility.

  11. Summary talk: Gauge bosons self interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1995-03-31

    A review is given of the theoretical expectations of the self couplings of gauge bosons and of the present experimental information on the couplings. The possibilities for future measurements are also discussed.

  12. Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreiros, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Hernandez Vozmediano, Maria Angeles

    We show that, as it happens in graphene, elastic deformations couple to the electronic degrees of freedom as pseudo gauge fields in Weyl semimetals. We derive the form of the elastic gauge fields in a tight-binding model hosting Weyl nodes and see that this vector electron-phonon coupling is chiral, providing an example of axial gauge fields in three dimensions. As an example of the new response functions that arise associated to these elastic gauge fields, we derive a non-zero phonon Hall viscosity for the neutral system at zero temperature. The axial nature of the fields provides a test of the chiral anomaly in high energy with three axial vector couplings. European Union structural funds and the Comunidad de Madrid MAD2D-CM Program (S2013/MIT-3007).

  13. Gauge Bosons--The Ties That Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Christopher T.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four basic forces/interactions in nature (strong force, weak force, electromagnetic force and gravity), associated with elementary particles. Focuses on "gauge bosons" (for example, photons), thought to account for strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. (Author/JN)

  14. Gauge natural formulation of conformal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Campigotto, M.; Fatibene, L.

    2015-03-15

    We consider conformal gravity as a gauge natural theory. We study its conservation laws and superpotentials. We also consider the Mannheim and Kazanas spherically symmetric vacuum solution and discuss conserved quantities associated to conformal and diffeomorphism symmetries.

  15. Breaking of Gauge Symmetry: A Geometrical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a simple introduction to the fundamental physical ideas involved in the breaking of local gauge symmetry. The purpose of this article is to show how these ideas can be understood independently of any particular application. (Author/HM)

  16. Constraints on gauge field production during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2014-07-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

  17. A new water level gauge for cold region application

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, H.H.; Moss, M.K.; Dixon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional gas purging (bubbler) water level gauge has been widely sued because of its simplicity, ruggedness and ability to operate in areas of ice cover. However, its mechanically-based sensing and recording system and the need for density information to compute water level have caused inconveniences in field operations. This paper describes a new design that records and telemeters digital data and allows computation of water density directly from the pressure measurements. Major measurement error sources are also identified and quantified. The performance in water level measurement is comparable to the National Ocean Service`s standard air acoustic tide gauge. Deriving density from pressure measurements obviates the need for use of a separate conductivity/temperature/depth instrument, which can be prone to fouling. The uncertainty in density determination is less than 0.0005 g/cc in laboratory tests; in the field, it varies from 0.0015 g/cc under low wave conditions to 0.003 g/cc for high wave conditions. The instrument has been successfully deployed at several cold region sites including the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

  18. Non-self-dual static gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, C. H.; Teh, Rosy

    1980-01-01

    We exhibit exact non-self-dual static solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills field equations by solving the equation ∇2V+λV3=0 using cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The resulting gauge fields are complex and have singularities. For the cylindrically symmetric solution, we convert it into a real gauge field coupled to the Higgs field in the limit in which the self-interaction potential of the Higgs field vanishes.

  19. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John

    1987-01-01

    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  20. Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Distance Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.; Reasenberg, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require a spaceworthy laser distance gauge of substantially improved performance. The Tracking Frequency Gauge (TFG) uses a single beam, locking a laser to the measurement interferometer. We have demonstrated this technique with pm (10(exp -12) m) performance. We report on the version we are now developing based on space-qualifiable, fiber-coupled distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers.