Science.gov

Sample records for absolute proper motion

  1. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  2. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Massari, D.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-12-10

    We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr{sup –1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v {sub rot} = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s{sup –1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.

  3. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  4. THE SOUTHERN PROPER MOTION PROGRAM. IV. THE SPM4 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I. E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20{sup 0} declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr{sup -1}, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr{sup -1}.

  5. The Proper Motion of Palomar 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N.

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μα = -2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr-1 and μδ = -2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr-1 for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V0 = 220 km s-1 and V20 kpc, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s-1, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization. Based on LBT data. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The Ohio State University, and The Research

  6. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J. E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  7. Proper motion measurements of HH 224

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Rivera, Erika F.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Barsony, Mary; Phelps, Randy L.; Román-Zuñíga, Carlos; Tapia, Mauricio; José Downes, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We measured the proper motion of the components of Herbig-Haro object HH 224 embedded in the rho Ophiuchi cloud core using two epochs of [S II] imaging with a 17-year baseline. Our analysis finds the direction of HH 224N to be consistent with the other components of HH 224S suggesting HH 224S and HH 224N are part of the same flow. We discuss possible driving sources. We acknowledge partial support from PAPPIT-IN101813.

  8. VVV IR high proper motion stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, R.; Gromadzki, M.; Beamin, J. C.; Peña, K.; Folkes, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Borissova, J.; Kuhn, M.; Villanueva, V.; Minniti, D.; Mendez, R.; Lucas, P.; Smith, L.; Pinfield, D.; Antonova, A.

    2015-10-01

    We used the VISTA Variables en Vía Láctea (VVV) survey to search for large proper motion (PM) objects in the zone of avoidance in the Milky Way bulge and southern Galactic disk. This survey is multi-epoch and already spans a period of more than four years, giving us an excellent opportunity for proper motion and parallax studies. We found around 1700 PM objects with PM>30 mas yr(-1) . The majority of them are early and mid M-dwarfs. There are also few later spectral type objects, as well as numerous new K- and G-dwarfs. 75 of the stars have PM>300 mas (-1) and 189 stars have PM>200 mas (-1) . There are only 42 previously known stars in the VVV area with proper motion PM>200 mas (-1) . We also found three dM+WD binaries and new members of the immediate solar vicinity of 25 pc. We generated a catalog which will be a complementary to the existing catalogs outside this zone.

  9. Aberration in proper motions for Galactic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations of both the solar system barycenter (SSB) and stars in the MilkyWay cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied by J. Kovalevsky (2003). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic center (GC). We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. We show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions: if the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression with approximation proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. In the future this aberrational effect under consideration should be considered with high-accurate astrometry, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  10. Measuring Proper Motion of Barnard's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechmann, Katrina; Michalik, Tom

    2009-03-01

    Stars of the night sky are generally considered to be fixed points, not changing noticeably over generations of observations. While most stars seem to appear in the same place year after year, some change location noticeably, the best example being Barnard's Star. Barnard's star is closer to Earth than any other star except Proxima Centauri. It also appears to move across the sky faster than any other star. This change in apparent location is caused by the movements of our Solar System and the motion of the star in question, and is known as proper motion. Using the astrometric capabilities of the MIRA software along with precise positional information for reference stars from the Tycho satellite star catalogue, the position of Barnard's star is computed relative to the reference stars. We calibrate a series of images of Barnard's Star taken in the Randolph College Observatory between 2001 and 2008 in order to independently determine the coordinates of Barnard's Star, revealing how these change over time. By measuring changes in the celestial coordinates, Right Ascension and Declination, we determine the proper motion of Barnard's star and compare this measurement to the accepted value of 10.25'' per year.

  11. Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert B.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Jones, Burton F.; Monet, David G.

    2004-09-01

    The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a two-epoch (1947-1988) photographic survey of the northern two-thirds of the sky (δ>~-23deg), has measured absolute proper motions, on an inertial system defined by distant galaxies, for 378,360 stars in the magnitude range 8<~B<~18. The 1993 NPM1 Catalog contains 148,940 stars in 899 fields outside the Milky Way's zone of avoidance. The 2003 NPM2 Catalog contains 232,062 stars in the remaining 347 NPM fields near the plane of the Milky Way. This paper describes the NPM2 star selection, plate measurements, astrometric and photometric data reductions, and catalog compilation. The NPM2 Catalog contains 122,806 faint (B>=14) anonymous stars for astrometry and Galactic studies, 91,648 bright (B<14) positional reference stars, and 34,868 ``special stars'' chosen for astrophysical interest. The NPM2 proper motions are on the ICRS system, via Tycho-2 stars, to an accuracy of 0.6 mas yr-1 in each field. The rms proper-motion precision is 6 mas yr-1. Positional errors average 80 mas at the mean plate epoch 1968, and 200 mas at the NPM2 catalog epoch 2000. NPM2 photographic photometry errors average 0.18 mag in B and 0.20 mag in B-V. The NPM2 Catalog and the updated (to J2000.0) NPM1 Catalog are available at the CDS Strasbourg data center and on the NPM Web site. The NPM2 Catalog completes the Lick Northern Proper Motion program after a half-century of work by three generations of Lick Observatory astronomers. The NPM Catalogs will serve as a database for research in Galactic structure, stellar kinematics, and astrometry.

  12. Tracking magnetogram proper motions by multiscale regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1995-01-01

    Long uninterrupted sequences of solar magnetograms from the global oscillations network group (GONG) network and from the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite will provide the opportunity to study the proper motions of magnetic features. The possible use of multiscale regularization, a scale-recursive estimation technique which begins with a prior model of how state variables and their statistical properties propagate over scale. Short magnetogram sequences are analyzed with the multiscale regularization algorithm as applied to optical flow. This algorithm is found to be efficient, provides results for all the spatial scales spanned by the data and provides error estimates for the solutions. It is found that the algorithm is less sensitive to evolutionary changes than correlation tracking.

  13. A technique to derive improved proper motions for Kepler objects of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; Tanner, Angelle M.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-12-01

    We outline an approach yielding proper motions with higher precision than exists in present catalogs for a sample of stars in the Kepler field. To increase proper-motion precision, we combine first-moment centroids of Kepler pixel data from a single season with existing catalog positions and proper motions. We use this astrometry to produce improved reduced-proper-motion diagrams, analogous to a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, for stars identified as Kepler objects of interest. The more precise the relative proper motions, the better the discrimination between stellar luminosity classes. Using UCAC4 and PPMXL epoch 2000 positions (and proper motions from those catalogs as quasi-Bayesian priors), astrometry for a single test Channel (21) and Season (0) spanning 2 yr yields proper motions with an average per-coordinate proper-motion error of 1.0 mas yr{sup –1}, which is over a factor of three better than existing catalogs. We apply a mapping between a reduced-proper-motion diagram and an H-R diagram, both constructed using Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and proper motions, to estimate Kepler object of interest K-band absolute magnitudes. The techniques discussed apply to any future small-field astrometry as well as to the rest of the Kepler field.

  14. High proper motion X-ray binaries from the Yale Southern Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Girard, Terrence M.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the results of cross-correlating catalogues of bright X-ray binaries with the Yale Southern Proper Motion Catalog (version 4.0). Several objects already known to have large proper motions from Hipparcos are recovered. Two additional objects are found which show substantial proper motions, both of which are unusual in their X-ray properties. One is IGR J17544-2619, one of the supergiant fast X-ray transients. Assuming the quoted distances in the literature for this source of about 3 kpc are correct, this system has a peculiar velocity of about 275 km s-1 - greater than the velocity of a Keplerian orbit at its location of the Galaxy and in line with the expectations formed from suggestions that the supergiant fast X-ray transients should be highly eccentric. We discuss the possibility that these objects may help explain the existence of short gamma-ray bursts outside the central regions of galaxies. The other is the source 2A 1822-371, which is a member of the small class of objects which are low-mass X-ray binaries and long (i.e. >100 ms) X-ray pulsars. This system also shows both an anomalously high X-ray luminosity and a large orbital period derivative for a system with its orbital period, and some possible indications of an eccentric orbit. A coherent picture can be developed by adding in the proper motion information in which this system formed in the Perseus spiral arm of the Galaxy about 3 Myr ago and retains a slightly eccentric orbit which leads to enhanced mass transfer.

  15. Parallaxes and Proper Motions of QSOs: A Test of Astrometric Precision and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Zacharias, Norbert; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Monet, David G.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2016-11-01

    Optical astrometry of 12 fields containing quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) is presented. The targets are radio sources in the International Celestial Reference Frame with accurate radio positions that also have optical counterparts. The data are used to test several quantities: the internal precision of the relative optical astrometry, the relative parallaxes and proper motions, the procedures to correct from relative to absolute parallax and proper motion, the accuracy of the absolute parallaxes and proper motions, and the stability of the optical photocenters for these optically variable QSOs. For these 12 fields, the mean error in absolute parallax is 0.38 mas and the mean error in each coordinate of absolute proper motion is 1.1 mas yr‑1. The results yield a mean absolute parallax of ‑0.03 ± 0.11 mas. For 11 targets, we find no significant systematic motions of the photocenters at the level of 1–2 mas over the 10 years of this study; for one BL Lac object, we find a possible motion of 4 mas correlated with its brightness.

  16. The Bonn contribution to the extragalactic link of the HIPPARCOS proper motion system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucholke, H.-J.; Brosche, P.; Odenkirchen, M.

    1997-05-01

    In order to calibrate the proper motions of the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, our group has measured accurate absolute proper motions of Hipparcos stars in small fields around optically bright extragalactic radio sources or bright galaxies with star-like features. In addition, we also use fields where relative proper motions are calibrated by measurements of large numbers of stars and galaxies on wide-field plates. The median internal accuracy of our relative proper motions, based on photographic plates with epoch differences up to 100 years (typically 70 years), is 1.0 milliarcsec/year (mas/a), while the calibration to an inertial system in each of the 13 fields has a median uncertainty of 1.3 mas/a. We compute the rotation from the Hipparcos proper motions (median internal errors \\e{0.9}{mas/a}) to the extragalactic reference frame represented by our absolute proper motions, using 88 stars in common. The three components of the angular velocity vector have internal errors of 0.3 mas/a. Our rotation solution has been used together with those of independent groups for the extragalactic calibration of the Hipparcos proper motion system (\\cite[Kovalevsky et al. 1996)]{kova96}. It compares favourably with the adopted mean solution. Based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.

  17. Proper motion survey with the forty-eight inch Schmidt telescope. 33: Proper motions for 3478 faint stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luyten, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Data for the motions of 3478 stars are presented. The data were obtained with the automated-computerized plate scanner and measuring machine. Only data for those stars for which no earlier determination of proper motions are included.

  18. PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING SPM MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Katherine; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Korchagin, Vladimir I.; Herrera, David E-mail: terry.girard@yale.ed

    2010-12-15

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 deg{sup 2} area that encloses both Magellanic Clouds. The proper motions are based on photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program, which span a baseline of 40 years. Multiple, local relative proper-motion measures are combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected Galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog of 1.4 million objects is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub LMC} = (1.89, + 0.39) {+-} (0.27, 0.27) masyr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC} = (0.98, - 1.01) {+-} (0.30, 0.29) masyr{sup -1}. These mean motions are based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion (0.25 mas yr{sup -1}) of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog stars used to anchor the bright end of our proper motion measures. A more precise determination can be made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; ({mu}{sub {alpha}cos {delta}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC-LMC} = (-0.91, - 1.49) {+-} (0.16, 0.15) masyr{sup -1}. This differential value is combined with measurements of the proper motion of the LMC taken from the literature to produce new absolute proper-motion determinations for the SMC, as well as an estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within {+-}54 km s{sup -1}. The absolute proper-motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit. The inferred relative velocity between the Clouds places them near their binding energy limit and

  19. A Proper-Motion Study of Two Fields, in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ivan

    1999-07-01

    We propose, using only 5 orbits of HST time, to carry out high-precision astrometry in two fields in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae in order to {1} measure the relative proper motions in the radial and tangential directions, for many thousands of main-sequence stars and white dwarfs, and determine the anisotropy of stellar motions as a function of stellar mass; {2} strengthen our current determination of the distance of the cluster, which depends on comparing proper motions with radial velocities; {3} extend the luminosity function of the cluster 3-4 magnitudes fainter, reaching well below 0.1>m_odot; {4} measure the rotation of the cluster in the plane of the sky; {5} measure the absolute proper motion of the cluster; and {6} possibly measure the proper motion of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  20. Detection of Proper Motion in OQ208?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; C, Stanghellini; D, Dallacasa; M, Bondi

    2000-04-01

    We report on an ongoing work aimed to detect the separation speed of the two hot-spots of the compact symmetric object OQ208. Comparing images at 8.4 GHz taken in 6 epoches between 1994 and 1997 we obtain an estimate of 0.058±0.038 mas/year as the relative motions between two components of the radio source. At the red-shift of OQ208 1 mas correspond to 1 pc, thus we obtain a projected jet speed of 0.095±0.062c. With an inclination of 45° between the jets and the line of sight, we have an actual jet velocity of 0.134±0.088c and therefore the kinematic age of the source is so young of 320±210 years.

  1. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup −1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV−V and V−K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  2. Globular cluster orbits based on Hipparcos proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenkirchen, M.; Brosche, P.; Geffert, M.; Tucholke, H.-J.

    1997-11-01

    We present and analyse space motions and orbits for a sample of 15 galactic globular clusters. The absolute proper motions of these clusters have been determined with respect to reference stars of the new Hipparcos system. Orbital integrations in two model potentials for the Galaxy are considered. The sample shows a mean rotation near 40 km s-1 in the sense of rotation of the galactic disk. Six clusters are however found to be in retrograde motion. Velocity dispersions are around 104 km s-1 in the direction of rotation, near 116 km s-1 in latitudinal direction and near 127 km s-1 in radial direction. The orbits of the clusters preferentially have small axial angular momenta and high eccentricities, the median of the orbital eccentricities being 0.62. From the spatial extent of the orbits we conclude that the Galaxy must have a massive halo with a radius of at least 30 kpc. The space density distribution of our sample of clusters system, except for distances less than 4 kpc from the galactic center. space density distribution of the total globular cluster system, except for distances less than 4 kpc from the galactic center. The largest apogalactic distances in the sample reach out to 65 kpc. The orbits provide evidence that the more metal-rich clusters are concentrated towards the galactic center. The clusters with significant retrograde motion have metal abundances between - 1.5 and - 2.0 and hence appear to be relatively homogeneous in chemical composition. The small subgroup of 'young halo' clusters within our sample is orbiting with a net retrograde rotation of -9 km s-1. A general relation between orbital eccentricity and metal-abundance does not show up in the sample. The observed radii of the clusters are found to be in a well-defined relation to the tidal limits imposed by orbital motion in the galactic field. It is shown that the cluster radii are however not uniquely determined by the perigalactic distances, but involve at least also the geometry of the

  3. Aberration in proper motions for stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Accelerations of both the Solar system barycentre (SSB) and stars in the Milky Way cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied in the early 1990s and developed by Kovalevsky (aberration in proper motions). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic Centre. We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. Based on the theoretical developments, we show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the Galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Within 200 pc from the Galactic Centre, the systematic proper motion can reach an amplitude larger than 1000 μas yr- 1 by applying a flat rotation curve. With a more realistic rotation curve which is linearly rising in the core region of the Galaxy, the aberrational proper motions are limited up to about 150 μas yr- 1. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions concerning the aberrational proper motions, especially for those stars with short period orbits. If the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. The aberrational effect under consideration is small but not negligible with high-accurate astrometry in the future, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  4. A 2 epoch proper motion catalogue from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leigh; Lucas, Phil; Burningham, Ben; Jones, Hugh; Pinfield, David; Smart, Ricky; Andrei, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) began in 2005, with the start of the UKIDSS program as a 7 year effort to survey roughly 4000 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in Y, J, H and K bands. The survey also included a significant quantity of 2-epoch J band observations, with epoch baselines ranging from 2 to 7 years. We present a proper motion catalogue for the 1500 square degrees of the 2 epoch LAS data, which includes some 800,000 sources with motions detected above the 5σ level. We developed a bespoke proper motion pipeline which applies a source-unique second order polynomial transformation to UKIDSS array coordinates of each source to counter potential local non-uniformity in the focal plane. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied in the current WFCAM Science Archive (WSA) DR9 catalogue where there is overlap, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from some improvements. One improvement is that we provide absolute proper motions, using LAS galaxies for the relative to absolute correction. Also, by using unique, local, 2nd order polynomial tranformations, as opposed to the linear transformations in the WSA, we correct better for any local distortions in the focal plane, not including the radial distortion that is removed by their pipeline.

  5. Automated Photographic Proper Motions: Selected Fields and Whole Schmidt Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, D. J.; Roberts, W. J.

    1993-12-01

    Scanning of the POSS R--band plates of the northern hemisphere, completed recently at the STScI, together with the scans of the ``Quick-V'' plates taken for the HST Guide Star Catalogue, make possible the determination of proper motions of large numbers of stars in selected--target or survey modes. In the first mode, we have been obtaining motions for stars of kinematic and astrophysical interest as requested by several collaborators (H. Jahreiß- ARI--Heidelberg: candidate nearby stars; J. Liebert - U. of Arizona: hot DAs from the Palomar-Green survey; M. Parthasarathy - Indian Inst. of Astroph.: low-mass, post-AGB stars; P. Green - CfA: high-latitude carbon stars; Rex Saffer: sdO stars). We report on a test of the derived motions for a set of the Naval Observatory parallax program stars and discuss the completeness of the Luyten Two--Tenths Survey. We have also searched for proper motions over entire POSS regions using an overlapping subplate technique. This method is very flexible in that it computes individual relative proper motions against several sets of reference stars, giving a thorough analysis of the errors and providing a check against spurious measuremts due to statistical fluctuations. The method is vulnerable to cosmetic and astrometric defects of the plates, and also fails for large proper motions. Using the existing plate archive it is possible to measure about one million previously unknown proper motions down to 0\\farcs035 and V=17.5. We present a comparison of our results for the region of the NGP with those of other work, and with another selected region near the galactic equator.

  6. Proper Motion of Components in 4C 39.25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Elosegui, P.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Kilger, R.; Mantovani, F.; Venturi, T.; Rius, A.; Ros, E.; Trigilio, C.; Whitney, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    From a series of simultaneous 8.4 and 2.3 GHz VLBI observations of the quasar 4C 39.25 phase referenced to the radio source 0920+390, carried out in 1990-1992, we have measured the proper motion of component b in 4C 39.25: mu(sub alpha) = 90 +/- 43 (mu)as/yr, mu(sub beta) = 7 +/- 68 (mu)as/yr, where the quoted uncertainties account for the contribution of the statistical standard deviation and the errors assumed for the parameters related to the geometry of the interferometric array, the atmosphere, and the source structure. This proper motion is consistent with earlier interpretations of VLBI hybrid mapping results, which showed an internal motion of this component with respect to other structural components. Our differential astrometry analyses show component b to be the one in motion. Our results thus further constrain models of this quasar.

  7. Δ μ binaries among stars with large proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khovritchev, M. Yu.; Kulikova, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations performed with the Pulkovo normal astrograph in 2008-2015 and data from sky surveys (DSS, 2MASS, SDSS DR12, WISE), we have investigated the motions of 1308 stars with proper motions larger than 300 mas yr-1 down to magnitude 17. The main idea of our search for binary stars based on this material is reduced to comparing the quasi-mean (POSS2-POSS1; an epoch difference of ≈50 yr) and quasi-instantaneous (2МASS, SDSS, WISE, Pulkovo; an epoch difference of ≈10 yr) proper motions. If the difference is statistically significant compared to the proper motion errors, then the object may be considered as a Δ μ-binary candidate. One hundred and twenty one stars from among those included in the observational program satisfy this requirement. Additional confirmations of binarity for a number of stars have been obtained by comparing the calculated proper motions with the data from several programs of stellar trigonometric parallax determinations and by analyzing the asymmetry of stellar images on sky-survey CCD frames. Analysis of the highly accurate SDSS photometric data for four stars (J0656+3827, J0838+3940, J1229+5332, J2330+4639) allows us to reach a conclusion about the probability that these Δ μ binaries are white dwarf +Mdwarf pairs.

  8. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy from Subaru Suprime-Cam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using Subaru Suprime-Cam images taken at three epochs, with time baselines of 4.4 and 7 yr. The magnitude limit of the proper-motion study is i = 25, thus allowing for thousands of background galaxies and Draco stars to be used to perform extensive astrometric tests and to derive the correction to an inertial reference frame. The derived proper motion is (μα, μδ) = (-0.284 ± 0.047, -0.289 ± 0.041) mas yr-1. This motion implies an orbit that takes Draco to a pericentre of ˜20 kpc; a somewhat disruptive orbit suggesting that tides might account for the rising velocity-dispersion profile of Draco seen in line-of-sight velocity studies. The orbit is only marginally consistent with Draco's membership to the vast polar structure of Galactic satellites, in contrast to a recent Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurement that finds alignment very likely. Our study is a test case to demonstrate that deep imaging with mosaic cameras of appropriate resolution can be used for high-accuracy, ground-based proper-motion measurement. As a useful by-product of the study, we also identify two faint brown-dwarf candidates in the foreground field.

  9. Vertical velocities from proper motions of red clump giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Abedi, H.; Garzón, F.; Figueras, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We derive the vertical velocities of disk stars in the range of Galactocentric radii of R = 5 - 16 kpc within 2 kpc in height from the Galactic plane. This kinematic information is connected to dynamical aspects in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way, such as the passage of satellites and vertical resonance and determines whether the warp is a long-lived or a transient feature. Methods: We used the PPMXL survey, which contains the USNO-B1 proper motions catalog cross-correlated with the astrometry and near-infrared photometry of the 2MASS point source catalog. To improve the accuracy of the proper motions, the systematic shifts from zero were calculated by using the average proper motions of quasars in this PPMXL survey, and we applied the corresponding correction to the proper motions of the whole survey, which reduces the systematic error. From the color-magnitude diagram K versus (J - K) we selected the standard candles corresponding to red clump giants and used the information of their proper motions to build a map of the vertical motions of our Galaxy. We derived the kinematics of the warp both analytically and through a particle simulation to fit these data. Complementarily, we also carried out the same analysis with red clump giants spectroscopically selected with APOGEE data, and we predict the improvements in accuracy that will be reached with future Gaia data. Results: A simple model of warp with the height of the disk zw(R,φ) = γ(R - R⊙)sin(φ - φw) fits the vertical motions if dot {γ }/γ = -34±17 Gyr-1; the contribution to dot {γ } comes from the southern warp and is negligible in the north. If we assume this 2σ detection to be real, the period of this oscillation is shorter than 0.43 Gyr at 68.3% C.L. and shorter than 4.64 Gyr at 95.4% C.L., which excludes with high confidence the slow variations (periods longer than 5 Gyr) that correspond to long-lived features. Our particle simulation also indicates a probable abrupt decrease

  10. Star catalog position and proper motion corrections in asteroid astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Tholen, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a scheme to correct asteroid astrometric observations for star catalog systematic errors due to inaccurate star positions and proper motions. As reference we select the most accurate stars in the PPMXL catalog, i.e., those based on 2MASS astrometry. We compute position and proper motion corrections for 19 of the most used star catalogs. The use of these corrections provides better ephemeris predictions and improves the error statistics of astrometric observations, e.g., by removing most of the regional systematic errors previously seen in Pan-STARRS PS1 asteroid astrometry. The correction table is publicly available at ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/ssd/debias/debias_2014.tgz and can be freely used in orbit determination algorithms to obtain more reliable asteroid trajectories.

  11. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Liimets, T.; Zinnecker, H.; Barzdis, A.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; Petersen, L. R.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods: Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 μm line of molecular hydrogen, v = 1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam on a timescale of 10 years, are used to determine the proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H2 column densities towards these knots. Results: We measure the proper motion of 31 knots on different timescales (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km s-1 for the 10-year baseline, but for shorter timescales, a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km s-1 is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information, and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overlapping and deeply embedded flows, one Class 0 flow and two Class I flows. The multi-epoch proper motion results indicate time-variable velocities of the knots, for the first time directly measured for a Class 0 jet. We find in general higher velocities for the Class 0 jet than for the two Class I jets. While the bolometric luminosites of the three driving sources are about equal, the derived mass flow rate Ṁout is two orders of magnitude higher in the Class 0 flow than in the two Class I flows. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  12. Anomalous Proper-Motions in the Cygnus Super Bubble Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, F.; Torra, J.; Jordi, C.; Gomez, A. E.

    1993-10-01

    In an analysis of proper motions of O and B stars contained in the Input Catalogue for Hipparcos, we have found a clear deviation from the expected pattern of systematic motions which can be readily identified with the associations Cygnus OB1 and Cygnus OB9, located near the edge of the Cygnus Superbubble. The anomalous motions are directed outwards from the center of the Superbubble, which is coincident with the association Cygnus OB2. This seems to support the hypothesis of a strong stellar and supernova activity in Cygnus OB2 giving rise to the Superbubble and, by means of gravitational instabilities in its boundaries, to Cygnus CB1 and Cygnus OB9. New uvbyβ aperture photometry of selected O and B stars in the area of Cygnus OB1 and Cygnus OB9 is also presented and analyzed in this paper.

  13. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION AND IMPLIED ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2013-05-10

    We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study the detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological

  14. The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through time on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of absolute tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of absolute plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep time (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate absolute plate motions through time. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global absolute reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized absolute motion paths through deep time.

  15. RELATIVE PROPER MOTIONS IN THE RHO OPHIUCHI CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Sullivan, Timothy; Vrba, Frederick J. E-mail: tsullivan@umsl.edu

    2015-12-10

    Near-infrared images optimized for astrometry have been obtained for four fields in the high-density L 1688 cloud core over a 12 year period. The targeted regions include deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and very low luminosity objects too faint and/or heavily veiled for spectroscopy. Relative proper motions in R.A. and decl. were computed for 111 sources and again for a subset of 65 YSOs, resulting in a mean proper motion of (0,0) for each field. Assuming each field has the same mean proper motion, YSOs in the four fields were combined to yield estimates of the velocity dispersions in R.A. and decl. that are consistent with 1.0 km s{sup −1}. These values appear to be independent of the evolutionary state of the YSOs. The observed velocity dispersions are consistent with the dispersion in radial velocity derived for optically visible YSOs at the periphery of the cloud core and are consistent with virial equilibrium. The higher velocity dispersion of the YSOs in the plane of the sky relative to that of dense cores may be a consequence of stellar encounters due to dense cores and filaments fragmenting to form small groups of stars or the global collapse of the L 1688 cloud core. An analysis of the differential magnitudes of objects over the 12 year baseline has not only confirmed the near-infrared variability for 29 YSOs established by prior studies, but has also identified 18 new variability candidates. Four of these have not been previously identified as YSOs and may be newly identified cluster members.

  16. Spectrophotometric characterization of high proper motion sources from WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamín, J. C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Smart, R. L.; Mužić, K.; Mendez, R. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Bayo, A.; Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.

    2015-12-01

    The census of the solar neighbourhood is almost complete for stars and becoming more complete in the brown dwarf regime. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of nearby objects helps us to understand the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new targets for sensitive planet searches. We aim to derive spectral types and spectrophotometric distances of a sample of new high proper motion sources found with the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) satellite, and obtain parallaxes for those objects that fall within the area observed by the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea survey (VVV). We used low-resolution spectroscopy and template fitting to derive spectral types, multiwavelength photometry to characterize the companion candidates and obtain photometric distances. Multi-epoch imaging from the VVV survey was used to measure the parallaxes and proper motions for three sources. We confirm a new T2 brown dwarf within ˜15 pc. We derived optical spectral types for 24 sources, mostly M dwarfs within 50 pc. We addressed the wide binary nature of 16 objects found by the WISE mission and previously known high proper motion sources. Six of these are probably members of wide binaries, two of those are new, and present evidence against the physical binary nature of two candidate binary stars found in the literature, and eight that we selected as possible binary systems. We discuss a likely microlensing event produced by a nearby low-mass star and a galaxy, that is to occur in the following five years.

  17. uvby photometry in McCormick proper motion fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Danish 50 cm telescope at the European Southern Observatory was used to obtain high-precision uvby photometry for 50 F2 to G2 stars, with V values in the 9.4-12.3 mag range, which were selected in the southern galactic polar regions of the McCormick proper motion fields and measured on six different nights. The brighter stars are found to systematically exhibit smaller m(1) indices, of about 0.02 mag, upon comparison with the earlier data of Blaauw et al (1976). Single measurements are given for 98 stars in eight McCormick fields at intermediate southern galactic latitudes.

  18. Proper Motions of Massive Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We propose an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We will derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for massive stars which have been ejected from the central very massive cluster R136. These data will be combined with radial velocities from the VLT-FLAMES Survey of the Tarantula Nebula and with atmospheric analyses and stellar evolution models to constrain their origins. We will also search for very young isolated massive stars to test models of single-star formation. This work is highly relevant to star formation, cluster dynamics, the origin of field WR stars and GRBs, the creation of very massive stars by runaway mergers, and the possible formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  19. Forward Shock Proper Motions of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuda, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Uchida, H.; Kimura, M.

    2008-12-01

    The X-ray structure of Kepler's supernova remnant shows a rounded shape delineated by forward shocks. We measure proper motions of the forward shocks on overall rims of the remnant, by using archival Chandra data taken in two epochs with time difference of 6.09 yr. The proper motions of the forward shocks on the northern rim are measured to be 0.076'' (±0.032'' ±0.016'') to 0.11'' (±0.014'' ±0.016'') yr-1, while those on the rest of the rims are measured to be 0.15'' (±0.017'' ±0.016'') to 0.30'' (±0.048'' ±0.016'') yr-1 here the first-term errors are statistical uncertainties and the second-term errors are systematic uncertainties. Combining the best-estimated shock velocity of 1660 +/- 120 km s-1 measured for Balmer-dominated filaments in the northern and central portions of the remnant (Sankrit et al. 2005) with the proper motions derived for the forward shocks on the northern rim, we estimate a distance of 3.3+1.6-0.4 kpc to the remnant. We measure the expansion indices, m (defined as R propto tm), to be 0.47-0.82 for most of the rims. These values are consistent with those expected in Type Ia SN explosion models, in which the ejecta and the circumstellar medium have power-law density profiles whose indices are 5-7 and 0-2, respectively. In addition, we should note the slower expansion on the northern rim than that on the southern rim. This is likely caused by the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium; the density of the circumstellar medium is higher in the north than that in the south of the remnant. The newly estimated geometric center, around which we believe the explosion point exists, is located at ~5'' offset to the north of the radio center.

  20. Microlens Masses from 1-D Parallaxes and Heliocentric Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) microlens parallaxes can be combined with heliocentric lens-source relative proper motion measurements to derive the lens mass and distance, as suggested by Ghosh et al. (2004). Here I present the first mathematical anlysis of this procedure, which I show can be represented as a quadratic equation. Hence, it is formally subject to a two-fold degeneracy. I show that this degeneracy can be broken in many cases using the relatively crude 2-D parallax information that is often available for microlensing events. I also develop an explicit formula for the region of parameter space where it is more difficult to break this degeneracy. Although no mass/distance measurements have yet been made using this technique, it is likely to become quite common over the next decade.

  1. Proper-Motion Based Kinematics Study of Galactic RR Lyraes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, Andrei K.; Berdnikov, Leonid N.; Rastorguev, Alexei S.; Zabolotskikh, Marina V.

    2016-08-01

    We use the UCAC4 and SDSS proper motions of about 7500 RR Lyrae type variables located within ~10 kpc from the Sun to study the dependence of their velocity ellipsoid on Galactocentric distance in the R G = 3-17 kpc interval. The radial velocity dispersion, σ VR , decreases from ~190 km/s at R G = 3.5-5.5 kpc down to ~100 km/s at R G = 13-15 kpc, and the σ VT /σ VR ratio remains virtually constant (σ VT /σ VR ~0.54-0.64) in the Galactocentric distance interval from R G = 4.5 kpc to R G = 10.5 kpc increasing to ~0.9 both toward the Galactic center and beyond R G = 11 kpc.

  2. Search for high-proper motion objects with infrared excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of interstellar migration has been theorized during the past thirty years in the form of 'Dysonships' that, using non-relativistic propulsion systems, are able to colonize the Galaxy in a relatively short time compared to the age of the Galaxy and consequently penetrate inside our solar system too. Observational evidence of this can be potentially obtained using the present state of the art of telescopes and related sensors, by following aimed searches and an expanded SETI protocol. Some transient and unrepeated radio signals recorded during standard SETI observations might be due to the transit of high-proper motion artificial sources of extraterrestrial origin, which are expected to show a very weak optical emission, a strong infrared excess and occasional high-energy bursts in the X and Gamma-ray wavelength ranges. Such artificial sources might show an interest to Earth by sending probes to visit it: such a possibility can be investigated scientifically as well.

  3. Halley's Discovery of Stellar Proper Motion: The Aldebaran Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Halley (1717) compared contemporary positions of Arcturus, Sirius, and Aldebaran with the ancient positions recorded in the Almagest (Book VII 3) and attributed to Timocharis, Hipparcus, and Ptolemy. He found that these stars had apparently moved southward by more than 30 arc minutes and concluded that these stars had their own particular motions. Modern proper motion measurements are consistent with this conclusion for Arcturus and Sirius, but are not even close for Aldebaran. While some authors (Fomenko et al. 1993; Evans 1998) are aware of the problem, it generally is not mentioned in books on the history of astronomy (e.g., Clerke 1908; Pannekoek 1961; Neugebauer 1975) or in the major biographies of Halley (Armitage 1966; Ronan 1969; Lancaster-Brown 1985; Cook 1998). None of the possibilities for resolving this problem_errors in the ancient and/or the 17th-18th century positions; errors in Halley's calculations; or misidentification of the star--- seem plausible and final resolution may require locating the original calculations in Halley's papers.

  4. The Proper Motion of Palomar 5 and its Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupper, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    The outer-halo Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5) shows prominent tidal tails (TT) extending over tens of degrees. Published ground-based proper motion (PM) measurements of Pal 5 are inconsistent with each other, and also with predictions from our numerical modeling (PM greater than 2 mas/yr in each component). Accurate PM would allow a detailed reconstruction of Pal 5's dissolution history and provide independent constraints on the shape of the Galactic potential. We propose to measure the PM of the Pal 5 cluster and a field 5 deg (2 kpc) along its TT with an accuracy of < 0.4 mas/yr via multi-epoch WFC3 and ACS observations in Cycles 20 and 22. We have identified a large number of QSOs and galaxies in these fields, which will allow us to achieve this accuracy on a three-year baseline. Combined with the large amount of available radial velocity data and detailed numerical modeling, the proposed observations will constrain the orbit of Pal 5 to greater accuracy than any other outer-halo satellite (< 30 km/s). Hence, it will enable us to tightly constrain the Galactic circular velocity and the flattening of the Galactic potential to less than 10% uncertainty. We will further use the PM-cleaned sample of stars in Pal 5 and its TT to unambiguously probe for variations of the present-day stellar mass function down to 0.2 Msun, enabling a direct estimate of Pal 5's mass loss rate. Together with the orbital information this will provide unique insights to the complex interplay of two-body relaxation and tidal shocking, which will have direct consequence for our understanding of the build-up of galaxy field populations and the evolution of cluster mass functions.

  5. The Proper Motion of Palomar 5 and its Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupper, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    The outer-halo Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 5 {Pal 5} shows prominent tidal tails {TT} extending over tens of degrees. Published ground-based proper motion {PM} measurements of Pal 5 are inconsistent with each other, and also with predictions from our numerical modeling {PM greater than 2 mas/yr in each component}. Accurate PM would allow a detailed reconstruction of Pal 5's dissolution history and provide independent constraints on the shape of the Galactic potential. We propose to measure the PM of the Pal 5 cluster and a field 5 deg {2 kpc} along its TT with an accuracy of < 0.4 mas/yr via multi-epoch WFC3 and ACS observations in Cycles 20 and 22. We have identified a large number of QSOs and galaxies in these fields, which will allow us to achieve this accuracy on a three-year baseline. Combined with the large amount of available radial velocity data and detailed numerical modeling, the proposed observations will constrain the orbit of Pal 5 to greater accuracy than any other outer-halo satellite {< 30 km/s}. Hence, it will enable us to tightly constrain the Galactic circular velocity and the flattening of the Galactic potential to less than 10% uncertainty. We will further use the PM-cleaned sample of stars in Pal 5 and its TT to unambiguously probe for variations of the present-day stellar mass function down to 0.2 Msun, enabling a direct estimate of Pal 5's mass loss rate. Together with the orbital information this will provide unique insights to the complex interplay of two-body relaxation and tidal shocking, which will have direct consequence for our understanding of the build-up of galaxy field populations and the evolution of cluster mass functions.

  6. Precession Constant Correction and Proper Motion Systems of FK5 and Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zi

    2007-07-01

    Results of many researches have shown that the relation between the proper motion systems of FK5 and Hipparcos is not consistent with the precession constant corrections determined by VLBI and LLR. We analysed proper motion data of PPM and ACRS based on the FK5 system for many different sub-samples and found that consistent values of the precession correction and equinox motion correction can not be given by either PPM or ACRS proper motion data, thereby indicating that the internal systematic error of the FK5 proper motion is the main underlying factor of the inconsistency.

  7. Precessional correction and the proper-motion systems of FK5 and Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.

    2006-10-01

    Comparing proper motions of the FK5 and Hipparcos, several authors declared that the two proper-motion systems are inconsistent with the value of the precessional correction obtained from VLBI and LLR observations. Based on the proper-motion data from the PPM and ACRS catalogues which are constructed on the FK5 system, the discrepant values of the precessional correction and of the correction of the equinoctial motion, derived from the different subsets of stellar samples, have be found. One of the reasons for those discrepancies should be mostly due to the internal biased proper-motion system of the FK5.

  8. PROPER MOTIONS IN KAPTEYN SELECTED AREA 103: A PRELIMINARY ORBIT FOR THE VIRGO STELLAR STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Majewski, Steven R.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Wilhelm, Ronald; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-08-10

    We present absolute proper motions in Kapteyn Selected Area (SA) 103. This field is located 7 deg. west of the center of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), and has a well-defined main sequence representing the stream. In SA 103, we identify one RR Lyrae star as a member of the VSS, according to its metallicity, radial velocity, and distance. VSS candidate turnoff and subgiant stars have proper motions consistent with that of the RR Lyrae star. The three-dimensional velocity data imply an orbit with a pericenter of {approx}11 kpc and an apocenter of {approx}90 kpc. Thus, the VSS comprises tidal debris found near the pericenter of a highly destructive orbit. Examining the six globular clusters at distances larger than 50 kpc from the Galactic center, and the proposed orbit of the VSS, we find one tentative association, NGC 2419. We speculate that NGC 2419 is possibly the nucleus of a disrupted system of which the VSS is a part.

  9. The understanding of the FK5 and Hipparcos proper-motion systems†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Comparing proper motions of the FK5 and Hipparcos, several authors declared that the two proper-motion systems are inconsistent with the value of the precession correction obtained from VLBI and LLR observations. Based on the proper-motion data from the PPM and ACRS catalogues which are constructed on the FK5 system, the inconsistent values of the precessional correction and of the time-dependent term of equinox correction, derived from the different subsets of stellar samples, have been found. One of the reasons for those discrepancies should be mostly due to the internally biased proper-motion system of the FK5.

  10. Local systematic differences in proper motions derived from 2MASS positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    We want to draw attention to local systematic differences that appear in the proper motions derived from 2MASS positions when they are compared with other astrometric catalogs such as UCAC4, SPM4 and USNO-B1. It is shown that 2MASS effectively causes these systematic effects in the proper motions of PPMXL and URAT1. Also it is shown that using 2MASS positions rectified with respect to UCAC4 the systematic pattern of the proper motions of URAT1 is eliminated. Therefore, we propose the use of rectified 2MASS positions in order to derive proper motions free from 2MASS systematics.

  11. The far distance to G7.47+0.06 from proper motion measurement of H2O masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Aya; Yamashita, Kazuyoshi; Honma, Mareki; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Ueno, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    We report on a distance measurement of 22 GHz H2O maser features associated with an ultra-compact H II region G7.47+0.06 using VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). Since the source is located farther away than 10 kpc, it turned out to be difficult to derive the distance from annual parallax measurement. Meanwhile, we clearly detected the source's proper motion parallel to the Galactic plane. The proper motion is μ = -5.03 ± 0.07 mas yr-1 and is approaching the Galactic center. We applied a new method to determine the source distance based on absolute proper motions. Considering uncertainties of the Galactic rotation curve and the solar peculiar motion, the detected proper motion leads to a source distance of D = 20 ± 2 kpc, demonstrating that astrometric observation can provide an accurate distance measurement at a 10% level even for sources too distant to measure the annual parallax. Lastly, we scale the physical parameters of the H II region estimated in a previous paper to be 20 kpc, and show that the H2O maser features are associated with a massive star-forming region corresponding to the spectral type of O5.5.

  12. The VMC survey. XVII. Proper motions of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Bekki, Kenji; Girardi, Léo; de Grijs, Richard; Irwin, Mike J.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Marconi, Marcella; Oliveira, Joana M.; Piatti, Andrés E.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: In this study we use multi-epoch near-infrared observations from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Cloud system (VMC) to measure the proper motions of different stellar populations in a tile of 1.5 deg2 in size in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc. We obtain the proper motion of the cluster itself, of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and of the field Milky Way stars. Methods: Stars of the three main stellar components are selected according to their spatial distributions and their distributions in colour-magnitude diagrams. Their average coordinate displacement is computed from the difference between multiple Ks-band observations for stars as faint as Ks = 19 mag. Proper motions are derived from the slope of the best-fitting line among ten VMC epochs over a time baseline of ~1 yr. Background galaxies are used to calibrate the absolute astrometric reference frame. Results: The resulting absolute proper motion of 47 Tuc is (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+7.26 ± 0.03, -1.25 ± 0.03) mas yr-1. This measurement refers to about 35 000 sources distributed between 10' and 60' from the cluster centre. For the SMC we obtain (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+1.16 ± 0.07, -0.81 ± 0.07) mas yr-1 from about 5250 red clump and red giant branch stars. The absolute proper motion of the Milky Way population in the line of sight (l = 305.9, b = -44.9) of this VISTA tile is (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (+10.22 ± 0.14, -1.27 ± 0.12) mas yr-1 and has been calculated from about 4000 sources. Systematic uncertainties associated with the astrometric reference system are 0.18 mas yr-1. Thanks to the proper motion we detect 47 Tuc stars beyond its tidal radius. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  13. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  14. Proper-motion binaries in the Hipparcos catalogue. Comparison with radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, A.; Jancart, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2007-03-01

    Context: This paper is the last in a series devoted to the analysis of the binary content of the Hipparcos Catalogue. Aims: The comparison of the proper motions constructed from positions spanning a short (Hipparcos) or long time (Tycho-2) makes it possible to uncover binaries with periods of the order of or somewhat larger than the short time span (in this case, the 3 yr duration of the Hipparcos mission), since the unrecognised orbital motion will then add to the proper motion. Methods: A list of candidate proper motion binaries is constructed from a carefully designed χ2 test evaluating the statistical significance of the difference between the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos proper motions for 103 134 stars in common between the two catalogues (excluding components of visual systems). Since similar lists of proper-motion binaries have already been constructed, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of the detection efficiency of proper-motion binaries, using different kinds of control data (mostly radial velocities). The detection rate for entries from the Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (S_B^9) is evaluated, as well as for stars like barium stars, which are known to be all binaries, and finally for spectroscopic binaries identified from radial velocity data in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of F and G dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Results: Proper motion binaries are efficiently detected for systems with parallaxes in excess of ~20 mas, and periods in the range 1000-30 000 d. The shortest periods in this range (1000-2000 d, i.e., once to twice the duration of the Hipparcos mission) may appear only as DMSA/G binaries (accelerated proper motion in the Hipparcos Double and Multiple System Annex). Proper motion binaries detected among S_B9 systems having periods shorter than about 400 d hint at triple systems, the proper-motion binary involving a component with a longer orbital period. A list of 19 candidate triple systems is provided. Binaries

  15. PARALLAXES AND PROPER MOTIONS OF ULTRACOOL BROWN DWARFS OF SPECTRAL TYPES Y AND LATE T

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Kenneth A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Edward L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2013-01-10

    We present astrometric measurements of 11 nearby ultracool brown dwarfs of spectral types Y and late-T, based on imaging observations from a variety of space-based and ground-based telescopes. These measurements have been used to estimate relative parallaxes and proper motions via maximum likelihood fitting of geometric model curves. To compensate for the modest statistical significance ({approx}< 7) of our parallax measurements we have employed a novel Bayesian procedure for distance estimation which makes use of an a priori distribution of tangential velocities, V {sub tan}, assumed similar to that implied by previous observations of T dwarfs. Our estimated distances are therefore somewhat dependent on that assumption. Nevertheless, the results have yielded distances for five of our eight Y dwarfs and all three T dwarfs. Estimated distances in all cases are {approx}> 3 pc. In addition, we have obtained significant estimates of V {sub tan} for two of the Y dwarfs; both are <100 km s{sup -1}, consistent with membership in the thin disk population. Comparison of absolute magnitudes with model predictions as a function of color shows that the Y dwarfs are significantly redder in J - H than predicted by a cloud-free model.

  16. Calibrating the Relative Metallicity Scale of M Subdwarfs Using Wide, Common Proper Motion Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Saurav; Lepine, Sebastien; West, Andrew A.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2011-08-01

    Metallicity is an important parameter that determines all aspects of stellar evolution and observable properties but is very hard to measure for M dwarfs. M dwarf binaries provide coeval laboratories for studying the properties of the most numerous stellar constituents of the Milky Way; using their common metallicity, we can empirically determine how various molecular indices change with effective temperature. However, despite their ubiquity, M dwarfs are intrinsically faint; previous studies of resolved M dwarf binaries have been limited to small samples, which consist largely of disk dwarfs and are notoriously deficient in metal-poor systems. We propose to observe a sample of ~51 subdwarf (i.e. metal-poor dwarf) binaries to determine how the relative bandstrengths of CaH and TiO vary with metallicity and temperature in low-mass stars. By combining our proposed subdwarf binary sample with previously observed low-mass pairs, we will refine the CaH/TiO-based relative metallicity and probe a large range of metallicity and effective temperature. In addition, we will be able to confirm the binarity of these common proper motion halo pairs and study dynamical evolution/destruction of wide halo binaries. In combination with ongoing companion studies, this will pave the way towards a absolute metallicity scale for M dwarfs and a comprehensive study of chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy.

  17. AN ASYMMETRIC STREAMING MOTION IN THE GALACTIC BULGE X-SHAPED STRUCTURE REVEALED BY OGLE-III PROPER MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poleski, Radosław; Gould, Andrew; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2013-10-20

    The Galactic bulge shows a double red clump in sightlines at |b| ∼> 5° and –3° ∼< l ∼< 4°. This dump is interpreted as the signature of an X-shaped structure seen almost edge-on. We measure the proper motions of the stars belonging to the closer and the further arms of the X-shaped structure. The intrinsic kinematic properties of the two arms are found by incorporating information taken from the luminosity function. At b = –5°, we find that the proper motion difference between the two arms is a linear function of Galactic longitude for –0.°1 < l < 0.°5, which we interpret as a streaming motion of the stars within the X-shaped structure. A streaming motion was previously reported based on radial velocity data, not the proper motions. The proper motion difference in longitude is constant for –0.°8 < l < –0.°1, which provides an estimate of the bulge rotational speed of 87.9 ± 8.2 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}.

  18. PROPER MOTION OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF GALAXY BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Carlton; Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W. E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu

    2010-03-15

    We have derived a proper motion of Sagittarius using archival data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data consist of imaging at three epochs with a time baseline of about four years in three distinct fields. The zero point for the proper motion is based on the foreground Galactic stellar populations along the line of sight. The measured proper motion in the Galactic coordinate system is ({mu}{sub l}, {mu} {sub b}) = (-2.615 {+-} 0.22, 1.87 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and in the equatorial coordinate system is ({mu}{sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (-2.75 {+-} 0.20, - 1.65 {+-} 0.22) mas yr{sup -1}. Removing the contribution of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion produces a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub l}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub b}) = (-0.82 {+-} 0.22, 1.98 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub {delta}}) = (-2.14 {+-} 0.20, 0.03 {+-} 0.20) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is ({pi}, {theta}, Z) = (141.9 {+-} 6.9, 117 {+-} 29, 238 {+-} 27) km s{sup -1}. This velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 67 deg., with a 95% confidence interval of (58 deg., 79 deg.). We also present photometry and membership probabilities for the stars in our sample, which can be used to generate color-magnitude diagrams for stellar populations selected by proper motion.

  19. Proper motions of 15 pulsars: a comparison between Bayesian and frequentist algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, J. B.; Hobbs, G.; Lentati, L.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-08-01

    We present proper motions for 15 pulsars which are observed regularly by the Nanshan 25-m radio telescope. Two methods, the frequentist method and the Bayesian method, are used and the results are compared. We demonstrate that the two methods can be applied to young pulsar data sets that exhibit large amounts of timing noise with steep spectral exponents and give consistent results. The measured positions also agree with very long baseline interferometric positions. Proper motions for four pulsars are obtained for the first time, and improved values are obtained for five pulsars.

  20. Improved proper motion determinations for 15 open clusters based on the UCAC4 catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtenkov, Alexander; Dimitrova, Nadezhda; Atanasov, Alexander; Aleksiev, Teodor D.

    2016-07-01

    The proper motions of 15 nearby (d > 1 kpc) open clusters (OCs) were recalculated using data from the UCAC4 catalog. Only evolved or main sequence stars inside a certain radius from the center of the cluster were used. The results significantly differ from the ones presented by Dias et al. (2014). This could be explained by a different approach in which we take the field star contamination into account. The present work aims to emphasize the importance of applying photometric criteria for the calculation of OC proper motions.

  1. On the separations of common proper motion binaries containing white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected, on the basis of proper motion and estimated colors, that over 500 known common proper motion binaries (CPMBs) contain at least one white dwarf (WD) component, usually paired with a late type main sequence (MS) star. This paper examines 210 probable MS + MS and 26 probable WD + MS pairs from the LDS catalog to determine whether significant orbital expansion occurred as a consequence of the post-MS mass loss expected to accompany the formation of WDs in the CPMBs. It was found that, in the WD + MS pairs, the physical separation is nearly twice that in the MS + MS pairs.

  2. A Very High Proper Motion Star and the First L Dwarf in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John E.; Troup, Nicholas W.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2011-08-01

    We report two nearby high proper motion dwarfs of special interest identified using the Preliminary Data Release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISEP J191239.91-361516.4 has a motion of 2.1 arcsec yr-1. Photometry identifies it as a mid-M dwarf. WISEP J190648.47+401106.8 is a spectroscopically confirmed L1 dwarf in the Kepler Mission field with a motion of 0.48 arcsec yr-1. The estimated distance is 17 pc. Both lie at relatively low galactic latitudes and demonstrate the possibility of discovering proper motion stars independent of the historic photographic sky surveys.

  3. Proper motions of young stars in Chamaeleon. I. A Virtual Observatory study of spectroscopically confirmed members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Martí, B.; Jimenez Esteban, F.; Bayo, A.; Barrado, D.; Solano, E.; Rodrigo, C.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The study of the motion of the members of a given open cluster or stellar association provides key information about their formation and early evolution. The Chamaeleon cloud complex constitutes one of the closest and best studied low-mass star-forming regions in the Galaxy. Aims: We want to provide further evidence of the origin of the proposed stellar members of Chamaeleon and to identify interlopers from the foreground ɛ Cha and η Cha associations. Methods: We have compiled lists of spectroscopically confirmed members of Chamaeleon I and II, ɛ Cha and η Cha, and of background objects in the same line of sight. Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-match these lists with the UCAC3 catalogue to get the proper motions of the objects. In the vector point diagram, we identify the different moving groups, and use this information to study the membership of proposed candidate members of the associations from the literature. For those objects with available radial velocities, we compute their Galactic space velocities. We look for correlations between the known properties of the objects and their proper motions. Results: The members of the dark clouds exhibit clearly different proper motions from those of the foreground associations and of the background stars. The data suggest that Chamaeleon II could have different dynamical properties from Chamaeleon I. Although the two foreground clusters ɛ and η Chamaeleontis constitute two different proper motion groups, they have similar spatial motions, which are different from the spatial motion of Chamaeleon I. On the other hand, the space motions of the Chamaeleon II stars look more similar to those of the foreground clusters than to the Chamaeleon I stars, but the numbers are low. We find no correlations between the proper motions and the properties of the objects in either of the clouds. Conclusions: On the basis of proper motion, Chamaeleon I and II constitute two physical entities unrelated to the

  4. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  5. Plans for the Second Epoch of the Southern Proper-Motion Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. E.; Lee, J. F.; van Altena, W.

    The first photographs for the Yale-San Juan Southern Proper Motion program with respect to faint galaxies were taken with the collaboration of Columbia University in 1965. The first epoch photography was essentially completed in 1974 and plans are now under way to begin the second epoch observations in 1986.

  6. The Proper Motion of M31 Vast Plane Galaxy LGS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, Edward

    2014-10-01

    We propose to measure the proper motion of Local Group dwarf galaxy LGS-3 with a 10 year baseline provided by existing first epoch ACS imaging. An HST-determined proper motion can both constrain the mass of M31 to 20% and test whether LGS-3 is indeed a part of the recently discovered thin plane of M31 dwarf galaxies (Ibata et al., 2013). If it is, we will trace its orbit backwards in time to understand the origin of this plane; how it formed, how it persists, and why all of the blueshifted members are on one side of M31 and the redshifted members are on the other side.The long HST baseline and the fact that the field is extra rich in background galaxies that can define an excellent reference frame will allow a second epoch of deep images in the ACS to reach a proper motion error of about 7 - 8 microas/yr in each angular component. At the distance of LGS-3, Gaia is unlikely to detect any stars, making this a measurement that can only be made by HST.There are two important reasons to learn the 3-d velocity of this particular galaxy. The distance of LGS-3 from M31 is known to 2% accuracy, and modeling indicates that LGS 3 is falling nearly radially toward M31 with proper motion amplitude of ~60 microas/yr (Shaya & Tully, 2014). Therefore, a proper motion that refines this value can constrain the mass of M31 to 20% and through the Local Group timing argument, will also constrain the mass of the MW to 30%. LGS 3 happens to be in a recently discovered thin plane of dwarf galaxies. It is important to get the 3-d velocity of at least one of these to discriminate between different theories about the origin of such planes of galaxies or else to point to new possibilities.

  7. A Proper Motion Survey Using the First Sky Pass of NEOWISE-reactivation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Greco, Jennifer; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mainzer, Amy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio B.; Bauer, James

    2016-02-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) was reactivated in 2013 December (NEOWISE) to search for potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. We have conducted a survey using the first sky pass of NEOWISE data and the AllWISE catalog to identify nearby stars and brown dwarfs with large proper motions ({μ }{{total}} ≳ 250 mas yr-1). A total of 20,548 high proper motion objects were identified, 1006 of which are new discoveries. This survey has uncovered a significantly larger sample of fainter objects (W2 ≳ 13 mag) than the previous WISE motion surveys of Luhman and Kirkpatrick et al. Many of these objects are predicted to be new L and T dwarfs based on near- and mid-infrared colors. Using estimated spectral types along with distance estimates, we have identified several objects that likely belong to the nearby solar neighborhood (d < 25 pc). We have followed up 19 of these new discoveries with near-infrared or optical spectroscopy, focusing on potentially nearby objects, objects with the latest predicted spectral types, and potential late-type subdwarfs. This subset includes six M dwarfs, five of which are likely subdwarfs, as well as eight L dwarfs and five T dwarfs, many of which have blue near-infrared colors. As an additional supplement, we provide 2MASS and AllWISE positions and photometry for every object found in our search, as well as 2MASS/AllWISE calculated proper motions.

  8. Proper Motion of the Remarkable Irradiated Jet HH399 in the Trifid Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2007-07-01

    The Trifid nebula has recently been of much interest because of its identification with a large number of massive protostars, as well as young stellar objects. HH 399 is one of the most spectacular Herbig-Haro flows recognized to be irradiated by the UV flux of the massive O7.5 star in the Trifid nebula. The irradiated jet, which is propagating in a fully ionized medium, contains numerous knots along the jet and also shows evidence for a number of isolated knots running immediately outside the jet. Two different HST observations of the nebula, with different scientific goals, were carried out in 1997 and 2002, having sensitivities that differed by a factor of 10. We performed preliminary proper motion measurements of the jet based on these observations and discovered a continuous velocity structure of the bright knots of about 230 km/sec. Here we propose four WFPC2 orbits to reobserve HH 399 in order to carry out accurate proper motion measurements over the full extent of the jet, based on observations spanning more than 10 years and having equally deep sensitivity. The proposed observations are not simply a repeat of previous measurements, as this will be the first highly accurate proper motion measurement of an irradiated jet based on two identical epochs of WFPC2 observations. The observations will improve the accuracy of proper motion measurements for HH 399 by more than a factor of five and will address important questions beyond our preliminary result. Currently measured velocity differences between the jet features are barely significant. The factor of 5 increase in accuracy will establish the evidence for deceleration along the jet and the lateral motion of the jet. In addition, these measurements will address the kinematics of individual entrained and isolated blobs of the jet as it propagates into an HII region associated with the nebula. This is the last opportunity to perform this experiment before WFPC2 is removed from HST.

  9. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. NGC 6366 is a metal-rich globular cluster that is relatively unstudied. It is a kinematically interesting cluster, reported as belonging to the slowly rotating halo system, which is unusual given its metallicity and spatial location in the Galaxy. Aims: The purpose of this research is to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6366 is needed. Methods: To derive relative proper motions, the archival data from the Wide Field Imager mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope have been reduced using a high precision astrometric software. The images used are in the B,V, and I photometric bands with an epoch gap of ~3.2 yr. The calibrated BVI magnitudes have been determined using recent data for secondary standard stars. Results: We determined relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities for 2530 stars in the field of globular cluster NGC 6366. The median proper motion rms errors for stars brighter than V ~ 18 mag is ~2 mas yr-1, which gradually increases to ~5 mas yr-1 for stars having magnitudes V ~ 20 mag. Based on the membership catalogue, we checked the membership status of the X-ray sources and variable stars of NGC 6366 mentioned in the literature. We also provide the astronomical community with an electronic catalogue that includes B, V, and I magnitudes; relative proper motions; and membership probabilities of the stars in the region of NGC 6366. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 71.D-0220(A) and the archive material.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A59

  10. A FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE LEO II DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Kuijken, Konrad

    2011-11-10

    We use 14 year baseline images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to derive a proper motion for one of the Milky Way's most distant dwarf spheroidal companions, Leo II, relative to an extragalactic background reference frame. Astrometric measurements are performed in the effective point-spread function formalism using our own developed code. An astrometric reference grid is defined using 3224 stars that are members of Leo II and brighter than a magnitude of 25 in the F814W band. We identify 17 compact extragalactic sources, for which we measure a systemic proper motion relative to this stellar reference grid. We derive a proper motion [{mu}{sub {alpha},{mu}{delta}}] = [+104 {+-}113,-33 {+-} 151] {mu}as yr{sup -1} for Leo II in the heliocentric reference frame. Though marginally detected, the proper motion yields constraints on the orbit of Leo II. Given a distance of d {approx_equal} 230 kpc and a heliocentric radial velocity v{sub r} = +79 km s{sup -1}, and after subtraction of the solar motion, our measurement indicates a total orbital motion v{sub G} = 266.1 {+-} 128.7 km s{sup -1} in the Galactocentric reference frame, with a radial component v{sub r{sub G}}=21.5{+-}4.3 km s{sup -1} and tangential component v{sub t{sub G}} = 265.2 {+-} 129.4 km s{sup -1}. The small radial component indicates that Leo II either has a low-eccentricity orbit or is currently close to perigalacticon or apogalacticon distance. We see evidence for systematic errors in the astrometry of the extragalactic sources which, while close to being point sources, are slightly resolved in the HST images. We argue that more extensive observations at later epochs will be necessary to better constrain the proper motion of Leo II. We provide a detailed catalog of the stellar and extragalactic sources identified in the HST data which should provide a solid early-epoch reference for future astrometric measurements.

  11. Optical BVRI photometry of common proper motion F/G/K+M wide separation binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V – R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V – I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  12. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs. PMID:10702128

  13. Optical BVRI Photometry of Common Proper Motion F/G/K+M Wide Separation Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Lépine, Sébastien; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V - R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V - I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  14. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs.

  15. Four years experience in APMS star plate processing - Results and future plans. [Automated Proper Motion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper describes an automated system for measuring stellar proper motions on the basis of information contained in photographic plates. In this system, the images on a star plate are digitized by a scanning microdensitometer using light from a He-Ne gas laser, and a special-purpose computer arranges the measurements in computer-compatible form on magnetic tape. The scanning and image-reconstruction processes are briefly outlined, and the image-evaluation techniques are discussed. It is shown that the present system has been especially successful in measuring the proper motions of low-luminosity stars, including 119 stars with less than 1/10,000 of the solar bolometric luminosity. Plans for measurements of high-density Milky Way star plates are noted.

  16. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Carlton; Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W. E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.

  17. Astrometry with MCAO: HST-GeMS proper motions in the globular cluster NGC 6681

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bellini, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Turri, P.; Andersen, D.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Veran, J.-P.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: For the first time the astrometric capabilities of the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) facility at the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) camera on Gemini-South are tested to quantify the accuracy in determining stellar proper motions in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681. Methods: Proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of its stars are already available, allowing us to construct a distortion-free reference at the epoch of GeMS observations that is used to measure and correct the temporally changing distortions for each GeMS exposure. In this way, we are able to compare the corrected GeMS images with a first-epoch of HST-Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS) images to recover the relative proper motion of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy with respect to NGC 6681. Results: We find this to be (μαcosδ,μδ) = (4.09,-3.41)mas yr-1, which matches previous HST/ACS measurements with a very good accuracy of 0.03 mas yr-1 and with a comparable precision (rms of 0.43 mas yr-1). Conclusions: This study successfully demonstrates that high-quality proper motions can be measured for relatively large fields of view (85''× 85'') with MCAO-assisted, ground-based cameras and provides a first, successful test of the performances of GeMS on multi-epoch data. The final reduced data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/L2

  18. X-ray Proper Motions and Shock Speeds along the Northwest Rim of SN1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray proper motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 and 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with signi cant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated lament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is approximately equal to 0.30"yr(exp -1), essentially the same as has been measured from the H alpha lament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0:49"yr(exp -1), close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of approximately 3000 kms(exp -1) and approximately 5000 kms(exp -1) in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H alpha filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally-dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an o set in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission|due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  19. VVV High proper motion stars I. The catalogue of bright KS ≤ 13.5 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, R.; Gromadzki, M.; Beamín, J. C.; Folkes, S. L.; Pena Ramirez, K.; Ivanov, V. D.; Borissova, J.; Villanueva, V.; Minniti, D.; Mendez, R.; Lucas, P. W.; Smith, L. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Antonova, A.; Yip, A. K. P.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the stellar content near the Sun is important for a broad range of topics ranging from the search for planets to the study of Milky Way structure. The most powerful method for identifying potentially nearby stars is proper motion (PM) surveys. All old optical surveys avoid, or are at least substantially incomplete, near the Galactic plane. The depth and breadth of the "Vista Variables in Vía Láctea" (VVV) near-IR survey significantly improves this situation. Taking advantage of the VVV survey database, we have measured PMs in the densest regions of the MW bulge and southern plane in order to complete the census of nearby objects. We have developed a custom PM pipeline based on VVV catalogues from the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU), by comparing the first epoch of JHKS with the multi-epoch KS-bands acquired later. Taking advantage of the large time baseline between the 2MASS and the VVV observations, we also obtained 2MASS-VVV PMs. We present a near-IR proper motion catalogue for the whole area of the VVV survey, which includes 3003 moving stellar sources. All of these have been visually inspected and are real PM objects. Our catalogue is in very good agreement with the proper motion data supplied in IR catalogues outside the densest zone of the MW. The majority of the PM objects in our catalogue are nearby M-dwarfs, as expected. This new database allow us to identify 57 common proper motion binary candidates, among which are two new systems within 30 pc of the Sun.

  20. X-RAY PROPER MOTIONS AND SHOCK SPEEDS ALONG THE NORTHWEST RIM OF SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Winkler, P. Frank E-mail: long@stsci.edu E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2013-02-15

    We report the results of an X-ray proper-motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 to 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is Almost-Equal-To 0.''30 yr{sup -1}, essentially the same as has been measured from the H{alpha} filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.''49 yr{sup -1}, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of {approx}3000 km s{sup -1} and {approx}5000 km s{sup -1} in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H{alpha} filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an offset in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission-due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  1. WATER MASERS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD PROPER MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    We have detected and confirmed five water maser complexes in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the Green Bank Telescope. These masers will provide the high brightness temperature point sources needed for proper motion studies of M31, enabling measurement of its full three-dimensional velocity vector and its geometric distance via proper rotation. The motion of M31 is the keystone of Local Group dynamics and a gateway to the dark matter profiles of galaxies in general. Our survey for water masers selected 206 luminous compact 24 {mu}m emitting regions in M31 and was sensitive enough to detect any maser useful for {approx}10 {mu}as yr{sup -1} astrometry. The newly discovered masers span the isotropic luminosity range (0.3-1.9) x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun} in single spectral components and are analogous to luminous Galactic masers. The masers are distributed around the molecular ring, including locations close to the major and minor axes, which is nearly ideal for proper motion studies. We find no correlation between 24 {mu}m luminosity and water maser luminosity, suggesting that while water masers arise in star-forming regions, the nonlinear amplification pathways and beamed nature of the water masers means that they are not predictable based on IR luminosity alone. This suggests that there are additional bright masers to be found in M31. We predict that the geometric distance and systemic proper motion of M31 can be measured in 2-3 years with current facilities. A 'moving cluster' observation of diverging masers as M31 approaches the Galaxy may be possible in the long term.

  2. Characterization of High Proper Motion Objects from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ~12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08-623558.7, may belong to the thick disk. Based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini Observatory, the SOAR Telescope, and the Magellan Telescopes.

  3. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  4. Determination of Proper Motions of Circumpolar Stars by Using Images from Ukrvo Plate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsyuk, Yu.; Andruk, V.; Mazhaev, A.; Kovylianska, O.; Protsyuk, S.; Golovnya, V.

    UkrVO plate archives contain informationobtained at different time periods and in different observatories for the same regions of the sky [3, 5, 6, 7, 8]. It allows us to carry out joint processing of plates and to receive new results for interesting objects. To obtain proper motions of stars in circumpolar areas, we selected 34 photographic plates from the RI NAO archive and 161 plates from the archive of the MAO NAS. A mean epoch difference between the plates from these archives is 55 years. Scanning of the plates and data processing were independently carried out by both observatories. A catalog of equatorial positions for 195 thousand stars up to 15m was compiled in the RI NAO (black dots in Fig. 1). A catalog of equatorial positions for 1050 thousand stars up to 16.5m was compiled in MAO (gray dots in Fig. 1). A comparison of positions for common stars contained in these catalogs was conducted. A catalog of proper motions for 30 thousand common stars up to 15m was compiled using these two input catalogs. The obtained result suggests the advisability of processing of all observations to receive proper motions of stars up to 14-15m in the declination zone of 65° to 90°.

  5. ON THE CONNECTION OF THE APPARENT PROPER MOTION AND THE VLBI STRUCTURE OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Moor, A.; Frey, S.; Lambert, S. B.; Bakos, J. E-mail: frey@sgo.fomi.hu E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au

    2011-06-15

    Many of the compact extragalactic radio sources that are used as fiducial points to define the celestial reference frame are known to have proper motions detectable with long-term geodetic/astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. These changes can be as high as several hundred microarcseconds per year for certain objects. When imaged with VLBI at milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution, these sources (radio-loud active galactic nuclei) typically show structures dominated by a compact, often unresolved 'core' and a one-sided 'jet'. The positional instability of compact radio sources is believed to be connected with changes in their brightness distribution structure. For the first time, we test this assumption in a statistical sense on a large sample rather than on only individual objects. We investigate a sample of 62 radio sources for which reliable long-term time series of astrometric positions as well as detailed 8 GHz VLBI brightness distribution models are available. We compare the characteristic direction of their extended jet structure and the direction of their apparent proper motion. We present our data and analysis method, and conclude that there is indeed a correlation between the two characteristic directions. However, there are cases where the {approx}1-10 mas scale VLBI jet directions are significantly misaligned with respect to the apparent proper motion direction.

  6. THE PPMXL CATALOG OF POSITIONS AND PROPER MOTIONS ON THE ICRS. COMBINING USNO-B1.0 AND THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY (2MASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Roeser, S.; Demleitner, M.; Schilbach, E.

    2010-06-15

    USNO-B1.0 and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) are the most widely used all-sky surveys. However, 2MASS has no proper motions at all, and USNO-B1.0 published only relative, not absolute (i.e., on the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRS), proper motions. We performed a new determination of mean positions and proper motions on the ICRS system by combining USNO-B1.0 and 2MASS astrometry. This catalog is called PPMXL (VO access to the catalog is possible via http://vo.uni-hd.de/ppmxl), and it aims to be completed from the brightest stars down to about V {approx} 20 all sky. PPMXL contains about 900 million objects, some 410 million with 2MASS photometry, and is the largest collection of ICRS proper motions at present. As representative for the ICRS, we chose PPMX. The recently released UCAC3 could not be used because we found plate-dependent distortions in its proper motion system north of -20{sup 0} declination. UCAC3 served as an intermediate system for {delta} {<=} -20{sup 0}. The resulting typical individual mean errors of the proper motions range from 4 mas yr{sup -1} to more than 10 mas yr{sup -1} depending on observational history. The mean errors of positions at epoch 2000.0 are 80-120 mas, if 2MASS astrometry could be used, 150-300 mas else. We also give correction tables to convert USNO-B1.0 observations of, e.g., minor planets to the ICRS system.

  7. Radial velocities for the HIPPARCOS-Gaia Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Eilers, A.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion (HTPM) project will determine the proper motions of ~113 500 stars using a ~23-year baseline. The proper motions will be based on space-based measurements exclusively, with the Hipparcos data, with epoch 1991.25, as first epoch and with the first intermediate-release Gaia astrometry, with epoch ~2014.5, as second epoch. The expected HTPM proper-motion standard errors are 30-190 μas yr-1, depending on stellar magnitude. Aims: Depending on the astrometric characteristics of an object, in particular its distance and velocity, its radial velocity can have a significant impact on the determination of its proper motion. The impact of this perspective acceleration is largest for fast-moving, nearby stars. Our goal is to determine, for each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, the radial-velocity standard error that is required to guarantee a negligible contribution of perspective acceleration to the HTPM proper-motion precision. Methods: We employ two evaluation criteria, both based on Monte-Carlo simulations, with which we determine which stars need to be spectroscopically (re-)measured. Both criteria take the Hipparcos measurement errors into account. The first criterion, the Gaussian criterion, is applicable to nearby stars. For distant stars, this criterion works but returns overly pessimistic results. We therefore use a second criterion, the robust criterion, which is equivalent to the Gaussian criterion for nearby stars but avoids biases for distant stars and/or objects without literature radial velocity. The robust criterion is hence our prefered choice for all stars, regardless of distance. Results: For each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, we determine the confidence level with which the available radial velocity and its standard error, taken from the XHIP compilation catalogue, are acceptable. We find that for 97 stars, the radial velocities available in the literature are insufficiently precise for a 68.27% confidence

  8. Is an absolute level of cortical beta suppression required for proper movement? Magnetoencephalographic evidence from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has connected a specific pattern of beta oscillatory activity to proper motor execution, but no study to date has directly examined how resting beta levels affect motor-related beta oscillatory activity in the motor cortex. Understanding this relationship is imperative to determining the basic mechanisms of motor control, as well as the impact of pathological beta oscillations on movement execution. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a complex movement paradigm to quantify resting beta activity and movement-related beta oscillations in the context of healthy aging. We chose healthy aging as a model because preliminary evidence suggests that beta activity is elevated in older adults, and thus by examining older and younger adults we were able to naturally vary resting beta levels. To this end, healthy younger and older participants were recorded during motor performance and at rest. Using beamforming, we imaged the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and extracted virtual sensors from the peak voxels, which enabled absolute and relative beta power to be assessed. Interestingly, absolute beta power during the pre-movement baseline was much stronger in older relative to younger adults, and older adults also exhibited proportionally large beta desynchronization (ERD) responses during motor planning and execution compared to younger adults. Crucially, we found a significant relationship between spontaneous (resting) beta power and beta ERD magnitude in both primary motor cortices, above and beyond the effects of age. A similar link was found between beta ERD magnitude and movement duration. These findings suggest a direct linkage between beta reduction during movement and spontaneous activity in the motor cortex, such that as spontaneous beta power increases, a greater reduction in beta activity is required to execute movement. We propose that, on an individual level, the primary motor cortices have an

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE ERRORS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS USING SAMPLES OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Gunn, James; Knapp, Gillian; Rockosi, Constance

    2011-10-15

    We investigate in detail the probability distribution function (pdf) of the proper-motion measurement errors in the SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion catalog of Munn et al. using clean quasar samples. The pdf of the errors is well represented by a Gaussian core with extended wings, plus a very small fraction (<0.1%) of 'outliers'. We find that while formally the pdf could be well fit by a five-parameter fitting function, for many purposes it is also adequate to represent the pdf with a one-parameter approximation to this function. We apply this pdf to the calculation of the confidence intervals on the true proper motion for an SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion measurement, and discuss several scientific applications of the SDSS proper-motion catalog. Our results have various applications in studies of the galactic structure and stellar kinematics. Specifically, they are crucial for searching hyper-velocity stars in the Galaxy.

  10. Joint astrometric solution of HIPPARCOS and Gaia. A recipe for the Hundred Thousand Proper Motions project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik, Daniel; Lindegren, Lennart; Hobbs, David; Lammers, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Context. The first release of astrometric data from Gaia is expected in 2016. It will contain the mean stellar positions and magnitudes from the first year of observations. For more than 100 000 stars in common with the Hipparcos Catalogue it will be possible to compute very accurate proper motions due to the time difference of about 24 years between the two missions. This Hundred Thousand Proper Motions (HTPM) project is planned to be part of the first release. Aims: Our aim is to investigate how early Gaia data can be optimally combined with information from the Hipparcos Catalogue in order to provide the most accurate and reliable results for HTPM. Methods: The Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS) was developed to compute the astrometric core solution based on the Gaia observations and will be used for all releases of astrometric data from Gaia. We adapt AGIS to process Hipparcos data in addition to Gaia observations, and use simulations to verify and study the joint solution method. Results: For the HTPM stars we predict proper motion accuracies between 14 and 134 μas yr-1, depending on stellar magnitude and amount of Gaia data available. Perspective effects will be important for a significant number of HTPM stars, and in order to treat these effects accurately we introduce a formalism called scaled model of kinematics (SMOK). We define a goodness-of-fit statistic which is sensitive to deviations from uniform space motion, caused for example by binaries with periods of 10-50 years. Conclusions: HTPM will significantly improve the proper motions of the Hipparcos Catalogue well before highly accurate Gaia-only results become available. Also, HTPM will allow us to detect long period binary and exoplanetary candidates which would be impossible to detect from Gaia data alone. The full sensitivity will not be reached with the first Gaia release but with subsequent data releases. Therefore HTPM should be repeated when more Gaia data become available

  11. Precessional parameters obtained from biased data of Hipparcos-FK5 proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Marco, F. J.; Lopez, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    The Hipparcos catalogue provides a reference frame in optical wavelength for the new ICRS. The differences in the system of proper motions of Hipparcos and the previous materialization of the reference frame, the FK5, are expected to be caused only by the combined effects of the motion of the equinox of the FK5 as well as the Luni-solar and planetary precession, but several authors have signaled the existence of an inconsistency for the proper motion differences of the FK5-Hipparcos with the ∆p values corresponding to the Luni-solar precession as determined from VLBI and LLR It is a fact that the widely employed parametric models do not remove the bias in the random variables. The introduction of a non parametric method, combined with the inner product in L2 over S 2 shows the necessity of removing the bias. The precessional formulas should be rearranged to be used in this case. When applying this model, the obtained values for the precession corrections are very consistent with the ones currently adopted by the IAU.

  12. An HST Proper-motion Study of the Large-scale Jet of 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, William B.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Biretta, John; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric; Norman, Colin

    2016-02-01

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of -0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer & Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  13. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Bromley, Benjamin C. E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu

    2014-10-01

    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  14. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  15. The geometric distance and proper motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33).

    PubMed

    Brunthaler, Andreas; Reid, Mark J; Falcke, Heino; Greenhill, Lincoln J; Henkel, Christian

    2005-03-01

    We measured the angular rotation and proper motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33) with the Very Long Baseline Array by observing two H2O masers on opposite sides of the galaxy. By comparing the angular rotation rate with the inclination and rotation speed, we obtained a distance of 730 +/- 168 kiloparsecs. This distance is consistent with the most recent Cepheid distance measurement. M33 is moving with a velocity of 190 +/- 59 kilometers per second relative to the Milky Way. These measurements promise a method to determine dynamical models for the Local Group and the mass and dark-matter halos of M31, M33, and the Milky Way.

  16. A Proper-Motion Census of Star-Forming Regions in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam; Stauffer, John; Evans, Neal; Allers, Katelyn; Dunham, Michael; Lu, Jessica; Jaffe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Over the past decade, Spitzer has revolutionized our understanding of the membership, mass functions, and disk populations of the star-forming regions in the solar neighborhood. However, the faintest members of these populations have remained elusive, particularly in highly-embedded regions of ongoing star formation. Mid-infrared color selection is not effective at distinguishing proto-brown dwarfs and disk-free young stars from dusty galaxies or reddened field stars, and optical/NIR spectroscopic confirmation remains too expensive. The most cost-effective method to identify this missing population is to confirm common proper motion with their host regions. The astrometric performance of IRAC has been considered insufficient for this task, but as we demonstrate, our new characterization of the IRAC optical distortion improves the astrometric noise floor from 0.1-0.2 arcsec to 0.01-0.02 arcsec at each epoch, corresponding to proper motion uncertainties as low as 2 mas/yr. We propose a Spitzer/IRAC Exploration Science program for 560 hours to conduct second-epoch imaging for a proper-motion search of six stellar populations: Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Perseus, Taurus, and Corona Australis. We will observe dense mosaics that span the areas which were previously observed during the cryogenic mission. In combination with the existing first-epoch astrometry, we will measure proper motions with uncertainties of <=5 mas/yr for sources as faint as m_[3.6] = 17.5, reaching photospheric fluxes corresponding to 1-2 MJup at 1 Myr. Our census will reveal the shape and slope of the proto(sub)stellar luminosity function, identify free-floating counterparts of young giant planets, search for the dynamical signatures of star formation models, and study disk evolution/dispersal and planet formation around the youngest and lowest-mass primaries. In summary, our program will unveil the last unidentified members in the benchmark star-forming regions which have been studied so

  17. Messier 35 (NGC 2168) DANCe. I. Membership, proper motions, and multiwavelength photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Barrado, D.; Sarro, L. M.; Olivares, J.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Ribas, Á.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Messier 35 (NGC 2168) is an important young nearby cluster. Its age, richness and relative proximity make it an ideal target for stellar evolution studies. The Kepler K2 mission recently observed it and provided a high accuracy photometric time series of a large number of sources in this area of the sky. Identifying the cluster's members is therefore of high importance to optimize the interpretation and analysis of the Kepler K2 data. Aims: We aim to identify the cluster's members by deriving membership probabilities for the sources within 1° of the cluster's center, which is farther away than equivalent previous studies. Methods: We measure accurate proper motions and multiwavelength (optical and near-infrared) photometry using ground-based archival images of the cluster. We use these measurements to compute membership probabilities. The list of candidate members from the literature is used as a training set to identify the cluster's locus in a multidimensional space made of proper motions, luminosities, and colors. Results: The final catalog includes 338 892 sources with multiwavelength photometry. Approximately half (194 452) were detected at more than two epochs and we measured their proper motion and used it to derive membership probability. A total of 4349 candidate members with membership probabilities greater than 50% are found in this sample in the luminosity range between 10 mag and 22 mag. The slow proper motion of the cluster and the overlap of its sequence with the field and background sequences in almost all color-magnitude and color-color diagrams complicate the analysis and the contamination level is expected to be significant. Our study, nevertheless, provides a coherent and quantitative membership analysis of Messier 35 based on a large fraction of the best ground-based data sets obtained over the past 18 years. As such, it represents a valuable input for follow-up studies using, in particular, the Kepler K2 photometric time series

  18. Identifying low-mass members of nearby star clusters using proper motion & color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Mark A.

    I present a combined kinematic and photometric search for new, low-mass (m ≤ 0.2 M⊙ ) members of nearby (d < 300 pc) star clusters. Using both proper motion and color criteria, a total of 33 low-mass objects have been newly recognized as members of the Taurus, Praesepe, and Pleiades clusters. In addition, 18 potential cluster members are noted, and 4 members are recovered from previous member searches. Multi-epoch imaging was performed using i-band Megacam observations unique to this study, combined with archival CFH telescope data in the optical I and Z bands. Near-infrared detections were also acquired from the 2MASS survey. The imaging data were processed using the Pan-STARRS IPP data pipeline software in order to provide high-precision relative astrometry, from which proper motions were extracted. Low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from the IRTF telescope gives confirmation on the membership status of the selected candidates. The addition of proper motion criteria to complement the often-used color selection allows for a more effective identification of low-mass cluster members whose broadband spectral features are similar to the bulk of galactic field objects lying along the line-of-sight. Culling the candidates using proper motion also significantly reduces the amount of candidates that require spectroscopic follow-up, even in the NIR color-space with the highest levels of field contamination. Comparison of the search results to a galactic field model by Robin et al. (2003) provides strong evidence that brighter member candidates in Taurus (i < 17) found to be of mid-M spectral types are highly likely to be clusters members rather than field dwarfs. While the addition of new members to the Praesepe and Pleiades clusters are minor compared to the current known population, there is suggestive evidence that the mass function of Taurus is significantly lacking in mid-M dwarfs, and in fact may actually resemble the mass functions of other similarly

  19. USING RUNNING DIFFERENCE IMAGES TO TRACK PROPER MOTIONS OF XUV CORONAL INTENSITY ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M

    2014-12-20

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ∼100 km s{sup –1} sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ∼2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s{sup –1} in the umbra to 7-8 km s{sup –1} toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ∼60-100 km s{sup –1}. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  20. ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RECENT PROPER MOTION DATA FOR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2011-03-20

    Recent observational studies using the Hubble Space Telescope have derived the center-of-mass proper motion (CMPM) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Although these studies carefully treated both rotation and perspective effects in deriving the proper motion (PM) for each of the sampled fields, they did not consider the effects of local random motion in the derivation. This means that the average PM of the fields (i.e., the observed CMPM) could significantly deviate from the true CMPM, because the effect of local random motion cannot be close to zero in making the average PM for the small number of fields ({approx}10). We discuss how significantly the observationally derived CMPM can deviate from the true CMPM by applying the same method as used in the observations for a dynamical model of the LMC with a known true CMPM. We find that the deviation can be as large as {approx}50 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.21 mas yr{sup -1}), if the LMC has a thick disk and a maximum circular velocity of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}. We also find that the deviation depends both on the total number of sampled fields and on the structure and kinematics of the LMC. We therefore suggest that there is a possibility that the observed CMPM of the LMC deviates from the true one to some extent. We also show that a simple mean of PM for a large number of LMC fields ({approx}1000) can be much closer to the true CMPM.

  1. Using Running Difference Images to Track Proper Motions of XUV Coronal Intensity on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J.; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ~100 km s-1 sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ~2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s-1 in the umbra to 7-8 km s-1 toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ~60-100 km s-1. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  2. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-02-10

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 {+-} 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  3. THE INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS OF STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER M35

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Fritz Benedict, G.

    2011-08-15

    Relative proper motions, based on 108 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor data extending from 1992 to 2006, are reported for 74 stars in the open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). A subset of 22 of these objects are then used to compute the cluster's internal proper motion dispersions in both right ascension and declination. We find that these dispersions are equal to within their measurement errors. The average one-dimensional dispersion is 0.018 {+-} 0.002 arcsec century{sup -1}. When combined with the M35 radial velocity dispersion of 0.65 {+-} 0.10 km s{sup -1} found by Geller et al., this produces a cluster distance of 762 {+-} 145 pc. Using isochrone fits to the cluster main sequence, this distance suggests that M35 has an age of about 133 Myr. Although this age is consistent with that typically found for M35, the formal error in the dynamical distance of {+-}19% can accommodate ages between 65 Myr and 201 Myr.

  4. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  5. A Proper-Motion Search for New Low-Mass Members of Nearby Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Mark A.; Magnier, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present new low-mass (m <= 0.1 Msol) members of six nearby (d <= 300 pc) clusters using a combination of proper-motion and color criteria. CFHT imaging data from multiple epochs spanning roughly six years have been analyzed by the Pan-STARRS Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) in order to obtain highly accurate proper-motion measurements. These data are combined with 2MASS detections in order to construct (i-J) colors and obtain new member candidates. Spectroscopic follow-up from the IRTF and Subaru facilities has allowed us to classify our candidates as members or nonmembers based on overall SED shape as well as previously-developed spectral indices sensitive to temperature and gravity. Additional verification of members from the youngest clusters is provided by H-alpha detections indicative of ongoing accretion. In the case of more ambiguous candidates, a dynamical analysis was performed using a Galactic field population model to determine the likelihood of candidates being old dwarf interlopers along the line-of-sight. This method of combining kinematic and photometric criteria to identify potential cluster members will yield impressive results once the Pan-STARRS 3-Pi Survey begins in late 2009, as it will be regularly imaging 75% of the total sky over multiple years. This work has been made possible by a generous grant from the National Science Foundation.

  6. Proper Motion of the Irradiated Jet HH 399 in the Trifid Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Biretta, J.; Wardle, M.

    2005-05-01

    HH 399 is one of the first Herbig-Haro flows recognized to be irradiated by the UV radiation of the massive O7.5 star in the Trifid Nebula. We present the proper motion of the first irradiated jet, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of HH 399 separated by nearly 5 yr, using Hα and [S II] line filters. High proper motion with continuous velocities between 200+/-55 and 528+/-24 km s-1 is detected in both lines along the 18" extent of the jet axis. The irradiated fully ionized jet consists of numerous knots along the jet but also shows evidence for a number of isolated blob like structures running immediately outside the jet with lower transverse velocities. The transverse velocities combined with radial velocity measurements indicate that the jet axis lies away from the plane of the sky by only a few degrees. We argue that the jet is fully ionized, based on a [S II]/Hα line ratio, as well as radio continuum emission detected from the full extent of the jet at a 3.6 cm wavelength. The stellar mass-loss rate producing HH 399 is estimated to be ~2×10-6 Msolar yr-1.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Corrected proper motion for HIP stars (Damljanovic+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.; Milic, I. S.

    2011-11-01

    During the last century, there were many so-called independent latitude (IL) stations with the observations which were included into data of a few international organizations (like Bureau International de l'Heure - BIH, International Polar Motion Service - IPMS) and the Earth rotation programmes for determining the Earth Orientation Parameters - EOP. Because of this, nowadays, there are numerous astrometric ground-based observations (made over many decades) of some stars included in the Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997, Cat. I/239). We used these latitude data for the inverse investigations - to improve the proper motions in declination μδ of the mentioned Hipparcos stars. We determined the corrections Δμδ and investigated agreement of our μδ and those from the catalogues Hipparcos and new Hipparcos (van Leeuwen 2007, Cat. I/311). To do this we used the latitude variations of 7 stations (Belgrade, Blagoveschtschensk, Irkutsk, Poltava, Pulkovo, Warsaw and Mizusawa), covering different intervals in the period 1904.7-1992.0, obtained with 6 visual and 1 floating zenith telescopes (Mizusawa). On the other hand, with regard that about two decades have elapsed since the Hipparcos ESA mission observations (the epoch of Hipparcos catalogue is 1991.25), the error of apparent places of Hipparcos stars has increased by nearly 20mas because of proper motion errors. Also, the mission lasted less than four years which was not enough for a sufficient accuracy of proper motions of some stars (such as double or multiple ones). Our method of calculation, and the calculated μδ for the common IL/Hipparcos stars are presented here. We constructed an IL catalogue of 1200 stars: there are 707 stars in the first part (with at least 20 years of IL observations) and 493 stars in the second one (less than 20 years). In the case of μδ of IL stars observed at some stations (Blagoveschtschensk, Irkutsk, Mizusawa, Poltava and Pulkovo) we find the formal errors less than the corresponding

  8. The first allwise proper motion discovery: Wisea J070720.50+170532.7

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Edward L.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Skrutskie, M. F.; Oza, Apurva; Nelson, M. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Fumagalli, Michele; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2014-03-01

    While quality checking a new motion-aware co-addition of all 12.5 months of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, we found that the source WISE J070720.48+170533.0 moved 0.''9 in six months. Backtracking this motion allowed us to identify this source as 2MASS J07071961+1705464, with several entries in the USNO B catalog. An astrometric fit to these archival data gives a proper motion of μ = 1793 ± 2 mas yr{sup –1} and a parallax of piv = 35 ± 42 mas. Photometry from WISE, 2MASS, and the POSS can be fit reasonably well by a blackbody with T = 3658 K and an angular radius of 4.36 × 10{sup –11} radians. No clear evidence of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption is seen in the near-infrared. An optical spectrum shows broad deep CaH bands at 638 and 690 nm, broad deep Na D at 598.2 nm, and weak or absent TiO, indicating that this source is an ultra-subdwarf M star with a radial velocity v {sub rad} ≈ –21 ± 18 km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun. Given its apparent magnitude, the distance is about 39 ± 9 pc and the tangential velocity is probably ≈330 km s{sup –1}, but a more precise parallax is needed to be certain.

  9. Blue straggler star populations in globular clusters - II. Proper-motion cleaned HST catalogues of BSSs in 38 Galactic GCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2016-11-01

    We present new blue straggler star (BSS) catalogues in 38 Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) based on multipassband and multi-epoch treasury survey data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure precise astrometry and relative proper motions of stars in all target clusters and performed a subsequent cluster membership selection. We study the accuracy of our proper-motion measurements using estimates of central velocity dispersions and find very good agreement with previous studies in the literature. Finally, we present a homogeneous BSS selection method, that expands the classic BSS selection parameter space to more evolved BSS evolutionary stages. We apply this method to the proper-motion cleaned GC star catalogues in order to define proper-motion cleaned BSS catalogues in all 38 GCs, which we make publicly available to enable further study and follow-up observations.

  10. Lowell proper motion survey: Southern Hemisphere (Giclas, Burnham, and Thomas 1978). Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog is a summary compilation of the Lowell Proper Motion Survey for the Southern Hemisphere, as completed to mid-1978 and published in the Lowell Observatory Bulletins. This summary catalog serves as a Southern Hemisphere companion to the Lowell Proper Motion Survey, Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Very-Large-Scale Motions in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Educed by Snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Stimit; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) under a wide range of stabilities are conducted to educe very-large-scale motions and then to study their dynamics and how they are influenced by buoyancy. Preliminary flow visualizations suggest that smaller-scale motions that resemble hairpins are embedded in much larger scale streamwise meandering rolls. Using simulations that represent more than 150 h of physical time, many snapshots in the -, - and -planes are then collected to perform snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition and further investigate the large structures. These analyses confirm that large streamwise rolls that share several features with the very-large-scale motions observed in laboratory studies arise as the dominant modes under most stabilities, but the effect of the surface kinematic buoyancy flux on the energy content of these dominant modes is very significant. The first two modes in the -plane in the neutral case contain up to 3 % of the total turbulent kinetic energy; they also have a vertical tilt angle in the -plane of about 0 to 30 due to the turning effect associated with the Coriolis force. Unstable cases also feature streamwise rolls, but in the convective ABL they are strengthened by rising plumes in between them, with two to four rolls spanning the whole domain in the first few modes; the Coriolis effect is much weaker in the unstable ABL. These rolls are no longer the dominant modes under stable conditions where the first mode is observed to contain sheet-like motions with high turbulent kinetic energy. Using these proper orthogonal decomposition modes, we are also able to extract the vertical velocity fields corresponding to individual modes and then to correlate them with the horizontal velocity or temperature fields to obtain the momentum and heat flux carried by individual modes. Structurally, the fluxes are explained by the topology of their corresponding modes. However, the fraction of the fluxes produced by

  12. Three very cool degenerate stars in Luyten common proper motion binaries - Implications for the age of the galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, Paul; Oswalt, Terry D.; Liebert, James; Sion, Edward M.

    1989-01-01

    During the course of a spectroscopic study of Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stars, spectrophotometric observations have been obtained of three binaries containing degenerate stars with estimated absolute magnitudes M(V) of about 16. Each of the three pairs consists of a yellow degenerate star primary and a DC 13 + secondary 1.4-2.3 mag fainter. One of the primary stars is spectral class DC 7, another is a sharp-lined DA 8, and the third shows peculiar broad absorption features which we interpret as pressure-shifted C2 Swan bands. The LP 701 - 69/70 system has survived for over 8 billion years without disruption by passing stars, despite its 1500 a.u. orbital major axis. The three cool degenerate companions nearly double the available sample of stars at the low-luminosity terminus of the white dwarf cooling sequence. These findings appear consistent with the conclusion that degenerate stars in the old disk population have not had time to evolve to a luminosity fainter than M(V) about 16.2.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NEOWISE/AllWISE high proper motion objects (Schneider+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. C.; Greco, J.; Cushing, M. C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mainzer, A.; Gelino, C. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Bauer, J.

    2016-04-01

    The NEOWISE reactivation mission was carried out using the W1 (3.4um) and W2 (4.6um) passbands of the WISE telescope. Considering the ~4 year time baseline between the first sky pass of NEOWISE and the first WISE epochs, our 1" search radius gives us a nominal minimum proper motion limit of ~250mas/yr (see section 2). Low-resolution (R=75-120) spectra were acquired for several sources with the upgraded SpeX spectrograph at the 3m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. A summary of all IRTF/SpeX observations is given in Table 11. Three targets were observed with the Double Spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope on the night of UT 2015 September 07. (3 data files).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1103 parallaxes and proper motions from URAT (Finch+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, C. T.; Zacharias, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present 1103 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) observations taken at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT observes through a single filter (part of the dewar window) to provide a fixed bandpass of about 680 to 760nm. The clear aperture of the USNO astrograph is 206mm with a focal length of only 2m. A single exposure covers 28 square degrees with a resolution of 0.9arcsec/pixel. Each of the four large CCDs in the focal plane covers a 2.65 by 2.65 deg area on the sky. Data of all three years of operations (2012 April to 2015 June) at the NOFS are used here for this parallax investigation. For more details about the project, instrument, and observing the reader is referred to the URAT1 paper (Zacharias et al. 2015, cat. I/329). (3 data files).

  15. A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at approx. 3.9 arcsec to the east and estimated as an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of the third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given the presence of those companions, and propose sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012).

  16. A survey of proper-motion stars. IV - A search for southern extreme-velocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Peterson, Ruth C.

    1988-07-01

    We are conducting a search for extreme-velocity stars as a means of placing a lower limit to the local value of the Galaxy's escape velocity. We report here the results of a survey of (largely) southern hemisphere proper-motion stars: 27 metal-poor F and G stars near the South Galactic Pole; 18 stars identified by Eggen as extreme-velocity candidates; and five other field stars. We obtained radial velocities and JHK photometry for almost all the stars, and some uvby and UBV photometry. Accurate distance moduli based on B - V, b - y, V - K, and J - K color indices are presented in conjunction with reddening and metallicity estimates. Kinematical properties of the stars are reported, including U, V, and W velocities, and the velocity in the Galaxy's rest frame, VRF. Five of the program stars were found to have VRF >380 km s-1.

  17. Searching for common proper-motion companions in the Local Association and its young kinematic subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.

    2013-05-01

    We describe the results of an ongoing project aimed to identify new members of young associations by searching for common proper-motion companions to already-known members. We have used the Aladin sky atlas of the Virtual Observatory and the 2MASS, USNO-B1 and PPMXL astro-photometric catalogues to look for new faint members in the the Local Association and its young kinematic groups (Tucana-Horologium, β Pictoris, AB Doradus). We have discovered several new late-type stellar companions. For one of the new identified objects, we have taken low-resolution spectroscopy to confirm its young nature and characterise its stellar properties. A detailed study of Tucana-Horologium has provided an unprecedented view of the moving group nucleus around β^{01+02+03} Tuc, which lies at the centre of the remnant of the cluster that originated the group.

  18. Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachchan, R. K.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the optical realisation of the International Celestial Reference System to be improved by a few orders of magnitude. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the solar system as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies. Although they are not point-like, it may be possible to determine accurate positions and proper motions for some of their compact bright features. Aims: The optical stability of the quasars is critical, and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the solar system barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. Methods: We modelled quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes, and redshifts. Position variability was introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference frame was determined using the algorithm developed for the Gaia mission, which also determines the acceleration of the solar system. We also tested a method for measuring the velocity of the solar system barycentre in a cosmological frame. Results: We simulated the recovery of the reference frame and the acceleration of the solar system and conclude that they are not significantly disturbed by quasar variability, which is statistically averaged. However, the effect of a non-uniform sky distribution of the quasars can result in a correlation between the parameters describing the spin components of the reference frame and the acceleration components, which degrades the solution. Our results suggest that an attempt should be made to astrometrically determine the redshift-dependent apparent drift of galaxies that is due to our velocity relative to the cosmic microwave

  19. PG1258+593 and its common proper motion magnetic white dwarf counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girven, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Külebi, B.; Steeghs, D.; Jordan, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Koester, D.

    2010-05-01

    We confirm SDSSJ130033.48+590407.0 as a common proper motion companion to the well-studied hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf PG1258+593 (GD322). The system lies at a distance of 68 +/- 3pc, where the angular separation of 16.1 +/- 0.1arcsec corresponds to a minimum binary separation of 1091 +/- 7au. SDSSJ1300+5904 is a cool (Teff = 6300 +/- 300K) magnetic white dwarf (B ~= 6mG). PG1258+593 is a DA white dwarf with Teff = 14790 +/- 77K and logg = 7.87 +/- 0.02. Using the white dwarf mass-radius relation implies the masses of SDSSJ1300+5904 and PG1258+593 are 0.54 +/- 0.06 and 0.54 +/- 0.01Msolar, respectively, and therefore a cooling age difference of 1.67 +/- 0.05Gyr. Adopting main-sequence lifetimes from stellar models, we derive an upper limit of 2.2Msolar for the mass of the progenitor of PG1258+593. A plausible range of initial masses is 1.4-1.8 Msolar for PG1258+593 and 2-3 Msolar for SDSSJ1300+5904. Our analysis shows that white dwarf common proper motion binaries can potentially constrain the white dwarf initial mass-final mass relation and the formation mechanism for magnetic white dwarfs. The magnetic field of SDSSJ1300+5904 is consistent with an Ap progenitor star. A common envelope origin of the system cannot be excluded, but requires a triple system as progenitor.

  20. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. III. KOI 961: A SMALL STAR WITH LARGE PROPER MOTION AND THREE SMALL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Pineda, John Sebastian; Bottom, Michael; Crepp, Justin R.; Kirby, Evan N.; Apps, Kevin; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Hamren, Katherine; Schlawin, Everett; Covey, Kevin R.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Hebb, Leslie; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; and others

    2012-03-10

    We characterize the star KOI 961, an M dwarf with transit signals indicative of three short-period exoplanets discovered by the Kepler mission. We proceed by comparing KOI 961 to Barnard's Star, a nearby, well-characterized mid-M dwarf. We compare colors, optical and near-infrared spectra, and find remarkable agreement between the two, implying similar effective temperatures and metallicities. Both are metal-poor compared to the Solar neighborhood, have low projected rotational velocity, high absolute radial velocity, large proper motion, and no quiescent H{alpha} emission-all of which are consistent with being old M dwarfs. We combine empirical measurements of Barnard's Star and expectations from evolutionary isochrones to estimate KOI 961's mass (0.13 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun }), radius (0.17 {+-} 0.04 R{sub Sun }), and luminosity (2.40 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3.0{+-}0.3} L{sub Sun }). We calculate KOI 961's distance (38.7 {+-} 6.3 pc) and space motions, which, like Barnard's Star, are consistent with a high scale-height population in the Milky Way. We perform an independent multi-transit fit to the public Kepler light curve and significantly revise the transit parameters for the three planets. We calculate the false-positive probability for each planet candidate, and find a less than 1% chance that any one of the transiting signals is due to a background or hierarchical eclipsing binary, validating the planetary nature of the transits. The best-fitting radii for all three planets are less than 1 R{sub Circled-Plus }, with KOI 961.03 being Mars-sized (R{sub P} = 0.57 {+-} 0.18 R{sub Circled-Plus }), and they represent some of the smallest exoplanets detected to date.

  1. Globular Cluster Orbits from HST Proper Motions: Constraining the Formation and Mass of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Deason, Alis J.; Bellini, Andrea; Besla, Gurtina; Watkins, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW's present structure and past evolution. GCs in the halo are particularly useful tracers; because of their long dynamical timescales, their orbits retain imprints of their origin or accretion history. Full 3D motions are required to calculate past orbits. While most GCs have known line of sight velocities, accurate proper motion (PM) measurements are currently available for only a few halo GCs. Our goal is to create the first high-quality PM database for halo GCs. We have identified suitable 1st-epoch data in the HST Archive for 20 halo GCs at 10-100 kpc from the Galactic Center. We are in the process of obtaining the necessary 2nd-epoch data to determine absolute PMs of the target GCs through our HST program GO-14235. We will use the same advanced astrometric techniques that allowed us to measure the PMs of M31 and Leo I. Previous studies of the halo GC system based on e.g., stellar populations, metallicities, RR Lyrae properties, and structural properties have revealed a dichotomy between old and young halo GCs. This may reflect distinct formation scenarios (in situ vs. accreted). Orbit calculations based on our PMs will directly test this. The PMs will also yield the best handle yet on the velocity anisotropy profile of any tracer population in the halo. This will resolve the mass-anisotropy degeneracy to provide an improved estimate of the MW mass, which is at present poorly known. In summary, our project will deliver the first accurate PMs for halo GCs, and will significantly increase our understanding of the formation, evolution, and mass of the MW.

  2. Alignment between seafloor spreading directions and absolute plate motions through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-02-01

    The history of seafloor spreading in the ocean basins provides a detailed record of relative motions between Earth's tectonic plates since Pangea breakup. Determining how tectonic plates have moved relative to the Earth's deep interior is more challenging. Recent studies of contemporary plate motions have demonstrated links between relative plate motion and absolute plate motion (APM), and with seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Here we explore the link between spreading directions and APM since the Early Cretaceous. We find a significant alignment between APM and spreading directions at mid-ocean ridges; however, the degree of alignment is influenced by geodynamic setting, and is strongest for mid-Atlantic spreading ridges between plates that are not directly influenced by time-varying slab pull. In the Pacific, significant mismatches between spreading and APM direction may relate to a major plate-mantle reorganization. We conclude that spreading fabric can be used to improve models of APM.

  3. St. Helena, Edmond Halley, the discovery of stellar proper motion, and the mystery of Aldebaran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.

    2010-07-01

    St. Helena was the location of Halley's observatory in 1677-1678. The site has been identified and I report on a visit in November 2006. The principal use of the observatory was to accurately map the stars of the southern sky. In the summary of his work, the Catalogus Stellarum Australium, Halley noted evidence for the "... mutability of the fixed Stars." He would not return to this subject until much later in his career. Halley later compared contemporary positions of Arcturus, Sirius, and Aldebaran with the ancient positions recorded in the Almagest. He found that these stars had apparently moved southward by >30' and concluded that they had their own particular motions. Modern proper motion measurements are consistent with this conclusion for Arcturus and Sirius, but are not even close for Aldebaran. While some authors are aware of the problem, it generally is not mentioned in books on the history of astronomy or in biographical works on Halley. Errors in the Almagest positions can be ruled out; an error of 30' in the early eighteenth century position is highly unlikely; a misidentification of the star is implausible; and, we are left with the conclusion that there is most likely an error in Halley's calculations.

  4. OPTICAL PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE M87 JET: NEW RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Norman, Colin; Nakamura, Masanori

    2013-09-10

    We report new results from a Hubble Space Telescope archival program to study proper motions in the optical jet of the nearby radio galaxy M87. Using over 13 yr of archival imaging, we reach accuracies below 0.1c in measuring the apparent velocities of individual knots in the jet. We confirm previous findings of speeds up to 4.5c in the inner 6'' of the jet, and report new speeds for optical components in the outer part of the jet. We find evidence of significant motion transverse to the jet axis on the order of 0.6c in the inner jet features, and superluminal velocities parallel and transverse to the jet in the outer knot components, with an apparent ordering of velocity vectors possibly consistent with a helical jet pattern. Previous results suggested a global deceleration over the length of the jet in the form of decreasing maximum speeds of knot components from HST-1 outward, but our results suggest that superluminal speeds persist out to knot C, with large differentials in very nearby features all along the jet. We find significant apparent accelerations in directions parallel and transverse to the jet axis, along with evidence for stationary features in knots D, E, and I. These results are expected to place important constraints on detailed models of kiloparsec-scale relativistic jets.

  5. Proper Motions of New Dust in the Colliding Wind Binary WR 140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Danchi, W. C.

    2002-03-01

    The eccentric W-R + O binary system WR 140 produces dust for a few months at intervals of 7.94 yr coincident with periastron passage. We present the first resolved images of this dust shell, at binary phases φ~0.039 and ~0.055, using aperture masking techniques on the Keck I telescope to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. Proper motions of approximately 1.1 mas per day were detected, implying a distance <~1.5 kpc from the known wind speed. The dust plume observed is not as simple as the ``pinwheel'' nebulae seen around other W-R colliding wind binaries, indicating the orbital plane is highly inclined to our line of sight and/or the dust formation is very clumpy. Follow-up imaging in the mid-infrared and with adaptive optics is urgently required to track the dust motion further, necessary for unambiguously determining the orbital geometry, which we only partially constrain here. With full knowledge of the orbital elements, these infrared images can be used to reconstruct the dust distribution along the colliding wind interface, providing a unique tool for probing the postshock physical conditions of violent astrophysical flows.

  6. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. 3; Measurement for URSA Minor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in two distinct fields. Each field contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the "reference point". Integrating the motion of Ursa Minor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 40 (10, 76) and 89 (78, 160) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.39 (0.09, 0.79), and the orbital period is 1.5 (1.1, 2.7) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124 degrees (94 deg, 36 deg ) to the Galactic plane. Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the Milky Way. Comparing the orbits of Ursa Minor and Carina shows no reason for the different star formation histories of these two galaxies. Ursa Minor must contain dark matter to have a high probability of having survived disruption by the Galactic tidal force until the present.

  7. HST Astrometry in the 30 Doradus Region: Measuring Proper Motions of Individual Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, Imants; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Anderson, Jay; Bellini, Andrea; Sabbi, Elena; Sana, Hugues; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2015-09-01

    We present measurements of positions and relative proper motions in the 30 Doradus region of the LMC. We detail the construction of a single-epoch astrometric reference frame, based on specially designed observations obtained with the two main imaging instruments Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel and Wide Field Camera 3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Internal comparisons indicate a sub milliarcsecond (mas) precision in the positions and the presence of semi-periodic systematics with a mean amplitude of ˜0.8 mas. We combined these observations with numerous archival images taken with Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and spanning 17 years. The precision of the resulting proper motions for well-measured stars around the massive cluster Radcliffe 136 (R136) can be as good as ˜20 μas yr-1, although the true accuracy of proper motions is generally lower due to the residual systematic errors. The observed proper-motion dispersion for our highest-quality measurements is ˜0.1 mas yr-1. Our catalog of positions and proper motions contains 86,590 stars down to V ˜ 25 and over a total area of ˜70 square arcmin. We examined the proper motions of 105 relatively bright stars and identified a total of six candidate runaway stars. We are able to tentatively confirm the runaway status of star VFTS 285, consistent with the findings from line of sight velocities, and to show that this star has likely been ejected from R136. This study demonstrates that with HST it is now possible to reliably measure proper motions of individual stars in the nearest dwarf galaxies such as the LMC.

  8. Spectroscopic follow-up of L- and T-type proper-motion member candidates in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Martín, E. L.; Gálvez Ortiz, M. C.; Rebolo, R.; Bihain, G.; Henning, Th.; Boudreault, S.; Goldman, B.; Mundt, R.; Caballero, J. A.; Miles-Páez, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the near-infrared (JHK-bands) low-resolution spectroscopy and red optical (Z-band) photometry of seven proper-motion, very low-mass substellar member candidates of the Pleiades cluster with magnitudes in the interval J = 17.5-20.8 and K = 16.1-18.5 mag. Spectra were acquired for six objects with the LIRIS and NIRSPEC instruments mounted on the 4.2-m William Herschel and the 10-m Keck II telescopes, respectively. Z-band images of two of the faintest candidates were collected with the ACAM instrument on the WHT. The new data confirm the low temperatures of all seven Pleiades proper motion candidates. From the imaging observations, we find extremely red Z - J and Z - K colors that suggest that the faintest target, Calar Pleiades 25, has a Galactic rather than extragalactic nature. We tentatively classify the spectroscopic targets from early-L to ~T0 and suggest that the L/T transition, which accounts for the onset of methane absorption at 2.1 μm, may take place at J ≈ 20.3 and K ≈ 17.8 mag in the Pleiades (absolute values of MJ ≈ 14.7 and MK ≈ 12.2 mag). We find evidence of likely low-gravity atmospheres based on the presence of triangular-shape H-band fluxes and the high flux ratio K/H (compatible with red H - K colors) of Calar Pleiades 20, 21, and 22, which is a feature also seen in field low-gravity dwarfs. Weak K i absorption lines at around 1.25 μm are probably seen in two targets. These observations add support to the cluster membership of all seven objects in the Pleiades. The trend delineated by the spectroscopic sequence of Pleiades late-M and L dwarfs resembles that of the field. With masses estimated at 0.012-0.015 M⊙ (solar metallicity and 120 Myr), Calar Pleiades 20 (L6±1), 21 (L7±1), and 22 (L/T) may become the coolest and least massive Pleiades members that are corroborated with photometry, astrometry, and spectroscopy. Calar Pleiades 25 (<0.012 M⊙) is a firm free-floating planetary-mass candidate in the Pleiades. Appendix

  9. Discovery of new companions to high proper motion stars from the VVV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Valentin D.; Minniti, Dante; Hempel, Maren; Kurtev, Radostin; Toledo, Ignacio; Saito, Roberto K.; Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Márcio; Chené, André-Nicolas; Emerson, Jim; González, Óscar A.; Lucas, Phillip W.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Rejkuba, Marina; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2013-12-01

    Context. The severe crowding in the direction of the inner Milky Way suggests that the census of stars within a few tens of parsecs in that direction may not be complete. Aims: We searched for new nearby object companions of known high proper motion (HPM) stars located towards the densest regions of the southern Milky Way where the background contamination presented a major problem to previous observations. Methods: The common proper motion (PM) method was used. We inspected the area around 167 known HPM (≥200 mas yr-1) stars: 67 in the disk and 100 in the bulge. Multi-epoch images were provided by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the VISTA Variables in Via Lactea (VVV). The VVV is a new on-going ZYJHKS plus multi-epoch KS survey of ~562 deg2 of the Milky Way bulge and inner southern disk. Results: Seven new co-moving companions were discovered around known HPM stars (L 149-77, LHS 2881, L 200-41, LHS 3188, LP 487-4, LHS 5333, and LP 922-16); six known co-moving pairs were recovered (LTT 5140 A + LTT 5140 B, L 412-3 + L 412-4, LP 920-25 + LP 920-26, LTT 6990 A + LTT 6990 B, M 124.22158.2900 + M 124.22158.2910, and GJ 2136 A + GJ 2136 B); a pair of stars that was thought to be co-moving was found to have different proper motions (LTT 7318, LTT 7319); published HPMs of eight stars were not confirmed (C* 1925, C* 1930, C* 1936, CD-60 4613, LP 866-17, OGLE BUL-SC20 625107, OGLE BUL-SC21 298351, and OGLE BUL-SC32 388121); last but not least, spectral types ranging from G8V to M5V were derived from new infrared spectroscopy for seventeen stars, members of the co-moving pairs. Conclusions: The seven newly discovered stars constitute ~4% of the nearby HPM star list, but this is not a firm limit on the HPM star incompleteness because our starting point - the HPM list assembled from the literature - is incomplete itself, missing many nearby HPM M- and L-type objects, and it is contaminated with non-HPM stars. We have demonstrated that the superior sub

  10. UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. I. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -90{sup 0} AND -47{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Henry, Todd J.

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents 442 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky between declinations -90{sup 0} and -47{sup 0} with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1}. These systems constitute a 25.3% increase in new systems for the same region of the sky covered by previous SuperCOSMOS RECONS (SCR) searches that used Schmidt plates as the primary source of discovery. Among the new systems are 25 multiples, plus an additional 7 new common proper motion (CPM) companions to previously known primaries. All stars have been discovered using the third U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). A comparison of the UCAC3 proper motions to those from the Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion (SPM4), and SuperCOSMOS efforts is presented and shows that UCAC3 provides similar values and precision to the first three surveys. The comparison between UCAC3 and SuperCOSMOS indicates that proper motions in R.A. are systematically shifted in the SuperCOSMOS data but are consistent in decl. data, while overall showing a significantly higher scatter. Distance estimates are derived for stars having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B{sub J} , R{sub 59F}, and I{sub IVN} plate magnitudes and Two-Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry. We find 15 systems estimated to be within 25 pc, including UPM 1710-5300 our closest new discovery estimated at 13.5 pc. Such new discoveries suggest that more nearby stars are yet to be found in these slower proper motion regimes, indicating that more work is needed to develop a complete map of the solar neighborhood.

  11. Co-latitudinal Radial Veloctiy Profile Confirmation Via Differential Proper Motion of the Bipolar Egg Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasino, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    Requesting the use of ACS/WFC for one orbit to obtain a deep 3rd epoch exposure of the Cygnus Egg Nebula. The proposed observation of the Egg will not only yield multi-epoch snapshots of the circumstellar arcs but also determine the co-latitudinal velocity field that helps break the degeneracy in model fitting. Full 3-D model calculations, done by CoI Kim, have already quantified the co-latitudinal dependence due to the binary orbital motion, relating the orbital speed of the binary stars to the resulting structural pattern in the circumstellar density distributions. We will be able to constrain the orbital properties of the Egg Nebula via a new set of specific model fitting. The duplication of the epoch 2 observation {PI: W. Sparks} is by design and with a baseline between the 2nd and 3rd epoch of more than 11 years, there is a lower limit shift of 1.32 pixels for the slower moving arcs and it will be more than enough to perform a differential proper-motion study. The Cygnus Egg Nebula is a proto-planetary nebula, which means that the circumstellar density structure still retains valuable clues pertaining to the early asymptotic giant branch mass loss history and initial development of their aspherical shell structure. One of the most peculiar characteristics of the circumstellar shell structure of the Egg Nebula is the co-presence of the nebula's signature bipolar lobes and rather circular concentric arcs superposed on top of each other. There is no consensus among researchers on their origins, especially because of the paradox due to the co-presence of the circular arcs and bipolar lobes.

  12. Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS): A Catalog of Proper Motion Selected Low-mass Stars from WISE, SDSS, and 2MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A.; Dhital, Saurav

    2016-02-01

    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS Data Release 10 (DR10), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) point-source catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r - i, i - z, r - z, z - J, and z - W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2σ uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and proper motions in Praesepe (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Chen, W. P.; Lin, C. C.; Pandey, A. K.; Huang, C. K.; Panwar, N.; Lee, C. H.; Tsai, M. F.; Tang, C.-H.; Goldman, B.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-08-01

    Data used in this study include photometry and proper motion measurements within a 5° radius around the Praesepe center (R.A.=08h40m, decl.=+19°42', J2000). Archival data were taken from the 2MASS Point Sources Catalog (2MASS; cat. II/246), PPMXL (Roeser et al. 2010, cat. I/317), and Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response (Pan-STARRS). Pan-STARRS is a wide-field (7deg2) imaging system, with a 1.8m, f/4.4 telescope, equipped with a 1.4 giga-pixel camera. The prototype (PS1), located atop Haleakala, Maui, USA, has been patrolling the entire sky north of -30° declination since mid-2010 with a combination of gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1, and yP1 bands. The PS1 filters differ slightly from those of the SDSS. The gP1 filter extends 20nm redward of gSDSS for greater sensitivity and lower systematics for photometric redshift estimates. SDSS has no corresponding y filter (Tonry et al. 2012, cat. J/ApJ/750/99). Upon the completion of its 3.5yr mission by early 2014, PS1 will provide reliable photometry and astrometry. Table1 lists the properties of the 1040 candidates. (1 data file).

  14. PROPER MOTIONS AND ORIGINS OF SGR 1806-20 AND SGR 1900+14

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cameron, P. Brian

    2012-12-10

    We present results from high-resolution infrared observations of magnetars SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 over 5 years using laser-supported adaptive optics at the 10 m Keck Observatory. Our measurements of the proper motions of these magnetars provide robust links between magnetars and their progenitors and provide age estimates for magnetars. At the measured distances of their putative associations, we measure the linear transverse velocity of SGR 1806-20 to be 350 {+-} 100 km s{sup -1} and of SGR 1900+14 to be 130 {+-} 30 km s{sup -1}. The transverse velocity vectors for both magnetars point away from the clusters of massive stars, solidifying their proposed associations. Assuming that the magnetars were born in the clusters, we can estimate the braking index to be {approx}1.8 for SGR 1806-20 and {approx}1.2 for SGR 1900+14. This is significantly lower than the canonical value of n = 3 predicted by the magnetic dipole spin-down suggesting an alternative source of dissipation such as twisted magnetospheres or particle winds.

  15. Photometric and Proper Motion Study of the Neglected Open Cluster NGC 2215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. T.; Inwood, L.; McKinnon, D. H.; Dias, W. S.; Sacchi, M.; Scott, B.; Zolinski, M.; Danaia, L.; Edwards, R.

    2015-06-01

    Optical UBVRI photometric measurements using the Faulkes Telescope North were taken in early 2011 and combined with 2MASS JHKs and WISE infrared photometry as well as UCAC4 proper motion data in order to estimate the main parameters of the galactic open cluster NGC 2215 of which large uncertainty exists in the current literature. Fitting a King model we estimate a core radius of 1.‧12 ± 0.‧04 (0.24 ± 0.01 pc) and a limiting radius of 4.‧3 ± 0.‧5 (0.94 ± 0.11 pc) for the cluster. The results of isochrone fits indicates an age of log (t)=8.85+/- 0.10 with a distance of d=790+/- 90 pc, a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.40+/- 0.10 dex, and a reddening of E(B-V)=0.26+/- 0.04. A proportion of the work in this study was undertaken by Australian and Canadian upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project, and is the first scientific publication to have utilized our star cluster photometry curriculum materials.

  16. The Quintuplet cluster - A young massive cluster study based on proper motion membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hußmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Young massive clusters define the high mass range of current clustered star formation and are frequently found in starburst and interacting galaxies. As - with the exception of the nearest galaxies within the local group - extragalactic clusters can not be resolved into individual stars, the few young massive clusters in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds might serve as templates for unresolved young massive clusters in more distant galaxies. Due to their high masses, these clusters sample the full range of stellar masses. In combination with the small or negligible spreads in age or metallicity of their stellar populations, this makes these object unique laboratories to study stellar evolution, especially in the high mass range.Furthermore, they allow to probe the initial mass function, which describes the distribution of masses of a stellar population at its birth, in its entirety. The Quintuplet cluster is one of three known young massive clusters residing in the central molecular zone and is located at a projected distance of 30 pc from the Galactic centre. Because of the rather extreme conditions in this region, a potential dependence of the outcome of the star formation process on the environmental conditions under which the star formation event takes place might leave its imprint in the stellar mass function. As the Quintuplet cluster is lacking a dense core and shows a somewhat dispersed appearance, it is crucial to effectively distinguish between cluster stars and the rich population of stars from the Galactic field along the line of sight to the Galactic centre in order to measure its present-day mass function. In this thesis, a clean sample of cluster stars is derived based on the common bulk proper motion of the cluster with respect to the Galactic field and a subsequent colour selection. The diffraction limited resolution of multi-epoch near-infrared imaging observations obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope with adaptive optics correction

  17. The First X-Ray Proper-Motion Measurements of the Forward Shock in the Northeastern Limb of Sn 1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first X-ray proper-motion measurements of the nonthermally-dominated forward shock in the northeastern limb of SN 1006, based on two Chandra observations taken in 2000 and 2008. We find that the proper motion of the forward shock is about 0.48"/yr and does not vary around the rim within the approx.10% measurement uncertainties. The proper motion measured is consistent with that determined by the previous radio observations. The mean expansion index of the forward shock is calculated to be approx..0.54 which matches the value expected based on an evolutionary model of a Type Ia supernova with either a power-law or an exponential ejecta density profile. Assuming pressure equilibrium around the periphery from the thermally-dominated northwestern rim to the nonthermally-dominated northeastern rim, we estimate the ambient density to the northeast of SN 1006 to be approx..0.085/cu cm.

  18. FIRST RESULTS FROM Pan-STARRS1: FAINT, HIGH PROPER MOTION WHITE DWARFS IN THE MEDIUM-DEEP FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tonry, J. L.; Flewelling, H. A.; Deacon, N. R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hodapp, K. W.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kilic, M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Price, P. A.

    2012-01-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey has obtained multi-epoch imaging in five bands (Pan-STARRS1 g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, and y{sub P1}) on 12 'Medium-Deep fields', each of which spans a 3.{sup 0}3 circle. For the period between 2009 April and 2011 April these fields were observed 50-200 times. Using a reduced proper motion diagram, we have extracted a list of 47 white dwarf (WD) candidates whose Pan-STARRS1 astrometry indicates a non-zero proper motion at the 6{sigma} level, with a typical 1{sigma} proper motion uncertainty of 10 mas yr{sup -1}. We also used astrometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (when available) and USNO-B to assess our proper motion fits. None of the WD candidates exhibits evidence of statistically significant parallaxes, with a typical 1{sigma} uncertainty of 8 mas. Twelve of these candidates are known WDs, including the high proper motion (1.''7 yr{sup -1}) WD LHS 291. We confirm seven more objects as WDs through optical spectroscopy. Based on the Pan-STARRS1 colors, ten of the stars are likely to be cool WDs with 4170 K proper motion WDs that are part of the old thick disk and halo.

  19. THE M31 VELOCITY VECTOR. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Anderson, Jay; Van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2012-07-01

    We present the first proper-motion (PM) measurements for the galaxy M31. We obtained new V-band imaging data with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and the WFC3/UVIS instruments of three fields: a spheroid field near the minor axis, an outer disk field along the major axis, and a field on the Giant Southern Stream. The data provide five to seven year time baselines with respect to pre-existing deep first-epoch observations of the same fields. We measure the positions of thousands of M31 stars and hundreds of compact background galaxies in each field. High accuracy and robustness is achieved by building and fitting a unique template for each individual object. The average PM for each field is obtained from the average motion of the M31 stars between the epochs with respect to the background galaxies. For the three fields, the observed PMs ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) are, in units of mas yr{sup -1}, (- 0.0458, -0.0376) {+-} (0.0165, 0.0154), (- 0.0533, -0.0104) {+-} (0.0246, 0.0244), and (- 0.0179, -0.0357) {+-} (0.0278, 0.0272), respectively. The ability to average over large numbers of objects and over the three fields yields a final displacement accuracy of a few thousandths of a pixel, corresponding to only 12 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. This is comparable to what has been achieved for other Local Group galaxies using Very Long Baseline Array observations of water masers. Potential systematic errors are controlled by an analysis strategy that corrects for detector charge transfer inefficiency, spatially and time-dependent geometric distortion, and point-spread function variations. The robustness of the PM measurements and uncertainties are supported by the fact that data from different instruments, taken at different times and with different telescope orientations, as well as measurements of different fields, all yield statistically consistent results. Papers II and III of this series explore the implications of the new measurements for our understanding of the history

  20. Fractional Brownian Motion with Stochastic Variance:. Modeling Absolute Returns in STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, H. E.; Porto, M.

    We discuss a model for simulating a long-time memory in time series characterized in addition by a stochastic variance. The model is based on a combination of fractional Brownian motion (FBM) concepts, for dealing with the long-time memory, with an autoregressive scheme with conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH), responsible for the stochastic variance of the series, and is denoted as FBMARCH. Unlike well-known fractionally integrated autoregressive models, FBMARCH admits finite second moments. The resulting probability distribution functions have power-law tails with exponents similar to ARCH models. This idea is applied to the description of long-time autocorrelations of absolute returns ubiquitously observed in stock markets.

  1. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 Wide Binaries Identified in SDSS without Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Saurav; West, Andrew A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P.

    2015-08-01

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  2. THE PROPER MOTION OF THE GALACTIC CENTER PULSAR RELATIVE TO SAGITTARIUS A*

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Deller, Adam; Falcke, Heino; Demorest, Paul; Brunthaler, Andreas; Eatough, Ralph P.; Kramer, Michael; Lee, K. J.; Spitler, Laura; Desvignes, Gregory; Moscibrodzka, Monika; O'Leary, Ryan M.; Rushton, Anthony P.; Doeleman, Sheperd; Reid, Mark J.

    2015-01-10

    We measure the proper motion of the pulsar PSR J1745-2900 relative to the Galactic center massive black hole, Sgr A*, using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The pulsar has a transverse velocity of 236 ± 11 km s{sup –1} at position angle 22 ± 2 deg east of north at a projected separation of 0.097 pc from Sgr A*. Given the unknown radial velocity, this transverse velocity measurement does not conclusively prove that the pulsar is bound to Sgr A*; however, the probability of chance alignment is very small. We do show that the velocity and position are consistent with a bound orbit originating in the clockwise disk of massive stars orbiting Sgr A* and a natal velocity kick of ≲ 500 km s{sup –1}. An origin among the isotropic stellar cluster is possible but less probable. If the pulsar remains radio-bright, multiyear astrometry of PSR J1745-2900 can detect its acceleration and determine the full three-dimensional orbit. We also demonstrate that PSR J1745-2900 exhibits the same angular broadening as Sgr A* over a wavelength range of 3.6 cm to 0.7 cm, further confirming that the two sources share the same interstellar scattering properties. Finally, we place the first limits on the presence of a wavelength-dependent shift in the position of Sgr A*, i.e., the core shift, one of the expected properties of optically thick jet emission. Our results for PSR J1745-2900 support the hypothesis that Galactic center pulsars will originate from the stellar disk and deepen the mystery regarding the small number of detected Galactic center pulsars.

  3. Ancient eruptions of η Carinae: a tale written in proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We analyse eight epochs of Hubble Space Telescope Hα+[N II] imaging of η Carinae's outer ejecta. Proper motions of nearly 800 knots reveal that the detected ejecta are divided into three apparent age groups, dating to around 1250 A.D., to around 1550 A.D., and to during or shortly before the Great Eruption of the 1840s. Ejecta from these groups reside in different locations and provide a firm constraint that η Car experienced multiple major eruptions prior to the nineteenth century. The 1250 and 1550 events did not share the same axisymmetry as the Homunculus; the 1250 event was particularly asymmetric, even one-sided. In addition, the ejecta in the S ridge, which have been associated with the Great Eruption, appear to predate the ejection of the Homunculus by several decades. We detect essentially ballistic expansion across multiple epochs. We find no evidence for large-scale deceleration of the observed knots that could power the soft X-ray shell by ploughing into surrounding material, suggesting that the observed X-rays arise instead from fast, rarefied ejecta from the 1840s overtaking the older dense knots. Early deceleration and subsequent coasting cannot explain the origin of the older outer ejecta - significant episodic mass loss prior to the nineteenth century is required. The time-scale and geometry of the past eruptions provide important constraints for any theoretical physical mechanisms driving η Car's behaviour. Non-repeating mechanisms such as the merger of a close binary in a triple system would require additional complexities to explain the observations.

  4. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, Saurav; West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  5. Ancient eruptions of η Carinae: A tale written in proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2016-09-01

    We analyze eight epochs of Hubble Space Telescope Hα+[N II] imaging of η Carinae's outer ejecta. Proper motions of nearly 800 knots reveal that the detected ejecta are divided into three apparent age groups, dating to around 1250 A.D., to around 1550 A.D., and to during or shortly before the Great Eruption of the 1840s. Ejecta from these groups reside in different locations and provide a firm constraint that η Car experienced multiple major eruptions prior to the 19th century. The 1250 and 1550 events did not share the same axisymmetry as the Homunculus; the 1250 event was particularly asymmetric, even one-sided. In addition, the ejecta in the S ridge, which have been associated with the Great Eruption, appear to predate the ejection of the Homunculus by several decades. We detect essentially ballistic expansion across multiple epochs. We find no evidence for large-scale deceleration of the observed knots that could power the soft X-ray shell by plowing into surrounding material, suggesting that the observed X-rays arise instead from fast, rarefied ejecta from the 1840s overtaking the older dense knots. Early deceleration and subsequent coasting cannot explain the origin of the older outer ejecta-significant episodic mass loss prior to the 19th century is required. The timescale and geometry of the past eruptions provide important constraints for any theoretical physical mechanisms driving η Car's behavior. Non-repeating mechanisms such as the merger of a close binary in a triple system would require additional complexities to explain the observations.

  6. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  7. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Lowell Proper Motion Survey northern hemisphere, the G numbered stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Observed positions, proper motions, estimated photographic magnitudes and colors, and references to identifications in other catalogs are included. Photoelectric data on the UBV system are included for many stars, but no attempt was made to find all existing photometry. The machine-readable catalog is described.

  8. Dynamics of a Type Ia Supernova Remnant: X-ray and Radio Proper Motions in Tycho's SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Chomiuk, Laura; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from new Chandra X-ray and JVLA radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant, the remains of the supernova of 1572 A.D. The high spatial resolution of these instruments allows for accurate measurements of the proper motion of the forward shock in Tycho, with baselines now at 15 years for the X-ray data and 30 years for the radio. Type Ia SNe are of fundamental importance in astrophysics, yet the nature of their environments and progenitor systems is poorly understood. In a recent work, we have shown that theISM surrounding Tycho varies systematically in density by a factor of 5, with larger excursions in some locations. A substantial density variation is consistent with limited previous proper motion studies that have been done in radio and X-rays. Our expanded baseline measurements allow us to further explore the variations in the dynamics of the shock wave, which can also be used to localize the explosion site. Previous proper motion measurements, made over much shorter time baselines, have shown some discrepancies in the shockvelocity as measured in radio and X-rays. With our new, much improved data, we can compare proper motions in these two energy bands with much greater accuracy.

  9. Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: proper motion study of its circumstellar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, A.; Stecklum, B.; Linz, Hendrik

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether the radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Methods: Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other facilities - TLS, UKIDSS, Spitzer, and Herschel - were also incorporated to improve our understanding of the star in terms of environment, viewing angle, bipolar outflow length, and the FUOR phenomenon. Results: The outer dust arc is found to be expanding at ≈14.8 ± 3.6 km s-1 on average. The expansion velocity for the inner ring is less consistent, between 0.8 km s-1 and 3.0 km s-1. The derived radial colour profiles do not indicate a spatial separation of the dust grain sizes. The Herschel 160 μm images show for the first time thermal emission from dust probably residing in the outer arc. By viewing V1331 Cyg almost pole-on, the length of the bipolar outflow exceeds previous estimates by far. Conclusions: The outer arc expansion timescale is consistent with the implantation time of the CO torus, which supports the hypothesis of an outburst that occurred a few thousand years ago. The azimuthal colour variation of the outer arc is probably due to

  10. BVRIJHK photometry and proper motion analysis of NGC 6253 and the surrounding field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Piotto, G.; Desidera, S.; Platais, I.; Carraro, G.; Momany, Y.; de Marchi, F.; Recio-Blanco, A.

    2009-10-01

    Context: We present a photometric and astrometric catalog of 187 963 stars located in the field around the old super-metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC 6253. The total field-of-view covered by the catalog is 34”×33”. In this field, we provide CCD BVRI photometry. For a smaller region close to the cluster's center, we also provide near-infrared JHK photometry. Aims: We analyze the properties of NGC 6253 by using our new photometric data and astrometric membership. Methods: In June 2004, we targeted the cluster during a 10 day multi-site campaign, which involved the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope with its wide-field imager and the Anglo-Australian 3.9 m telescope, equipped with the IRIS2 near-infrared imager. Archival CCD images of NGC 6253 were used to derive relative proper motions and to calculate the cluster membership probabilities. Results: We have refined the cluster's fundamental parameters, deriving (V_0-M_v)=11.15, E(B - V) = 0.15, E(V - I) = 0.25, E(V - J) = 0.50, and E(V - H) = 0.55. The color excess ratios obtained using both the optical and near infrared colors indicate a normal reddening law in the direction of NGC 6253. The age of NGC 6253 at 3.5 Gyr, determined from our best-fitting isochrone appears to be slightly older than the previous estimates. Finally, we estimated the binary fraction among the cluster members to be ~20%-30% and identified 11 blue straggler candidates. Based on observation made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Siding Spring, Australia. The catalog presented in this paper is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/505/1129

  11. Desktop Parallax and Proper Motion: A Laboratory Exercise on Astrometry of Asteroids from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1998-12-01

    Students in introductory and advanced astronomy classes can now experience the process of discovering asteroids, can measure proper motions, and can actually see the parallax of real astronomical objects on the screen, using a new set of computer-based exercises from Project CLEA. The heart of the exercise is a sophisticated astrometry program "Astrometry of Asteroids", which is a restricted version of CLEA's research software "Tools for Astrometry" described elsewhere at this meeting. The program, as used in the teaching lab, allows students to read and display digital images, co-align pairs of images using designated reference stars, blink and identify moving objects on the pairs, compare images with charts produced from the HST Guide Star Catalog (GSC), and fit equatorial coordinates to the images using designated reference stars from the GSC. Complete technical manuals for the exercise are provided for the use of the instructor, and a set of digital images, in FITS format, is included for the exercise. A student manual is provided for an exercise in which students go through the step-by-step process of determining the tangential velocity of an asteroid. Students first examine a series of images of a near-earth asteroid taken over several hours, blinking pairs to identify the moving object. They next measure the equatorial coordinates on a half-dozen images, and from this calculate an angular velocity of the object. Finally, using a pair of images of the asteroid taken simultaneously at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO) and at Colgate University, they measure the parallax of the asteroid, and thus its distance, which enables them to convert the angular velocity into a tangential velocity. An optional set of 10 pairs of images is provided, some of which contain asteroids, so that students can try to "find the asteroid" for themselves. The software is extremely flexible, and though materials are provided for a self-contained exercise, teachers

  12. Upper plate absolute motion and slab-anchor force control on back-arc deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuret, A.; Lallemand, S.

    2003-04-01

    In order to test how the combined effects of overriding plate motion and trench migration can account for the variability of back-arc tectonic regimes, their "normal to the trench" absolute motion components and the strain regime of all oceanic subduction zones were compiled. Strain regime was estimated following Jarrard (1986), in a semiquantitative way. The upper plate absolute motion (Vup) is calculated in the hotspot HS3-NUVEL1A (Gripp and Gordon, 2002) reference frame and trench migration (Vt) from Vup, corrected from deformation rate of back-arc region, mainly given by GPS data. As slabs tend to sink because of their age-related-mass-excess relative to the surrounding mantle, it is generally assumed that most of the trenches have a spontaneous seaward motion (trench rollback). Ages at trench have thus also been compiled ( from Muller et al, 1997) to test a possible control of trench migration with slab age. Our values underline a high control of strain regime by Vup, but inconsistencies still remain with this single parameter. To account for all the observed deformations, trench migration is needed. There are more or less as much subduction zones with seaward Vt as landward ones, and, for 90% of subduction zones, Vt never reach 50 mm/y in the two directions. The expected relation between trench migration and slab age is far to be verified: landward trench migrations exist in many subduction zones, and, among them, many have old slabs. Several examples indicate that the slab tend to follow the trench migration and, so, to move transversely in the surrounding mantle. As a consequence, Vt is close to the "normal to the trench" slab migration and gives informations about the slab anchor force : slabs are not perfectly anchored but their possible motions appear to be limited. This 50 mm/y limitation of slab migration may provide new constraints on the poorly known slab-anchor force. No evidence of age related trench rollback have beeen found. It does not

  13. Single camera absolute motion based digital elevation mapping for a next generation planetary lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feetham, Luke M.; Aouf, Nabil; Bourdarias, Clement; Voirin, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Robotic planetary surface exploration missions are becoming much more ambitious in their science goals as they attempt to answer the bigger questions relating to the possibility of life elsewhere in our solar system. Answering these questions will require scientifically rich landing sites. Such sites are unlikely to be located in relatively flat regions that are free from hazards, therefore there is a growing need for next generation entry descent and landing systems to possess highly sophisticated navigation capabilities coupled with active hazard avoidance that can enable a pin-point landing. As a first step towards achieving these goals, a multi-source, multi-rate data fusion algorithm is presented that combines single camera recursive feature-based structure from motion (SfM) estimates with measurements from an inertial measurement unit in order to overcome the scale ambiguity problem by directly estimating the unknown scale factor. This paper focuses on accurate estimation of absolute motion parameters, as well as the estimation of sparse landing site structure to provide a starting point for hazard detection. We assume no prior knowledge of the landing site terrain structure or of the landing craft motion in order to fully assess the capabilities of the proposed algorithm to allow a pin-point landing on distant solar system bodies where accurate knowledge of the desired landing site may be limited. We present results using representative synthetic images of deliberately challenging landing scenarios, which demonstrates that the proposed method has great potential.

  14. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. IV. 63 new open clusters detected by proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Röser, S.; Schilbach, E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The global Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provided new cluster membership lists and mean cluster parameters for nearly 80% of all previously known Galactic clusters. The MWSC data reduction pipeline involved the catalogue of positions and proper motions (PPMXL) on the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) and near-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Aims: In the first extension to the MWSC, photometric filters were applied to the 2MASS catalogue to find new cluster candidates that were subsequently confirmed or rejected by the MWSC pipeline. To further extend the MWSC census, particularly of nearby clusters, we aimed at discovering new clusters by conducting an almost global search in proper motion catalogues as a starting point. Methods: We first selected high-quality samples from the PPMXL and the Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4) for comparison and verification of the proper motions. For 441 circular proper motion bins (radius 15 mas/yr) within ±50 mas/yr, the sky outside a thin Galactic plane zone (| b | < 5°) was binned in small areas ("sky pixels") of 0.25 × 0.25 deg2. Sky pixels with enhanced numbers of stars with a certain common proper motion in both catalogues were considered as cluster candidates. After visual inspection of the sky images, we built an automated procedure that combined these representations of the sky for neighbouring proper motion subsamples after a background correction. The 692 compact cluster candidates detected above a threshold that was equivalent to a minimum of 12 to 130 cluster stars in dependence on the Galactic latitude were then cross-checked with known star clusters and clusters of galaxies. New candidates served as input for the MWSC pipeline. Results: About half of our candidates overlapped with known clusters (46 globular and 68 open clusters in the Galaxy, about 150 known clusters of galaxies) or the Magellanic Clouds. About 10% of our

  15. Conversion of positions and proper motions from B1950.0 to the IAU system at J2000.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The complete transformation of positions and proper motions from B1950.0 to J2000.0 on the basis of IAU recommendations including the transition from FK4 to FK5 equinox may be rigorously accomplished with a simple vector equation. The equation is first presented in this paper and then subsequently derived. The transformation of the FK4 to FK5 system described by functions f(alpha, delta, m) is in preparation in Heidelberg.

  16. PROPER MOTIONS AND ORIGINS OF AXP 1E 2259+586 AND AXP 4U 0142+61

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cameron, P. Brian E-mail: srk@astro.caltech.edu

    2013-07-20

    Using high-resolution NIR images supported by laser guide star adaptive optics from the Keck II telescope from 2005 to 2012, we have measured the proper motions of two anomalous X-ray pulsars, AXP 1E 2259+586 and AXP 4U 0142+61. The proper motion of AXP 1E 2259+586 in the sky frame is ({mu}{sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (- 6.4 {+-} 0.6, -2.3 {+-} 0.6) mas yr{sup -1} and that of AXP 4U 0142+61 is ({mu}{sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (- 4.1 {+-} 1, 1.9 {+-} 1) mas yr{sup -1}. After correcting for the velocity of the progenitors, we calculate the tangential ejection velocities of the magnetars to be 157 {+-} 17 km s{sup -1} and 102 {+-} 26 km s{sup -1} respectively. The proper motion vector of AXP 1E 2259+586 is directed away from the putative center of the supernova remnant CTB 109 that has long been proposed to be associated with AXP 1E 2259+586. This is significant evidence for linking the pulsar with CTB 109. We comment on the possible movement of CTB 109 after the explosion. We narrow the search cone for the birthsite or remnant of AXP 4U 0142+61 to an opening angle of 24 Degree-Sign . However, we are unable to find any suitable association.

  17. The implementation of binned Kernel density estimation to determine open clusters' proper motions: validation of the method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, R.; Arifyanto, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar membership determination of an open cluster is an important process to do before further analysis. Basically, there are two classes of membership determination method: parametric and non-parametric. In this study, an alternative of non-parametric method based on Binned Kernel Density Estimation that accounts measurements errors (simply called BKDE- e) is proposed. This method is applied upon proper motions data to determine cluster's membership kinematically and estimate the average proper motions of the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations show that the average proper motions determination using this proposed method is statistically more accurate than ordinary Kernel Density Estimator (KDE). By including measurement errors in the calculation, the mode location from the resulting density estimate is less sensitive to non-physical or stochastic fluctuation as compared to ordinary KDE that excludes measurement errors. For the typical mean measurement error of 7 mas/yr, BKDE- e suppresses the potential of miscalculation by a factor of two compared to KDE. With median accuracy of about 93 %, BKDE- e method has comparable accuracy with respect to parametric method (modified Sanders algorithm). Application to real data from The Fourth USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4), especially to NGC 2682 is also performed. The mode of member stars distribution on Vector Point Diagram is located at μ α cos δ=-9.94±0.85 mas/yr and μ δ =-4.92±0.88 mas/yr. Although the BKDE- e performance does not overtake parametric approach, it serves a new view of doing membership analysis, expandable to astrometric and photometric data or even in binary cluster search.

  18. "New Proper Motion Measurements of the Superluminal Velocities in the M87 Optical Jet with HST"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.; Sohn, S.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Norman, C. A.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using over 13 years of archival HST observations of the relativistic jet in the archetypal radio galaxy M87, we have produced astrometric speed measurements of the optically bright synchrotron emitting plasma components in the jet with unprecedented accuracy. Building on previous work showing the superluminal nature of the jet in the optical, we have found that the jet motion is incredibly complex, with both transverse motions and flux variations which can be seen very clearly by eye in the timeseries of deep exposures. These observations of M87 provide us with a unique dataset with which to refine theoretical models of the largescale jet structure, potentially addressing open questions such as the jet collimation mechanism, bulk acceleration and deceleration in the jet, and the presence of a helical structure. I will also present very recent results using data from the HST archive on the optical counterjet and nuclear regions of M87 and discuss the larger implications of these detailed studies of one of the most nearby AGN jets.

  19. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Lowell Proper Motion Survey, Northern Hemisphere, the G numbered stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This catalog contains a summary of many individual papers published in the Lowell Observatory Bulletins in the years 1958 to 1970. The data in the machine-readable version include observed positions, proper motions, estimated photographic magnitudes and colors, and references to identifications in other catalogs. Photoelectric data on the UBV system are included for many stars, but no attempt was made to find all existing photometry. The machine version contains all data of the published catalog, except the Lowell Bulletin numbers where finding charts can be found. A separate file contains the notes published in the original catalog.

  20. Current Absolute Plate Velocities Inferred from Hotspot Tracks, Comparison with Absolute Velocities Inferred from Seismic Anisotropy, and Bounds on Rates of Motion Between Groups of Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Zheng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Hotspot tracks have been widely used to estimate the velocities of the plate relative to the lower mantle. Here we analyze the hotspot azimuth data set of Morgan and Phipps Morgan [2007] and show that the errors in plate velocity azimuths inferred from hotspot tracks in any one plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths in the same plate. We use a two-tier analysis to account for this correlated error. First, we determine an individual best-fitting pole for each plate. Second, we determine the absolute plate velocity by minimizing the misfit while constrained by the MORVEL relative plate velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Our preferred model, HS4-MORVEL, uses azimuths from 9 major plates, which are weighted equally. We find that the Pacific plate rotates 0.860.016°Ma-1 right handed about 63.3°S, 96.1°E. Angular velocities of four plates (Amur, Eurasia, Yangtze and Antarctic) differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.24°±0.014° Ma-1 right handed about 52.3S, 56.9E. The angular velocities differ insignificantly from the absolute angular velocities inferred from the orientation of seismic anisotropy [Zheng et al. 2014]. The within-plate dispersion of hotspot track azimuths is 14°, which is comparable to the within-plate dispersion found from orientations of seismic anisotropy. The between-plate dispersion is 6.9±2.4° (95% confidence limits), which is smaller than that found from seismic anisotropy. The between-plate dispersion of 4.5° to 9.3° can be used to place bounds on how fast hotspots under one plate move relative to hotspots under another plate. For an average plate absolute speed of ≈50 mm/yr, the between-plate dispersion indicates a rate of motion of 4 mm/yr to 8 mm/yr for the component of hotspot motion perpendicular to plate motion. This upper bound is consistent with prior work that indicated upper bounds on motion between Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots over the past 48 Ma of 8-13 mm

  1. High-precision Radio and Infrared Astrometry of LSPM J1314+1320AB. I. Parallax, Proper Motions, and Limits on Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Dupuy, Trent J.; Reid, Mark J.; Berger, Edo; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mann, Andrew W.; Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly; Kraus, Adam L.

    2016-08-01

    We present multi-epoch astrometric radio observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the young ultracool-dwarf binary LSPM J1314+1320AB. The radio emission comes from the secondary star. Combining the VLBA data with Keck near-infrared adaptive-optics observations of both components, a full astrometric fit of parallax (π abs = 57.975 ± 0.045 mas, corresponding to a distance of d = 17.249 ± 0.013 pc), proper motion (μ αcos δ = ‑247.99 ± 0.10 mas yr‑1, μ δ = ‑183.58 ± 0.22 mas yr‑1), and orbital motion is obtained. Despite the fact that the two components have nearly identical masses to within ±2%, the secondary’s radio emission exceeds that of the primary by a factor of ≳30, suggesting a difference in stellar rotation history, which could result in different magnetic field configurations. Alternatively, the emission could be anisotropic and beamed toward us for the secondary but not for the primary. Using only reflex motion, we exclude planets of mass 0.7–10 M jup with orbital periods of 600–10 days, respectively. Additionally, we use the full orbital solution of the binary to derive an upper limit for the semimajor axis of 0.23 au for stable planetary orbits within this system. These limits cover a parameter space that is inaccessible with, and complementary to, near-infrared radial velocity surveys of ultracool dwarfs. Our absolute astrometry will constitute an important test for the astrometric calibration of Gaia.

  2. High-precision Radio and Infrared Astrometry of LSPM J1314+1320AB. I. Parallax, Proper Motions, and Limits on Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Dupuy, Trent J.; Reid, Mark J.; Berger, Edo; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mann, Andrew W.; Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly; Kraus, Adam L.

    2016-08-01

    We present multi-epoch astrometric radio observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the young ultracool-dwarf binary LSPM J1314+1320AB. The radio emission comes from the secondary star. Combining the VLBA data with Keck near-infrared adaptive-optics observations of both components, a full astrometric fit of parallax (π abs = 57.975 ± 0.045 mas, corresponding to a distance of d = 17.249 ± 0.013 pc), proper motion (μ αcos δ = -247.99 ± 0.10 mas yr-1, μ δ = -183.58 ± 0.22 mas yr-1), and orbital motion is obtained. Despite the fact that the two components have nearly identical masses to within ±2%, the secondary’s radio emission exceeds that of the primary by a factor of ≳30, suggesting a difference in stellar rotation history, which could result in different magnetic field configurations. Alternatively, the emission could be anisotropic and beamed toward us for the secondary but not for the primary. Using only reflex motion, we exclude planets of mass 0.7-10 M jup with orbital periods of 600-10 days, respectively. Additionally, we use the full orbital solution of the binary to derive an upper limit for the semimajor axis of 0.23 au for stable planetary orbits within this system. These limits cover a parameter space that is inaccessible with, and complementary to, near-infrared radial velocity surveys of ultracool dwarfs. Our absolute astrometry will constitute an important test for the astrometric calibration of Gaia.

  3. Linking GAIA proper motions to the extragalactic reference system by QSO observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilbach, Elena; Scholz, R.-D.

    1995-01-01

    A direct link to an extragalactic reference system is considered as being a principle aim of the global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics (GAIA) mission. The data available from an extragalactic data base and a quasi stellar object (QSO) catalog were used to obtain an estimation of the number of QSO link candidates. The quality of presently available data and the expected accuracy of the extragalactic link are discussed. It is concluded that at least 150 QSO's must be observed by GAIA in order to guarantee an accuracy of better than 1 microarcsec/year for the link. New observations will be needed before the GAIA launch in order to reduce uncertainties in the positions, magnitudes and redshifts for some known quasars. The variability of QSO's with magnitudes near the GAIA observation limit can raise a potential problem. The motions of nearby QSO's are expected to be much smaller than 2 microarcsec/year, and therefore, will not affect the accuracy of the link in the proposed GAIA mission.

  4. Proper motion sky survey of 2.7 million stars with the Bordeaux automated CCD meridian circle .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducourant, C.; Le Campion, J. F.; Rapaport, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Soubiran, C.; Périe, J. P.; Teixeira, R.; Daigne, G.; Triaud, A.; Réquième, Y.; Fresneau, A.; Colin, J.

    The Bordeaux observatory astrometric group has made significant efforts to produce and exploit large data base surveys. This effort has been undertaken to extend and enrich the ICRS marterialized using Tycho2 catalogue. It includes the systematic re-observation of the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone with the Bordeaux automatic CCD meridian circle ; it also contains the digitization of ancient plate archive and the exploitation of large sky surveys such as the AC2000.2 catalogue, the USNO-A2.0 catalogue and the unpublished Yellow Sky (YS3) USNO catalogue. The whole effort led to the construction of three astrometric catalogues (M2000 [Rapaport et al. 2001], PM2000 [Ducourant et al. 2005] and CdC2000 [Rapaport et al. 2005]) of positions and proper motions (sigma 1-6 mas/yr) down to V 16.4 for 1/20 of the celestial sphere. The high precision achieved, allowed us to test the precision of the present day reference catalogues such as 2MASS and UCAC2 and to reveal systematic offsets in them. Due to its accurate proper motions, this catalogue offers a rich database for the cinematic analysis of Galactic stellar populations.

  5. A bag of tricks: Using proper motions of Galactic stars to identify the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Raimondo, G.; Brocato, E.; Bellini, A.; Libralato, M.; Testa, V.; Cantiello, M.; Musella, I.; Clementini, G.; Carini, R.; Marconi, M.; Piotto, G.; Ripepi, V.; Buonanno, R.; Sani, E.; Speziali, R.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Discovered in the last decade as overdensities of resolved stars, the ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) are among the least luminous, most dark-matter dominated, and most metal-poor galaxies known today. They appear as sparse, loose objects with high mass-to-light ratios. Hercules is the prototype of the UFD galaxies. To date, there are still no firm constraints on its total luminosity due to the difficulty of disentangling Hercules bona-fide stars from the severe Galactic field contamination. Aims: To better constrain Hercules properties, we aim at removing foreground and background contaminants in the galaxy field using the proper motions of the Milky Way stars and the colour-colour diagram. Methods: We have obtained images of Hercules in the rSloan , BBessel and Uspec bands with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and LBC-BIN mode capabilities. The rSloan new dataset combined with data from the LBT archive span a time baseline of about 5 yr, allowing us to measure proper motions of stars in the Hercules direction for the first time. The Uspec data along with existing LBT photometry allowed us to use colour-colour diagram to further remove the field contamination. Results: Thanks to a highly-accurate procedure to derive the rSloan -filter geometric distortion solution for the LBC-red, we were able to measure stellar relative proper motions to a precision of better than 5 mas yr-1 down to rSloan≃ 22 mag and disentangle a significant fraction (>90%) of Milky Way contaminants. We ended up with a sample of 528 sources distributed over a large portion of the galaxy body (~0.12 deg2). Of these sources, 171 turned out to be background galaxies and additional foreground stars from the analysis of the Uspec - BBessel vs. BBessel - rSloan colour-colour diagram. This leaves us with a sample of 357 likely members of the Hercules UFD. We compared the cleaned colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) with evolutionary models and synthetic CMDs, confirming the presence in Hercules of

  6. Southern Ocean hotspot tracks and the Cenozoic absolute motion of the African, Antarctic, and South American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnady, C. J. H.; le Roex, A. P.

    1985-10-01

    A detailed analysis, based on an Antarctica-Africa finite reconstruction at chron C29 (64 Ma), an assumption of no relative wander between the Marion/Prince Edward and Tristan hotspots, and on recently revised bathymetric maps of the Southern Ocean region, shows that the fixed hotspot reference frame is tenable for "absolute" plate motions. Bouvet hotspot, and probably Trinidade as well, also shows little or no Cenozoic relative motion. Contrary to previous models. Bouvet hotspot is unrelated to the Meteor Rise-Cape Rise seamount chain. Instead, the bathymetric data, when compared with the predicted hotspot tracks, indicate another hotspot exists near the southernmost South Atlantic spreading ridge segment. New geochemical evidence from the latter region supports this hypothesis in showing the effects of "plume enrichment" from a source that is compositionally distinct from Bouvet. The peculiar zig-zag shape of the Cape Rise-Meteor Rise lineament is the result of this hotspot crossing the active transform segment of the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone in Late Mesozoic times, followed by an early Cenozoic ridge-jump to the pre-weakened trace on the then South American plate. From the averaged Cenozoic absolute motions of the African, Antarctic, and South American plates, it is evident that Antarctica has been most nearly stationary in an absolute motion sense.

  7. Trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350: a massive star-forming region on the solar circle

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Ross A.; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shizugami, Makoto

    2014-12-10

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H{sub 2}O masers. Our distance of D=4.69{sub −0.51}{sup +0.65} kpc, which is 2.8 times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm and proximal to the solar circle. Using our distance, we reevaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS, and the submillimeter continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of ≥16 M {sub ☉}. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (–2.62 ± 0.33, –5.65 ± 0.52) mas yr{sup –1} from the group motion of H{sub 2}O masers, and use our results to estimate the angular velocity of Galactic rotation at the Galactocentric distance of the Sun, Ω{sub 0} = 29.75 ± 2.29 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}, which is consistent with the values obtained for other tangent point and solar circle objects.

  8. Proper motion with HST: Searching for high-velocity stars in the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    SciTech Connect

    Meylan, G.; Minniti, D.; Pryor, C.; Tinney, C.G.; Phinney, E.S.; Sams, B.

    1996-02-13

    Binary stars play an essential role during the late phases of the dynamical evolution of a globular cluster. They transfer energy to passing stars and so can strongly influence the cluster evolution, enough to delay, halt, and even reverse core collapse. Hard binaries are known to exist in cluster cores, e.g., in the form of millisecond pulsars (about half of the millisecond pulsars observed in 47 Tucanae are such hard binaries). The presence of hard binaries may also be revealed by searching for the by-products of close encounters: high- velocity stars, such as those discovered in the core of 47 Tuc by Meylan et al. (1991) and Gebhardt et al. (1995). These studies represent the limit of the radial velocity data which can be obtained from the ground. If more progress is to be made, it must come through obtaining proper motions--a task for which {ital only} the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is suitable. We are using WFPC2 to obtain deep U (F300W) images of the core of 47 Tuc at three different epochs over two years, with which we will measure differential proper motions to a 1-{sigma} limit of 0.23 mas/yr. This--rather conservative--estimate corresponds to a 5-{sigma} detection of all stars with tangential velocities greater than 22 km s{sup -1}. By using the F300W filter we can measure stars over the whole color-magnitude diagram, from the red-giant branch to well down the main sequence. Such a complete census will provide unique constraints as a function of the stellar mass on relaxation processes, collision and ejection rates, and the velocity distribution. Here we report on the first-epoch (Cycle 5) observations of this project. Although no proper motions are available yet, some preliminary by-product results are presented. These include luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams for the core of 47 Tuc and the light curves of variable blue straggler stars and of a candidate X-ray source. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Cluster membership probabilities from proper motions and multi-wavelength photometric catalogues. I. Method and application to the Pleiades cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarro, L. M.; Bouy, H.; Berihuete, A.; Bertin, E.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Barrado, D.; Solano, E.

    2014-03-01

    Context. With the advent of deep wide surveys, large photometric and astrometric catalogues of literally all nearby clusters and associations have been produced. The unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity of these data sets and their broad spatial, temporal and wavelength coverage make obsolete the classical membership selection methods that were based on a handful of colours and luminosities. We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of such a survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. Methods: We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. Results: We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with ≈1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. Conclusions: Multidimensional data sets require

  10. Deep study on the proper motion and collimated tail of the oldish PSR J2055+2539

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelli, Martino

    2014-09-01

    The bright, radio-quiet, and possibly near, J2055+2539 is the less energetic non-recycled pulsar emitting in gamma-rays. In X-rays we found the faint, pulsating counterpart. Two tails of X-ray emission have been discovered protruding from the pulsar forming an angle of about 150deg. These tails are long - 13' and 4' - bright - 10 and 2 times the pulsar luminosity - and extremely collimated - the longest one is 5 to 20'' wide. These characteristics make J2055 tails the best test for all the nebular emission models, making it a better case than fainter Guitar nebula. Two Chandra observations at different epochs are requested in order to a) find the pulsar proper motion, with a possible alignment with one of the tails, and b) study the shape and low-scale structures of the nebulae.

  11. THE PROPER MOTION OF PSR J1550-5418 MEASURED WITH VLBI: A SECOND MAGNETAR VELOCITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, A. T.; Camilo, F.; Halpern, J. P.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2012-03-20

    The formation mechanism of neutron stars with extremely large magnetic field strengths (magnetars) remains unclear. Some formation scenarios predict that magnetars should be born with extremely high space velocities, >1000 km s{sup -1}. Using the Long Baseline Array in Australia, we have measured the proper motion of the intermittently radio-bright magnetar PSR J1550-5418 (1E 1547.0-5408): {mu} = 9.2 {+-} 0.6 mas yr{sup -1}. For a likely distance of 6 {+-} 2 kpc, the implied transverse velocity is 280{sup +130}{sub -120} km s{sup -1} after correcting for Galactic rotation. Along with the Almost-Equal-To 200 km s{sup -1} transverse velocity measured for the magnetar XTE J1810-197, this result suggests that formation pathways producing large magnetic fields do not require very large birth kicks.

  12. Cygnus OB2 DANCe: A high-precision proper motion study of the Cygnus OB2 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Bouy, Herve; Drew, Janet E.; Sarro, Luis Manuel; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Barrado, David

    2016-08-01

    We present a high-precision proper motion study of 873 X-ray and spectroscopically selected stars in the massive OB association Cygnus OB2 as part of the DANCe project. These were calculated from images spanning a 15 yr baseline and have typical precisions <1 mas yr-1. We calculate the velocity dispersion in the two axes to be σ _α (c) = 13.0^{+0.8}_{-0.7} and σ _δ (c) = 9.1^{+0.5}_{-0.5} km s-1, using a two-component, two-dimensional model that takes into account the uncertainties on the measurements. This gives a three-dimensional velocity dispersion of σ3D = 17.8 ± 0.6 km s-1 implying a virial mass significantly larger than the observed stellar mass, confirming that the association is gravitationally unbound. The association appears to be dynamically unevolved, as evidenced by considerable kinematic substructure, non-isotropic velocity dispersions and a lack of energy equipartition. The proper motions show no evidence for a global expansion pattern, with approximately the same amount of kinetic energy in expansion as there is in contraction, which argues against the association being an expanded star cluster disrupted by process such as residual gas expulsion or tidal heating. The kinematic substructures, which appear to be close to virial equilibrium and have typical masses of 40-400 M⊙, also do not appear to have been affected by the expulsion of the residual gas. We conclude that Cyg OB2 was most likely born highly substructured and globally unbound, with the individual subgroups born in (or close to) virial equilibrium, and that the OB association has not experienced significant dynamical evolution since then.

  13. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    2014-11-01

    The low [α/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetesimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low α-element ratios of dSph stars. The proper motion pair's heavy-to-light n-capture element ratio, which is >=0.3-0.5 dex lower than in the Galactic halo field and dSph stars, is discussed in the context of the truncated r-process, phenomenological n-capture production models, and α-rich freezeout in a high neutron excess environment; the latter simultaneously provides an attractive explanation of the difference in [Ca, Ti/O, Mg, Si] ratio in HD 134439/134440 compared to in situ dSph stars.

  14. The World Stress Map Database Release 2016 - Global Crustal Stress Pattern vs. Absolute Plate Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Ziegler, Moritz; Reiter, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile the global information on the contemporary crustal stress state. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions, engineering methods (e.g. overcoring), and geological data (e.g. inversion of fault slip measurements). To guarantee the comparability of the different data sources each data record is assessed with the WSM quality ranking scheme. For the 30th anniversary we compiled a new WSM database with 42,410 data records which is an increase by >20,000 data records compared to the WSM 2008 database. In particular we added new data from more than 3,500 deep boreholes and put special emphasis on regions which previously had sparse or no published stress data such as China, Australia, Brazil, Southern Africa, Middle East and Iceland. Furthermore, we fully integrated the Chinese stress database and the Australian stress database. The resulting data increase reveals several areas with regional and local variability of the stress pattern. In particular we re-visited the question whether the plate boundary forces are the key control of the plate-wide stress pattern as indicated by the first release of the WSM in 1989 [Zoback et al, 1989]. As the WSM has now more than 10 times data records and thus a better spatial coverage we first filter the long-wave length stress pattern on a regular grid. We determine at these grid points the difference between absolute plate motion azimuth using the global plate model HS3-NUVEL1A [Gripp and Gordon, 2002] and the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. The preliminary results show that the earlier findings are still valid in principal. However, all plates show in some parts significant deviations from this general trend; some plates such as the Australian Plate show hardly any

  15. Long-Period Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Relative, Pseudo-Relative and Absolute Velocity Response Spectra in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) also known as attenuation relations have been developed for absolute acceleration or pseudo relative velocity response spectra. For a small damping, pseudo and absolute acceleration response spectra are nearly identical and hence interchangeable. It is generally known that the relative and pseudo relative velocity response spectra differ considerably at very short or very long periods, and the two are often considered similar at intermediate periods. However, observations show that the period range at which the two spectra become comparable is different from site to site. Also, the relationship of the above two types of velocity response spectra with absolute velocity response spectra are not discussed well in literature. The absolute velocity response spectra are the peak values of time histories obtained by adding the ground velocities to relative velocity response time histories at individual natural periods. There exists many tall buildings on huge and deep sedimentary basins such as the Kanto basin, and the number of such buildings is growing. Recently, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has proposed four classes of long-period ground motion intensity (http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eew/data/ltpgm/) based on absolute velocity response spectra, which correlate to the difficulty of movement of people in tall buildings. As the researchers are using various types of response spectra for long-period ground motions, it is important to understand the relationships between them to take appropriate measures for disaster prevention applications. In this paper, we, therefore, obtain and discuss the empirical attenuation relationships using the same functional forms for the three types of velocity response spectra computed from observed strong motion records from moderate to large earthquakes in relation to JMA magnitude, hypocentral distance, sediment depths, and AVS30 as predictor variables at periods between

  16. Observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers with East-Asian VLBI Network. II. Internal proper motion measurement in G006.79-00.25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Koichiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Motogi, Kazuhito; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Hirano, Daiki; Hayashi, Kyonosuke; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Honma, Mareki; Hirota, Tomoya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Chen, Xi; Xia, Bo; Li, Bin; Sorai, Kazuo; Momose, Munetake; Saito, Yu; Takaba, Hiroshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Kim, Kee-Tae; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2016-10-01

    We detected internal proper motions of the methanol maser features at 6.7 GHz in a high-mass star-forming region G006.79-00.25 with the East-Asian VLBI Network. The spatial distribution of the maser features shows an elliptical morphology. The internal proper motions of 17 methanol maser features relative to the barycenter of the features were measured. The amplitude of the internal motions ranged from 1.30 to 10.25 km s-1. Most of the internal proper motions of the maser features seem to point counterclockwise along the elliptical morphology of the maser features. We applied the disk model, which includes both rotating and expanding components, to the observed positions, l.o.s. velocities, and proper motions. The derived rotation, expansion, and systemic velocities are +3^{+2}_{-2}, +6^{+2}_{-2}, and +21^{+2}_{-2}km s-1, respectively, at the radius of 1260 au on the disk with a position angle of the semi-major axis of - 140° and an inclination of 60°. The derived rotating motion suggests that the methanol maser emissions showing the elliptical spatial morphology possibly trace the rotating disk. The derived expanding motion might be caused by the magnetic-centrifugal wind on the disk, which was estimated on the basis of the typical magnetic field strength at emitting zones of a methanol maser.

  17. Discovery of Four High Proper Motion L Dwarfs, Including a 10 pc L Dwarf at the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Philip J.; Gizis, John E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; McLean, Ian S.; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    2013-10-01

    We discover four high proper motion L dwarfs by comparing the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISE J140533.32+835030.5 is an L dwarf at the L/T transition with a proper motion of 0.85 ± 0.''02 yr-1, previously overlooked due to its proximity to a bright star (V ≈ 12 mag). From optical spectroscopy we find a spectral type of L8, and from moderate-resolution J band spectroscopy we find a near-infrared spectral type of L9. We find WISE J140533.32+835030.5 to have a distance of 9.7 ± 1.7 pc, bringing the number of L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc from six to seven. WISE J040137.21+284951.7, WISE J040418.01+412735.6, and WISE J062442.37+662625.6 are all early L dwarfs within 25 pc, and were classified using optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra. WISE J040418.01+412735.6 is an L2 pec (red) dwarf, a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We use follow-up optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to classify a previously discovered fifth object WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 as an (L8 Opt/L9 NIR), confirming it as an L dwarf at the L/T transition within 10 pc. WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 shows tentative CH4 in the H band, possibly the result of unresolved binarity with an early T dwarf, a scenario not supported by binary spectral template fitting. If WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 is a single object, it represents the earliest onset of CH4 in the H band of an L/T transition dwarf in the SpeX Library. As very late L dwarfs within 10 pc, WISE J140533.32+835030.5 and WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 will play a vital role in resolving outstanding issues at the L/T transition.

  18. Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

    Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1‧‧. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00

  19. X-Ray Analysis of the Proper Motion and Pulsar Wind Nebula for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Ng, C.-Y.; Temim, Tea; Weisskopf, Martin. C.; Bykov, Andrei; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2015-03-01

    We obtained six observations of PSR J1741-2054 using the Chandra ACIS-S detector totaling ∼300 ks. By registering this new epoch of observations to an archival observation taken 3.2 yr earlier using X-ray point sources in the field of view, we have measured the pulsar proper motion at μ =109+/- 10 mas y{{r}-1} in a direction consistent with the symmetry axis of the observed Hα nebula. We investigated the inferred past trajectory of the pulsar but find no compelling association with OB associations in which the progenitor may have originated. We confirm previous measurements of the pulsar spectrum as an absorbed power law with photon index Γ = 2.68 ± 0.04, plus a blackbody with an emission radius of (4.5-2.5+3.2){{d}0.38} km, for a DM-estimated distance of 0.38{{d}0.38} kpc and a temperature of 61.7 ± 3.0 eV. Emission from the compact nebula is well described by an absorbed power law model with a photon index of Γ = 1.67 ± 0.06, while the diffuse emission seen as a trail extending northeast of the pulsar shows no evidence of synchrotron cooling. We also applied image deconvolution techniques to search for small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar, but found no conclusive evidence for such structures.

  20. Characterization of the Praesepe star cluster by photometry and proper motions with 2MASS, PPMXL, and Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P. F.; Chen, W. P.; Lin, C. C.; Huang, C. K.; Panwar, N.; Lee, C. H.; Pandey, A. K.; Tsai, M. F.; Tang, C.-H.; Goldman, B.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Draper, P. W.; Grav, T.; and others

    2014-03-20

    Membership identification is the first step in determining the properties of a star cluster. Low-mass members in particular could be used to trace the dynamical history, such as mass segregation, stellar evaporation, or tidal stripping, of a star cluster in its Galactic environment. We identified member candidates of the intermediate-age Praesepe cluster (M44) with stellar masses ∼0.11-2.4 M {sub ☉}, using Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, and PPMXL proper motions. Within a sky area of 3° radius, 1040 candidates are identified, of which 96 are new inclusions. Using the same set of selection criteria on field stars, an estimated false positive rate of 16% was determined, suggesting that 872 of the candidates are true members. This most complete and reliable membership list allows us to favor the BT-Settl model over other stellar models. The cluster shows a distinct binary track above the main sequence, with a binary frequency of 20%-40%, and a high occurrence rate of similar mass pairs. The mass function is consistent with that of the disk population but shows a deficit of members below 0.3 solar masses. A clear mass segregation is evidenced, with the lowest-mass members in our sample being evaporated from this disintegrating cluster.

  1. LOW-MASS TERTIARY COMPANIONS TO SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. I. COMMON PROPER MOTION SURVEY FOR WIDE COMPANIONS USING 2MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Peter R.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-08-15

    We report the first results of a multi-epoch search for wide (separations greater than a few tens of AU), low-mass tertiary companions of a volume-limited sample of 118 known spectroscopic binaries within 30 pc of the Sun, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and follow-up observations with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes. Note that this sample is not volume complete but volume limited, and, thus, there is incompleteness in our reported companion rates. We are sensitive to common proper motion companions with separations from roughly 200 AU to 10,000 AU ({approx}10'' {yields} {approx} 10'). From 77 sources followed-up to date, we recover 11 previously known tertiaries, 3 previously known candidate tertiaries, of which 2 are spectroscopically confirmed and 1 rejected, and 3 new candidates, of which 2 are confirmed and 1 rejected. This yields an estimated wide tertiary fraction of 19.5{sup +5.2}{sub -3.7}%. This observed fraction is consistent with predictions set out in star formation simulations where the fraction of wide, low-mass companions to spectroscopic binaries is >10%.

  2. X-Ray Analysis of the Proper Motion and Pulsar Wind Nebula for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Ng, C-Y.; Temim, Tea; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bykov, Andrei; Swartz, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We obtained six observations of PSR J1741-2054 using the Chandra ACIS-S detector totaling approx.300 ks. By registering this new epoch of observations to an archival observation taken 3.2 yr earlier using X-ray point sources in the field of view, we have measured the pulsar proper motion at micron = 109 +/- 10 mas yr(exp. -1) in a direction consistent with the symmetry axis of the observed H(alpha) nebula. We investigated the inferred past trajectory of the pulsar but find no compelling association with OB associations in which the progenitor may have originated. We confirm previous measurements of the pulsar spectrum as an absorbed power law with photon index gamma = 2.68 +/- 0.04, plus a blackbody with an emission radius of (4.5(+3.2/-2.5))d(0.38) km, for a DM-estimated distance of 0.38d(0.38) kpc and a temperature of 61.7 +/- 3.0 eV. Emission from the compact nebula is well described by an absorbed power law model with a photon index of gamma = 1.67 +/- 0.06, while the diffuse emission seen as a trail extending northeast of the pulsar shows no evidence of synchrotron cooling. We also applied image deconvolution techniques to search for small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar, but found no conclusive evidence for such structures.

  3. Characterization of the Praesepe Star Cluster by Photometry and Proper Motions with 2MASS, PPMXL, and Pan-STARRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Chen, W. P.; Lin, C. C.; Pandey, A. K.; Huang, C. K.; Panwar, N.; Lee, C. H.; Tsai, M. F.; Tang, C.-H.; Goldman, B.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2014-03-01

    Membership identification is the first step in determining the properties of a star cluster. Low-mass members in particular could be used to trace the dynamical history, such as mass segregation, stellar evaporation, or tidal stripping, of a star cluster in its Galactic environment. We identified member candidates of the intermediate-age Praesepe cluster (M44) with stellar masses ~0.11-2.4 M ⊙, using Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, and PPMXL proper motions. Within a sky area of 3° radius, 1040 candidates are identified, of which 96 are new inclusions. Using the same set of selection criteria on field stars, an estimated false positive rate of 16% was determined, suggesting that 872 of the candidates are true members. This most complete and reliable membership list allows us to favor the BT-Settl model over other stellar models. The cluster shows a distinct binary track above the main sequence, with a binary frequency of 20%-40%, and a high occurrence rate of similar mass pairs. The mass function is consistent with that of the disk population but shows a deficit of members below 0.3 solar masses. A clear mass segregation is evidenced, with the lowest-mass members in our sample being evaporated from this disintegrating cluster.

  4. Confirmation of the OGLE-2005-BLG-169 Planet Signature and Its Characteristics with Lens-Source Proper Motion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Bennett, D. P.; Gould, A.; Marquette, J.-B.; Fukui, A.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present Keck NIRC2 high angular resolution adaptive optics observations of the microlensing event OGLE-2005-BLG-169Lb, taken 8.21 years after the discovery of this planetary system. For the first time for a microlensing planetary event, the source and the lens are completely resolved, providing a precise measurement of their heliocentric relative proper motion, {μ }{rel,{helio}}=7.44+/- 0.17 mas yr-1. This confirms and refines the initial model presented in the discovery paper and rules out a range of solutions that were allowed by the microlensing light curve. This is also the first time that parameters derived from a microlensing planetary signal are confirmed, both with the Keck measurements, presented in this paper, and independent measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in I,V and B bands, presented in a companion paper. Hence, this new measurement of {μ }{rel,{helio}}, as well as the measured brightness of the lens in H band, enabled the mass and distance of the system to be updated: a Uranus-mass planet ({m}{{p}}=13.2+/- 1.3{M}\\oplus ) orbiting a K5-type main sequence star ({M}*=0.65+/- 0.05{M}⊙ ) separated by {a}\\perp =3.4+/- 0.3 AU, at the distance {D}{{L}}=4.0+/- 0.4 kpc from us.

  5. Late Neogene changes in North America and Antarctica absolute plate motions inferred from the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges spreading histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, G.; DeMets, C.

    2016-08-01

    Reconstructions of absolute plate motions underpin our understanding of the plate torque balance, but are challenging due to difficulties in inferring well-dated rates and directions of plate movements from hot spot tracks. Useful information about plate dynamics can be inferred from rapid absolute plate motion changes, as these are linked only to the torque(s) that changed. Here we infer late Neogene changes in the absolute motions of North America and possibly Antarctica from changes in the easier-to-determine relative plate motions recorded along the Arctic, northern Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. We show that Eurasia/North America and Nubia/North America motions changed by the same amount between 8 and 5 Ma, as may have Nubia/Antarctica and Somalia/Antarctica plate motions. By considering additional, independent constraints on Somalia/India plate motion, we argue that a scenario in which North America and Antarctica absolute motions changed is the simplest one that explains the observed changes in relative motions. We speculate that these changes are linked to the late Neogene dynamics of the Pacific plate.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. III. Dynamical Distances and Mass-to-Light Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay

    2015-10-01

    We present dynamical distance estimates for 15 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and use these to check the consistency of dynamical and photometric distance estimates. For most of the clusters, this is the first dynamical distance estimate ever determined. We extract proper-motion (PM) dispersion profiles using cleaned samples of bright stars from the Hubble Space Telescope PM catalogs recently presented in Bellini et al. and compile a set of line of sight (LOS) velocity-dispersion profiles from a variety of literature sources. Distances are then estimated by fitting spherical, non-rotating, isotropic, constant mass-to-light ratio (M/L) dynamical models to the PM and LOS dispersion profiles together. We compare our dynamical distance estimates with literature photometric estimates from the Harris GC catalog and find that the mean fractional difference between the two types is consistent with zero at just -1.9 ± 1.7%. This indicates that there are no significant biases in either estimation method and provides an important validation of the stellar-evolution theory that underlies photometric distance estimates. The analysis also estimates dynamical M/Ls for our clusters; on average, the dynamically inferred M/Ls agree with existing stellar-population-based M/Ls that assume a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF) to within -8.8 ± 6.4%, implying that such an IMF is consistent with our data. Our results are also consistent with a Kroupa IMF, but strongly rule out a Salpeter IMF. We detect no correlation between our M/L offsets from literature values and our distance offsets from literature values, strongly indicating that our methods are reliable and our results are robust. Based on proprietary and archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION (HSTPROMO) CATALOGS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION, DATA REDUCTION, AND NGC 7078 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Watkins, L. L.; King, I. R.; Bianchini, P.; Chanamé, J.; Chandar, R.; Cool, A. M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Ford, H.

    2014-12-20

    We present the first study of high-precision internal proper motions (PMs) in a large sample of globular clusters, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained over the past decade with the ACS/WFC, ACS/HRC, and WFC3/UVIS instruments. We determine PMs for over 1.3 million stars in the central regions of 22 clusters, with a median number of ∼60,000 stars per cluster. These PMs have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the internal kinematics of globular clusters by extending past line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements to two- or three-dimensional velocities, lower stellar masses, and larger sample sizes. We describe the reduction pipeline that we developed to derive homogeneous PMs from the very heterogeneous archival data. We demonstrate the quality of the measurements through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the PM errors introduced by various systematic effects and the techniques that we have developed to correct or remove them to the extent possible. We provide in electronic form the catalog for NGC 7078 (M 15), which consists of 77,837 stars in the central 2.'4. We validate the catalog by comparison with existing PM measurements and LOS velocities and use it to study the dependence of the velocity dispersion on radius, stellar magnitude (or mass) along the main sequence, and direction in the plane of the sky (radial or tangential). Subsequent papers in this series will explore a range of applications in globular-cluster science and will also present the PM catalogs for the other sample clusters.

  8. THE PROPER MOTION AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA, PSR J1741-2054 USING CHANDRA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick O.; Romani, Roger W.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-08-01

    A pulsar dissipates its rotational energy by generating relativistic winds, which in turn produces a population of high energy electrons and positions that we observe as a synchrotron emitting nebula. If the pulsar has a high space velocity, the corresponding nebula will have a bow-shock morphology due to the pulsar wind being confined by ram pressure. Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) provide a good test bed to study the dynamics and interaction of relativistic outflows with their environment and the corresponding shocks that result from these interactions. They can also aid in understanding the evolution of the neutron star and the properties of the local medium with which they are interacting. Here we report on the X-ray analysis of PSR J1741-2054 carried out as a part of the Chandra XVP program (6 ACIS-S observations, totalling ~300 ks over 5 months). By registering this new epoch of observations using X-ray point sources in the field of view to an archival observation taken 3.2 years earlier, we are able to measure the proper motion of the pulsar with >3σ significance. We also investigate the spatial and spectral properties of the pulsar, its compact nebula and extended tail. We find that the compact nebula can be well described with an absorbed power-law with photon index of Γ=1.6+/-0.2, while the tail shows no evidence of variation in the spectral index with the distance from the pulsar. We have also investigated the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star. We find nonthermal emission accompanied by a significant thermal component and will provide constraints on the overall nature of the emission.

  9. Third-epoch Magellanic Cloud proper motions. II. The large Magellanic Cloud rotation field in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detailed assessment of the large-scale rotation of any galaxy based on full three-dimensional velocity measurements. We do this for the LMC by combining our Hubble Space Telescope average proper motion (PM) measurements for stars in 22 fields, with existing line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements for 6790 individual stars. We interpret these data with a model of circular rotation in a flat disk. The PM and LOS data paint a consistent picture of the LMC rotation, and their combination yields several new insights. The PM data imply a stellar dynamical center that coincides with the H I dynamical center, and a rotation curve amplitude consistent with that inferred from LOS velocity studies. The implied disk viewing angles agree with the range of values found in the literature, but continue to indicate variations with stellar population and/or radius. Young (red supergiant) stars rotate faster than old (red and asymptotic giant branch) stars due to asymmetric drift. Outside the central region, the circular velocity is approximately flat at V {sub circ} = 91.7 ± 18.8 km s{sup –1}. This is consistent with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and implies an enclosed mass M(8.7 kpc) = (1.7 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. The virial mass is larger, depending on the full extent of the LMC's dark halo. The tidal radius is 22.3 ± 5.2 kpc (24.°0 ± 5.°6). Combination of the PM and LOS data yields kinematic distance estimates for the LMC, but these are not yet competitive with other methods.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Sample Selection, Data Reduction, and NGC 7078 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Watkins, L. L.; King, I. R.; Bianchini, P.; Chanamé, J.; Chandar, R.; Cool, A. M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Ford, H.; Massari, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of high-precision internal proper motions (PMs) in a large sample of globular clusters, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained over the past decade with the ACS/WFC, ACS/HRC, and WFC3/UVIS instruments. We determine PMs for over 1.3 million stars in the central regions of 22 clusters, with a median number of ~60,000 stars per cluster. These PMs have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the internal kinematics of globular clusters by extending past line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements to two- or three-dimensional velocities, lower stellar masses, and larger sample sizes. We describe the reduction pipeline that we developed to derive homogeneous PMs from the very heterogeneous archival data. We demonstrate the quality of the measurements through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the PM errors introduced by various systematic effects and the techniques that we have developed to correct or remove them to the extent possible. We provide in electronic form the catalog for NGC 7078 (M 15), which consists of 77,837 stars in the central 2.'4. We validate the catalog by comparison with existing PM measurements and LOS velocities and use it to study the dependence of the velocity dispersion on radius, stellar magnitude (or mass) along the main sequence, and direction in the plane of the sky (radial or tangential). Subsequent papers in this series will explore a range of applications in globular-cluster science and will also present the PM catalogs for the other sample clusters. Based on proprietary and archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Oyama, T. E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  12. New method to measure proper motions of microlensed sources: Application to candidate free-floating-planet event MOA-2011-BLG-262

    SciTech Connect

    Skowron, Jan; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, Michał K. E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl; and others

    2014-04-20

    We develop a new method to measure source proper motions in microlensing events, which can partially overcome problems due to blending. It takes advantage of the fact that the source position is known precisely from the microlensing event itself. We apply this method to the event MOA-2011-BLG-262, which has a short timescale t {sub E} = 3.8 day, a companion mass ratio q = 4.7 × 10{sup –3}, and a very high or high lens-source relative proper motion μ{sub rel} = 20 mas yr{sup –1} or 12 mas yr{sup –1} (for two possible models). These three characteristics imply that the lens could be a brown dwarf or a massive planet with a roughly Earth-mass 'moon'. The probability of such an interpretation would be greatly increased if it could be shown that the high lens-source relative proper motion was primarily due to the lens rather than the source. Based on the long-term monitoring data of the Galactic bulge from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we measure the source proper motion that is small, μ{sub s}=(−2.3,−0.9)±(2.8,2.6) mas yr{sup −1} in a (north, east) Galactic coordinate frame. These values are then important input into a Bayesian analysis of the event presented in a companion paper by Bennett et al.

  13. Absolute plate motions and true polar wander in the absence of hotspot tracks.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H

    2008-04-01

    The motion of continents relative to the Earth's spin axis may be due either to rotation of the entire Earth relative to its spin axis--true polar wander--or to the motion of individual plates. In order to distinguish between these over the past 320 Myr (since the formation of the Pangaea supercontinent), we present here computations of the global average of continental motion and rotation through time in a palaeomagnetic reference frame. Two components are identified: a steady northward motion and, during certain time intervals, clockwise and anticlockwise rotations, interpreted as evidence for true polar wander. We find approximately 18 degrees anticlockwise rotation about 250-220 Myr ago and the same amount of clockwise rotation about 195-145 Myr ago. In both cases the rotation axis is located at about 10-20 degrees W, 0 degrees N, near the site that became the North American-South American-African triple junction at the break-up of Pangaea. This was followed by approximately 10 degrees clockwise rotation about 145-135 Myr ago, followed again by the same amount of anticlockwise rotation about 110-100 Myr ago, with a rotation axis in both cases approximately 25-50 degrees E in the reconstructed area of North Africa and Arabia. These rotation axes mark the maxima of the degree-two non-hydrostatic geoid during those time intervals, and the fact that the overall net rotation since 320 Myr ago is nearly zero is an indication of long-term stability of the degree-two geoid and related mantle structure. We propose a new reference frame, based on palaeomagnetism, but corrected for the true polar wander identified in this study, appropriate for relating surface to deep mantle processes from 320 Myr ago until hotspot tracks can be used (about 130 Myr ago).

  14. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    PubMed Central

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002–2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world’s first climate change “refugees.” We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future. PMID:21795605

  15. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  16. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu).

    PubMed

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  17. Large proper motion of the Thorne-Żytkow object candidate HV 2112 reveals its likely nature as foreground Galactic S-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    Using the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) catalogue, we show that the candidate Thorne-Żytkow object HV 2112 has a proper motion implying a space velocity of about 3000 {km} {s}^{-1}if the object is located at the distance of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The proper motion is statistically different from that of the SMC at approximately 4σ in SPM, although the result can drop to about 3σ significance by including the UCAC4 data and considering systematic uncertainties in addition to the statistical ones. Assuming the measurement is robust, this proper motion is sufficient to exclude its proposed membership of the SMC and to argue instead that it is likely to be a foreground star in the Milky Way halo. The smaller distance and therefore lower brightness argue against its proposed nature as a Thorne-Żytkow object (the hypothesized star-like object formed when a normal star and a neutron star merge) or a Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Instead we propose a binary scenario where this star is the companion of a former massive AGB star, which polluted the object with via its stellar wind, i.e. a special case of an extrinsic S star. Our new scenario solves two additional problems with the two existing scenarios for its nature as Thorne-Żytkow object or present-day super AGB star. The puzzling high ratio of the strength of calcium to iron absorption lines is unexpected for SMC supergiants, but is fully consistent with the expectations for halo abundances. Secondly, its strong variability can now be explained naturally as a manifestation of the Mira phenomenon. We discuss further observational tests that could distinguish between the foreground and SMC scenarios in advance of the improved proper motion measurements likely to come from Gaia.

  18. Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The

  19. Apsidal motion and absolute parameters for five LMC eccentric eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: As part of our observational projects at the La Silla Danish 1.54-meter telescope, we aim to measure the precise times of minimum light for eccentric eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud, needed for accurate determination of apsidal motion. Many new times of minima were derived from the photometric databases OGLE and MACHO. Several new minima were also observed. Five early-type and eccentric-orbit eclipsing binaries: HV 982 (P = 5.d34, e = 0.15), HV 2274 (5.d73, 0.17), MACHO 78.6097.13 (3.d11, 0.05), MACHO 81.8881.47 (3.d88, 0.22), and MACHO 79.5377.76 (2.d64, 0.06) were studied. Methods: The O-C diagrams of the systems were analysed using all reliable timings found in the literature, and new or improved elements of apsidal motion were obtained. Light and radial velocity curves of MACHO 81.8881.47 and MACHO 79.5377.76 were analysed using the program PHOEBE. Results: We derived for the first time or significantly improved the relatively short periods of apsidal motion of 211 (12), 127 (8), 48 (13), 103 (20), and 42 (19) years, respectively. The internal structure constants, log k2, were found to be -2.37, -2.47, -2.17, -2.02, and -1.86 respectively, under the assumption that the component stars rotate pseudosynchronously. The relativistic effects are weak, up to 6% of the total apsidal motion rate. The masses for MACHO 81.8881.47 resulted in 5.51 (0.21) and 5.40 (0.19) M⊙, while for MACHO 79.5377.76 the masses are 11.26 (0.35) and 11.27 (0.35) M⊙, respectively. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 68.A-0223(A), and on data collected with the Danish 1.54 m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT. II. DETAILS ON NINE WIDE COMMON PROPER MOTION VERY LOW MASS COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Burgasser, Adam J.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2010-01-15

    We report on nine wide common proper motion systems containing late-type M, L, or T companions. We confirm six previously reported companions, and identify three new systems. The ages of these systems are determined using diagnostics for both stellar primaries and low-mass secondaries and masses for the secondaries are inferred using evolutionary models. Of our three new discoveries, the M3+T6.5 pair G 204-39 and SDSS J1758+4633 has an age constrained to 0.5-1.5 Gyr making the secondary a potentially useful brown dwarf benchmark. The G5+L4 pair G 200-28 and SDSS J1416+5006 has a projected separation of {approx}25,000 AU making it one of the widest and lowest binding energy systems known to date. The system containing NLTT 2274 and SDSS J0041+1341 is an older M4+L0 (>4.5 Gyr) pair which shows H{alpha} activity in the secondary but not the primary making it a useful tracer of age/mass/activity trends. Two of the nine systems have discrepant component ages that emerge from stellar or ultracool diagnostics indicating possible shortcomings in our understanding of the age diagnostics of stars and brown dwarfs. We find a resolved binary frequency for widely separated (>100 AU) low-mass companions (i.e., at least a triple system) which is at least twice the frequency found for the field ultracool dwarf population. The ratio of triples to binaries and quadruples to binaries is also high for this sample: 3:5 and 1:4, respectively, compared to 8 pc sample values of 1:4 and 1:26. The additional components in these wide companion systems indicates a formation mechanism that requires a third or fourth component to maintain gravitational stability or facilitate the exchange of angular momentum. The binding energies for the nine multiples discussed in this text are among the lowest known for wide low-mass systems, suggesting that weakly bound, low-to-intermediate mass (0.2 M {sub sun} < M {sub tot}< 1.0 M {sub sun}) multiples can form and survive to exist in the field (1-8 Gyr)

  1. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project. II. Details on Nine Wide Common Proper Motion Very Low Mass Companions to Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Shara, Michael M.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on nine wide common proper motion systems containing late-type M, L, or T companions. We confirm six previously reported companions, and identify three new systems. The ages of these systems are determined using diagnostics for both stellar primaries and low-mass secondaries and masses for the secondaries are inferred using evolutionary models. Of our three new discoveries, the M3+T6.5 pair G 204-39 and SDSS J1758+4633 has an age constrained to 0.5-1.5 Gyr making the secondary a potentially useful brown dwarf benchmark. The G5+L4 pair G 200-28 and SDSS J1416+5006 has a projected separation of ~25,000 AU making it one of the widest and lowest binding energy systems known to date. The system containing NLTT 2274 and SDSS J0041+1341 is an older M4+L0 (>4.5 Gyr) pair which shows Hα activity in the secondary but not the primary making it a useful tracer of age/mass/activity trends. Two of the nine systems have discrepant component ages that emerge from stellar or ultracool diagnostics indicating possible shortcomings in our understanding of the age diagnostics of stars and brown dwarfs. We find a resolved binary frequency for widely separated (>100 AU) low-mass companions (i.e., at least a triple system) which is at least twice the frequency found for the field ultracool dwarf population. The ratio of triples to binaries and quadruples to binaries is also high for this sample: 3:5 and 1:4, respectively, compared to 8 pc sample values of 1:4 and 1:26. The additional components in these wide companion systems indicates a formation mechanism that requires a third or fourth component to maintain gravitational stability or facilitate the exchange of angular momentum. The binding energies for the nine multiples discussed in this text are among the lowest known for wide low-mass systems, suggesting that weakly bound, low-to-intermediate mass (0.2 M sun < M tot< 1.0 M sun) multiples can form and survive to exist in the field (1-8 Gyr). This paper includes data

  2. Improved Hubble Space Telescope proper motions for Tycho-G and other stars in the remnant of Tycho's Supernova 1572

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedin, L. R.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; González Hernández, J. I.; Canal, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Mendez, J.

    2014-03-01

    With archival and new Hubble Space Telescope observations, we have refined the space-velocity measurements of the stars in the central region of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN) 1572, one of the historical Galactic Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). We derived a proper motion for Tycho-G of (μαcos δ; μδ)J2000.0 = (-2.63; -3.98) ± (0.06; 0.04) [formal errors] ± (0.18; 0.10) [expected errors] mas yr-1. If the star were at the distance of the SNR (taken here to be 2.83 kpc), its velocity would be vb = -51 ± 1.5 km s-1. We also reconstruct the binary orbit that Tycho-G should have followed if it were the surviving companion of SN 1572. We redetermine the Ni abundance of this star and compare it with new abundance data from stars of the Galactic disc, finding that [Ni/Fe] is about 1.7σ above the Galactic trend. From the high velocity of Tycho-G perpendicular to the Galactic plane ( - 90 ± 3 km s-1 ≤ vb ≤ -45 ± 1 km s-1, for the allowed range of distances to the star), its metallicity and its Ni excess, we find the probability of it being a chance interloper to be P ≲ 0.000 37 at most. The projected rotational velocity of the star should be below current observational limits. The projected position of Tycho-G is, within the uncertainties, consistent with the centroid of the X-ray emission of Tycho's SNR; moreover, its brightness is generally consistent with the post-explosion evolution of the luminosity of an SN companion. Among the other 23 stars having V < 22 mag and located within 42 arcsec from the X-ray centroid, only 4 are at distances compatible with that of the SNR, and none of them shows any peculiarity. Therefore, if even Tycho-G is not the surviving companion of SN 1572, the absence of other viable candidates does favour the merging of two white dwarfs as the producer of the SN.

  3. Relative and Absolute Plate Motions, Mantle Plumes and Volcanism in the Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, C.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2012-04-01

    Seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic ocean from Mesozoic until present day involved relative motion between three major tectonic plates: North America, Greenland and Eurasia and a number of microplates. Relative motions between these tectonic plates and movement of northern Pacific terranes since the Jurassic led to the development of the Arctic region as we know it today. Studying the connection between the two realms involve good knowledge of the development of the North Atlantic and Arctic margins and oceanic basins and ideally, model uncertainties. Here we review the kinematics of North Atlantic and asses the implications of different models for locating the plate boundaries in the Arctic. One set of models implies extension before opening of the Eurasia basin and we postulate that this was accommodated in the proximity of Alpha- Mendeleev Ridge. The origin of (mainly) Cretaceous large igneous activity in the central Arctic (the Alpha Mendeleev Ridge) and in the proximity of rifted margins, the so-called HALIP, is still debated. New models of global plate circuits and the connection with deep mantle are used to re-evaluate a possible link between the Arctic volcanism and mantle plumes.

  4. NEARBY YOUNG STARS SELECTED BY PROPER MOTION. I. FOUR NEW MEMBERS OF THE {beta} PICTORIS MOVING GROUP FROM THE TYCHO-2 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Simon, Michal E-mail: michal.simon@sunysb.edu

    2009-03-15

    We describe a procedure to identify stars from nearby moving groups and associations out of catalogs of stars with large proper motions. We show that from the mean motion vector of a known or suspected moving group, one can identify additional members of the group based on proper motion data and photometry in the optical and infrared, with minimal contamination from background field stars. We demonstrate this technique by conducting a search for low-mass members of the {beta} Pictoris moving group in the Tycho-2 catalog. All known members of the moving group are easily recovered, and a list of 51 possible candidates is generated. Moving group membership is evaluated for 33 candidates based on X-ray flux from ROSAT, H{alpha} line emission, and radial velocity measurement from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained at Infrared Telescope Facility. We confirm three of the candidates to be new members of the group: TYC 1186-706-1, TYC 7443-1102-1, and TYC 2211-1309-1 which are late-K and early-M dwarfs 45-60 pc from the Sun. We also identify a common proper motion companion to the known {beta} Pictoris Moving Group member TYC 7443-1102-1, at a 26.''3 separation; the new companion is associated with the X-ray source 1RXS J195602.8 - 320720. We argue that the present technique could be applied to other large proper motion catalogs to identify most of the elusive, low-mass members of known nearby moving groups and associations.

  5. Nearby Young Stars Selected by Proper Motion. I. Four New Members of the β Pictoris Moving Group From The Tycho-2 Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Simon, Michal

    2009-03-01

    We describe a procedure to identify stars from nearby moving groups and associations out of catalogs of stars with large proper motions. We show that from the mean motion vector of a known or suspected moving group, one can identify additional members of the group based on proper motion data and photometry in the optical and infrared, with minimal contamination from background field stars. We demonstrate this technique by conducting a search for low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group in the Tycho-2 catalog. All known members of the moving group are easily recovered, and a list of 51 possible candidates is generated. Moving group membership is evaluated for 33 candidates based on X-ray flux from ROSAT, Hα line emission, and radial velocity measurement from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained at Infrared Telescope Facility. We confirm three of the candidates to be new members of the group: TYC 1186-706-1, TYC 7443-1102-1, and TYC 2211-1309-1 which are late-K and early-M dwarfs 45-60 pc from the Sun. We also identify a common proper motion companion to the known β Pictoris Moving Group member TYC 7443-1102-1, at a 26farcs3 separation; the new companion is associated with the X-ray source 1RXS J195602.8 - 320720. We argue that the present technique could be applied to other large proper motion catalogs to identify most of the elusive, low-mass members of known nearby moving groups and associations. Based on data obtained in part with the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope of the MDM observatory. Based on data obtained in part with the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, operated by SMARTS, the Small and Medium Aperture Telescope System consortium, under contract with the Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA).

  6. OBJECTS APPEAR SMALLER AS THEY RECEDE: HOW PROPER MOTIONS CAN DIRECTLY REVEAL THE COSMIC EXPANSION, PROVIDE GEOMETRIC DISTANCES, AND MEASURE THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy

    2013-11-10

    Objects and structures gravitationally decoupled from the Hubble expansion will appear to shrink in angular size as the universe expands. Observations of extragalactic proper motions can thus directly reveal the cosmic expansion. Relatively static structures such as galaxies or galaxy clusters can potentially be used to measure the Hubble constant, and test masses in large scale structures can measure the overdensity. Since recession velocities and angular separations can be precisely measured, apparent proper motions can also provide geometric distance measurements to static structures. The apparent fractional angular compression of static objects is 15 μas yr{sup –1} in the local universe; this motion is modulated by the overdensity in dynamic expansion-decoupled structures. We use the Titov et al. quasar proper motion catalog to examine the pairwise proper motion of a sparse network of test masses. Small-separation pairs (<200 Mpc comoving) are too few to measure the expected effect, yielding an inconclusive 8.3 ± 14.9 μas yr{sup –1}. Large-separation pairs (200-1500 Mpc) show no net convergence or divergence for z < 1, –2.7 ± 3.7 μas yr{sup –1}, consistent with pure Hubble expansion and significantly inconsistent with static structures, as expected. For all pairs a 'null test' gives –0.36 ± 0.62 μas yr{sup –1}, consistent with Hubble expansion and excludes a static locus at ∼5-10σ significance for z ≅ 0.5-2.0. The observed large-separation pairs provide a reference frame for small-separation pairs that will significantly deviate from the Hubble flow. The current limitation is the number of small-separation objects with precise astrometry, but Gaia will address this and will likely detect the cosmic recession.

  7. Deep Mantle Structure As a Reference Frame for Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Van Der Voo, R.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Burke, K. C.; Steinberger, B. M.; Domeier, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pangea supercontinent formed some 320 million years ago, the majority of large igneous provinces and diamond-bearing rocks (kimberlites) near Earth's surface can be sourced to plumes erupting from the margins of two large thermochemical reservoirs at the core-mantle boundary. Using this surface to core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a new iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we present a model for plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). We have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during the Paleozoic. True polar wander rates (<1 Degree/Myr) are compatible to those in the Mesozoic but plate velocities are on average twice as high. We show that a geologically reasonable model that reconstructs continents in longitude in such a way that large igneous provinces and kimberlites are positioned above the plume generation zones at the times of their formation can be successfully applied to the entire Phanerozoic. Our model is a kinematic model for only the continents. The next step in improving it will be developing a model for the entire lithosphere, including synthetic oceanic lithosphere. This is challenging, but we will demonstrate a full-plate model back to the Late Paleozoic (410 Ma).

  8. Ground-based CCD astrometry with wide field imagers. III. WFI@2.2m proper-motion catalog of the globular cluster ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, A.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Platais, I.; Momany, Y.; Moretti, A.; Milone, A. P.; Ortolani, S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: ω Centauri is the most well studied Galactic Globular Cluster because of its numerous puzzling features: significant dispersion in metallicity, multiple populations, triple main-sequence, horizontal branch morphology, He-rich population(s), and extended star-formation history. Intensive spectroscopic follow-up observing campaigns targeting stars at different positions in the color-magnitude diagram promises to clarify some of these peculiarities. Aims: To be able to target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys and both spatial and radial distributions in the cluster outskirts without including field stars, a high quality proper-motion catalog of ω Cen and membership probability determination are required. The only available wide field proper-motion catalog of ω Cen is derived from photographic plates, and only for stars brighter than B~16. Using ESO archive data, we create a new, CCD-based, proper-motion catalog for this cluster, extending to B~20. Methods: We used high precision astrometric software developed specifically for data acquired by WFI@2.2m telescope and presented in the first paper of this series. We demonstrated previously that a 7 mas astrometric precision level can be achieved with this telescope and camera for well exposed stars in a single exposure, assuming an empirical PSF and a local transformation approach in measuring star displacements. Results: We achieved a good cluster-field separation with a temporal base-line of only four years. We corrected our photometry for sky-concentration effects. We provide calibrated photometry for UBVR_CIC wide-band data plus narrow-band filter data centered on Hα for almost 360 000 stars. We confirm that the ω Cen metal-poor and metal-rich components have the same proper motion, and demonstrate that the metal-intermediate component in addition exhibits the same mean motion as the other RGB stars. We provide membership probability determinations for published ω Cen variable star

  9. Documentation for the machine readable version of the Yale Catalogue of the Positions and Proper Motions of Stars between Declinations -60 deg and -70 deg (Fallon 1983)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The machine-readable, character-coded version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center(ADC), is described. The format and data provided in the magnetic tape version differ somewhat from those of the published catalog, which was also produced from a tape prepared at the ADC. The primary catalog data are positions and proper motions (equinox 1950.0) for 14597 stars.

  10. Under proper control, oxidation of proteins with known chemical structure provides an accurate and absolute method for the determination of their molar concentration.

    PubMed

    Guermant, C; Azarkan, M; Smolders, N; Baeyens-Volant, D; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Brygier, J; Vincentelli, J; Looze, Y

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation at 120 degrees C of inorganic and organic (including amino acids, di- and tripeptides) model compounds by K(2)Cr(2)O(7) in the presence of H(2)SO(4) (mass fraction: 0.572), Ag(2)SO(4) (catalyst), and HgSO(4) results in the quantitative conversion of their C-atoms into CO(2) within 24 h or less. Under these stressed, well-defined conditions, the S-atoms present in cysteine and cystine residues are oxidized into SO(3) while, interestingly, the oxidation states of all the other (including the N-) atoms normally present in a protein do remain quite unchanged. When the chemical structure of a given protein is available, the total number of electrons the protein is able to transfer to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and thereof, the total number of moles of Cr(3+) ions which the protein is able to generate upon oxidation can be accurately calculated. In such cases, unknown protein molar concentrations can thus be determined through straightforward spectrophotometric measurements of Cr(3+) concentrations. The values of molar absorption coefficients for several well-characterized proteins have been redetermined on this basis and observed to be in excellent agreement with the most precise values reported in the literature, which fully assesses the validity of the method. When applied to highly purified proteins of known chemical structure (more generally of known atomic composition), this method is absolute and accurate (+/-1%). Furthermore, it is well adapted to series measurements since available commercial kits for chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements can readily be adapted to work under the experimental conditions recommended here for the protein assay. PMID:10610688

  11. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY MEASURED PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE γ-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0218+4232

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yuanjie; Chen, Ding; Yang, Jun; Campbell, Robert M.; Janssen, Gemma; Stappers, Ben

    2014-02-20

    PSR J0218+4232 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a flux density ∼0.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz. It is very bright in the high-energy X-ray and γ-ray domains. We conducted an astrometric program using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz to measure its proper motion and parallax. A model-independent distance would also help constrain its γ-ray luminosity. We achieved a detection of signal-to-noise ratio S/N >37 for the weak pulsar in all five epochs. Using an extragalactic radio source lying 20 arcmin away from the pulsar, we estimate the pulsar's proper motion to be μ{sub α}cos δ = 5.35 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} and μ{sub δ} = –3.74 ± 0.12 mas yr{sup –1}, and a parallax of π = 0.16 ± 0.09 mas. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) proper motion has significantly improved upon the estimates from long-term pulsar timing observations. The VLBI parallax provides the first model-independent distance constraints: d=6.3{sub −2.3}{sup +8.0} kpc, with a corresponding 3σ lower-limit of d = 2.3 kpc. This is the first pulsar trigonometric parallax measurement based solely on EVN observations. Using the derived distance, we believe that PSR J0218+4232 is the most energetic γ-ray MSP known to date. The luminosity based on even our 3σ lower-limit distance is high enough to pose challenges to the conventional outer gap and slot gap models.

  12. Identifications and limited spectroscopy for Luyten common proper motion stars with probable white dwarf components. I - Pair brighter than 17th magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Luyten, Willem J.

    1988-01-01

    Identifications are provided for 103 bright Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stellar systems with m(pg) less than 17.0 mag containing likely white dwarf (WD) components. New spectral types are presented for 55 components, and spectral types for 51 more are available in the literature. With the CPM systems previously published by Giclas et al. (1978), the Luyten stars provide a uniform sample of nearly 200 pairs or multiples brighter than 17h magnitude. Selection effects biasing the combined samples are discussed; in particular, evidence is presented that fewer than 1 percent of wide WD binaries have been detected.

  13. Proper Brushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 teeth using a vibrating back & forth rolling motion. A rolling motion is when the brush makes contact with the ... gumline. Gently brush using back, forth, and rolling motion along all of the inner tooth surfaces. Tilt ...

  14. Paleomagnetic Euler Poles and the Apparent Polar Wander and Absolute Motion of North America Since the Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Cox, Allan; O'Hare, Scott

    1984-10-01

    spot Euler pole for 200-90 Ma lies only 15° outside the 95% confidence ellipsoid of the paleomagnetic Euler pole. The good but not perfect agreement reflects displacement between the hot spot and paleomagnetic reference frames at an average rate that is smaller by an order of magnitude than the rate at which the faster plates are moving. The angular velocity of North America about the Jurassic-Cretaceous paleomagnetic Euler pole was determined by plotting the angular positions of paleomagnetic poles along the track as a function of age. For the Cretaceous the angular velocity was too small to measure. During the Jurassic the angular velocity was high, corresponding to a root-mean-square velocity of 70 km/m.y. for the North American plate. A short time interval of even more rapid movement during the Middle and Late Jurassic, possibly corresponding to the beginning of rapid displacement between North America and Africa, is suggested by the data. The direction of absolute motion of North America during the Jurassic was toward the northwest. A Carboniferous-Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic Euler pole was determined from 26 paleomagnetic poles. The progression of poles along this track is consistent with known ages and stratigraphy, except for some systematic differences between poles from Triassic rocks on the Colorado Plateau and poles from Triassic rocks off the Colorado Plateau. These differences could be due to a small clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau with respect to cratonal North America, or to miscorrelations between Triassic rocks on the Colorado Plateau and off the Colorado Plateau, or to large lag times between the deposition and magnetization of some rock units, or to some combination of these possibilities. Despite these ambiguities in interpreting paleomagnetic data from Triassic rocks, the general pattern of apparent polar wander and plate motion during the Carboniferous through Triassic is clear: The root-mean-square velocity of North America was

  15. HALO7D: Investigating the Structure and Accretion History of the Milky Way Stellar Halo with HST Proper Motions and Keck Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily Clifford; Deason, Alis; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance; Kirby, Evan; van der marel, roeland p.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2015-08-01

    The Milky Way (MW) is shrouded in a faint metal-poor stellar halo. Its structure and kinematics provide a unique archaeological record of the MW's formation, past evolution, and accretion history. These data also help us constrain the dark matter mass out to large radii (50 to 100 kpc). However, studies of the MW stellar halo are hindered by observational constraints. Beyond D~10 kpc, our knowledge of the MWhalo is limited to line of sight velocities and rare tracer populations (blue horizontal branch and red giant branch stars). We aim to address these limitations using highly accurate HST-measured proper motions and very deep (8-24 hour integrations) Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy of MW main sequence turn-off stars in the CANDELS fields. By combining these two datasets, we can obtain 6D phase-space information plus chemical abundances for our halo stars. This survey, which will be unique even in the era of Gaia, will vastly improve our understanding of the Milky Way structure, evolution and mass in a way that neither the HST proper motions nor Keck spectroscopy can do on their own.

  16. ON THE DETECTABILITY OF A PREDICTED MESOLENSING EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE HIGH PROPER MOTION STAR VB 10

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; DiStefano, Rosanne E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-04-10

    Extrapolation of the astrometric motion of the nearby low-mass star VB 10 indicates that sometime in late 2011 December or during the first 2-3 months of 2012, the star will make a close approach to a background point source. Based on astrometric uncertainties, we estimate a 1 in 2 chance that the distance of closest approach {rho}{sub min} will be less than 100 mas, a 1 in 5 chance that {rho}{sub min} < 50 mas, and a 1 in 10 chance that {rho}{sub min} < 20 mas. The last would result in a microlensing event with a 6% magnification in the light from the background source and an astrometric shift of 3.3 mas. The lensing signal will however be significantly diluted by the light from VB 10, which is 1.5 mag brighter than the background source in B band, 5 mag brighter in I band, and 10 mag brighter in K band, making the event undetectable in all but the bluer optical bands. However, we show that if VB 10 happens to harbor a {approx}1 M{sub J} planet on a moderately wide ( Almost-Equal-To 0.18 AU-0.84 AU) orbit, there is a chance (1% to more than 10%, depending on the distance of closest approach and orbital period and inclination) that a passage of the planet closer to the background source will result in a secondary event of higher magnification. The detection of secondary events could be made possible with a several-times-per-night multi-site monitoring campaign.

  17. Dynamics of intra-oceanic subduction initiation, part 2: supra-subduction zone ophiolite formation and metamorphic sole exhumation in context of absolute plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, M.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Peters, K.; Spakman, W.; Guilmette, C.; Thieulot, C.; Plumper, O.; Guerer, D.; Brouwer, F. M.; Aldanmaz, E.; Kaymakci, N.

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing subduction initiation is key for understanding the coupling between plate tectonics and underlying mantle. Here we focus on supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites and how their formation links to intra-oceanic subduction initiation in an absolute plate motion frame. SSZ ophiolites form the majority of exposed oceanic lithosphere fragments and are widely recognized to have formed during intra-oceanic subduction initiation. Structural, petrological, geochemical, and plate kinematic constraints on their kinematic evolution show that SSZ crust forms at forearc spreading centers at the expense of a mantle wedge, thereby flattening the nascent slab. This leads to the typical inverted pressure gradients found in metamorphic soles that form at the subduction plate contact below and during SSZ crust crystallization. Former spreading centers are preserved in forearcs when subduction initiates along transform faults or off-ridge oceanic detachments. We show how these are reactivated when subduction initiates in the absolute plate motion direction of the inverting weakness zone. Upon inception of slab-pull due to e.g. eclogitization, the sole is separated from the slab, remains welded to the thinned overriding plate lithosphere and can become intruded by mafic dikes upon asthenospheric influx into the mantle wedge. We propound that most ophiolites thus formed under special geodynamic circumstances and may not be representative of normal oceanic crust. Our study highlights how far-field geodynamic processes and absolute plate motions may force intra-oceanic subduction initiation as key towards advancing our understanding of the entire plate tectonic cycle.

  18. Present-day Surface Deformation and Vertical Motion In The Central Alborz (iran) From GPS and Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, F.; Sedighi, M.; Hinderer, J.; Bayer, R.; Nilforoushan, F.; Luck, J.-M.; Vernant, P.; Chéry, J.

    The present tectonic of Iran results from the north-south convergence between Eura- sia and Arabia, with a rate of about 3 cm/year. The deformation of Iran is concen- trated in major belts along the south-western border (Zagros), the southern shore of the Caspian Sea (Alborz) and along the north-east border (Kopet-Dag). The Alborz range is an east-west mountain range which accommodates about 1 cm/year of short- ening between the Central Iranian Desert and the south Caspian Sea. The main tec- tonic structures are generally overthrusting range-parallel faults northward dipping in the south (North Tehran fault, Mosha fault) and southward dipping in the north (Amir fault, North Border fault). The compressive tectonic in the Alborz range is certainly accommodated by large vertical motions along the major faults. To study the defor- mation (horizontal and vertical movement) we have installed and measured a GPS network of 14 sites crossing the Alborz range east of Tehran. The GPS network is measured during campaigns performed each year. In order to well constrained the ver- tical deformation of the southern border of the Alborz, we have performed colocated GPS and absolute gravity measurements in 3 sites, one near the Mosha fault (Abali), one in the frontal thrust area of Tehran and one in the stable central Iranian block (Chesmeh-Sour). After two measures (2000 and 2001), some interesting preliminary results will be shown. The observed gravity variation for one year (Sept. 2000 - Sept. 2001) is -3.0 mgal +-2.6 mgal (Abali), -24.2 mgal +-4.8 mgal (Tehran) and +4.7 mgal +-2.3 mgal (Chesmeh-Sour). These results could be explained respectively by a tec- tonic uplift of about 10 mm/year in the Alborz, water pumping in the Tehran area and (unexplained) subsidence at Chesmeh-Sour. These results will be compared to the first estimation of the deformation obtained by GPS (horizontal repeatability < 3 mm and vertical repeatability < 5 mm).

  19. Proper Motions of the Arches Cluster with Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics: The First Kinematic Mass Measurement of the Arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, W. I.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Lu, J. R.; Stolte, A.; McCrady, N.; Do, T.; Yelda, S.

    2012-06-01

    We report the first detection of the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the Arches cluster—a young (~2 Myr), massive (104 M ⊙) starburst cluster located only 26 pc in projection from the Galactic center. This was accomplished using proper motion measurements within the central 10'' × 10'' of the cluster, obtained with the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Keck Observatory over a three-year time baseline (2006-2009). This uniform data set results in proper motion measurements that are improved by a factor ~5 over previous measurements from heterogeneous instruments. By careful, simultaneous accounting of the cluster and field contaminant distributions as well as the possible sources of measurement uncertainties, we estimate the internal velocity dispersion to be 0.15 ± 0.01 mas yr-1, which corresponds to 5.4 ± 0.4 km s-1 at a distance of 8.4 kpc. Projecting a simple model for the cluster onto the sky to compare with our proper motion data set, in conjunction with surface density data, we estimate the total present-day mass of the cluster to be M(r < 1.0 pc) = 1.5+0.74 -0.60 × 104 M ⊙. The mass in stars observed within a cylinder of radius R (for comparison to photometric estimates) is found to be M(R < 0.4 pc) = 0.90+0.40 -0.35 × 104 M ⊙ at formal 3σ confidence. This mass measurement is free from assumptions about the mass function of the cluster, and thus may be used to check mass estimates from photometry and simulation. Photometric mass estimates assuming an initially Salpeter mass function (Γ0 = 1.35, or Γ ~ 1.0 at present, where dN/d(log M)vpropM Γ) suggest a total cluster mass M cl ~ (4-6) × 104 M ⊙ and projected mass (~ 2 <= M(R < 0.4 pc) <= 3) × 104 M ⊙. Photometric mass estimates assuming a globally top-heavy or strongly truncated present-day mass function (PDMF; with Γ ~ 0.6) yield mass estimates closer to M(R < 0.4 pc) ~ 1-1.2 × 104 M ⊙. Consequently, our results support a PDMF that is either top-heavy or truncated at low

  20. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE ARCHES CLUSTER WITH KECK LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS: THE FIRST KINEMATIC MASS MEASUREMENT OF THE ARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, W. I.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Lu, J. R.; Stolte, A.; McCrady, N.; Do, T.

    2012-06-01

    We report the first detection of the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the Arches cluster-a young ({approx}2 Myr), massive (10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }) starburst cluster located only 26 pc in projection from the Galactic center. This was accomplished using proper motion measurements within the central 10'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' of the cluster, obtained with the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Keck Observatory over a three-year time baseline (2006-2009). This uniform data set results in proper motion measurements that are improved by a factor {approx}5 over previous measurements from heterogeneous instruments. By careful, simultaneous accounting of the cluster and field contaminant distributions as well as the possible sources of measurement uncertainties, we estimate the internal velocity dispersion to be 0.15 {+-} 0.01 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to 5.4 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1} at a distance of 8.4 kpc. Projecting a simple model for the cluster onto the sky to compare with our proper motion data set, in conjunction with surface density data, we estimate the total present-day mass of the cluster to be M(r < 1.0 pc) = 1.5{sup +0.74}{sub -0.60} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The mass in stars observed within a cylinder of radius R (for comparison to photometric estimates) is found to be M(R < 0.4 pc) = 0.90{sup +0.40}{sub -0.35} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at formal 3{sigma} confidence. This mass measurement is free from assumptions about the mass function of the cluster, and thus may be used to check mass estimates from photometry and simulation. Photometric mass estimates assuming an initially Salpeter mass function ({Gamma}{sub 0} = 1.35, or {Gamma} {approx} 1.0 at present, where dN/d(log M){proportional_to}M{sup {Gamma}}) suggest a total cluster mass M{sub cl} {approx} (4-6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} and projected mass ({approx} 2 {<=} M(R < 0.4 pc) {<=} 3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. Photometric

  1. DISCOVERY OF FOUR HIGH PROPER MOTION L DWARFS, INCLUDING A 10 pc L DWARF AT THE L/T TRANSITION {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Philip J.; Gizis, John E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Skrutskie, Michael F. E-mail: gizis@udel.edu

    2013-10-20

    We discover four high proper motion L dwarfs by comparing the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISE J140533.32+835030.5 is an L dwarf at the L/T transition with a proper motion of 0.85 ± 0.''02 yr{sup –1}, previously overlooked due to its proximity to a bright star (V ≈ 12 mag). From optical spectroscopy we find a spectral type of L8, and from moderate-resolution J band spectroscopy we find a near-infrared spectral type of L9. We find WISE J140533.32+835030.5 to have a distance of 9.7 ± 1.7 pc, bringing the number of L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc from six to seven. WISE J040137.21+284951.7, WISE J040418.01+412735.6, and WISE J062442.37+662625.6 are all early L dwarfs within 25 pc, and were classified using optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra. WISE J040418.01+412735.6 is an L2 pec (red) dwarf, a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We use follow-up optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to classify a previously discovered fifth object WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 as an (L8 Opt/L9 NIR), confirming it as an L dwarf at the L/T transition within 10 pc. WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 shows tentative CH{sub 4} in the H band, possibly the result of unresolved binarity with an early T dwarf, a scenario not supported by binary spectral template fitting. If WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 is a single object, it represents the earliest onset of CH{sub 4} in the H band of an L/T transition dwarf in the SpeX Library. As very late L dwarfs within 10 pc, WISE J140533.32+835030.5 and WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 will play a vital role in resolving outstanding issues at the L/T transition.

  2. A method for the determination of a system of positions and proper motions of stars with an application to the Washington 6 inch TC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, H.

    In the present paper it is shown how a mean system of positions and proper motions of stars can be determined analytically. Using the formulae given by Bien et al. (1978) for the systematic differences Catalogue minus FK4 (Cat - FK4) a series development of the mean system of the catalogues involved is derived. Zero point corrections and catalogue errors are taken into account. This study has been made for providing a possible procedure for the determination of the system of the FK5. The method developed here has been tested by an application to the observations made with the Washington Six-Inch Transit Circle. The systematic differences between the FK4 and the catalogues W10, W25, W1/50, W2/50, W3/50, W4/50, W5/50, and the mean system which is defined by these catalogues are presented by analytical formulae and in tabular form. The results are discussed. In parallel to the analytical method, the system of the Washington Six-Inch Transit Circle has been derived by means of classical techniques. Both results agree very well. Finally it is shown that the developments are applicable for the case where a number of modern catalogues of observation shall serve for the improvement of the fundamental system.

  3. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  4. Proper Acknowledgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    The concern in Australian universities about the prevalence of plagiarism has led to the development of policies about academic integrity and in turn focused attention on the need to inform students about how to avoid plagiarism and how to properly acknowledge. Teaching students how to avoid plagiarism can appear to be straightforward if based on…

  5. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. III. A LIMIT ON THE PROPER MOTION OF THE 'CORE' OF THE QUASAR 3C 454.3

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lederman, J. I.; Petrov, L.

    2012-07-01

    We made very long baseline interferometry observations at 8.4 GHz between 1997 and 2005 to estimate the coordinates of the 'core' component of the superluminal quasar, 3C 454.3, the ultimate reference point in the distant universe for the NASA/Stanford Gyroscope Relativity Mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B). These coordinates are determined relative to those of the brightness peaks of two other compact extragalactic sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, nearby on the sky, and within a celestial reference frame (CRF), defined by a large suite of compact extragalactic radio sources, and nearly identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). We find that B2250+194 and B2252+172 are stationary relative to each other, and also in the CRF, to within 1{sigma} upper limits of 15 and 30 {mu}as yr{sup -1} in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively. The core of 3C 454.3 appears to jitter in its position along the jet direction over {approx}0.2 mas, likely due to activity close to the putative supermassive black hole nearby, but on average is stationary in the CRF within 1{sigma} upper limits on its proper motion of 39 {mu}as yr{sup -1} (1.0c) and 30 {mu}as yr{sup -1} (0.8c) in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively, for the period 2002-2005. Our corresponding limit over the longer interval, 1998-2005, of more importance to GP-B, is 46 and 56 {mu}as yr{sup -1} in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively. Some of 3C 454.3's jet components show significantly superluminal motion with speeds of up to {approx}200 {mu}as yr{sup -1} or 5c in the CRF. The core of 3C 454.3 thus provides for GP-B a sufficiently stable reference in the distant universe.

  6. Datirovka zvezdnogo kataloga Ptolemeya po sobstvennym dvizheniyam: tysyacheletnyaya problema reshena %t Dating Ptolemy's star catalogue based on proper motions: the thousand-year-old problem solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, A. K.; Efremov, Yu. N.

    The thousand-year-old problem of the origin of the star catalogue included in Ptolemy's "Almagest" is considered. The dilemma whether stellar coordinates were based on Hipparchus' or Ptolemy's observations has arisen long ago, because the 1 degree error in ecliptic longitudes may be explained either by Ptolemy's error in the initial longitudes of the Sun, or by the fact that Ptolemy adopted the original Hipparchus' coordinates and transformed them to a 265-year later epoch using an erroneous constant for precession. In fact, only indirect evidence for the Hipparchan origin of most of the coordinates was available so far, and most specialists considered the issue still to be resolved. We have successfully applied a new approach based on stellar proper motions. The time-dependent mutual distances in the configurations including 8 fast stars yield an epoch of -53 ± 130 B.C., whereas the bulk method based on an analysis of the Almagest minus computed coordinate differences for 40 fastest stars yields an epoch of -90 ± 120 B.C. Standard errors in the ancient ecliptic longitudes and latitudes are found to be σ(λcosβ) = 18' and σβ = 13', respectively. It is concluded that the stellar coordinates in the Almagest catalogue were observed during Hipparchus' lifetime and that Ptolemy's authorship claim can be rejected at a 94% significance level. Ptolemy's assertion that "we observed as many stars as we could sight down to the sixth magnitude" might simply imply that he found each star of the original catalogue to be near its position in the sky given by Hipparchus, and then adopted Hipparchus' coordinates as measured by a more skilled observer.

  7. High Proper Motion Objects toward the Inner Milky Way: Characterization of Newly Identified Nearby Stars from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.; Beamin, J. C.; Tekola, A.; Ramphul, R.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Folkes, S. L.; Vaisanen, P.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Borissova, J.; Parsons, S. G.; Villanueva, V.

    2016-09-01

    The census of the Solar neighborhood is still incomplete, as demonstrated by recent discoveries of many objects within 5-10 pc from the Sun. The area around the mid-plane and bulge of the Milky Way presents the most difficulties in searches for such nearby objects, and is therefore deficient in the known population. This is largely due to high stellar densities encountered. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of these objects allows better understanding of the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new interesting targets for more detailed studies. We report the spectroscopic follow-up and characterization of twelve bright high proper motion objects, identified from the VISTA Variables in Vía Láctea survey (VVV). We used the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for low-resolution optical spectroscopy and spectral classification, and the MPG/ESP 2.2-m telescope Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) high-resolution optical spectroscopy to obtain the radial and space velocities for three of them. Six of our objects have co-moving companions. We derived optical spectral types and photometric distances, and classified all of them as K and M dwarfs within 27-264 pc from the Sun. Finally, we found that one of the sources, VVV J141421.23-602326.1 (a co-moving companion of VVV J141420.55-602337.1), appears to be a rare massive white dwarf located close to the ZZ Cet instability strip in the CMD and CC diagrams. Many of the objects in our list are interesting targets for exoplanet searches.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. IV. Kinematic Profiles and Average Masses of Blue Straggler Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, A. T.; Watkins, L. L.; van der Marel, R. P.; Bianchini, P.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.

    2016-08-01

    We make use of the Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion catalogs derived by Bellini et al. to produce the first radial velocity dispersion profiles σ (R) for blue straggler stars (BSSs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs), as well as the first dynamical estimates for the average mass of the entire BSS population. We show that BSSs typically have lower velocity dispersions than stars with mass equal to the main-sequence turnoff mass, as one would expect for a more massive population of stars. Since GCs are expected to experience some degree of energy equipartition, we use the relation σ \\propto {M}-η , where η is related to the degree of energy equipartition, along with our velocity dispersion profiles to estimate BSS masses. We estimate η as a function of cluster relaxation from recent Monte Carlo cluster simulations by Bianchini et al. and then derive an average mass ratio {M}{BSS}/{M}{MSTO}=1.50+/- 0.14 and an average mass {M}{BSS}=1.22+/- 0.12 M ⊙ from 598 BSSs across 19 GCs. The final error bars include any systematic errors that are random between different clusters, but not any potential biases inherent to our methodology. Our results are in good agreement with the average mass of {M}{BSS}=1.22+/- 0.06 M ⊙ for the 35 BSSs in Galactic GCs in the literature with properties that have allowed individual mass determination. Based on proprietary and archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. The Solar Neighborhood. XXV. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr Between Declinations -47 deg and 00 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and declination between 47 deg and 00 deg. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems--SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc--are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and R(sub 59F) < or = 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  10. THE DIRECTLY IMAGED PLANET AROUND THE YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG 1RXS J160929.1 - 210524: CONFIRMATION OF COMMON PROPER MOTION, TEMPERATURE, AND MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, David; Jayawardhana, Ray; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2010-08-10

    Giant planets are usually thought to form within a few tens of AU of their host stars, and hence it came as a surprise when we found what appeared to be a planetary mass ({approx}0.008 M {sub sun}) companion around the 5 Myr old solar mass star 1RXS J160929.1 - 210524 in the Upper Scorpius association. At the time, we took the object's membership in Upper Scorpius-established from near-infrared, H- and K-band spectroscopy-and its proximity (2.''2 or 330 AU) to the primary as strong evidence for companionship, but could not verify their common proper motion. Here, we present follow-up astrometric measurements that confirm that the companion is indeed comoving with the primary star, which we interpret as evidence that it is a truly bound planetary mass companion. We also present new J-band spectroscopy and 3.0-3.8 {mu}m photometry of the companion. Based on a comparison with model spectra, these new measurements are consistent with the previous estimate of the companion effective temperature of 1800 {+-} 200 K. We present a new estimate of the companion mass based on evolution models and the calculated bolometric luminosity of the companion; we obtain a value of 0.008{sup +0.003} {sub -0.002} M {sub sun}, again consistent with our previous result. Finally, we present angular differential imaging observations of the system allowing us to rule out additional planets in the system more massive than 1 M {sub Jup}, 2 M {sub Jup}, and 8 M {sub Jup} at projected separations larger than 3'' ({approx}440 AU), 0.''7 ({approx}100 AU), and 0.''35 ({approx}50 AU), respectively. This companion is the least massive known to date at such a large orbital distance; it shows that objects in the planetary mass range exist at orbital separations of several hundred AU, posing a serious challenge for current formation models.

  11. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the AGK3 Star Catalogue of Positions and Proper Motions North of -2 deg .5 declination (Dieckvoss and Collaborators 1975)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of the machine-readable astronomical catalog as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center is given. Stellar motions and positions are listed herein in tabular form.

  12. TH-C-BRD-08: Reducing the Effect of Respiratory Motion On the Delivered Dose in Proton Therapy Through Proper Field Angle Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Matney, J; Park, P; Court, L; Zhu, X; Li, H; Mohan, R; Liu, W; Dong, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigated a novel planning strategy of selecting radiotherapy beam angles that minimizes the change in water equivalent thickness (dWET) during respiration in order to reduce the effects of respiratory motion in passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). Methods: In a clinical trial treating locally-advanced lung cancer with proton therapy, 2–4 co-planar beams were previously selected by dosimetrists in the design of physician-approved PSPT treatment plans. The authors identified a cohort of patients in which respiratory motion affected the planned PSPT dose delivery. For this cohort, this work analyzed dWET during respiration over a 360 degree arc of potential treatment angles around the patient: the dWET was defined as the difference in WET between the full-exhale (T50) and full-inhale (T0) phases of the simulation 4DCT. New PSPT plans were redesigned by selecting new beam angles that demonstrated significant reduction in the value of dWET. Between the T50 and T0 phases, the root-mean-square deviation of dose and the change in dose-volume histogram curves (dAUC) for anatomical structures were calculated to compare the original to dWET reduction plans. Results: To date, three plans were retrospectively redesigned based on dWET analysis. In the dWET reduction plan, the root mean square dose (T50-T0) was reduced by 15–35% and the DVH dAUC values were reduced by more than 60%.The PSPT plans redesigned by selecting appropriate field angles to minimize dWET demonstrated less dosimetric variation due to respiration. Conclusion: We have introduced the use of a new metric to quantify respiratory motion in proton therapy: dWET. The use of dWET allows us to minimize the impact of respiratory motion of the entire anatomy in the beam path. This work is a proof of principle that dWET could suggest field angles in proton therapy that are more robust to the effects of respiratory motion.

  13. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  14. Real-Time Cosmology with Gaia: Developing the Theory to Use Extragalactic Proper Motions to Make Dynamical Cosmological Tests, to Measure Geometric Distances, and to Detect Primordial Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Jeremy

    A new field of study, "real-time cosmology," is now possible. This involves observing a dynamic universe that can be seen to change over human timescales. Most cosmological observations are geometrical, using standard candles or rulers to measure the expansion history and curvature as light propagates through the universe. Real-time cosmological measurements are dynamical, revealing the changing geometry of the universe - thus often providing geometrical distances independent of the canonical cosmological distance ladder - and are typically orthogonal to customary cosmological tests. This field of inquiry is no longer far-fetched, and this proposal demonstrates using extant data that many types of measurement are now within a factor of a few of being detectable, but the theory will very soon lag the observational capabilities. The Gaia mission will provide astrometry and proper motions of roughly 100 microarcseconds per year for half a million quasars by the end of its 5-year mission, but the theory for how to employ these data for cosmological tests has not been established. This project will develop the theory, models, and methods needed to make optimal use of the Gaia extragalactic proper motion measurements and to make significant new cosmological tests, distance measurements, and mass measurements. Gaia data can provide rich cosmological tests that are nearly model-independent. This work will build the theoretical framework enabling Gaia to measure or constrain: (1) The real-time growth and recession of structures, providing mass and distance measurements, (2) Extragalactic parallax for a statistical sample and individual galaxies, thus providing geometric distances, (3) The primordial stochastic long-period gravitational wave background, which deflects quasar light in a quadrupolar proper motion pattern, and (4) Cosmic shear, rotation, bulk motion, and local voids that may manifest as an apparent acceleration attributed to dark energy. One can also test the

  15. The Study of the Tether Motion with Time-Varying Length Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation with Multiple Nonlinear Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguti, Keisuke; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Takehara, Shoichiro; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan; Sogabe, Kiyoshi

    In this study, the modeling and formulation for tether motion with time-varying length, large rotation, large displacement and large deformation are proposed. A tether or cable is an important element in lift systems, construction machines for transportation and often is used with a time-varying length. In some cases, these systems are large and the tether has a long length, large deformation and large displacement. The dynamic behavior of a tether in extension and retraction using the proposed method is discussed in this paper. In the passage through resonance, significant tether motions with large rotation and large deformation result. In the analysis of this phenomenon, the transient fluctuations of the motion amplitudes are examined and compared with the corresponding steady state motions. The accuracy and the cost of the calculations are also verified by comparison with the experimental results.

  16. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  17. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  18. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  19. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  20. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  1. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  2. Properly apply reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, J.

    1997-02-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  6. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  7. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  8. Proper Names: Reference and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumus, Michael Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of Saul Kripke's landmark "Naming and Necessity," the claim that proper names are directly referential expressions devoid of descriptive content has come to verge on philosophical commonplace. Nevertheless, the return to a purely referential semantics for proper names has coincided with the resurgence of the very puzzles…

  9. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  10. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  11. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  12. Proper Installation Improves Carpet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Explains how proper carpet installation can add to carpet life; includes tips to consider before signing a carpet-installation purchasing agreement that can make the new carpet a better investment. Topics cover how color selection lengthens appearance life, the need for moisture testing, the importance of carpet seams in the purchasing process,…

  13. Sound Assessment through Proper Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappuis, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Aligning a school board policy manual with the faculty handbook would be an excellent application of systems thinking in support of school district mission and goals. This article talks about changing sound assessment practice in accordance with the school's proper policy. One obstacle to changing assessment practice is the prevailing belief that…

  14. The Meaning of Proper Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Paul

    The two major schools of thought concerned with the meaning of proper names, i.e., the direct-reference or referrential/causal theory, and the description theory, are outlined, and new arguments are presented for a strong version of the second of these theories. The referential theory takes the meaning of the name as being the same as its…

  15. Proper fit of the bicycle.

    PubMed

    Burke, E R

    1994-01-01

    After cyclists have carefully made adjustments for proper fit, minor aches and pains may develop before the body adjusts to the new riding posture. This is normal--so resist the temptation to fiddle with the position much. They will become accustomed to the new riding position after a few rides, and cycling performance will be improved. Then they can concentrate on bike handling skills and fitness confident that their riding position is as good as can be. Proper bicycle fit requires careful review of bicycle selection, saddle height for proper leg extension, fore-and-aft positioning of the knee over the pedal, saddle tilt, handlebar position, and positioning of the upper body for optimum comfort and performance. Further research on the effects of maintaining an aerodynamic position for extended periods of time needs to be investigated to review fatigue patterns in lower and upper body musculature. The underlying principle of positioning a cyclist on a bicycle is to remember that the bicycle is adjustable, and the cyclist is adaptable. PMID:8111846

  16. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  17. GROUND MOTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON WEAK MOTION DATA IN TAIWAN Ground Motion Assessment Based on Weak Motion Data in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, A.; D'Amico, S.; Malagnini, L.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 5 Hz, obtaining results for seismic attenuation, geometrical spreading, and source parameters in Taiwan. We regressed this large number of weak-motion data in order to characterize the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling. Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the obtained parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration and velocity for several magnitude and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. The predictions are then compared with recorded strong motion data and empirical ground motion prediction equation obtained for the study region. We showed that our regional parameters, obtained from independent weak-motion database, may be applied for evaluation of ground motion parameters for earthquakes of magnitude up to 7.6.

  18. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  19. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  20. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  1. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  2. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  3. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  4. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  5. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  6. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  7. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  8. Relativistic kinematics and stationary motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Jorge G.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2009-11-01

    The relativistic jerk, snap and all higher-order kinematical D-vectors are defined for the motion of a massive particle in a D-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We illustrate the formalism with stationary motions, for which we provide a new, Lorentz covariant, classification. We generalize some cases to branes, explaining the relevance to uniform motion in a heat bath. We also consider some non-stationary motions, including motion with constant proper jerk, and free fall into a black hole as viewed from a GEMS perspective.

  9. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  10. Absolute astrometry with Pan-STARRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri; Berghea, Ciprian; Dorland, Bryan; Hennessy, Greg; Zacharias, Norbert; Magnier, Eugene A.; Monet, David; Gaume, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    A small collaboration of USNO and IfA astronomers is working on an improved astrometric solution for the data collected by the Pan-STARRS project. The 3PI survey performed by the PS1 telescope is well suited for a global astrometric solution. The current approach used in the data reduction pipeline is strictly differential. The 2MASS positions were used as reference for field of view (FoV) and detector calibration procedures. The absence of proper motions in 2MASS results in significant sky-correlated errors up to 30 - 50 mas. Our approach is to solve a huge system of linear equations for a carefully selected set of ~1 million grid objects including the astrometric unknowns (positions, proper motions and parallaxes) and FoV calibration parameters. The grid catalog includes ~5000 extragalactic radio sources with VLBI-detected positions accurate to 1 mas or better, which are used as hard constraints to the astrometric unknowns in the global least-squares adjustment. If successful, this will be the first realization of a large optical astrometry catalog directly anchored to the ICRF. Numerical simulations indicated a 10 mas accuracy level for Pan-STARRS astrometry, but experimental solutions on real data have not yet reached this level.

  11. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people traveling by car, train, airplanes and especially boats. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy ... motion sickness. For example, down below on a boat, your inner ear senses motion, but your eyes ...

  12. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  13. Proper Names a Cognitive-Philosophical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Proper Names appear at the heart of several debates in philosophy and the cognitive sciences. These include "reference", "intentionality", and the nature of "belief" as well as "language acquisition", "cognitive development", and "memory". This dissertation follows a cognitive approach to the philosophical problems posed by proper names. It puts…

  14. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  15. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  16. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  17. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  18. Large-scale databases of proper names.

    PubMed

    Conley, P; Burgess, C; Hage, D

    1999-05-01

    Few tools for research in proper names have been available--specifically, there is no large-scale corpus of proper names. Two corpora of proper names were constructed, one based on U.S. phone book listings, the other derived from a database of Usenet text. Name frequencies from both corpora were compared with human subjects' reaction times (RTs) to the proper names in a naming task. Regression analysis showed that the Usenet frequencies contributed to predictions of human RT, whereas phone book frequencies did not. In addition, semantic neighborhood density measures derived from the HAL corpus were compared with the subjects' RTs and found to be a better predictor of RT than was frequency in either corpus. These new corpora are freely available on line for download. Potentials for these corpora range from using the names as stimuli in experiments to using the corpus data in software applications. PMID:10495803

  19. Non-Fourier motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Chubb, C; McGowan, J; Sperling, G; Werkhoven, P

    1994-01-01

    It has been realized for some time that the visual system performs at least two general sorts of motion processing. First-order motion processing applies some variant of standard motion analysis (i.e. spatiotemporal Fourier energy analysis) directly to stimulus luminance, whereas second-order motion processing applies standard motion analysis to one or another grossly non-linear transformation of stimulus luminance. We have developed a method for disentangling the different sorts of mechanisms that may operate in human vision to detect second-order motion. This method hinges on an empirical condition called transition invariance that may or may not be satisfied by a family psi of textures. Any failure of this condition indicates that more than one mechanism is involved in detecting the motion of stimuli composed of the textures in psi. We have shown that the family of sinusoidal gratings oriented orthogonally to the direction of motion and varying in contrast and spatial frequency is transition invariant. We modelled the results in terms of a single-channel motion computation. We have new results indicating that a specific class of textures differing in texture element density and texture element contrast decisively fails the test of transition invariance. These findings suggest that in addition to the single second-order motion channel required by our earlier results there exists at least one other second-order motion channel. We argue that the preprocessing transformation used by this channel is a pointwise non-linearity that maps stimulus contrasts of absolute value less than some relatively high threshold tau onto 0, but increases with magnitude of c-tau for contrasts. c of absolute value greater than tau.

  20. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  1. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  2. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  3. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  4. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  5. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  6. Characterization of surface electromyography using time domain features for determining hand motion and stages of contraction.

    PubMed

    Bin Ahmad Nadzri, Ahmad Akmal; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce; Jaafar, Haslina

    2014-03-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) signals can provide important information for prosthetic hand control application. In this study, time domain (TD) features were used in extracting information from the SEMG signal in determining hand motions and stages of contraction (start, middle and end). Data were collected from ten healthy subjects. Two muscles, which are flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) were assessed during three hand motions of wrist flexion (WF), wrist extension (WE) and co-contraction (CC). The SEMG signals were first segmented into 132.5 ms windows, full wave rectified and filtered with a 6 Hz low pass Butterworth filter. Five TD features of mean absolute value, variance, root mean square, integrated absolute value and waveform length were used for feature extraction and subsequently patterns were determined. It is concluded that the TD features that were used are able to differentiate hand motions. However, for the stages of contraction determination, although there were patterns observed, it is determined that the stages could not be properly be differentiated due to the variability of signal strengths between subjects.

  7. Considerations for proper selection of dental cements.

    PubMed

    Simon, James F; Darnell, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper cement for sufficient bond strength has become progressively complicated as the number of different materials for indirect restorations has increased. The success of any restoration is highly dependent on the proper cement being chosen and used. The function of the cement is not only to seal the restoration on the tooth but also, in some cases, to support the retention of the restoration. This ability to strengthen retention varies by the cement chosen by the clinician; therefore, careful consideration must precede cement selection.

  8. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  9. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  10. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  11. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  12. Beam Elements with Trapezoidal Cross Section Deformation Modes Based on the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Marko K.; Dmitrochenko, Oleg; Mikkola, Aki

    2010-09-01

    In this study, higher order beam elements are developed based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation is a finite element procedure that was recently proposed for flexible multibody applications. Many different elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are introduced, but still the beam elements are not able to describe the trapezoidal cross section mode. This leads to the locking phenomena, and therefore, the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation with three dimensional elasticity converge to an inexact solution. In order to avoid the locking phenomena, the trapezoidal cross section deformation mode is included in the beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate with additional degrees of freedom. The proper description for the trapezoidal cross section deformation is important for the continuum beam elements based on three-dimensional elasticity where the material model is often based on general continuum mechanics.

  13. Proper Values of Matrices and Some Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir-Moez, Ali R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short study of proper values of two-by-two matrices with real entries. Gives examples of symmetric matrices and applications to systems of linear equations of perpendicular lines intersecting at the origin and central conics rotated about the origin to eliminate the xy term from its equation. (MDH)

  14. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  15. Joint moments of proper delay times

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.

    2014-08-15

    We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  17. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  18. Family Therapy: A Very Proper Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    This first-person account of a case study on family therapy discusses two latency-age boys who were referred for treatment. The assessment was that in both cases it was the family itself that was disturbed and needed treatment. The therapist worked with the first boy and his family together. The therapy model used was the "proper" family…

  19. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  20. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  1. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  2. The speed of light perturbation in absolute gravimeters from the viewpoint of ‘relativistic geometry’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, the perturbation due to the finite speed of light was among the most inconsistent in corner-cube absolute gravimeters. For the relativistic treatment of the perturbation based on Lorentz transformation, the relation between Doppler shift in special relativity and time delay in classical domain is easily misunderstood, leading to spurious conclusions. To avoid these issues, we apply a ‘relativistic geometrical method’ based on the motion of photons to calculate the frequency shift in corner-cube absolute gravimeters, where the misunderstood relation has been corrected. Additionally, we find that the modern corner-cube absolute gravimeters cannot sense effects of the special relativity.

  3. Motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Golding, J F

    2016-01-01

    Over 2000 years ago the Greek physician Hippocrates wrote, "sailing on the sea proves that motion disorders the body." Indeed, the word "nausea" derives from the Greek root word naus, hence "nautical," meaning a ship. The primary signs and symptoms of motion sickness are nausea and vomiting. Motion sickness can be provoked by a wide variety of transport environments, including land, sea, air, and space. The recent introduction of new visual technologies may expose more of the population to visually induced motion sickness. This chapter describes the signs and symptoms of motion sickness and different types of provocative stimuli. The "how" of motion sickness (i.e., the mechanism) is generally accepted to involve sensory conflict, for which the evidence is reviewed. New observations concern the identification of putative "sensory conflict" neurons and the underlying brain mechanisms. But what reason or purpose does motion sickness serve, if any? This is the "why" of motion sickness, which is analyzed from both evolutionary and nonfunctional maladaptive theoretic perspectives. Individual differences in susceptibility are great in the normal population and predictors are reviewed. Motion sickness susceptibility also varies dramatically between special groups of patients, including those with different types of vestibular disease and in migraineurs. Finally, the efficacy and relative advantages and disadvantages of various behavioral and pharmacologic countermeasures are evaluated. PMID:27638085

  4. Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1985-02-01

    Brownian motion, the doubly random motion of small particles suspended in a liquid due to molecular collisions, and its implications and applications in the history of modern science are discussed. Topics examined include probabilistic phenomena, the kinetic theory of gases, Einstein's atomic theory of Brownian motion, particle displacement, diffusion measurements, the determination of the mass of the atom and of Avogadro's number, the statistical mechanics of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium systems, Langevin's equation of motion, time-reversed evolution, mathematical analogies, and applications in economics and radio navigation. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  5. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-S.

    2008-05-15

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  6. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  7. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  8. Testing effects for common versus proper names.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Amanda E; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Delosh, Edward L

    2011-08-01

    The present study examines the testing effect as a function of item meaningfulness. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants studied lists of words that could serve as proper names or occupations (e.g., Mr Baker or baker), with the items given in a name context for one group and an occupation context for a second group. During an intervening phase participants restudied some items and were given a cued recall test (Experiment 1) or a free recall test (Experiment 2) on other items. On a final free recall test memory was better for tested items than studied items in both the name and occupation contexts. Experiment 3 followed the same procedure as Experiment 1, except that participants studied lists of proper names that do not have alternative uses in the English language (e.g., Mr Anderson) or studied concrete nouns (e.g., letter). Tested items were better remembered on a final test than studied items, and there was no interaction with type of study material. These results show that the testing effect extends to proper names, material that is commonly assumed to differ from common names on several dimensions. PMID:21919593

  9. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

  10. Proper selection of contemporary dental cements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Ming; Chen, Run; Cheng, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Today proper selection of dental cements is a key factor to achieve a successful restoration and will greatly increase the chances of long-term success of the restoration. In recent years, many newly formulated dental cements have been developed with the claim of better performance compared to the traditional materials. Unfortunately, selection of suitable dental cement for a specific clinical application has become increasingly complicated, even for the most experienced dentists. The purpose of this article is to review the currently existing dental cements and to help the dentists choose the most suitable materials for clinical applications.

  11. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  12. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    PubMed

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  13. Proper horizontal photospheric flows in a filament channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Roudier, T.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Malherbe, J. M.; Chandra, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. An extended filament in the central part of the active region NOAA 11106 crossed the central meridian on Sept. 17, 2010 in the southern hemisphere. It has been observed in Hα with the THEMIS telescope in the Canary Islands and in 304 Å with the EUV imager (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). Counterstreaming along the Hα threads and bright moving blobs (jets) along the 304 Å filament channel were observed during 10 h before the filament erupted at 17:03 UT. Aims: The aim of the paper is to understand the coupling between magnetic field and convection in filament channels and relate the horizontal photospheric motions to the activity of the filament. Methods: An analysis of the proper photospheric motions using SDO/HMI continuum images with the new version of the coherent structure tracking (CST) algorithm developed to track granules, as well as the large scale photospheric flows, was performed for three hours. Using corks, we derived the passive scalar points and produced a map of the cork distribution in the filament channel. Averaging the velocity vectors in the southern hemisphere in each latitude in steps of 3.5 arcsec, we defined a profile of the differential rotation. Results: Supergranules are clearly identified in the filament channel. Diverging flows inside the supergranules are similar in and out of the filament channel. Converging flows corresponding to the accumulation of corks are identified well around the Hα filament feet and at the edges of the EUV filament channel. At these convergence points, the horizontal photospheric velocity may reach 1 km s-1, but with a mean velocity of 0.35 km s-1. In some locations, horizontal flows crossing the channel are detected, indicating eventually large scale vorticity. Conclusions: The coupling between convection and magnetic field in the photosphere is relatively strong. The filament experienced the convection motions through its anchorage points with the photosphere, which are

  14. Swirl technology: Proper design, application, and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; O`Connor, T.P.

    1995-10-01

    Swirl and vortex technologies have been with us for over thirty years now, ever since Bernard Smisson incorporated a cylindrical vortex-type combined sewer overflow (CSO) regulator/settleable-solids concentrator into the Bristol, England sewerage system back in the early 1960`s. In the early 1970`s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of projects to develop and demonstrate swirl flow regulator/settleable-solids concentrator (swirl) technology. These projects resulted in the EPA swirl and helical-bend flow regulators/settleable-solids concentrators and the swirl degritter. New generations of this technology emerged after the EPA versions were developed including the Fluidsep{trademark} and the Storm King{trademark} vortex-hydrodynamic separators. However, despite different designs and applications, the main intent of the technologies are the same, i.e., to use the forces that arise from a change in flow direction to enhance settleable-solids separation from the storm flow. A variety of opinions have developed regarding the application of these technologies varying from overwhelming support to detractions that question their effectiveness. This abstract will show that proper design and placement in the sewerage system results in effective use of swirl technology. Reliable swirl pollution control efficiency determination is principally dependent on proper sampling and suspended and settleable-solids analysis techniques of the influent and effluent. Simultaneous flowrate measurement is also important. Without the complete capture of heavy and stratified suspended solids (SS) across the influent flow channel or water column, the apparent performance of the swirl will be less than the actual. Particle-settleability tests which are presented, must be conducted before and after installation, but especially before in order to decide if the inertial characteristics of SS in the storm flow warrants the use of a swirl.

  15. Proper body mechanics from an engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Edward G

    2010-04-01

    The economic viability of the manual therapy practitioner depends on the number of massages/treatments that can be given in a day or week. Fatigue or injuries can have a major impact on the income potential and could ultimately reach the point which causes the practitioner to quit the profession, and seek other, less physically demanding, employment. Manual therapy practitioners in general, and massage therapists in particular, can utilize a large variety of body postures while giving treatment to a client. The hypothesis of this paper is that there is an optimal method for applying force to the client, which maximizes the benefit to the client, and at the same time minimizes the strain and effort required by the practitioner. Two methods were used to quantifiably determine the effect of using "poor" body mechanics (Improper method) and "best" body mechanics (Proper/correct method). The first approach uses computer modeling to compare the two methods. Both postures were modeled, such that the biomechanical effects on the practitioner's elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints could be calculated. The force applied to the client, along with the height and angle of application of the force, was held constant for the comparison. The second approach was a field study of massage practitioners (n=18) to determine their maximal force capability, again comparing methods using "Improper and Proper body mechanics". Five application methods were tested at three different application heights, using a digital palm force gauge. Results showed that there was a definite difference between the two methods, and that the use of correct body mechanics can have a large impact on the health and well being of the massage practitioner over both the short and long term.

  16. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  17. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  18. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  19. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  20. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  1. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  2. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and motions in Arches and Quintuplet (Stolte+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, A.; Hussmann, B.; Olczak, C.; Brandner, W.; Habibi, M.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Lu, J., R.; Clarkson, W., I.; Anderson, J.

    2015-02-01

    Two to three epochs of photometry and astrometric imaging were obtained in the Arches and Quintuplet clusters with the VLT/NAOS-CONICA instrument from 2002 to 2012, covering timebaselines from 3 to 5 years in each of five fields per cluster. Astrometry and proper motions were derived from Ks imaging. The combination with HST/WFC3 F127M and F153M imaging provided infrared colours, and NACO L' observations were used to derive infrared excess emission. The spatial resolution of all NAOS-CONICA observations was 27.1-milliarcseconds/pixel and 130mas/pixel for all WFC3 images. The catalogue provides all epochs of Ks photometry and proper motions for stars brighter than Ks=17.5mag. Proper motions are derived as the positional difference between two astrometric epochs. HST/WFC3 F127M and F153M photometry was converted to standard JH photometry with colour equations provided in the paper. L' photometry was referenced to the Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey with uncertain zeropoints due to the large differences in spatial resolution, and absolute values should be treated with care, while relative photometry is robust. Membership indicators are given as follows: 1: likely cluster member, 0: likely non-member, -1: unknown membership, -99: two epoch measurements could not be obtained. For Quintuplet cluster (tablee1.dat), an indication of cluster membership is given as a formal probability in Field 2-5, where stars with pclus>0.4 are likely member candidates. A value of -99.0 indicates that the corresponding photometry or astrometry could not be obtained. (2 data files).

  5. Proper installation ensures turbine meter accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Turbine meters are widely used for natural gas measurement and provide high accuracy over large ranges of operation. However, as with many other types of flowmeters, consideration must be given to the design of the turbine meter and the installation piping practice to ensure high-accuracy measurement. National and international standards include guidelines for proper turbine meter installation piping and methods for evaluating the effects of flow disturbances on the design of those meters. Swirl or non-uniform velocity profiles, such as jetting, at the turbine meter inlet can cause undesirable accuracy performance changes. Sources of these types of flow disturbances can be from the installation piping configuration, an upstream regulator, a throttled valve, or a partial blockage upstream of the meter. Test results on the effects of swirl and jetting on different types of meter designs and sizes emphasize the need to consider good engineering design for turbine meters, including integral flow conditioning vanes and adequate installation piping practices for high accuracy measurement.

  6. a Comparison of the Proper-Time Equation and the Renormalization Group β-FUNCTION in String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiapalan, B.

    It is known that there is a proportionality factor relating the β-function and the equations of motion viz. the Zamolodchikov metric. Usually this factor has to be obtained by other methods. The proper-time equation, on the other hand, is the full equation of motion. We explain the reasons for this and illustrate it by calculating corrections to Maxwell’s equation. The corrections are calculated to cubic order in the field strength, but are exact to all orders in derivatives. We also test the gauge covariance of the proper-time method by calculating higher (covariant) derivative corrections to the Yang-Mills equation.

  7. What's Motion Sickness?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Motion Sickness? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Motion Sickness? Print ... motion sickness might get even worse. continue Avoiding Motion Sickness To avoid motion sickness: Put your best ...

  8. Ocean Models and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-de-Leon, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The increasing computational developments and the better understanding of mathematical and physical systems resulted in an increasing number of ocean models. Long time ago, modelers were like a secret organization and recognize each other by using secret codes and languages that only a select group of people was able to recognize and understand. The access to computational systems was reduced, on one hand equipment and the using time of computers were expensive and restricted, and on the other hand, they required an advance computational languages that not everybody wanted to learn. Now a days most college freshman own a personal computer (PC or laptop), and/or have access to more sophisticated computational systems than those available for research in the early 80's. The resource availability resulted in a mayor access to all kind models. Today computer speed and time and the algorithms does not seem to be a problem, even though some models take days to run in small computational systems. Almost every oceanographic institution has their own model, what is more, in the same institution from one office to the next there are different models for the same phenomena, developed by different research member, the results does not differ substantially since the equations are the same, and the solving algorithms are similar. The algorithms and the grids, constructed with algorithms, can be found in text books and/or over the internet. Every year more sophisticated models are constructed. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is a technique that allows the reduction of the number of variables to solve keeping the model properties, for which it can be a very useful tool in diminishing the processes that have to be solved using "small" computational systems, making sophisticated models available for a greater community.

  9. Absolute and relative diffusion in a turbulent compressibile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, J. R.; Goldburg, W. I.

    2002-11-01

    Floating Particles that move on the surface of a tank of water driven into turbulent motion, move in a plane. Calling the coordinates of this plane x and y, with z=0 at the surface, the velocity of the floating particles obeys the equation partialx u_x(x,y,0,t) +partial_yu_y(x,y,0,t)= - partial_zu_z(x,y,0,t), assuring that their motion is compressible. From PIV measurements made at the surface, one can deduce the absolute and the relative motion of the floaters (Richardson diffusion). The relative diffusion measurements are compared with the Richardson result, t^3 and with computer simulations of Eckhardt and Schumacher [1]. The dimensionless compressibility l C is roughly 0.5 for the floaters, which is large enough to raise questions about the validity of the Kolmogorov paradigm, according to which energy is passed from large to small spatial scales [2]. References 1. G. Falkovich et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 913 (2001). 2. J. Schumacher and B. Eckhardt, Phys. Rev. E 66, 017303 (2002).

  10. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  11. Development of ground motion attenuation relationships for southern Italy based on attenuation models and stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of the expected peak ground motion caused by an earthquake is an important problem in earthquake seismology. It is particularly important for regions where strong-motion data are lacking. With the approach presented in this study of using data from small earthquakes, it is possible to extrapolate the peak motion parameters beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. To provide a description of the high frequency attenuation and ground motion parameters in southern Italy we used seismic recordings coming from two different projects: the SAPTEX (Southern Apennines Tomography Experiment) and the CAT/SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network). We used about 10,000 records with magnitudes between M=2.5 and M=4.7. Using regression model with the large number of weak-motion data, the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling were determined. To properly calibrate the source scaling it was necessary to compute moment magnitudes of several events in the data set. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the "Cut And Paste" and the SLUMT methods. Both methods determine the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. The methods provide quality solutions in the area in a magnitude range (2.5-4.5) that has been too small to be included in the Italian national earthquake catalogues. The derived database of focal mechanisms allowed us to better detail the transitional area in the Messina Strait between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (central-western Sicily). Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the derived propagation parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration for several faults, magnitude, and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion

  12. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  13. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  14. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  15. Absolute calibration of a laser system for atmospheric probing.

    PubMed

    Hall, F F; Ageno, H Y

    1970-08-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the backscatter function from laser irradiance backscattered from the atmosphere, the ratio of power transmitted to power received must be accurately known. No absolute measurements of power, optical system transmittance, detector quantum efficiency, or electronic gain are necessarily required. The technique of measuring the power ratio by irradiating a smoked or painted target of known diffuse reflectance at a fixed range is used to calibrate a complete lidar system. The relative area of the output power pulse is monitored by a fast response photodiode, and the relative area of the returned pulse is also recorded after passing through a filter of known high optical density. It is essential to control the temperatures of the laser rod and receiver interference prefilter to ensure proper spectral matching. Field experience gained using this technique is described, and examples of calibration measurements and backscatter functions for smog and cirrus clouds are presented.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR proper motion catalogue from UKIDSS-LAS (Smith+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Smart, R. L.; Andrei, A. H.; Catalan, S.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We constructed two epoch catalogues for each pointing by matching sources within the pairs of multiframes using the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set (STILTS; Taylor 2006, ASP conf. Ser. 351, 666). We required pairs of sources to be uniquely paired to their closest match within 6-arcsec, and we required the J band magnitudes for the two epochs to agree within 0.5mag, to minimize mismatches. (1 data file).

  17. Proper Motions of H2O Masers in the Water Fountain Source IRAS 19190+1102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, F. M.; Pihlström, Y. M.; Claussen, M. J.; Sahai, R.

    2010-04-01

    We report on the results of two epochs of Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22 GHz water masers toward IRAS 19190+1102. The water maser emission from this object shows two main arc-shaped formations perpendicular to their NE-SW separation axis. The arcs are separated by ~280 mas in position and are expanding outward at an angular rate of 2.35 mas yr-1. We detect maser emission at velocities between -53.3 km s-1 and +78.0 km s-1, and there is a distinct velocity pattern where the NE masers are blueshifted and the SW masers are redshifted. The outflow has a three-dimensional outflow velocity of 99.8 km s-1 and a dynamical age of about 59 yr. A group of blueshifted masers not located along the arcs shows a change in velocity of more than 25 km s-1 between epochs, and may be indicative of the formation of a new lobe. These observations show that IRAS 19190+1102 is a member of the class of "water fountain" pre-planetary nebulae displaying bipolar structure.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High proper motion sources from WISE (Beamin+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamin, J. C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Smart, R. L.; Muzic, K.; Mendez, R. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Bayo, A.; Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera v.2 (EFOSC2) mounted at the 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at la Silla observatory, is a versatile instrument for low-resolution spectroscopy, imaging and polarimetry. We obtained low-resolution long-slit spectra for 24 sources (see Table 1) using the same configuration for all the sources: 1 arcsec slit width, grism number one, covering a spectral range of λ=3185-10940Å with a resolution ~48Å. All the sources were observed on 2014 April 17. (3 data files).

  19. Choice of the proper wavelength for photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moan, Johan; Iani, Vladimir; Ma, LiWei

    1996-01-01

    All photosensitizers applied in experimental- and clinical-photochemotherapy (PCT) have broad absorption spectra stretching from the ultraviolet up to 6 - 700 nm. Light of wavelengths in the red part of the spectrum is chosen for PCT even though the extinction coefficients of the sensitizers are usually smaller in this wavelength region than at shorter wavelengths. Thus, if one wants to treat superficial tumors or skin disorders, this may be a wrong choice. Two pieces of information are needed in order to make a proper choice of wavelength to treat a lesion of a given depth: the wavelength dependence of the optical penetration depth into tissue, and the action spectrum for tumor destruction. Additionally, the skin photosensitivity induced by the drug should be considered. We have non-invasively measured the optical penetration spectra of human tissues in vivo and the fluorescence excitation spectra for several sensitizers, including protoporphyrin (PpIX), in cells. Assuming that the action spectrum for cell inactivation can be approximated by the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the sensitizer -- which is indeed the case for a number of sensitizers in cells in vitro -- we have considered the situation for 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced PpIX in human tissue. All the way down to about 2 mm below the surface light in the Soret band (-410 nm) would give the largest cell inactivation, while at depth exceeding 2 mm, the conventional 635 nm light would be optimal. Light at the argon laser wavelength 514.5 nm is more efficient than light at 635 nm down to 1 mm. From the surface and down to 6 mm, the 635 nm peak of the excitation spectrum of PpIX, as evaluated per photon incident on the skin surface, is redshifted by less than 2 nm. In some cases photosensitizing photoproducts are formed during PCT, such as photoprotoporphyrin during PCT with PpIX. In such cases it may be advantageous to apply a broad-band light source with a spectrum that covers also part of the action

  20. [Motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Taillemite, J P; Devaulx, P; Bousquet, F

    1997-01-01

    Motion sickness is a general term covering sea-sickness, car-sickness, air-sickness, and space-sickness. Symptoms can occur when a person is exposed to unfamiliar movement whether real or simulated. Despite progress in the technology and comfort of modern transportation (planes, boats, and overland vehicles), a great number of travelers still experience motion sickness. Bouts are characterized by an initial phase of mild discomfort followed by neurologic and gastro-intestinal manifestations. The delay in onset depends on specific circumstances and individual susceptibility. Attacks are precipitated by conflicting sensory, visual, and vestibular signals but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Most medications used for prevention and treatment (e.g. anticholinergics and antihistamines) induce unwanted sedation. Furthermore no one drug is completely effective or preventive under all conditions.

  1. 7 CFR 993.21a - Proper storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proper storage. 993.21a Section 993.21a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21a Proper storage. Proper storage means storage of...

  2. 7 CFR 993.21a - Proper storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proper storage. 993.21a Section 993.21a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21a Proper storage. Proper storage means storage of...

  3. 7 CFR 993.21a - Proper storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper storage. 993.21a Section 993.21a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21a Proper storage. Proper storage means storage of...

  4. 7 CFR 993.21a - Proper storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proper storage. 993.21a Section 993.21a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21a Proper storage. Proper storage means storage of...

  5. 7 CFR 993.21a - Proper storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proper storage. 993.21a Section 993.21a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21a Proper storage. Proper storage means storage of...

  6. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  7. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  8. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  9. Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition formulation for linear structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, A.; Tran, D.-M.; Ohayon, R.

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition (PODh) formulation is a POD-based reduced-order modeling method where the continuous equation of the physical system is projected on the POD modes obtained from a discrete model of the system. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the hybrid POD formulation and to compare it with other POD formulations on the simple case of a linear elastic rod subject to prescribed displacements in the perspective of building reduced-order models for coupled fluid-structure systems in the future. In the first part of the paper, the hybrid POD is compared to two other formulations for the response to an initial condition: an approach based on the discrete finite elements equation of the rod called the discrete POD (PODd), and an analytical approach using the exact solution of the problem and consequently called the analytical POD (PODa). This first step is useful to ensure that the PODh performs well with respect to the other formulations. The PODh is therefore used afterwards for the forced motion response where a displacement is imposed at the free end of the rod. The main contribution of this paper lies in the comparison of three techniques used to take into account the non-homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition with the hybrid POD: the first method relies on control functions, the second on the penalty method and the third on Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the robustness of the hybrid POD is investigated on two examples involving firstly the introduction of structural damping and secondly a nonlinear force applied at the free end of the rod.

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. [The defense and illustration of proper nouns in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Coatantiec, G

    2004-05-22

    THE PROS AND CONS: The fact that proper nouns are used in medicine is regularly criticised (notably because of the lack of scientific rigour). However, such use in cardiology remains an active tradition for three, historical, precision and linguistic, reasons. SIGNIFICATION: In general, the proper nouns pay a tribute to a famous physician. They reflect the scientific support to Cardiology provided by each country. THE OUTCOME OF PROPER NOUNS: Some proper nouns become inescapable and classic, others become outmoded whilst new ones regularly appear. A proper noun can become forgotten with the regression of a disease, a decline in clinical semiology or in that of a technique.

  12. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  13. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  14. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  16. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  17. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  18. Absolute travel distance from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Harald; Lappe, Markus

    2005-06-01

    Optic flow fields provide rich information about the observer's self-motion. Besides estimation of the direction of self-motion human observers are also able to discriminate the travel distances of two self-motion simulations. Recent studies have shown that observers estimate the simulated ego velocity of the self-motion simulation and integrate it over time. Thus, observers use a 3-D percept of the ego motion through the environment. In the present work we ask if human observers are able to use this 3-D percept of the motion simulation to build up an internal representation of travel distance and indicate it in a static scene. We visually simulated self-motion in different virtual environments and asked subjects to indicate the perceived distances in terms of static virtual intervals on the ground. The results show that human observers possess a static distance gauge, but that they undershoot the travel distances for short motion simulations. In further experiments we changed the modality of the distance indication but the undershoot in distance estimation remained. This suggests that the undershoot is linked to the perception of the optic flow field.

  19. GAIA: A WINDOW TO LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2012-08-10

    Using redshifts as a proxy for galaxy distances, estimates of the two-dimensional (2D) transverse peculiar velocities of distant galaxies could be obtained from future measurements of proper motions. We provide the mathematical framework for analyzing 2D transverse motions and show that they offer several advantages over traditional probes of large-scale motions. They are completely independent of any intrinsic relations between galaxy properties; hence, they are essentially free of selection biases. They are free from homogeneous and inhomogeneous Malmquist biases that typically plague distance indicator catalogs. They provide additional information to traditional probes that yield line-of-sight peculiar velocities only. Further, because of their 2D nature, fundamental questions regarding vorticity of large-scale flows can be addressed. Gaia, for example, is expected to provide proper motions of at least bright galaxies with high central surface brightness, making proper motions a likely contender for traditional probes based on current and future distance indicator measurements.

  20. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  1. Orbital Solutions and Absolute Elements of the Eclipsing Binary MY Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Rebecca S.; Sowell, James R.; Williamon, Richard M.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2009-02-01

    Differential UBV photoelectric photometry for the eclipsing binary MY Cyg is presented. The Wilson-Devinney program is used to simultaneously solve the three light curves together with previously published radial velocities. A comparison is made with the previous solution found with the Russell-Merrill method. We examine the long-term apsidal motion of this well-detached, slightly eccentric system. We determine absolute dimensions, discuss metallicity/Am-star issues, and estimate the evolutionary status of the stars.

  2. Realtime Absolute Orientation with Outlier Rejection for Visual Odometry and Mesh Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandari, Esfandiar; Goldstein, Norman; Nesnas, Issa; Bajracharya, Max

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a high level spatio-temporal problem, namely "absolute orientation", which arises in visual-odometry (using stereo), or registering two models created by different Structure from Motion (SFM) reconstructions. We compare the very popular method due to Horn using quaternions and our own independently derive method using the orthonormal rotation matrix R. We also introduce a novel approach for outlier rejection using spectral clustering.

  3. Super-Sharp Radio "Vision" Measures Galaxy's Motion in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have measured the motion across the sky of a galaxy nearly 2.4 million light-years from Earth. While scientists have been measuring the motion of galaxies directly toward or away from Earth for decades, this is the first time that the transverse motion (called proper motion by astronomers) has been measured for a galaxy that is not a satellite of our own Milky Way Galaxy. M33 Radio/Optical Image of M33 CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, NOAO/AURA/NSF (Click on image for more files) An international scientific team analyzed VLBA observations made over two and a half years to detect minuscule shifts in the sky position of the spiral galaxy M33. Combined with previous measurements of the galaxy's motion toward Earth, the new data allowed the astronomers to calculate M33's movement in three dimensions for the first time. "A snail crawling on Mars would appear to be moving across the surface more than 100 times faster than the motion we measured for this galaxy," said Mark Reid, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. M33 is a satellite of the larger galaxy M31, the well-known Andromeda Galaxy that is the most distant object visible to the naked eye. Both are part of the Local Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way. In addition to measuring the motion of M33 as a whole, the astronomers also were able to make a direct measurement of the spiral galaxy's rotation. Both measurements were made by observing the changes in position of giant clouds of molecules inside the galaxy. The water vapor in these clouds acts as a natural maser, strengthening, or amplifying, radio emission the same way that lasers amplify light emission. The natural masers acted as bright radio beacons whose movement could be tracked by the ultra-sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA. Reid and his colleagues plan to continue measuring M33's motion and also to make similar measurements of M31's motion

  4. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  8. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  9. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  11. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  12. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  13. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the agent's exercise of authority under...

  14. Analysis And Display Of Human Wrist Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Steven W.; Erdman, Arthur G.

    1983-07-01

    The three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the wrist is a complex problem. A method utilizing high speed stereocinematography has been developed to accurately measure the motion of the bones in the wrist. Both relative and absolute motions can be obtained using this system. The system has been shown to accurately locate a point to +/- 0.003 inch. The three-dimensional motion characteristics of the capitate in radial ulnar deviation were analyzed using this system, and the results are presented. A computer graphics program, developed by the authors, is used to display the motion characteristics of the carpal bones. In this program, the bone surface, defined using a special stereopointer and bicubic surface fitting algorithms, is displayed along with the kinematic data.

  15. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  16. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    PubMed

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling. PMID:24158607

  17. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    PubMed

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  18. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  19. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  20. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  1. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  2. Educating Children to Proper Eating Habits in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marian

    A brief discussion of proper nutrition in general precedes an examination of proper nutrition for school children and the specification of nutrition education objectives for kindergarten or first grade students. The remainder of the paper delineates food projects by which objectives can be realized (for example, snack necklace, jack-o-lantern…

  3. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  4. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  5. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this...

  6. 17 CFR 230.401 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401 Requirements as to proper... applicable rules and forms as in effect on the initial filing date of such registration statement...

  7. 17 CFR 230.401 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401 Requirements as to proper... applicable rules and forms as in effect on the initial filing date of such registration statement...

  8. Lethal injection, autonomy and the proper ends of medicine.

    PubMed

    Silver, David

    2003-04-01

    Gerald Dworkin has argued that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection. He does this by proposing a principle by which we are to judge whether an action is consistent with the proper ends of medicine. I argue: (a) that this principle, if valid, does not show that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection; and (b) that this principle is not valid, and this is because it mistakenly views the promotion of patient autonomy as one of the proper ends of medicine. Rather, I propose, we should view respect for a patient's autonomy as a constraint on the pursuit of the proper ends of medicine, rather than as one of the proper ends itself. With this revised understanding of the proper ends of medicine, we can conclude that it is inconsistent with the proper ends of medicine for a physician to participate in an execution by lethal injection.

  9. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  10. Participation in "Handwashing University" Promotes Proper Handwashing Techniques for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Handwashing University on teaching youth the benefits of proper handwashing. The Handwashing University is an interactive display with several successive stations through which participants move to learn necessary skills for proper handwashing. Upon completion of the Handwashing University,…

  11. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  12. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  13. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  14. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  15. Chromosomal locus tracking with proper accounting of static and dynamic errors.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Mikael P; Joyner, Ryan; Moerner, W E

    2015-06-01

    The mean-squared displacement (MSD) and velocity autocorrelation (VAC) of tracked single particles or molecules are ubiquitous metrics for extracting parameters that describe the object's motion, but they are both corrupted by experimental errors that hinder the quantitative extraction of underlying parameters. For the simple case of pure Brownian motion, the effects of localization error due to photon statistics ("static error") and motion blur due to finite exposure time ("dynamic error") on the MSD and VAC are already routinely treated. However, particles moving through complex environments such as cells, nuclei, or polymers often exhibit anomalous diffusion, for which the effects of these errors are less often sufficiently treated. We present data from tracked chromosomal loci in yeast that demonstrate the necessity of properly accounting for both static and dynamic error in the context of an anomalous diffusion that is consistent with a fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We compare these data to analytical forms of the expected values of the MSD and VAC for a general FBM in the presence of these errors.

  16. Chromosomal locus tracking with proper accounting of static and dynamic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Joyner, Ryan; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-06-01

    The mean-squared displacement (MSD) and velocity autocorrelation (VAC) of tracked single particles or molecules are ubiquitous metrics for extracting parameters that describe the object's motion, but they are both corrupted by experimental errors that hinder the quantitative extraction of underlying parameters. For the simple case of pure Brownian motion, the effects of localization error due to photon statistics ("static error") and motion blur due to finite exposure time ("dynamic error") on the MSD and VAC are already routinely treated. However, particles moving through complex environments such as cells, nuclei, or polymers often exhibit anomalous diffusion, for which the effects of these errors are less often sufficiently treated. We present data from tracked chromosomal loci in yeast that demonstrate the necessity of properly accounting for both static and dynamic error in the context of an anomalous diffusion that is consistent with a fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We compare these data to analytical forms of the expected values of the MSD and VAC for a general FBM in the presence of these errors.

  17. Chromosomal locus tracking with proper accounting of static and dynamic errors

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Joyner, Ryan; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean-squared displacement (MSD) and velocity autocorrelation (VAC) of tracked single particles or molecules are ubiquitous metrics for extracting parameters that describe the object’s motion, but they are both corrupted by experimental errors that hinder the quantitative extraction of underlying parameters. For the simple case of pure Brownian motion, the effects of localization error due to photon statistics (“static error”) and motion blur due to finite exposure time (“dynamic error”) on the MSD and VAC are already routinely treated. However, particles moving through complex environments such as cells, nuclei, or polymers often exhibit anomalous diffusion, for which the effects of these errors are less often sufficiently treated. We present data from tracked chromosomal loci in yeast that demonstrate the necessity of properly accounting for both static and dynamic error in the context of an anomalous diffusion that is consistent with a fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We compare these data to analytical forms of the expected values of the MSD and VAC for a general FBM in the presence of these errors. PMID:26172745

  18. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  19. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  20. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  1. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  2. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  3. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  4. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  5. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  6. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  8. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  9. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  10. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  11. Auditory motion affects visual biological motion processing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; van der Zwan, R; Billard, A; Petreska, B; Clarke, S; Blanke, O

    2007-02-01

    The processing of biological motion is a critical, everyday task performed with remarkable efficiency by human sensory systems. Interest in this ability has focused to a large extent on biological motion processing in the visual modality (see, for example, Cutting, J. E., Moore, C., & Morrison, R. (1988). Masking the motions of human gait. Perception and Psychophysics, 44(4), 339-347). In naturalistic settings, however, it is often the case that biological motion is defined by input to more than one sensory modality. For this reason, here in a series of experiments we investigate behavioural correlates of multisensory, in particular audiovisual, integration in the processing of biological motion cues. More specifically, using a new psychophysical paradigm we investigate the effect of suprathreshold auditory motion on perceptions of visually defined biological motion. Unlike data from previous studies investigating audiovisual integration in linear motion processing [Meyer, G. F. & Wuerger, S. M. (2001). Cross-modal integration of auditory and visual motion signals. Neuroreport, 12(11), 2557-2560; Wuerger, S. M., Hofbauer, M., & Meyer, G. F. (2003). The integration of auditory and motion signals at threshold. Perception and Psychophysics, 65(8), 1188-1196; Alais, D. & Burr, D. (2004). No direction-specific bimodal facilitation for audiovisual motion detection. Cognitive Brain Research, 19, 185-194], we report the existence of direction-selective effects: relative to control (stationary) auditory conditions, auditory motion in the same direction as the visually defined biological motion target increased its detectability, whereas auditory motion in the opposite direction had the inverse effect. Our data suggest these effects do not arise through general shifts in visuo-spatial attention, but instead are a consequence of motion-sensitive, direction-tuned integration mechanisms that are, if not unique to biological visual motion, at least not common to all types of

  12. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  13. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  14. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  15. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  16. Super-Sharp Radio "Vision" Measures Galaxy's Motion in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have measured the motion across the sky of a galaxy nearly 2.4 million light-years from Earth. While scientists have been measuring the motion of galaxies directly toward or away from Earth for decades, this is the first time that the transverse motion (called proper motion by astronomers) has been measured for a galaxy that is not a satellite of our own Milky Way Galaxy. M33 Radio/Optical Image of M33 CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, NOAO/AURA/NSF (Click on image for more files) An international scientific team analyzed VLBA observations made over two and a half years to detect minuscule shifts in the sky position of the spiral galaxy M33. Combined with previous measurements of the galaxy's motion toward Earth, the new data allowed the astronomers to calculate M33's movement in three dimensions for the first time. "A snail crawling on Mars would appear to be moving across the surface more than 100 times faster than the motion we measured for this galaxy," said Mark Reid, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. M33 is a satellite of the larger galaxy M31, the well-known Andromeda Galaxy that is the most distant object visible to the naked eye. Both are part of the Local Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way. In addition to measuring the motion of M33 as a whole, the astronomers also were able to make a direct measurement of the spiral galaxy's rotation. Both measurements were made by observing the changes in position of giant clouds of molecules inside the galaxy. The water vapor in these clouds acts as a natural maser, strengthening, or amplifying, radio emission the same way that lasers amplify light emission. The natural masers acted as bright radio beacons whose movement could be tracked by the ultra-sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA. Reid and his colleagues plan to continue measuring M33's motion and also to make similar measurements of M31's motion

  17. Short-latency ocular following in humans is dependent on absolute (rather than relative) binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Yang, D-S; Miles, F A

    2003-06-01

    A previous study showed that the initial ocular following responses elicited by sudden motion of a large random-dot pattern were only modestly attenuated when that whole pattern was shifted out of the plane of fixation by altering its horizontal binocular disparity, but the same disparity applied to a restricted region of the dots had a much more powerful effect [Vision Research 41 (2001) 3371]. Thus, if the dots were partitioned into horizontal bands, for example, and alternate bands were moved in opposite directions to the left or right then ocular following was very weak, but if the (conditioning) dots moving in one direction were all shifted out of the plane of fixation (by applying horizontal disparity to them) then strong ocular following was now seen in the direction of motion of the (test) dots in the plane of fixation, i.e., moving images became much less effective when they were given binocular disparity. We sought to determine if the greater impact of disparity with the partitioned images was because there were additional relative disparity cues. We used a similar partitioned display and found that the dependence of ocular following on the absolute disparity of the conditioning stimulus had a Gaussian form with an x-offset that was close to zero disparity and, importantly, this offset was almost unaffected by changing the absolute disparity of the test stimulus. We conclude from this that it is the absolute--rather than the relative--disparity that is important, and that ocular following has a strong preference for moving images whose absolute disparities are close to zero. This is consistent with the idea that ocular following selectively stabilizes the retinal images of objects in and around the plane of fixation and works in harmony with disparity vergence, which uses absolute disparity to bring objects of interest into the plane of fixation [Archives of Ophthalmology 55 (1956) 848].

  18. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  19. Early improper motion detection in golf swings using wearable motion sensors: the first approach.

    PubMed

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  20. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  1. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  2. a Covariant Description of the Zitterbewegung of the Electron in Proper Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, William Dickey

    A proper time Heisenberg picture is developed and applied to the study of the internal geometry of the Dirac electron. We solve the Heisenberg equations for the position operator of the free electron and find that the solution separates into a center of mass moving with constant velocity plus an oscillatory Zitterbewegung around the center of mass. The internal position and momentum of the Zitterbewegung generate the algebra of so(3,2), which includes an intrinsic spin tensor that induces rotations of the internal space and the (Lorentz scalar) Hamiltonian which, besides generating translations in proper time, acts as the parity operator on the internal space. We generalize the Zitterbewegung to a larger system, with the symmetry group SO(4,2), by including scalar and axial -vector dynamical variables. We also investigate the influence of external electromagnetic fields on the Zitterbewegung by solving Heisenberg equations in the special case that the electric and magnetic fields are constant in space -time, and comparing with the motion of a spinless relativistic particle in the same fields. When the external fields are sufficiently weak, we are able to separate the internal and center of mass motions of the electron.

  3. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  4. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. II. DETERMINING ABSOLUTE INCLINATIONS, GRAVITY-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS, AND SPOT PARAMETERS OF SINGLE STARS WITH SIM LITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2010-11-10

    We present a novel technique to determine the absolute inclination of single stars using multi-wavelength submilliarcsecond astrometry. The technique exploits the effect of gravity darkening, which causes a wavelength-dependent astrometric displacement parallel to a star's projected rotation axis. We find that this effect is clearly detectable using SIM Lite for various giant stars and rapid rotators, and present detailed models for multiple systems using the REFLUX code. We also explore the multi-wavelength astrometric reflex motion induced by spots on single stars. We find that it should be possible to determine spot size, relative temperature, and some positional information for both giant and nearby main-sequence stars utilizing multi-wavelength SIM Lite data. These data will be extremely useful in stellar and exoplanet astrophysics, as well as supporting the primary SIM Lite mission through proper multi-wavelength calibration of the giant star astrometric reference frame, and reduction of noise introduced by starspots when searching for extrasolar planets.

  5. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... conducted under this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential...

  6. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  7. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  8. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  9. 15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR OF SEATING AREA (SOUTH END) LOOKING EAST. VIEW OF DECORATIVE CEILING COVE. - Granada Theatre, 6425-6441 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  11. Development of a cost-effective PC-based motion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    A cost-effective PC-based motion control system was developed and evaluated for use on a laser welding system. The motion system is capable of X-Y simultaneous contouring and provides a rotary axis of motion also. The system motion paths can be specified in either Relative or Absolute motion. The PC controls all of the laser power supply and shutter I/O operations. All of the motion programming and operator interfacing is via the Windows {reg_sign}95 operating system.

  12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  13. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  14. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  15. The Proper Name as Starting Point for Basic Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Both-de Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2010-01-01

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5 1/2-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of words with and without the child's first letter of…

  16. Remarks on Existence of Proper Action for Reducible Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Bering, Klaus

    In the field-antifield formalism, we review existence and uniqueness proofs for the proper action in the reducible case. We give two new existence proofs based on two resolution degrees called "reduced antifield number" and "shifted antifield number," respectively. In particular, we show that for every choice of gauge generators and their higher stage counterparts, there exists a proper action that implements them at the quadratic order in the auxiliary variables.

  17. Augmented proper orthogonal decompositional for problems with moving discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, T.; Fontenot, R.; Cizmas, P.; O'Brien, T.; Breault, R.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed to augment the proper orthogonaldecomposition basis functionswith discontinuitymodes to better capture moving discontinuities in reduced-order models. Moving discontinuities can be shocks in unsteady gas flows or bubbles in multiphase flow. The method is shown to work for a simple test problem using the first-order wave equation. A method for detecting discontinuities numerically is developed using mathematical morphology. This method is shown to properly identify the edges of bubbles in multiphase flow.

  18. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  19. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  20. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  1. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  2. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. Foundations for proper-time relativistic quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Morris, Trey; Kurtz, Stewart K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper is a progress report on the foundations for the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. We first review the the standard square-root equation of relativistic quantum theory, followed by a review of the Dirac equation, providing new insights into the physical properties of both. We then introduce the canonical proper-time theory. For completeness, we give a brief outline of the canonical proper-time approach to electrodynamics and mechanics, and then introduce the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. This theory leads to three new relativistic wave equations. In each case, the canonical generator of proper-time translations is strictly positive definite, so that it represents a particle. We show that the canonical proper-time extension of the Dirac equation for Hydrogen gives results that are consistently closer to the experimental data, when compared to the Dirac equation. However, these results are not sufficient to account for either the Lamb shift or the anomalous magnetic moment.

  4. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M.; Haan, S.; Hatchett, S.; Khater, H.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J.; Kilkenny, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T.; Meyerhofer, D.; Magoon, J.; Fletcher, K.; Leeper, R.

    2010-11-01

    Proper assembly of capsule mass, as manifested through evolution of fuel areal density (ρR), is fundamentally important for achieving hot-spot ignition planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental information about ρR and ρR asymmetries, Ti and yield is therefore essential for understanding how this assembly occurs. To obtain this information, a neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic-Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been implemented on the NIF. Its primary objective is to measure the absolute neutron spectrum in the range 5 to 30 MeV, from which ρR, Ti and yield can be directly inferred for both low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and high-yield DT implosions. In this talk, the results from the first measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum produced in exploding pusher and THD implosions will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  5. Rate Change Graph Technology: Absolute Value Point Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Absolute Value Point Methodology (AVPM) is a new theoretical tool for science research centered on Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). The modeling techniques of AVPM surpass conventional methods by extending the geometrical rules of mathematics. Exact geometrical structures of matter and energy become clearer revealing new ways to compile advanced data. RCGT mechanics is realized from geometrical intersections that are the result of plotting changing value vs. changing geometry. RCGT methods ignore size and value to perform an objective analysis in geometry. Value and size are then re-introduced back into the analytical system for a clear and concise solution. Available AVPM applications reveal that a massive amount of data from the Big Bang to vast super-clusters is untouched by human thought. Once scientists learn to design tools from RCGT Mechanics, new and formidable approaches to experimentation and theory may lead to new discoveries. In the creation of AVPM, it has become apparent there is a particle-world that exists between strings and our familiar universe. These unrealized particles in their own nature exhibit inflation like properties and may be the progenitor of the implements of our universe. Thus space, time, energy, motion, space-time and gravity are born from its existence and decay. This announcement will be the beginning of many new ideas from the study of RCGT mechanics.

  6. Block-classified motion compensation scheme for digital video

    SciTech Connect

    Zafar, S.; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Jabbari, B.

    1996-03-01

    A novel scheme for block-based motion compensation is introduced in which a block is classified according to the energy that is directly related to the motion activity it represents. This classification allows more flexibility in controlling the bit rate arid the signal-to-noise ratio and results in a reduction in motion search complexity. The method introduced is not dependent on the particular type of motion search algorithm implemented and can thus be used with any method assuming that the underlying matching criteria used is minimum absolute difference. It has been shown that the method is superior to a simple motion compensation algorithm where all blocks are motion compensated regardless of the energy resulting after the displaced difference.

  7. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  8. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  9. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  10. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  11. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  12. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  13. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  14. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  15. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J. Chapman, S.

    2014-08-14

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  16. Critical inclination for absolute/convective instability transition in inverted falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Benoit; Kofman, Nicolas; Rohlfs, Wilko

    2016-04-01

    Liquid films flowing down the underside of inclined plates are subject to the interaction between the hydrodynamic and the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities causing a patterned and wavy topology at the free surface. The R-T instability results from the denser liquid film being located above a less dense ambient gas, and deforming into an array of droplets, which eventually drip if no saturation mechanism arises. Such saturation mechanism can actually be provided by a fluid motion along the inclined plate. Using a weighted integral boundary layer model, this study examines the critical inclination angle, measured from the vertical, that separates regimes of absolute and convective instability. If the instability is of absolute type, growing perturbations stay localized in space potentially leading to dripping. If the instability is of convective type, growing perturbations move downwards the inclined plate, forming waves and eventually, but not necessarily, droplets. Remarkably, there is a minimum value of the critical angle below which a regime of absolute instability cannot exist. This minimum angle decreases with viscosity: it is about 85° for water, about 70° for silicon oil 20 times more viscous than water, and reaches a limiting value for liquid with a viscosity larger than about 1000 times the one of water. It results that for any fluid, absolute dripping can only exist for inclination angle (taken from the vertical) larger than 57.4°.

  17. Helicopter Flight Simulation Motion Platform Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    1999-01-01

    To determine motion fidelity requirements, a series of piloted simulations was performed. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositioning. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  18. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  19. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  20. The Absolute Calibration of the HiRes Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the absolute response it is necessary to understand the absolute light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported

  1. Proper elements and stability of the Trojan asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, C.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Dvorak, R.; Christaki, A.

    We now know 413 Trojan asteroids which are moving close to the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 (246) and L5 (167) of Jupiter. The orbits of all these asteroids were integrated numerically for 10 million years in the dynamical model of the outer planetary system (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune). The proper elements were derived numerically for these asteroids and compared to other available studies (e.g. Bien & Schubart, Milani). We then computed for the whole integration time the RMS of the elements semi-major axes, eccentricities and inclinations. The 3-dimensional graphs (RMS versus proper inclination and proper eccentricities) show the special location of the asteroids with positive Lyapunov exponents.

  2. A comparison between families obtained from different proper elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappala, Vincenzo; Cellino, Alberto; Farinella, Paolo

    1992-01-01

    Using the hierarchical method of family identification developed by Zappala et al., the results coming from the data set of proper elements computed by Williams (about 2100 numbered + about 1200 PLS 2 asteroids) and by Milani and Knezevic (5.7 version, about 4200 asteroids) are compared. Apart from some expected discrepancies due to the different data sets and/or low accuracy of proper elements computed in peculiar dynamical zones, a good agreement was found in several cases. It follows that these high reliability families represent a sample which can be considered independent on the methods used for their proper elements computation. Therefore, they should be considered as the best candidates for detailed physical studies.

  3. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  4. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  5. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  6. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  7. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  8. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  9. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  10. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  11. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  12. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  13. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon

    2010-06-24

    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere.

  14. The Magellan seamount trail: implications for Cretaceous hotspot volcanism and absolute Pacific plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Pringle, Malcolm S.

    1998-11-01

    The Magellan Seamount Trail (MST) delineates a northwest trending chain of four Cretaceous guyots in the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP). Seamount morphology, 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb geochemistry of the MST provides evidence for a hotspot origin between the Samoa, Rarotonga and Society hotspots of the South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA). The MST yields an excellent linear age progression of 47.6±1.6 mm/yr ( r2=1.000; MSWD = 0.23; 1 σ SE) including Vlinder guyot (95.1±0.5 Ma, n=5; 2 σ SD), Pako guyot (91.3±0.3 Ma, n=3) and Ioah guyot (87.1±0.3 Ma, n=2). The MST also exhibits a small range in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions indicating enriched mantle sources with an affinity of EMI. Nevertheless, three volcanic events are found out of sequence with linear MST hotspot volcanism: (1) an independent volcanic pedestal was formed 4-7 Myr before shield-volcanism started at Vlinder guyot, (2) a post-erosional volcanic cone was formed at least 20-30 Myr after drowning of Vlinder guyot, and (3) Ita Mai Tai guyot (118.1±0.5 Ma, n=3) was formed 34-36 Myr before the MST hotspot arrived at the predicted location of this guyot. By identifying and ruling out discordant volcanic events, we can use the age progression in MST to test the fixity of its hotspot. When presuming the fixed hotspot hypothesis, the local age progressions of the MST (47.6±1.6 mm/yr) and the copolar Musicians seamount trail (55.8±6.4 mm/yr) are not compatible with their 100-80 Ma Euler pole. We investigate two options: (1) acceptance of a `forced' Euler pole obeying the hotspot hypothesis by using both the age progressions and the azimuths of the studied seamount trails, or (2) acceptance of a `best-fit' Euler pole by using the azimuths of the studied seamount trail exclusively. In the first option, the angular speed of the Pacific plate during the 100-80 Ma stage pole is calculated at 0.502±0.017°/Myr. In the second option, the `best-fit' Euler pole is found approximately 35° different from the `forced' Euler pole. We argue that the observed age progressions can only be reconciled with the `best-fit' pole when allowing for the relative movement of the MST and Musicians mantle plumes with respect to one another. The calculated maximum velocity component parallel to the line of age progression could then be as much as 23 mm/yr for the mantle plumes — when assuming one fixed hotspot in this alternate model.

  15. The orbital motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD 209458b.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Ignas A G; de Kok, Remco J; de Mooij, Ernst J W; Albrecht, Simon

    2010-06-24

    For extrasolar planets discovered using the radial velocity method, the spectral characterization of the host star leads to a mass estimate of the star and subsequently of the orbiting planet. If the orbital velocity of the planet could be determined, the masses of both star and planet could be calculated using Newton's law of gravity, just as in the case of stellar double-line eclipsing binaries. Here we report high-dispersion ground-based spectroscopy of a transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. We see a significant wavelength shift in absorption lines from carbon monoxide in the planet's atmosphere, which we conclude arises from a change in the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity. The masses of the star and planet are 1.00 +/- 0.22M(Sun) and 0.64 +/- 0.09M(Jup) respectively. A blueshift of the carbon monoxide signal of approximately 2 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity of the host star suggests the presence of a strong wind flowing from the irradiated dayside to the non-irradiated nightside of the planet within the 0.01-0.1 mbar atmospheric pressure range probed by these observations. The strength of the carbon monoxide signal suggests a carbon monoxide mixing ratio of (1-3) x 10(-3) in this planet's upper atmosphere. PMID:20577209

  16. The feasibility of head motion tracking in helical CT: A step toward motion correction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung-Ha; Nuyts, Johan; Kuncic, Zdenka; Fulton, Roger

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To establish a practical and accurate motion tracking method for the development of rigid motion correction methods in helical x-ray computed tomography (CT). Methods: A commercially available optical motion tracking system provided 6 degrees of freedom pose measurements at 60 Hz. A 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 calibration matrix was determined to convert raw pose data acquired in tracker coordinates to a fixed CT coordinate system with origin at the isocenter of the scanner. Two calibration methods, absolute orientation (AO), and a new method based on image registration (IR), were compared by means of landmark analysis and correlation coefficient in phantom images coregistered using the derived motion transformations. Results: Transformations calculated using the IR-derived calibration matrix were found to be more accurate, with positional errors less than 0.5 mm (mean RMS), and highly correlated image voxel intensities. The AO-derived calibration matrix yielded larger mean RMS positional errors ( Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.0 mm), and poorer correlation coefficients. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of accurate motion tracking for retrospective motion correction in helical CT. Their new IR-based calibration method based on image registration and function minimization was simpler to perform and delivered more accurate calibration matrices. This technique is a useful tool for future work on rigid motion correction in helical CT and potentially also other imaging modalities.

  17. [Maintaining the proper distance for nurses working in the home].

    PubMed

    Estève, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must be able to respond to many different situations which require technical knowledge and self-control. Particularly when working in the patient's home, nurses must know how to maintain a proper distance to protect themselves from burnout. In this respect, the practice analysis constitutes an adapted support tool. PMID:27393988

  18. Helping Students to Find the Proper Connective: Why the Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Marvin K. L.

    Teachers are often baffled by the inability of a number of basic writing students to use the proper connective to show relationship between sentences or phrases for coherence. Most frustrating is the teacher's inadequacy in giving definitions or explanations beyond the student's textbook descriptions of the connectives. However, a cursory…

  19. The Semantics of Proper Names and Other Bare Nominals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a unified approach to the semantics of the so-called bare nominals, which include proper names (e.g., "Mary"), mass and plural terms (e.g., "water," "cats"), and articleless noun phrases in Japanese. I argue that bare nominals themselves are monadic predicates applicable to more than one…

  20. The Proper Place of Theory in Educational History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the proper place of theory in educational history and shares his comments on the essays by Eileen Tamura, Carolyn Eick, and Roland Coloma. Eileen Tamura's positing of most educational historians as practitioners of narrative history is surely on the mark. She invites historians of education to investigate…

  1. 32 CFR 536.26 - Identification of a proper claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standard Form (SF) 95 (Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death). When the claim is not presented on an SF 95... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of a proper claim. 536.26 Section 536.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND...

  2. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  3. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  4. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  5. Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded1

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, F.; Azrin, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    The institutionalized mentally retarded display a variety of unsanitary, disruptive, and improper table manners. A program was developed that included (1) acquisition-training of a high standard of proper table manners and (2) maintenance procedures to provide continued motivation to maintain proper mealtime behaviors and decrease improper skills. Twelve retardates received acquisition training, individually, by a combination of verbal instruction, imitation, and manual guidance. The students then ate in their group dining arrangement where the staff supervisor provided continuing approval for proper manners and verbal correction and timeout for improper manners. The results were: (1) the trained retardates showed significant improvement, whereas those untrained did not; (2) the trained retardates ate as well in the institution as non-retarded customers did in a public restaurant; (3) proper eating was maintained in the group dining setting; (4) timeout was rarely needed; (5) the program was easily administered by regular staff in a regular dining setting. The rapidity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the program suggests the program as a solution to improper mealtime behaviors by the institutionalized mentally retarded. PMID:16795363

  6. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary VV CORVI

    SciTech Connect

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Sowell, James R. E-mail: gregory.w.henry@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    We have obtained red-wavelength spectroscopy and Johnson B and V differential photoelectric photometry of the eclipsing binary VV Crv = HR 4821. The system is the secondary of the common proper motion double star ADS 8627, which has a separation of 5.''2. VV Crv has an orbital period of 3.144536 days and a low but non-zero eccentricity of 0.085. With the Wilson-Devinney program we have determined a simultaneous solution of our spectroscopic and photometric observations. Those orbital elements produce masses of M {sub 1} = 1.978 ± 0.010 M {sub ☉} and M {sub 2} = 1.513 ± 0.008 M {sub ☉}, and radii of R {sub 1} = 3.375 ± 0.010 R {sub ☉} and R {sub 2} = 1.650 ± 0.008 R {sub ☉} for the primary and secondary, respectively. The effective temperatures of the two components are 6500 K (fixed) and 6638 K, so the star we call the primary is the more massive but cooler and larger component. A comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates that the components are metal rich with [Fe/H] = 0.3, and the system has an age of 1.2 Gyr. The primary is near the end of its main-sequence lifetime and is rotating significantly faster than its pseudosynchronous velocity. The secondary is still well ensconced on the main sequence and is rotating more slowly than its pseudosynchronous rate.

  7. Essay on Gyroscopic Motions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tea, Peter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Explains gyroscopic motions to college freshman or high school seniors who have learned about centripetal acceleration and the transformations of a couple. Contains several figures showing the direction of forces and motion. (YP)

  8. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  9. On the absolute alignment of GONG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the absolute orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.

  10. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  11. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  12. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  13. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  14. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  15. The reliability of lumbar motion palpation using continuous analysis and confidence ratings: choosing a relevant index of agreement

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most studies show motion palpation unreliable. This study’s primary objective was assessing its reliability using a continuous measure methods, most-fixated level paradigm, stratified by examiners’ confidence; and the secondary objective was comparing various indices of examiner agreement. Methods: Thirty-four minimally symptomatic participants were palpated in side posture by two experienced examiners. Interexaminer differences in identifying the most-fixated level and degree of examiner confidence were recorded. Indices of agreement were: Intraclass correlation coefficient, Mean and Median Examiner Absolute Examiner Differences, Root-Mean-Square Error and Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement. Results: Three of four reliability indices (excluding intraclass correlation) suggested on average examiners agreed on the most fixated motion segment, and agreement increased with confidence. Statistical measures of data dispersion were low. The analyses of subgroups were “fragile” due to small sample size. Discussion: Although subject homogeneity lowered ICC levels, the other reliability measures were not similarly impacted. Continuous measures statistical analysis demonstrates examiner agreement in situations where discrete analysis with kappa may not. Conclusion: Continuous analysis for the lumbar most-fixated level is reliable. Future studies will need a larger sample size to properly analyze subgroups based on examiner confidence. PMID:27385834

  16. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match.

  17. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match. PMID:27410104

  18. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.