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Sample records for absolute quantitation itraq-based

  1. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals apolipoprotein A-I and transferrin as potential serum markers in CA19-9 negative pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Zhao, Guo-Chao; Wang, Dan-Song; Lou, Wen-Hui; Jin, Da-Yong

    2016-08-01

    Currently the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) relies on CA19-9 and radiological means, whereas some patients do not have elevated levels of CA19-9 secondary to pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify potential serum biomarkers for CA19-9 negative PDAC.A total of 114 serum samples were collected from 3 groups: CA19-9 negative PDAC patients (n = 34), CA19-9 positive PDAC patients (n = 44), and healthy volunteers (n = 36), whereas the first 12 samples from each group were used for isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Thereafter, candidate biomarkers were selected for validation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the rest specimens.Using the iTRAQ approach, a total of 5 proteins were identified as significantly different between CA19-9 negative PDAC patients and healthy subjects according to our defined criteria. Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-I) and transferrin (TF) were selected to validate the proteomic results by ELISA in a further 78 serum specimens. It revealed that TF significantly correlated with the degree of histological differentiation (P = 0.042), and univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TF is an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, 0.302; 95% confidence interval, 0.118-0.774; P = 0.013) of patients with PDAC after curative surgery.ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that APOA-I and TF may be potential CA19-9 negative PDAC serum markers.

  2. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals apolipoprotein A-I and transferrin as potential serum markers in CA19-9 negative pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Zhao, Guo-Chao; Wang, Dan-Song; Lou, Wen-Hui; Jin, Da-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) relies on CA19-9 and radiological means, whereas some patients do not have elevated levels of CA19-9 secondary to pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify potential serum biomarkers for CA19-9 negative PDAC. A total of 114 serum samples were collected from 3 groups: CA19-9 negative PDAC patients (n = 34), CA19-9 positive PDAC patients (n = 44), and healthy volunteers (n = 36), whereas the first 12 samples from each group were used for isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Thereafter, candidate biomarkers were selected for validation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the rest specimens. Using the iTRAQ approach, a total of 5 proteins were identified as significantly different between CA19-9 negative PDAC patients and healthy subjects according to our defined criteria. Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-I) and transferrin (TF) were selected to validate the proteomic results by ELISA in a further 78 serum specimens. It revealed that TF significantly correlated with the degree of histological differentiation (P = 0.042), and univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TF is an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, 0.302; 95% confidence interval, 0.118–0.774; P = 0.013) of patients with PDAC after curative surgery. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that APOA-I and TF may be potential CA19-9 negative PDAC serum markers. PMID:27495108

  3. Development of Quantitative Proteomics Using iTRAQ Based on the Immunological Response of Galleria mellonella Larvae Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum Microconidia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gómez, Amalia; Corredor, Mauricio; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Peláez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at

  4. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  5. Absolute quantitation of isoforms of post-translationally modified proteins in transgenic organism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaojun; Shu, Yiwei; Peng, Changchao; Zhu, Lin; Guo, Guangyu; Li, Ning

    2012-08-01

    Post-translational modification isoforms of a protein are known to play versatile biological functions in diverse cellular processes. To measure the molar amount of each post-translational modification isoform (P(isf)) of a target protein present in the total protein extract using mass spectrometry, a quantitative proteomic protocol, absolute quantitation of isoforms of post-translationally modified proteins (AQUIP), was developed. A recombinant ERF110 gene overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis plant was used as the model organism for demonstration of the proof of concept. Both Ser-62-independent (14)N-coded synthetic peptide standards and (15)N-coded ERF110 protein standard isolated from the heavy nitrogen-labeled transgenic plants were employed simultaneously to determine the concentration of all isoforms (T(isf)) of ERF110 in the whole plant cell lysate, whereas a pair of Ser-62-dependent synthetic peptide standards were used to quantitate the Ser-62 phosphosite occupancy (R(aqu)). The P(isf) was finally determined by integrating the two empirically measured variables using the following equation: P(isf) = T(isf) · R(aqu). The absolute amount of Ser-62-phosphorylated isoform of ERF110 determined using AQUIP was substantiated with a stable isotope labeling in Arabidopsis-based relative and accurate quantitative proteomic approach. The biological role of the Ser-62-phosphorylated isoform was demonstrated in transgenic plants.

  6. Absolute Quantitative MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry: A Case of Rifampicin in Liver Tissues.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, Chad W; Reyzer, Michelle L; Allen, Jamie L; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-16

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) elucidates molecular distributions in thin tissue sections. Absolute pixel-to-pixel quantitation has remained a challenge, primarily lacking validation of the appropriate analytical methods. In the present work, isotopically labeled internal standards are applied to tissue sections to maximize quantitative reproducibility and yield accurate quantitative results. We have developed a tissue model for rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, and have tested different methods of applying an isotopically labeled internal standard for MALDI IMS analysis. The application of the standard and subsequently the matrix onto tissue sections resulted in quantitation that was not statistically significantly different from results obtained using HPLC-MS/MS of tissue extracts. Quantitative IMS experiments were performed on liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative images measures the local concentration of RIF in the thin tissue section. Lower concentrations were detected from the blood vessels and around the portal tracts. The quantitative values obtained from these measurements were comparable (>90% similarity) to HPLC-MS/MS results obtained from extracts of the same tissue.

  7. Evaluation of absolute quantitation by nonlinear regression in probe-based real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Rasmus; Olsen, Trine; Cui, Guanglin; Florholmen, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Background In real-time PCR data analysis, the cycle threshold (CT) method is currently the gold standard. This method is based on an assumption of equal PCR efficiency in all reactions, and precision may suffer if this condition is not met. Nonlinear regression analysis (NLR) or curve fitting has therefore been suggested as an alternative to the cycle threshold method for absolute quantitation. The advantages of NLR are that the individual sample efficiency is simulated by the model and that absolute quantitation is possible without a standard curve, releasing reaction wells for unknown samples. However, the calculation method has not been evaluated systematically and has not previously been applied to a TaqMan platform. Aim: To develop and evaluate an automated NLR algorithm capable of generating batch production regression analysis. Results Total RNA samples extracted from human gastric mucosa were reverse transcribed and analysed for TNFA, IL18 and ACTB by TaqMan real-time PCR. Fluorescence data were analysed by the regular CT method with a standard curve, and by NLR with a positive control for conversion of fluorescence intensity to copy number, and for this purpose an automated algorithm was written in SPSS syntax. Eleven separate regression models were tested, and the output data was subjected to Altman-Bland analysis. The Altman-Bland analysis showed that the best regression model yielded quantitative data with an intra-assay variation of 58% vs. 24% for the CT derived copy numbers, and with a mean inter-method deviation of × 0.8. Conclusion NLR can be automated for batch production analysis, but the CT method is more precise for absolute quantitation in the present setting. The observed inter-method deviation is an indication that assessment of the fluorescence conversion factor used in the regression method can be improved. However, the versatility depends on the level of precision required, and in some settings the increased cost effectiveness of NLR

  8. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486-3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27160707

  9. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486-3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Absolute quantification of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods using quantitative ¹H NMR.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Furusho, Noriko; Kubota, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-11-15

    An absolute quantification method for the determination of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods using quantitative (1)H NMR was developed and validated. The level of dehydroacetic acid was determined using the proton signals of dehydroacetic acid referenced to 1,4-bis (trimethylsilyl) benzene-d4 after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All the recoveries from three processed foods spiked at two different concentrations were larger than 85%. The proposed method also proved to be precise, with inter-day precision and excellent linearity. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.13g/kg in processed foods, which is sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring dehydroacetic acid. Furthermore, the method is rapid and easy to apply, and provides International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte reference materials. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining the level of dehydroacetic acid in processed foods.

  11. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Yao, Chenling; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-Ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  12. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  13. [Absolute quantification of carminic acid in cochineal extract by quantitative NMR].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Saito, Takeshi; Ihara, Toshihide; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Kubota, Reiji; Tahara, Maiko; Shimizu, Kumiko; Ito, Sumio; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative NMR (qNMR) method was applied for the determination of carminic acid. Carminic acid is the main component in cochineal dye that is widely used as a natural food colorant. Since several manufacturers only provide reagent-grade carminic acid, there is no reference material of established purity. To improve the reliability of analytical data, we are developing quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), based on the fact that the intensity of a given NMR resonance is directly proportional to the molar amount of that nucleus in the sample. The purities and contents of carminic acid were calculated from the ratio of the signal intensities of an aromatic proton on carminic acid to nine protons of three methyl groups on DSS-d6 used as the internal standard. The concentration of DSS-d6 itself was corrected using potassium hydrogen phthalate, which is a certified reference material (CRM). The purities of the reagents and the contents of carminic acid in cochineal dye products were determined with SI-traceability as 25.3-92.9% and 4.6-30.5% based on the crystalline formula, carminic acid potassium salt trihydrate, which has been confirmed by X-ray analysis. The qNMR method does not require a reference compound, and is rapid and simple, with an overall analysis time of only 10 min. Our approach thus represents an absolute quantitation method with SI-traceability that should be readily applicable to analysis and quality control of any natural product. PMID:20208405

  14. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-07-13

    An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.013 g kg(-1)) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.0063 g kg(-1)) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg(-1) for foods (and 0.0063 g kg(-1) for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method. PMID:22704472

  15. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods. PMID:22967562

  16. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods.

  17. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  18. Correlation of symptom clusters of schizophrenia with absolute powers of main frequency bands in quantitative EEG

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andres; Joutsiniemi, Sirkka-Liisa; Rimon, Ranan; Appelberg, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Background Research of QEEG activity power spectra has shown intriguing results in patients with schizophrenia. Different symptom clusters have been correlated to QEEG frequency bands. The findings have been to some extent inconsistent. Replication of the findings of previous research is thus an important task. In the current study we investigated the correlations between the absolute powers of delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with the PANSS subscales and the Liddle's factors in 16 patients with schizophrenia. The authors hypothesised a priori the correlations reported by Harris et al (1999) of PANSS negative subscale with delta power, Liddle's psychomotor poverty with delta and beta powers, disorganisation with delta power and reality distortion with alpha power on the midline FC. Methods The sample consisted of 16 patients with chronic schizophrenia considered as having insufficient clinical response to conventional antipsychotic treatment and evidencing a relapse. The correlations between quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) absolute powers of delta (1.5–3.0 Hz), theta (3.0–7.5 Hz), alpha (7.5–12.5 Hz), and beta (12.5–20.0 Hz) frequency bands over the fronto-central scalp area (FC) with PANSS subscales and Liddle's factors (reality distortion, disorganisation, psychomotor poverty) were investigated. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the beta and psychomotor poverty (p < 0.05). Trends towards positive correlations (p < 0.1) were observed between delta and PANSS negative subscale and psychomotor poverty. Alpha did not correlate with reality distortion and delta did not correlate with disorganisation. Post hoc analysis revealed correlations of the same magnitude between beta and psychopathology generally over FC. Conclusion The a priori hypothesis was partly supported by the correlation of the beta and psychomotor poverty. Liddle's factors showed correlations of the same

  19. Quantitative analysis in field-flow fractionation using ultraviolet-visible detectors: an experimental design for absolute measurements

    PubMed

    Zattoni; Melucci; Torsi; Reschiglian

    2000-03-01

    In previous works, it has been shown that a standard ultraviolet-visible detection system can be used for quantitative analysis of heterogeneous systems (dispersed supermicron particles) in field-flow fractionation (FFF) by single peak area measurements. Such an analysis method was shown to require either experimental measurements (standardless analysis) or an accurate model (absolute analysis) to determine the extinction efficiency of the particulate samples. In this work, an experimental design to assess absolute analysis in FFF through prediction of particles' optical extinction is presented. Prediction derives from the semiempirical approach by van de Hulst and Walstra. Special emphasis is given to the restriction of the experimental domain of instrumental conditions within which absolute analysis is allowed. Validation by statistical analysis and a practical application to real sample recovery studies are also given.

  20. Metal-tag labeling coupled with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry for absolute quantitation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Wang, Xin; Qin, Weijie; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Jifeng; Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-09-21

    Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, consisting of relative and absolute parts, has been used to discover and validate proteins with key functions related to physiological and pathological processes. Currently, stable isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-MRM-MS) is the most commonly used method for the absolute determination of proteins in a biological sample. A prerequisite for this method is obtaining internal standards with isotope labels. Although many approaches have been developed for the labeling and preparation of internal peptides, expensive stable isotope labeling coupled with SID-MRM-MS has limited the application and development of an absolute quantitative method. Recently, a low-cost strategy using metal-tag labeling and MS has been developed for relative quantification of peptides or proteins. The introduction of labeling using metal tags has the merits of allowing multiple labeling and enlarging the mass shift to overcome the overlap of adjacent isotope clusters. However, most papers described MRM-MS for protein absolute quantification based on the metal in its peptides labelled with metal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) but not on its peptides labelled with metal. In this work, a novel approach based on metal-tag labeling coupled with MRM-MS was established for the absolute quantification of peptides or proteins. The principle of the method is that a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (DOTA-NHS ester), is used to modify the N-termini of signature peptides from a target protein, and the modified peptides then chelate a certain metal, such as thulium, to form metal-tagged peptides (Tm-DOTA-P). Internal peptides are chemically synthesized and labeled with another metal, such as terbium (Tb-DOTA-P), as the internal standard. Both the Tb-DOTA- and Tm-DOTA-labeled peptides in samples can be analysed via

  1. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted.

  2. Absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates reveals thermodynamic shifts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking PFK1 or ZWF1 genes.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Shunsuke; Okahashi, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Internal standard based absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates was performed to characterize the thermodynamic states of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism. A mixture of (13)C-labeled glycolytic intermediates was prepared via extraction from S. cerevisiae cells cultivated using a synthetic medium containing [U-(13)C] glucose as the sole carbon source. The (13)C-labeled metabolite mixture was used as an internal standard for the analysis of S. cerevisiae cultivated in a medium containing natural glucose. The methodology was employed for the absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates of BY4742, pfk1Δ, and zwf1Δ strains of S. cerevisiae. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was the most abundant intermediate in the BY4742 strains in the log phase of growth. Estimation of the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) from the absolute concentration revealed that several reactions, such as those catalyzed by ribose-5-phosphate keto-isomerase and phosphoglucose isomerase, were commonly at near-equilibrium in all three strains. A significant shift in thermodynamic state was also observed for the transketolase-transaldolase reaction, for which ΔG was -6.6 ± 0.5 kJ mol(-1) in the BY4742 strain and 5.4 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) in the zwf1Δ strain.

  3. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  4. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics of rat blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier transporters: comparison with a human specimen.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuo; Zhang, Zhengyu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine absolute protein expression levels of transporters in rat choroid plexus, that is, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and to compare them with the levels in the human choroid plexus. Plasma membrane fractions were prepared from pooled, freshly isolated choroid plexuses of 30 male Wistar rats and from frozen choroid plexus of one male human donor. Protein expression levels of 54 rat and 121 human molecules were measured, using a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. In rat, oatp1a5 showed the most abundant protein expression (30.3 fmol/μg protein), and its expression level was 3.1-, 4.5-, 5.5-, 8.4-, 9.0-, 9.9-, 22-, 91-, and 95-fold greater than those of glut1, oatp1c1, mrp1, mct1, oat3, pept2, mrp4, bcrp, and mdr1a, respectively. OATP1A2 (a possible homolog of rat oatp1a5), OATP1C1 and PEPT2 were not detected in human choroid plexus. MRP1, OAT3, and MRP4 showed 4.0-, 1.8-, and 1.7-fold smaller expression levels in human than rat, respectively. MATE1 was detected in human, but not rat, and its expression level (8.61 fmol/μg protein) was the highest among the xenobiotic transporters examined in human choroid plexus. These findings should be useful for understanding rat blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function and its differences from that in human. This is the first study clarifying the absolute protein expression levels of many transporters in the plasma membrane fractions of rat and human choroid plexuses, that is, blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier, by means of quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) technique. This study also identified the protein expressions of some transporters including MATE1 and ABCA8 in the choroid plexus for the first time.

  5. Targeted Proteomic Quantitation of the Absolute Expression and Turnover of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in the Apical Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Deficient chloride transport through cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes lethal complications in CF patients. CF is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene; thus, CFTR mutants can serve as primary targets for drugs to modulate and rescue the ion channel’s function. The first step of drug modulation is to increase the expression of CFTR in the apical plasma membrane (PM); thus, accurate measurement of CFTR in the PM is desired. This work reports a tandem enrichment strategy to prepare PM CFTR and uses a stable isotope labeled CFTR sample as the quantitation reference to measure the absolute amount of apical PM expression of CFTR in CFBE 41o- cells. It was found that CFBE 41o- cells expressing wild-type CFTR (wtCFTR), when cultured on plates, had 2.9 ng of the protein in the apical PM per million cells; this represented 10% of the total CFTR found in the cells. When these cells were polarized on filters, the apical PM expression of CFTR increased to 14%. Turnover of CFTR in the apical PM of baby hamster kidney cells overexpressing wtCFTR (BHK-wtCFTR) was also quantified by targeted proteomics based on multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; wtCFTR had a half-life of 29.0 ± 2.5 h in the apical PM. This represents the first direct measurement of CFTR turnover using stable isotopes. The absolute quantitation and turnover measurements of CFTR in the apical PM can significantly facilitate understanding the disease mechanism of CF and thus the development of new disease-modifying drugs. Absolute CFTR quantitation allows for direct result comparisons among analyses, analysts, and laboratories and will greatly amplify the overall outcome of CF research and therapy. PMID:25227318

  6. Development and application of absolute quantitative detection by duplex chamber-based digital PCR of genetically modified maize events without pretreatment steps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengyu; Fu, Wei; Wang, Chenguang; Du, Zhixin; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Shuifang; Xu, Wentao

    2016-04-15

    The possibility of the absolute quantitation of GMO events by digital PCR was recently reported. However, most absolute quantitation methods based on the digital PCR required pretreatment steps. Meanwhile, singleplex detection could not meet the demand of the absolute quantitation of GMO events that is based on the ratio of foreign fragments and reference genes. Thus, to promote the absolute quantitative detection of different GMO events by digital PCR, we developed a quantitative detection method based on duplex digital PCR without pretreatment. Moreover, we tested 7 GMO events in our study to evaluate the fitness of our method. The optimized combination of foreign and reference primers, limit of quantitation (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD) and specificity were validated. The results showed that the LOQ of our method for different GMO events was 0.5%, while the LOD is 0.1%. Additionally, we found that duplex digital PCR could achieve the detection results with lower RSD compared with singleplex digital PCR. In summary, the duplex digital PCR detection system is a simple and stable way to achieve the absolute quantitation of different GMO events. Moreover, the LOQ and LOD indicated that this method is suitable for the daily detection and quantitation of GMO events. PMID:27016439

  7. Development and application of absolute quantitative detection by duplex chamber-based digital PCR of genetically modified maize events without pretreatment steps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengyu; Fu, Wei; Wang, Chenguang; Du, Zhixin; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Shuifang; Xu, Wentao

    2016-04-15

    The possibility of the absolute quantitation of GMO events by digital PCR was recently reported. However, most absolute quantitation methods based on the digital PCR required pretreatment steps. Meanwhile, singleplex detection could not meet the demand of the absolute quantitation of GMO events that is based on the ratio of foreign fragments and reference genes. Thus, to promote the absolute quantitative detection of different GMO events by digital PCR, we developed a quantitative detection method based on duplex digital PCR without pretreatment. Moreover, we tested 7 GMO events in our study to evaluate the fitness of our method. The optimized combination of foreign and reference primers, limit of quantitation (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD) and specificity were validated. The results showed that the LOQ of our method for different GMO events was 0.5%, while the LOD is 0.1%. Additionally, we found that duplex digital PCR could achieve the detection results with lower RSD compared with singleplex digital PCR. In summary, the duplex digital PCR detection system is a simple and stable way to achieve the absolute quantitation of different GMO events. Moreover, the LOQ and LOD indicated that this method is suitable for the daily detection and quantitation of GMO events.

  8. Detection and absolute quantitation of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) by real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Vásquez, José Angel; Rubio, Luis; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Debreczeni, Diana Elvira; Font-San-Ambrosio, Isabel; Falk, Bryce W; Ferriol, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) causes serious damage to the tomato industry and significant economic losses. A quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method using primers and a specific TaqMan(®) MGB probe for ToTV was developed for sensitive detection and quantitation of different ToTV isolates. A standard curve using RNA transcripts enabled absolute quantitation, with a dynamic range from 10(4) to 10(10) ToTV RNA copies/ng of total RNA. The specificity of the RT-qPCR was tested with twenty-three ToTV isolates from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) collected in Spain, Australia, Hungary and France, which covered the genetic variation range of this virus. This new RT-qPCR assay enables a reproducible, sensitive and specific detection and quantitation of ToTV, which can be a valuable tool in disease management programs and epidemiological studies.

  9. Precision and accuracy in the quantitative analysis of biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: application in microdose absolute bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Jing; Kasserra, Claudia; Song, Qi; Arjomand, Ali; Hesk, David; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2011-07-15

    Determination of the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of an experimental compound, SCH 900518, following a 89.7 nCi (100 μg) intravenous (iv) dose of (14)C-SCH 900518 2 h post 200 mg oral administration of nonradiolabeled SCH 900518 to six healthy male subjects has been described. The plasma concentration of SCH 900518 was measured using a validated LC-MS/MS system, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used for quantitative plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentration determination. Calibration standards and quality controls were included for every batch of sample analysis by AMS to ensure acceptable quality of the assay. Plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentrations were derived from the regression function established from the calibration standards, rather than directly from isotopic ratios from AMS measurement. The precision and accuracy of quality controls and calibration standards met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine. Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation (ucm070107), May 2001. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceCompilanceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070107.pdf ). The AMS measurement had a linear response range from 0.0159 to 9.07 dpm/mL for plasma (14)C-SCH 900158 concentrations. The CV and accuracy were 3.4-8.5% and 94-108% (82-119% for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The absolute bioavailability was calculated from the dose-normalized area under the curve of iv and oral doses after the plasma concentrations were plotted vs the sampling time post oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability of SCH 900518 was 40.8% (range 16.8-60.6%). The typical accuracy and standard deviation in AMS quantitative analysis of drugs from human plasma samples have been reported for the first time, and the impact of these

  10. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

  11. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems. PMID:26999129

  12. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-03-18

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  13. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems. PMID:26999129

  14. Absolute Quantitation of Water and Metabolites in the Human Brain. I. Compartments and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, T.; Kreis, R.; Ross, B. D.

    A method is presented to determine the compartmentation of a localized region in the human brain in terms of CSF, tissue water, and an NMR-invisible rest, using a PRESS or STEAM sequence. Discrimination between CSF and tissue water is based on differences in their T2 relaxation times. The NMR-invisible compartment is assessed using an external standard. The composition of three regions in the human brain is determined. The CSF content of specific regions can be used to quantify cortical atrophy. The method provides a means for measuring the water content of brain tissue in vivo with a precision of 1.5%. After appropriate corrections, the results are in close agreement with biochemical values. The method has major applications in localized quantitative spectroscopy. The compartmentation model can be used to correct for the CSF content of the selected volume and to properly define and interconvert all major concentration units.

  15. An MRM-based workflow for absolute quantitation of lysine-acetylated metabolic enzymes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leilei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Cuiping; Qin, Xue; Yu, Hongxiu; Yang, Pengyuan

    2015-12-01

    As a key post-translational modification mechanism, protein acetylation plays critical roles in regulating and/or coordinating cell metabolism. Acetylation is a prevalent modification process in enzymes. Protein acetylation modification occurs in sub-stoichiometric amounts; therefore extracting biologically meaningful information from these acetylation sites requires an adaptable, sensitive, specific, and robust method for their quantification. In this work, we combine immunoassays and multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) technology to develop an absolute quantification for acetylation modification. With this hybrid method, we quantified the acetylation level of metabolic enzymes, which could demonstrate the regulatory mechanisms of the studied enzymes. The development of this quantitative workflow is a pivotal step for advancing our knowledge and understanding of the regulatory effects of protein acetylation in physiology and pathophysiology.

  16. Leptin in whales: validation and measurement of mRNA expression by absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ball, Hope C; Holmes, Robert K; Londraville, Richard L; Thewissen, Johannes G M; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: "relative" and "absolute". To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR "background" material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and that the use of

  17. Quantitative Targeted Absolute Proteomics of Transporters and Pharmacoproteomics-Based Reconstruction of P-Glycoprotein Function in Mouse Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Takanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a pharmacokinetic model integrating in vitro mdr1a efflux activity (which we previously reported) with in vitro/in vivo differences in protein expression level can reconstruct intestinal mdr1a function. In situ intestinal permeability-surface area product ratio between wild-type and mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice is one of the parameters used to describe intestinal mdr1a function. The reconstructed ratios of six mdr1a substrates (dexamethasone, digoxin, loperamide, quinidine, verapamil, vinblastine) and one nonsubstrate (diazepam) were consistent with the observed values reported by Adachi et al. within 2.1-fold difference. Thus, intestinal mdr1a function can be reconstructed by our pharmacoproteomic modeling approach. Furthermore, we evaluated regional differences in protein expression levels of mouse intestinal transporters. Sixteen (mdr1a, mrp4, bcrp, abcg5, abcg8, glut1, 4f2hc, sglt1, lat2, pept1, mct1, slc22a18, ostβ, villin1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, γ-gtp) out of 46 target molecules were detected by employing our established quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. The protein expression amounts of mdr1a and bcrp increased progressively from duodenum to ileum. Sglt1, lat2, and 4f2hc were highly expressed in jejunum and ileum. Mct1 and ostβ were highly expressed in ileum. The quantitative expression profiles established here should be helpful to understand and predict intestinal transporter functions. PMID:27276518

  18. Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oats, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

    2013-11-13

    Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C-H stretching and C-H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C-H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by DFT computations of IR spectra at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT theory. A simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C-H stretching band near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (in km/mol): CH¬_str = (34±3)*CH – (41±60) where CH is number of C-H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2- units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C-H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C-H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of terminal methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

  19. Leptin in Whales: Validation and Measurement of mRNA Expression by Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Hope C.; Holmes, Robert K.; Londraville, Richard L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: “relative” and “absolute”. To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR “background” material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and

  20. Analysis of Intrinsic Peptide Detectability via Integrated Label-Free and SRM-Based Absolute Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Lee, Dave C H; Lawless, Craig; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E; Hubbard, Simon J

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics of complex biological samples remains challenging in part due to the variability and charge competition arising during electrospray ionization (ESI) of peptides and the subsequent transfer and detection of ions. These issues preclude direct quantification from signal intensity alone in the absence of a standard. A deeper understanding of the governing principles of peptide ionization and exploitation of the inherent ionization and detection parameters of individual peptides is thus of great value. Here, using the yeast proteome as a model system, we establish the concept of peptide F-factor as a measure of detectability, closely related to ionization efficiency. F-factor is calculated by normalizing peptide precursor ion intensity by absolute abundance of the parent protein. We investigated F-factor characteristics in different shotgun proteomics experiments, including across multiple ESI-based LC-MS platforms. We show that F-factors mirror previously observed physicochemical predictors as peptide detectability but demonstrate a nonlinear relationship between hydrophobicity and peptide detectability. Similarly, we use F-factors to show how peptide ion coelution adversely affects detectability and ionization. We suggest that F-factors have great utility for understanding peptide detectability and gas-phase ion chemistry in complex peptide mixtures, selection of surrogate peptides in targeted MS studies, and for calibration of peptide ion signal in label-free workflows. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003472. PMID:27454336

  1. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis of Cryptococcus humicola response to aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Jinkui; Nian, Hongjuan

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus humicola is a highly aluminum (Al) tolerant yeast strain isolated from a tea field. Here the relative changes of protein expression in C. humicola undergoing aluminum stress were analyzed to understand the genetic basis of aluminum tolerance. In this work, iTRAQ-based (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) quantitative proteomic technology was used to detect statistically significant proteins associated with the response to aluminum stress. A total of 625 proteins were identified and were mainly involved in translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover/chaperones, energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism. Of these proteins, 59 exhibited differential expression during aluminum stress. Twenty-nine proteins up-regulated by aluminum were mainly involved in translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover and chaperones, and lipid transport and metabolism. Thirty proteins down-regulated by aluminum were mainly associated with energy transport and metabolism, translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover/chaperones, and lipid transport and metabolism. The potential functions of some proteins in aluminum tolerance are discussed. These functional changes may be beneficial for cells to protect themselves from aluminum toxic conditions.

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum from Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with Conotruncal Heart Defect Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Kang, Yuan; Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhou, Jizi; Wang, Huijun; Jin, Hong; Liu, Xiaohui; Ma, Duan; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD) fetus, using proteomic analysis. Methods The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14–18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD) fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot. Results A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot. Conclusions The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum. PMID:25393621

  3. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  4. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  5. Absolute Quantification of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins by Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Using Removable Internal Reference Substance with SI Traceability.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Maki; Nagae, Mika; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Tomoji; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inagaki, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), a lipophilic shellfish toxin, was accurately quantified using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance with internal standards for the development of an authentic reference standard. Pyridine and the residual proton in methanol-d4 were used as removable internal standards to limit any contamination. They were calibrated based on a maleic acid certified reference material. Thus, the concentration of OA was traceable to the SI units through accurate quantitative NMR with an internal reference substance. Signals from the protons on the oxygenated and unsaturated carbons of OA were used for quantification. A reasonable accuracy was obtained by integrating between the lower and upper (13)C satellite signal range when more than 4 mg of OA was used. The best-determined purity was 97.4% (0.16% RSD) when 20 mg of OA was used. Dinophysistoxin-1, a methylated analog of OA having an almost identical spectrum, was also quantified by using the same methodology. PMID:27396652

  6. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Patent and Constricted Ductus Arteriosus Tissues Confirms the Systemic Regulation of Ductus Arteriosus Closure.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haifa; Ye, Lincai; Chen, Huiwen; Xia, Yu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Jinfen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate global changes in protein expression associated with patency by undertaking proteomic analysis of human constricted and patent ductus arteriosus (DA). Ten constricted and 10 patent human DAs were excised from infants with ductal-dependent heart disease during surgery. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomics, 132 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of 132 proteins, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.3 (SCN3A), myosin 1d (Myo1d), Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26), and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) were selected for validation by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Significant upregulation of SCN3A, Myo1d, and RP1 messenger RNA, and protein levels was observed in the patent DA group (all P ≤ 0.048). ARHGAP26 messenger RNA and protein levels were decreased in patent DA tissue (both P ≤ 0.018). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Myo1d, ARHGAP26, and RP1 were specifically expressed in the subendothelial region of constricted DAs; however, diffuse expression of these proteins was noted in the patent group. Proteomic analysis revealed global changes in the expression of proteins that regulate oxygen sensing, ion channels, smooth muscle cell migration, nervous system, immune system, and metabolism, suggesting a basis for the systemic regulation of DA patency by diverse signaling pathways, which will be confirmed in further studies.

  7. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Xia; Zhang, Jingyu; Dai, Lunjin; Deng, Gang; Liao, Yiwen; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Bo; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought stress) of treatment with 15% (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol)6000 (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy. PMID:27689998

  8. Ethnic variability in the expression of hepatic drug transporters: absolute quantification by an optimized targeted quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan-wei; Bacon, James; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic OATPs 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1, as well as P-gp, play important roles in regulating liver uptake and biliary excretion of drugs. The intrinsic ethnic variability in OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of statins has been proposed to underlie the ethnic variability in plasma exposures of statins between Caucasians and Asians. Using a targeted quantitative proteomic approach, we determined hepatic protein concentrations of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, P-gp, and PMCA4 (a housekeeping protein) in a panel of human livers (n = 141) and compared protein expression across Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and unidentified donors. Using an optimized protocol that included sodium deoxycholate as a membrane protein solubilizer, the hepatic protein expression levels (mean ± S.D.) of these transporters across all livers were determined to be 15.0 ± 6.0, 16.1 ± 8.1, 4.1 ± 1.3, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 2.4 ± 1.0 fmol/μg of total membrane protein, respectively. The scaling factor was 3.5 mg of total membrane protein in 100 mg of wet liver tissue. OATP1B1 protein expression was significantly associated with the c.388A>G (rs2306283, N130D) single nucleotide polymorphism. When compared across ethnicity, the hepatic expression levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were unexpectedly higher in Asians relative to Caucasians, suggesting that hepatic OATP expression alone does not explain the increased systemic statin levels in Asians compared with Caucasians. These findings may help improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict statin pharmacokinetic profiles and enable extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data of OATP substrates across ethnic groups.

  9. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  10. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  11. Integrated Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identifies Galectin-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Predicting Sorafenib Resistance in Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Shao, Yu-Yun; Ho, Wen-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Feng, Wen-Chi; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Sorafenib has become the standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers that could predict the efficacy of sorafenib. To identify target proteins associated with the development of sorafenib resistance, we applied stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to analyze differences in protein expression levels between parental HuH-7 and sorafenib-acquired resistance HuH-7 (HuH-7(R)) cells in vitro, combined with an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative analysis of HuH-7 and HuH-7(R) tumors in vivo. In total, 2,450 quantified proteins were identified in common in SILAC and iTRAQ experiments, with 81 showing increased expression (>2.0-fold) with sorafenib resistance and 75 showing decreased expression (<0.5-fold). In silico analyses of these differentially expressed proteins predicted that 10 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of one of these candidate proteins, galectin-1, decreased cell proliferation and metastasis in HuH-7(R) cells and restored sensitivity to sorafenib. We verified galectin-1 as a predictive marker of sorafenib resistance and a downstream target of the AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. In addition, increased galectin-1 expression in HCC patients' serum was associated with poor tumor control and low response rate. We also found that a high serum galectin-1 level was an independent factor associated with poor progression-free survival and overall survival. In conclusion, these results suggest that galectin-1 is a possible biomarker for predicting the response of HCC patients to treatment with sorafenib. As such, it may assist in the stratification of HCC and help direct personalized therapy.

  12. Integrated Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identifies Galectin-1 as a Potential Biomarker for Predicting Sorafenib Resistance in Liver Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Shao, Yu-Yun; Ho, Wen-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Feng, Wen-Chi; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib has become the standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers that could predict the efficacy of sorafenib. To identify target proteins associated with the development of sorafenib resistance, we applied stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to analyze differences in protein expression levels between parental HuH-7 and sorafenib-acquired resistance HuH-7 (HuH-7R) cells in vitro, combined with an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative analysis of HuH-7 and HuH-7R tumors in vivo. In total, 2,450 quantified proteins were identified in common in SILAC and iTRAQ experiments, with 81 showing increased expression (>2.0-fold) with sorafenib resistance and 75 showing decreased expression (<0.5-fold). In silico analyses of these differentially expressed proteins predicted that 10 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of one of these candidate proteins, galectin-1, decreased cell proliferation and metastasis in HuH-7R cells and restored sensitivity to sorafenib. We verified galectin-1 as a predictive marker of sorafenib resistance and a downstream target of the AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. In addition, increased galectin-1 expression in HCC patients' serum was associated with poor tumor control and low response rate. We also found that a high serum galectin-1 level was an independent factor associated with poor progression-free survival and overall survival. In conclusion, these results suggest that galectin-1 is a possible biomarker for predicting the response of HCC patients to treatment with sorafenib. As such, it may assist in the stratification of HCC and help direct personalized therapy. PMID:25850433

  13. A Novel Function for Arabidopsis CYCLASE1 in Programmed Cell Death Revealed by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah J; Kroon, Johan T M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R; Chivasa, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death is essential for plant development and stress adaptation. A detailed understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate plant programmed cell death requires identification of the underpinning protein networks. Here, we have used a protagonist and antagonist of programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin B1 as probes to identify key cell death regulatory proteins in Arabidopsis. Our hypothesis was that changes in the abundance of cell death-regulatory proteins induced by the protagonist should be blocked or attenuated by concurrent treatment with the antagonist. We focused on proteins present in the mobile phase of the extracellular matrix on the basis that they are important for cell-cell communications during growth and stress-adaptive responses. Salicylic acid, a plant hormone that promotes programmed cell death, and exogenous ATP, which can block fumonisin B1-induced cell death, were used to treat Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures prior to isobaric-tagged relative and absolute quantitation analysis of secreted proteins. A total of 33 proteins, whose response to salicylic acid was suppressed by ATP, were identified as putative cell death-regulatory proteins. Among these was CYCLASE1, which was selected for further analysis using reverse genetics. Plants in which CYCLASE1 gene expression was knocked out by insertion of a transfer-DNA sequence manifested dramatically increased cell death when exposed to fumonisin B1 or a bacterial pathogen that triggers the defensive hypersensitive cell death. Although pathogen inoculation altered CYCLASE1 gene expression, multiplication of bacterial pathogens was indistinguishable between wild type and CYCLASE1 knockout plants. However, remarkably severe chlorosis symptoms developed on gene knockout plants in response to inoculation with either a virulent bacterial pathogen or a disabled mutant that is incapable of causing disease in wild type plants. These results show that CYCLASE1, which

  14. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123

  15. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  16. Candidate genes in quantitative trait loci associated with absolute and relative kidney weight in rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The kidney mass is significantly increased in hypertensive ISIAH rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension as compared with normotensive WAG rats. The QTL/microarray approach was carried out to determine the positional candidate genes in the QTL for absolute and relative kidney weight. Results Several known and predicted genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidney were mapped to genetic loci associated with the absolute and relative kidney weight in 6-month old F2 hybrid (ISIAHxWAG) males. The knowledge-driven filtering of the list of candidates helped to suggest several positional candidate genes, which may be related to the structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. In the current study, we showed that all loci found for absolute and relative kidney weight didn't overlap with significant or suggestive loci for arterial blood pressure level. So, the genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidneys and located in these QTL regions associated with absolute and relative kidney weight shouldn't substantially influence the BP level in the 6 month-old ISIAH rats. However, in some cases, small effects may be suggested. Conclusions The further experimental validation of causative genes and detection of polymorphisms will provide opportunities to advance our understanding of the underlying nature of structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. PMID:25707311

  17. Absolute near-infrared oximetry for urology: a quantitative study of the tissue hemoglobin saturation before and after testicular torsion in a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental study on four rabbits to demonstrate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion. We used a multi-distance frequency-domain method, based on a fixed detector position and a 9-mm linear scan of the illumination optical fibers, to measure absolute values of pre- and post-operative testicular oxygen saturation. Unilateral testicular torsions (by 0°, 540° or 720°) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgeries (no torsion) on control testes were performed and studied. Our results showed (a) a consistent baseline absolute tissue oxygen saturation value of 78% +/- 5%; (b) a comparable absolute saturation of 77% +/- 6% on the control side (testes after sham surgery); and (c) a significantly lower tissue oxygen saturation of 36% +/- 2% on the experimental side (testes after 540° or 720° torsion surgery). These results demonstrate the capability of frequency domain nearinfrared spectroscopy in the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, and show promise as a potential method to serve as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  18. Online, Absolute Quantitation of Propranolol from Spatially Distinct 20- and 40-μm Dissections of Brain, Liver, and Kidney Thin Tissue Sections by Laser Microdissection-Liquid Vortex Capture-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cahill, John F; Kertesz, Vilmos; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2016-06-01

    Spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser "cut and drop" sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm × 20 μm or 40 μm × 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolol-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser "cut and drop" sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings. PMID:27214103

  19. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  20. Commissioning and Implementation of an EPID Based IMRT QA System "Dosimetry Check" for 3D Absolute Dose Measurements and Quantitative Comparisons to MapCheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jalpa A.

    The software package "Dosimetry Check" by MathResolutions, LLC, provides an absolute 3D volumetric dose measurement for IMRT QA using the existing Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) mounted on most linear accelerators. This package provides a feedback loop using the patient's treatment planning CT data as the phantom for dose reconstruction. The aim of this work is to study the difference between point, planar and volumetric doses with MapCheck and Dosimetry Check via the use of the EPID and the diode array respectively. Evaluating tools such as point doses at isocenter, 1-D profiles, gamma volume histograms, and dose volume histograms are used for IMRT dose comparison in three types of cases: head and neck, prostate, and lung. Dosimetry Check can be a valuable tool for IMRT QA as it uses patient specific attenuation corrections and the superiority of the EPID as compared to the MapCheck diode array. This helps reduce the uncertainty in dose for less variability in delivery and a more realistic measured vs computed dose verification system as compared to MapCheck.

  1. Quantitative measurements of one-dimensional OH absolute concentration profiles in a methane/air flat flame by bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Yang, Zhen; Peng, Jiang-Bo; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yu-Fei; Yang, Chao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Rui

    2015-11-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) spatial distributions of OH absolute concentration in methane/air laminar premixed flat flame under different equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure are investigated by using bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection scheme combined with the direct absorption spectroscopy. The effective peak absorption cross section and the average temperature at a height of 2 mm above the burner are obtained by exciting absorption on the Q1(8) rotational line in the A2Σ+ (ʋ‧ = 0) ← X2Π (ʋ″ = 0) at 309.240 nm. The measured values are 1.86×10-15 cm2 and 1719 K, respectively. Spatial filtering and frequency filtering methods of reducing noise are used to deal with the experimental data, and the smoothing effects are also compared using the two methods. The spatial distribution regularities of OH concentration are obtained with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.3. The spatial resolution of the measured result is 84 μm. Finally, a comparison is made between the experimental result of this paper and other relevant study results. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Projects of China (Grant No. 2012YQ040164), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275127 and 91441130), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560262), and the Postdoctoral Fellowship in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBH-Z14074).

  2. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  3. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  4. Use Of Absolute Function And Its Associates In Formation And `Redevelopment' Of Mathematical Models In Some Plant-Related Quantitative Physiology: Salinity Effects On Leaf Development Of Schefflera arboricola And Harvest Index In Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamat, Ahmad; Awang, Yahya; Mohamed, Mahmud T. M.; Wahab, Zakaria; Osman, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The roles of quantitative physiology are becoming more apparent and crucial in the era of ICT recently. As based on the rate-related variables, most of the mathematical models are in the form of `non-linear' function in describing the responses or the observed within-plant processes outcomes versus time. Even though if some responses change in a drastic manner at certain response point within a biological unit or space of a plant system, the response curve `should' be dependent on a continuous independent variable range in a specified period of determination where biologically `should not' functioned by independent variable range having `IF' statement(s). Subjected to nutrient concentration of high salinity (6.0 mS cm-1), the leaf turgidity (measured as leaf surface area) of S. arboricola which initially was described by one form of the logistic growth functions [(y = 1/(a+be-cx)] abruptly reduced as explained by a model having terms of Absolute function (ABS) containing tan-1(x) and its parameter of leaf life expectancy as affected by high salinity growing medium at a certain point of days after planting. This yielded an overall function of y = 1/(a+be-cx)-A[tan-1{(x-B)/D}+ABS(tan-1{(x-B)/D})]E, where a, b, c, A, B, D, and E are constants that most of them can be `biologically' interpreted. The constant B is the point similar to `IF statement' as normally used in other mathematical functions. Plants subjected to lower salinity status (<3.0 mS cm-1) were only having function of y = 1/(a+be-cx). In the harvest index or HI (economic yield/above ground biomass) study of 20 rice varieties grown over two planting seasons, the long flattened tails at both sides of a peak in the middle of function of y = R+B(T+ABS(B-x))e-k(T+ABS(B-x)) had indicated that those varieties maturing at 123 to 133 days after transplanting were having high HI values. In our observation, Absolute (ABS) function coupled with some terms could be used in the formation of some mathematical functions

  5. Absolute quantitation of phosphorus metabolites in the cerebral cortex of the newborn human infant and in the forearm muscles of young adults using a double-tuned surface coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Ernest B.

    The application of a double-tuned surface coil with strong coupling for both 31P and 1H to the in vivo measurement of metabolite concentrations by NMR spectroscopy is demonstrated. It is shown that sample loading, although important for a coil tuned to a single frequency, does not necessarily have a significant effect on absolute quantitation results if the coil is strongly coupled to the sample for both nuclei. For the coil used in the present study, the spectrometer calibration coefficient is almost independent of loading and the 1H and 31P flip angles at the coil center produced by fixed length pulses could be arranged to be nearly equal over a range of loading conditions. In seven normal infants, of gestational plus postnatal age 35 to 37 weeks, the cerebral cortex nucleotide triphosphate concentration was 3.7 ± 0.6 m M/liter wet (mean ± SD). Metabolite concentrations were low in the cerebral cortex of a severely birth asphyxiated infant. The adenosine triphosphate concentration in the resting, fresh forearm muscles of six young adults was 6.3 ± 0.8 m M/liter wet.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  9. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  10. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  11. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  12. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  13. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  14. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  15. A study protocol for quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) by LC-MS/MS: application for inter-strain differences in protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, claudin-5, and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and molecular interactions in a variety of biological systems. The activities and roles of the identified proteins must also be elucidated, but this is complicated by the inability of conventional proteomic methods to yield quantitative information for protein expression. Thus, a variety of biological systems remain “black boxes”. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) enables the determination of absolute expression levels (mol) of any target protein, including low-abundance functional proteins, such as transporters and receptors. Therefore, QTAP will be useful for understanding the activities and roles of individual proteins and their differences, including normal/disease, human/animal, or in vitro/in vivo. Here, we describe the study protocols and precautions for QTAP experiments including in silico target peptide selection, determination of peptide concentration by amino acid analysis, setup of selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) analysis in liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, preparation of protein samples (brain capillaries and plasma membrane fractions) followed by the preparation of peptide samples, simultaneous absolute quantification of target proteins by SRM/MRM analysis, data analysis, and troubleshooting. An application of QTAP in biological sciences was introduced that utilizes data from inter-strain differences in the protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, tight junction proteins and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice. Among 18 molecules, 13 (abcb1a/mdr1a/P-gp, abcc4/mrp4, abcg2/bcrp, slc2a1/glut1, slc7a5/lat1, slc16a1/mct1, slc22a8/oat3, insr, lrp1, tfr1, claudin-5, Na+/K+-ATPase, and γ-gtp) were detected in the isolated brain capillaries, and their

  16. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  17. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  18. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  19. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  20. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  1. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  2. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  3. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    format. The NGS absolute system is located in Corbin, Virginia, and uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. NGS is interested in providing calibrations for a wide variety of dual-frequency, geodetic-grade antennas, from types in use at IGS and CORS reference stations to rover antennas not normally seen in those networks. In this presentation, we describe the NGS absolute calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We also demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities.

  4. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  5. Dissection of brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice embryos during germination by quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian-Feng; Xiong, Min; Xu, Peng; Huang, Li-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice. In the present study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach to study BR-regulated proteome during the early stage of seed germination. The results showed that more than 800 BR-responsive proteins were identified, including 88 reliable target proteins responsive to stimuli of both BR-deficiency and BR-insensitivity. Moreover, 90% of the 88 target proteins shared a similar expression change pattern. Gene ontology and string analysis indicated that ribosomal structural proteins, as well as proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolisms were highly clustered. These findings not only enrich BR-regulated protein database in rice seeds, but also allow us to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of BR regulated seed germination. PMID:27703189

  6. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  7. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  8. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  9. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  10. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  11. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  12. The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through time on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of absolute tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of absolute plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep time (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate absolute plate motions through time. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global absolute reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized absolute motion paths through deep time.

  13. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  14. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  15. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  16. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  17. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  18. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  19. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  20. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  1. GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and compare absolute calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.

  2. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  3. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  4. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  5. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  6. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  7. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  8. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  9. ICP-MS for multiplex absolute determinations of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    In the last few years MS-based proteomics has been turning quantitative because only the quantity of existing proteins or changes of their abundance in a studied sample reflect the actual status and the extent of possible changes in a given biological system. So far, however, only relative quantifications are common place. Recently, the ideal analytical features of ICP-MS that allow robust, accurate and precise absolute determinations of heteroelements (present in proteins and their peptides) have opened the door to its use, as a complementary ion source of MALDI- and/or ESI-(MS), in achieving the "absolute" quantification of a protein. Unfortunately, so far such "heteroatom-tagged proteomics" applications deal with only single-heteroatom measurements. Thus, the outstanding capability of ICP-MS for multi-element (-isotope) simultaneous determinations is somewhat wasted. On the other hand, multiplexed determinations of proteins (e.g. in common or new multiplexed formats) today constitute a pressing need in medical science (e.g. to determine accurately many biomarkers at a time). This is a clear trend in analytical science where ICP-MS could eventually play an important role. Therefore, reported approaches to multiplex protein determinations using ICP-MS, with liquid sample nebulisation and with laser direct sampling from a solid, are discussed here. Apart from such multiplex bioassays for absolute protein determinations, efforts to simultaneously quantitate enzyme activities are also discussed. It appears that the time is ripe to combine the multi-isotopic character of ICP-MS with well-known multi-analyte separation techniques (e.g. HPLC or multiplex immunoassays) to tackle the challenge of analysing abundances and activities of several proteins and enzymes, respectively, in a single assay. Many attractive opportunities for creative work and interdisciplinary developments for analytical atomic spectroscopists seem to lie ahead related to multiplexed quantitative

  10. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  11. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  12. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  13. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  14. Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G.; Bilich, A.; Geoghegan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and outline future planned refinements to the system.

  15. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  16. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  17. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  18. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  19. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  1. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  2. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  3. Absolute quantification of cell-bound DNA aptamers during SELEX.

    PubMed

    Avci-Adali, Meltem; Wilhelm, Nadja; Perle, Nadja; Stoll, Heidi; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans P

    2013-04-01

    In the fields of diagnosis, imaging, regenerative medicine, and drug targeting, aptamers are promising nucleic acid ligands for specific recognition and binding of whole living cells. These aptamers are selected by a combinatorial chemistry technique called cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). During this iterative procedure of in vitro selection and enzymatic amplification, the enrichment of cell binding aptamers is generally monitored by flow cytometry. This method needs the use of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides for detection and allows only the relative evaluation of the aptamer binding compared with the control. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the absolute determination of cell bound aptamers during cell-SELEX. The method is based on SYBR Green I real-time PCR technology and uses an aptamer standard curve to determine the accurate aptamer amount on cells after the incubations. Lysates of cells with bound aptamers were used to identify the absolute amount of aptamers on cells. This method is highly sensitive and allows the detection of very small quantities of aptamers in cell lysate samples. The lower detection limit is 20 fg. The established qPCR method can be used as an additional monitoring tool during cell-SELEX to determine the enrichment of cell binding aptamers on cells, whereby the absolute quantity is determined. Furthermore, the contamination of the amplified aptamer pool with by-products can be prevented by prior determination of bound aptamer amount on cells. PMID:23405949

  4. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  8. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  9. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  11. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  12. Absolute calibration of a laser system for atmospheric probing.

    PubMed

    Hall, F F; Ageno, H Y

    1970-08-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the backscatter function from laser irradiance backscattered from the atmosphere, the ratio of power transmitted to power received must be accurately known. No absolute measurements of power, optical system transmittance, detector quantum efficiency, or electronic gain are necessarily required. The technique of measuring the power ratio by irradiating a smoked or painted target of known diffuse reflectance at a fixed range is used to calibrate a complete lidar system. The relative area of the output power pulse is monitored by a fast response photodiode, and the relative area of the returned pulse is also recorded after passing through a filter of known high optical density. It is essential to control the temperatures of the laser rod and receiver interference prefilter to ensure proper spectral matching. Field experience gained using this technique is described, and examples of calibration measurements and backscatter functions for smog and cirrus clouds are presented.

  13. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  14. Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) tend to develop genomic alterations and progress to a malignant state during long-term in vitro culture. This raises concerns of the clinical safety in using cultured hESCs. However, transformed hESCs might serve as an excellent model to determine the process of embryonic stem cell transition. In this study, ITRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify normal and aberrant karyotypic hESCs proteins from simple to more complex karyotypic abnormalities. We identified and quantified 2583 proteins, and found that the expression levels of 316 proteins that represented at least 23 functional molecular groups were significantly different in both normal and abnormal hESCs. Dysregulated protein expression in epigenetic regulation was further verified in six pairs of hESC lines in early and late passage. In summary, this study is the first large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of the malignant transformation of aberrant karyotypic hESCs. The data generated should serve as a useful reference of stem cell-derived tumor progression. Increased expression of both HDAC2 and CTNNB1 are detected as early as the pre-neoplastic stage, and might serve as prognostic markers in the malignant transformation of hESCs. PMID:24465727

  15. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  16. Quantitative SPECT techniques.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1999-07-01

    Quantitative imaging involves first, a set of measurements that characterize an image. There are several variations of technique, but the basic measurements that are used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion images are reasonably standardized. Quantification currently provides only relative tracer activity within the myocardial regions defined by an individual SPECT acquisition. Absolute quantification is still a work in progress. Quantitative comparison of absolute changes in tracer uptake comparing a stress and rest study or preintervention and postintervention study would be useful and could be done, but most commercial systems do not maintain the data normalization that is necessary for this. Measurements of regional and global function are now possible with electrocardiography (ECG) gating, and this provides clinically useful adjunctive data. Techniques for measuring ventricular function are evolving and promise to provide clinically useful accuracy. The computer can classify images as normal or abnormal by comparison with a normal database. The criteria for this classification involve more than just checking the normal limits. The images should be analyzed to measure how far they deviate from normal, and this information can be used in conjunction with pretest likelihood to indicate the level of statistical certainty that an individual patient has a true positive or true negative test. The interface between the computer and the clinician interpreter is an important part of the process. Especially when both perfusion and function are being determined, the ability of the interpreter to correctly assimilate the data is essential to the use of the quantitative process. As we become more facile with performing and recording objective measurements, the significance of the measurements in terms of risk evaluation, viability assessment, and outcome should be continually enhanced. PMID:10433336

  17. Quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative analysis permits the isolation of invariant relations in the study of behavior. The parameters of these relations can serve as higher-order dependent variables in more extensive analyses. These points are illustrated by reference to quantitative descriptions of performance maintained by concurrent schedules, multiple schedules, and signal-detection procedures. Such quantitative descriptions of empirical data may be derived from mathematical theories, which in turn can lead to novel empirical analyses so long as their terms refer to behavioral and environmental events. Thus, quantitative analysis is an integral aspect of the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:16812400

  18. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  19. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  20. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  1. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  2. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  3. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  4. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  5. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  6. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  8. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  9. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  10. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  11. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  12. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  13. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  14. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  15. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  16. Measuring Absolute RNA Copy Numbers at High Temporal Resolution Reveals Transcriptome Kinetics in Development.

    PubMed

    Owens, Nick D L; Blitz, Ira L; Lane, Maura A; Patrushev, Ilya; Overton, John D; Gilchrist, Michael J; Cho, Ken W Y; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2016-01-26

    Transcript regulation is essential for cell function, and misregulation can lead to disease. Despite technologies to survey the transcriptome, we lack a comprehensive understanding of transcript kinetics, which limits quantitative biology. This is an acute challenge in embryonic development, where rapid changes in gene expression dictate cell fate decisions. By ultra-high-frequency sampling of Xenopus embryos and absolute normalization of sequence reads, we present smooth gene expression trajectories in absolute transcript numbers. During a developmental period approximating the first 8 weeks of human gestation, transcript kinetics vary by eight orders of magnitude. Ordering genes by expression dynamics, we find that "temporal synexpression" predicts common gene function. Remarkably, a single parameter, the characteristic timescale, can classify transcript kinetics globally and distinguish genes regulating development from those involved in cellular metabolism. Overall, our analysis provides unprecedented insight into the reorganization of maternal and embryonic transcripts and redefines our ability to perform quantitative biology.

  17. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  18. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  19. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  20. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  1. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  2. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  3. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  4. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  5. Measurement of absolute T cell receptor rearrangement diversity.

    PubMed

    Baum, Paul D; Young, Jennifer J; McCune, Joseph M

    2011-05-31

    T cell receptor (TCR) diversity is critical for adaptive immunity. Existing methods for measuring such diversity are qualitative, expensive, and/or of uncertain accuracy. Here, we describe a method and associated reagents for estimating the absolute number of unique TCR Vβ rearrangements present in a given number of cells or volume of blood. Compared to next generation sequencing, this method is rapid, reproducible, and affordable. Diversity of a sample is calculated based on three independent measurements of one Vβ-Jβ family of TCR rearrangements at a time. The percentage of receptors using the given Vβ gene is determined by flow cytometric analysis of T cells stained with anti-Vβ family antibodies. The percentage of receptors using the Vβ gene in combination with the chosen Jβ gene is determined by quantitative PCR. Finally, the absolute clonal diversity of the Vβ-Jβ family is determined with the AmpliCot method of DNA hybridization kinetics, by interpolation relative to PCR standards of known sequence diversity. These three component measurements are reproducible and linear. Using titrations of known numbers of input cells, we show that the TCR diversity estimates obtained by this approach approximate expected values within a two-fold error, have a coefficient of variation of 20%, and yield similar results when different Vβ-Jβ pairs are chosen. The ability to obtain accurate measurements of the total number of different TCR gene rearrangements in a cell sample should be useful for basic studies of the adaptive immune system as well as in clinical studies of conditions such as HIV disease, transplantation, aging, and congenital immunodeficiencies. PMID:21385585

  6. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  7. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  8. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  9. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  10. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  11. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  12. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  13. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  14. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  15. Quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  16. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  17. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  18. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  19. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  20. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  1. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  2. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  3. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  4. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  5. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  6. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  7. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  8. QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In toxicology, the role of quantitative assessment of brain morphology can be understood in the context of two types of treatment-related alterations. One type of alteration is specifically associated with treatment and is not observed in control animals. Measurement ...

  9. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  10. The absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    A reflectance based inflight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of a sensor. This procedure uses ground based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of 5 calibrations of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of 3 calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible sensors. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft based radiometer data. A strong correlation was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low flying aircraft data.

  11. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Foote, M; Sepkoski, J J

    1999-04-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  12. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  13. Relative and absolute quantification of postsynaptic density proteome isolated from rat forebrain and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dongmei; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Rush, John; Ramm, Elizabeth; Schlager, Max A; Duong, Duc M; Xu, Ping; Wijayawardana, Sameera R; Hanfelt, John; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Sheng, Morgan; Peng, Junmin

    2006-06-01

    The postsynaptic density (PSD) of central excitatory synapses is essential for postsynaptic signaling, and its components are heterogeneous among different neuronal subtypes and brain structures. Here we report large scale relative and absolute quantification of proteins in PSDs purified from adult rat forebrain and cerebellum. PSD protein profiles were determined using the cleavable ICAT strategy and LC-MS/MS. A total of 296 proteins were identified and quantified with 43 proteins exhibiting statistically significant abundance change between forebrain and cerebellum, indicating marked molecular heterogeneity of PSDs between different brain regions. Moreover we utilized absolute quantification strategy, in which synthetic isotope-labeled peptides were used as internal standards, to measure the molar abundance of 32 key PSD proteins in forebrain and cerebellum. These data confirm the abundance of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and PSD-95 and reveal unexpected stoichiometric ratios between glutamate receptors, scaffold proteins, and signaling molecules in the PSD. Our data also demonstrate that the absolute quantification method is well suited for targeted quantitative proteomic analysis. Overall this study delineates a crucial molecular difference between forebrain and cerebellar PSDs and provides a quantitative framework for measuring the molecular stoichiometry of the PSD. PMID:16507876

  14. On the absolute alignment of GONG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the absolute orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.

  15. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  16. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  17. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  18. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.

  2. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  3. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  4. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  5. A targeted proteomics toolkit for high-throughput absolute quantification of Escherichia coli proteins.

    PubMed

    Batth, Tanveer S; Singh, Pragya; Ramakrishnan, Vikram R; Sousa, Mirta M L; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Tran, Huu M; Luning, Eric G; Pan, Eva H Y; Vuu, Khanh M; Keasling, Jay D; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Transformation of engineered Escherichia coli into a robust microbial factory is contingent on precise control of metabolism. Yet, the throughput of omics technologies used to characterize cell components has lagged far behind our ability to engineer novel strains. To expand the utility of quantitative proteomics for metabolic engineering, we validated and optimized targeted proteomics methods for over 400 proteins from more than 20 major pathways in E. coli metabolism. Complementing these methods, we constructed a series of synthetic genes to produce concatenated peptides (QconCAT) for absolute quantification of the proteins and made them available through the Addgene plasmid repository (www.addgene.org). To facilitate high sample throughput, we developed a fast, analytical-flow chromatography method using a 5.5-min gradient (10 min total run time). Overall this toolkit provides an invaluable resource for metabolic engineering by increasing sample throughput, minimizing development time and providing peptide standards for absolute quantification of E. coli proteins.

  6. Quantitative detection of protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Levit-Binnun, Nava; Lindner, Ariel B; Zik, Ory; Eshhar, Zelig; Moses, Elisha

    2003-03-15

    We introduce a quantitative method that utilizes scanning electron microscopy for the analysis of protein chips (SEMPC). SEMPC is based upon counting target-coated gold particles interacting specifically with ligands or proteins arrayed on a derivative microscope glass slide by utilizing backscattering electron detection. As model systems, we quantified the interactions of biotin and streptavidin and of an antibody with its cognate hapten. Our method gives quantitative molecule-counting capabilities with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrates a broad dynamic range while retaining easy sample preparation and realistic automation capability. Increased sensitivity and dynamic range are achieved in comparison to currently used array detection methods such as fluorescence, with no signal bleaching, affording high reproducibility and compatibility with miniaturization. Thus, our approach facilitates the determination of the absolute number of molecules bound to the chip rather than their relative amounts, as well as the use of smaller samples.

  7. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  8. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  10. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  11. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  12. [Progress in stable isotope labeled quantitative proteomics methods].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Shan, Yichu; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative proteomics is an important research field in post-genomics era. There are two strategies for proteome quantification: label-free methods and stable isotope labeling methods which have become the most important strategy for quantitative proteomics at present. In the past few years, a number of quantitative methods have been developed, which support the fast development in biology research. In this work, we discuss the progress in the stable isotope labeling methods for quantitative proteomics including relative and absolute quantitative proteomics, and then give our opinions on the outlook of proteome quantification methods.

  13. Recent advances in quantitative neuroproteomics.

    PubMed

    Craft, George E; Chen, Anshu; Nairn, Angus C

    2013-06-15

    The field of proteomics is undergoing rapid development in a number of different areas including improvements in mass spectrometric platforms, peptide identification algorithms and bioinformatics. In particular, new and/or improved approaches have established robust methods that not only allow for in-depth and accurate peptide and protein identification and modification, but also allow for sensitive measurement of relative or absolute quantitation. These methods are beginning to be applied to the area of neuroproteomics, but the central nervous system poses many specific challenges in terms of quantitative proteomics, given the large number of different neuronal cell types that are intermixed and that exhibit distinct patterns of gene and protein expression. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in quantitative neuroproteomics, with a focus on work published over the last five years that applies emerging methods to normal brain function as well as to various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and drug addiction as well as of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. While older methods such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis continued to be used, a variety of more in-depth MS-based approaches including both label (ICAT, iTRAQ, TMT, SILAC, SILAM), label-free (label-free, MRM, SWATH) and absolute quantification methods, are rapidly being applied to neurobiological investigations of normal and diseased brain tissue as well as of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While the biological implications of many of these studies remain to be clearly established, that there is a clear need for standardization of experimental design and data analysis, and that the analysis of protein changes in specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system remains a serious challenge, it appears that the quality and depth of the more recent quantitative proteomics studies is beginning to shed

  14. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  15. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  16. Absolute Quantitation of Glycosylation Site Occupancy Using Isotopically Labeled Standards and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhikai; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather

    2014-06-01

    N-linked glycans are required to maintain appropriate biological functions on proteins. Underglycosylation leads to many diseases in plants and animals; therefore, characterizing the extent of glycosylation on proteins is an important step in understanding, diagnosing, and treating diseases. To determine the glycosylation site occupancy, protein N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) is typically used to detach the glycan from the protein, during which the formerly glycosylated asparagine undergoes deamidation to become an aspartic acid. By comparing the abundance of the resulting peptide containing aspartic acid against the one containing non-glycosylated asparagine, the glycosylation site occupancy can be evaluated. However, this approach can give inaccurate results when spontaneous chemical deamidation of the non-glycosylated asparagine occurs. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method to measure the glycosylation site occupancy that does not rely on converting glycosylated peptides to their deglycosylated forms. Specifically, the overall protein concentration and the non-glycosylated portion of the protein are quantified simultaneously by using heavy isotope-labeled internal standards coupled with LC-MS analysis, and the extent of site occupancy is accurately determined. The efficacy of the method was demonstrated by quantifying the occupancy of a glycosylation site on bovine fetuin. The developed method is the first work that measures the glycosylation site occupancy without using PNGase F, and it can be done in parallel with glycopeptide analysis because the glycan remains intact throughout the workflow.

  17. Reliability and validity of quantifying absolute muscle hardness using ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kentaro; Akagi, Ryota; Dohi, Michiko; Fukashiro, Senshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Muscle hardness is a mechanical property that represents transverse muscle stiffness. A quantitative method that uses ultrasound elastography for quantifying absolute human muscle hardness has been previously devised; however, its reliability and validity have not been completely verified. This study aimed to verify the reliability and validity of this quantitative method. The Young's moduli of seven tissue-mimicking materials (in vitro; Young's modulus range, 20-80 kPa; increments of 10 kPa) and the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (in vivo) were quantified using ultrasound elastography. On the basis of the strain/Young's modulus ratio of two reference materials, one hard and one soft (Young's moduli of 7 and 30 kPa, respectively), the Young's moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials and medial gastrocnemius muscle were calculated. The intra- and inter-investigator reliability of the method was confirmed on the basis of acceptably low coefficient of variations (≤6.9%) and substantially high intraclass correlation coefficients (≥0.77) obtained from all measurements. The correlation coefficient between the Young's moduli of the tissue-mimicking materials obtained using a mechanical method and ultrasound elastography was 0.996, which was equivalent to values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The Young's moduli of the medial gastrocnemius muscle obtained using ultrasound elastography were within the range of values previously obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. The reliability and validity of the quantitative method for measuring absolute muscle hardness using ultrasound elastography were thus verified.

  18. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  19. Absolute Pitch in Infant Auditory Learning: Evidence for Developmental Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Griepentrog, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined 8-month-olds' use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. Results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A third experiment found that adult…

  20. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  1. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  2. Absolute dimensions of unevolved O type close binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Doom, C.; de Loore, C.

    1984-03-15

    A method is presented to derive the absolute dimensions of early-type detached binaries by combining the observed parameters with results of evolutionary computations. The method is used to obtain the absolute dimensions of nine close binaries. We find that most systems have an initial masss ratio near 1.

  3. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  4. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  5. Time-resolved Absolute Velocity Quantification with Projections

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Michael C.; Jain, Varsha; Magland, Jeremy F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative information on time-resolved blood velocity along the femoral/popliteal artery can provide clinical information on peripheral arterial disease and complement MR angiography since not all stenoses are hemodynamically significant. The key disadvantages of the most widely used approach to time-resolve pulsatile blood flow by cardiac-gated velocity-encoded gradient-echo imaging are gating errors and long acquisition time. Here we demonstrate a rapid non-triggered method that quantifies absolute velocity on the basis of phase difference between successive velocity-encoded projections after selectively removing the background static tissue signal via a reference image. The tissue signal from the reference image’s center k-space line is isolated by masking out the vessels in the image domain. The performance of the technique, in terms of reproducibility and agreement with results obtained with conventional phase contrast (PC)-MRI was evaluated at 3T field strength with a variable-flow rate phantom and in vivo of the triphasic velocity waveforms at several segments along the femoral and popliteal arteries. Additionally, time-resolved flow velocity was quantified in five healthy subjects and compared against gated PC-MRI results. To illustrate clinical feasibility the proposed method was shown to be able to identify hemodynamic abnormalities and impaired reactivity in a diseased femoral artery. For both phantom and in vivo studies, velocity measurements were within 1.5 cm/s and the coefficient of variation was less than 5% in an in vivo reproducibility study. In five healthy subjects, the average differences in mean peak velocities and their temporal locations were within 1 cm/s and 10 ms compared to gated PC-MRI. In conclusion, the proposed method provides temporally-resolved arterial velocity with a temporal resolution of 20 ms with minimal post-processing. PMID:20677235

  6. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  7. Absolute vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption cross section studies of atomic and molecular species: Techniques and observational data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.; Wu, C. Y. R.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption of a high energy photon (greater than 6 eV) by an isolated molecule results in the formation of highly excited quasi-discrete or continuum states which evolve through a wide range of direct and indirect photochemical processes. These are: photoionization and autoionization, photodissociation and predissociation, and fluorescence. The ultimate goal is to understand the dynamics of the excitation and decay processes and to quantitatively measure the absolute partial cross sections for all processes which occur in photoabsorption. Typical experimental techniques and the status of observational results of particular interest to solar system observations are presented.

  8. A New Measurement of the Absolute Spectral Reflectance of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Lau, E.; Steutel, D.; Stopar, J. D.; Wilcox, B. B.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of the Moon is an important property for studies of lunar geology, quantitative physical modeling of the moon, and in-flight calibration of spacecraft sensors. Previous studies have claimed that telescopic absolute reflectance values for the Moon are greater than laboratory reflectance measurements by a factor of two. In order to confirm these results, we performed ground-based observations of the lunar surface using a visible/near-infrared spectroradiometer and compared the measured lunar surface radiance to solar radiance corrected for atmospheric scattering and absorption. These data were compared to previously obtained laboratory reflectance measurements from Apollo soil samples.

  9. Spectrum of diseases associated with increased proportions or absolute numbers of peripheral blood natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Okuno, S H; Tefferi, A; Hanson, C A; Katzmann, J A; Li, C Y; Witzig, T E

    1996-06-01

    In a retrospective review of 1501 lymphoid flow cytometric studies of peripheral blood, we identified an increased proportion of natural killer cells in 125 cases (8%), 49 (3%) of which had a concomitant increase in absolute number of natural killer cells. Of the latter, the most frequent associated disorder was chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis. Substantial quantitative increases in natural killer cells were also observed in some patients with lymphoma, leukaemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, or myelodysplastic syndrome. Our study provides incidence figures and clinical associations of an increased number of natural killer cells in the peripheral blood.

  10. Absolute spectrophotometry of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune 3500-10,500 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J. S.; Humm, D. C.; Bergstralh, J. T.; Cochran, A. L.; Cochran, W. D.; Barker, E. S.; Tull, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The present absolute measurements of Titan, Uranus and Neptune geometric albedo spectra in the 3500-10,500 A range have a resolution of about 7 A, together with high SNR, in virtue of the exceptional effeciency of the spectrograph and Reticon detector employed. The high precision and spectral resolution of the data, which are in excellent agreement with the Uranus albedo measurements of Lockwood et al. (1983), make possible quantitative measurements of the effects of Raman scattering by H2 in the Uranus and Neptune atmospheres.

  11. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  12. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  13. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  14. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  15. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  16. Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C.

    2006-03-13

    The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

  17. Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: evidence for developmental reorganization.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Griepentrog, G J

    2001-01-01

    To what extent do infants represent the absolute pitches of complex auditory stimuli? Two experiments with 8-month-old infants examined the use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. The results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to the rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A 3rd experiment tested adults with or without musical training on the same statistical learning tasks used in the infant experiments. Unlike the infants, adult listeners relied primarily on relative pitch cues. These results suggest a shift from an initial focus on absolute pitch to the eventual dominance of relative pitch, which, it is argued, is more useful for both music and speech processing.

  18. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  19. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  20. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  1. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  2. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  3. Self-Digitization Microfluidic Chip for Absolute Quantification of mRNA in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of mRNA in single cells provides direct insight into how intercellular heterogeneity plays a role in disease progression and outcomes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the current gold standard for evaluating gene expression, is insufficient for providing absolute measurement of single-cell mRNA transcript abundance. Challenges include difficulties in handling small sample volumes and the high variability in measurements. Microfluidic digital PCR provides far better sensitivity for minute quantities of genetic material, but the typical format of this assay does not allow for counting of the absolute number of mRNA transcripts samples taken from single cells. Furthermore, a large fraction of the sample is often lost during sample handling in microfluidic digital PCR. Here, we report the absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA transcripts by digital, one-step reverse transcription PCR in a simple microfluidic array device called the self-digitization (SD) chip. By performing the reverse transcription step in digitized volumes, we find that the assay exhibits a linear signal across a wide range of total RNA concentrations and agrees well with standard curve qPCR. The SD chip is found to digitize a high percentage (86.7%) of the sample for single-cell experiments. Moreover, quantification of transferrin receptor mRNA in single cells agrees well with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. The SD platform for absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA can be optimized for other genes and may be useful as an independent control method for the validation of mRNA quantification techniques. PMID:25390242

  4. Self-digitization microfluidic chip for absolute quantification of mRNA in single cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alison M; Gansen, Alexander; Paguirigan, Amy L; Kreutz, Jason E; Radich, Jerald P; Chiu, Daniel T

    2014-12-16

    Quantification of mRNA in single cells provides direct insight into how intercellular heterogeneity plays a role in disease progression and outcomes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the current gold standard for evaluating gene expression, is insufficient for providing absolute measurement of single-cell mRNA transcript abundance. Challenges include difficulties in handling small sample volumes and the high variability in measurements. Microfluidic digital PCR provides far better sensitivity for minute quantities of genetic material, but the typical format of this assay does not allow for counting of the absolute number of mRNA transcripts samples taken from single cells. Furthermore, a large fraction of the sample is often lost during sample handling in microfluidic digital PCR. Here, we report the absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA transcripts by digital, one-step reverse transcription PCR in a simple microfluidic array device called the self-digitization (SD) chip. By performing the reverse transcription step in digitized volumes, we find that the assay exhibits a linear signal across a wide range of total RNA concentrations and agrees well with standard curve qPCR. The SD chip is found to digitize a high percentage (86.7%) of the sample for single-cell experiments. Moreover, quantification of transferrin receptor mRNA in single cells agrees well with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. The SD platform for absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA can be optimized for other genes and may be useful as an independent control method for the validation of mRNA quantification techniques.

  5. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  6. Determination of the Absolute Number of Cytokine mRNA Molecules within Individual Activated Human T Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel J.; Marshall, Gwen; Hockett, Richard D.; Bucy, R. Pat; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A primary function of activated T cells is the expression and subsequent secretion of cytokines, which orchestrate the differentiation of other lymphocytes, modulate antigen presenting cell activity, and alter vascular endothelium to mediate an immune response. Since many features of immune regulation probably result from modest alterations of endogenous rates of multiple interacting processes, quantitative analysis of the frequency and specific activity of individual T cells is critically important. Using a coordinated set of quantitative methods, the absolute number of molecules of several key cytokine mRNA species in individual T cells has been determined. The frequency of human blood T cells activated in vitro by mitogens and recall protein antigens was determined by intracellular cytokine protein staining, in situ hybridization for cytokine mRNA, and by limiting dilution analysis for cytokine mRNA+ cells. The absolute number of mRNA molecules was simultaneously determined in both homogenates of the entire population of cells and in individual cells obtained by limiting dilution, using a quantitative, competitive RT-PCR assay. The absolute numbers of mRNA molecules in a population of cells divided by the frequency of individual positive cells, yielded essentially the same number of mRNA molecules per cell as direct analysis of individual cells by limiting dilution analysis. Mean numbers of mRNA per positive cell from both mitogen and antigen activated T cells, using these stimulation conditions, were 6000 for IL-2, 6300 for IFN-gamma, and 1600 for IL-4.

  7. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  8. Estimation of absolute protein quantities of unlabeled samples by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Christina; Claassen, Manfred; Schmidt, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-03-01

    For many research questions in modern molecular and systems biology, information about absolute protein quantities is imperative. This information includes, for example, kinetic modeling of processes, protein turnover determinations, stoichiometric investigations of protein complexes, or quantitative comparisons of different proteins within one sample or across samples. To date, the vast majority of proteomic studies are limited to providing relative quantitative comparisons of protein levels between limited numbers of samples. Here we describe and demonstrate the utility of a targeting MS technique for the estimation of absolute protein abundance in unlabeled and nonfractionated cell lysates. The method is based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry and the "best flyer" hypothesis, which assumes that the specific MS signal intensity of the most intense tryptic peptides per protein is approximately constant throughout a whole proteome. SRM-targeted best flyer peptides were selected for each protein from the peptide precursor ion signal intensities from directed MS data. The most intense transitions per peptide were selected from full MS/MS scans of crude synthetic analogs. We used Monte Carlo cross-validation to systematically investigate the accuracy of the technique as a function of the number of measured best flyer peptides and the number of SRM transitions per peptide. We found that a linear model based on the two most intense transitions of the three best flying peptides per proteins (TopPep3/TopTra2) generated optimal results with a cross-correlated mean fold error of 1.8 and a squared Pearson coefficient R(2) of 0.88. Applying the optimized model to lysates of the microbe Leptospira interrogans, we detected significant protein abundance changes of 39 target proteins upon antibiotic treatment, which correlate well with literature values. The described method is generally applicable and exploits the inherent performance advantages of SRM

  9. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  10. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  11. Quantitative photoacoustic elastography in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    We report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE) capable of measuring Young's modulus of biological tissue in vivo in humans. By combining conventional PAE with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first demonstrate the feasibility of QPAE in agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured Young's modulus values fit well with both the empirical expectation based on the agar concentrations and those measured in an independent standard compression test. Next, QPAE was applied to quantify the Young's modulus of skeletal muscle in vivo in humans, showing a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results demonstrated the capability of QPAE to assess the absolute elasticity of biological tissue noninvasively in vivo in humans, indicating its potential for tissue biomechanics studies and clinical applications.

  12. Quantitative optical tomographic imaging of a supersonic jet.

    PubMed

    Faris, G W; Byer, R L

    1986-07-01

    Two-dimensional quantitative images of the density of chlorine in a supersonic expansion are produced with an absolute accuracy of 5% in 150-microm pixels by using optical absorption tomography. An incoherent arc-lamp source provides ample ultraviolet radiation for high-resolution optical absorption tomographic measurements. A measurement of the chlorine absorption coefficient is reported.

  13. RECENT ADVANCES IN QUANTITATIVE NEUROPROTEOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Craft, George E; Chen, Anshu; Nairn, Angus C

    2014-01-01

    The field of proteomics is undergoing rapid development in a number of different areas including improvements in mass spectrometric platforms, peptide identification algorithms and bioinformatics. In particular, new and/or improved approaches have established robust methods that not only allow for in-depth and accurate peptide and protein identification and modification, but also allow for sensitive measurement of relative or absolute quantitation. These methods are beginning to be applied to the area of neuroproteomics, but the central nervous system poses many specific challenges in terms of quantitative proteomics, given the large number of different neuronal cell types that are intermixed and that exhibit distinct patterns of gene and protein expression. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in quantitative neuroproteomics, with a focus on work published over the last five years that applies emerging methods to normal brain function as well as to various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and drug addiction as well as of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. While older methods such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis continued to be used, a variety of more in-depth MS-based approaches including both label (ICAT, iTRAQ, TMT, SILAC, SILAM), label-free (label-free, MRM, SWATH) and absolute quantification methods, are rapidly being applied to neurobiological investigations of normal and diseased brain tissue as well as of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While the biological implications of many of these studies remain to be clearly established, that there is a clear need for standardization of experimental design and data analysis, and that the analysis of protein changes in specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system remains a serious challenge, it appears that the quality and depth of the more recent quantitative proteomics studies is beginning to

  14. Validation of RPS13 as a reference gene for absolute quantification of SIV RNA in tissue of rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Robichaux, Spencer; Lacour, Nedra; Bagby, Gregory J; Amedee, Angela M

    2016-10-01

    Persistent HIV reservoirs and the absolute quantification of viral RNA copies in tissues have become a prominent focus of multiple areas ofHIV/SIV research. Absolute quantification of viral RNA via reverse transcription, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) necessitates the use of an appropriate RNA reference gene whose expression is unaffected by both experimental and confounding conditions. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of ribosomal protein S13 mRNA (RPS13) as a stable, medium abundance reference gene for RT-qPCR normalization of HIV/SIV RNA copy number. We developed a RPS13 RNA standard assay utilizing an in vitro RNA transcript for normalization of absolute SIV RNA quantities in tissues reservoirs. The RT-qPCR assay showed a high degree of repeatability and reproducibility across RNA levels appropriate for absolute SIV quantification. In assessing the utility of RPS13 as a reference gene, limited variation in the absolute, inter-tissue quantities of RPS13 mRNA was observed within multiple tissue samples obtained from rhesus macaques (average CV=2.86%). We demonstrate rhesus macaque RPS13 mRNA expression is not affected by alcohol administration, SIV infection, or antiviral therapy (PMPA/FTC). Additionally, assay functionality was validated for normalization of SIV copy number using cellular RNA prepared from samples of variable RNA integrity. RPS13 is a suitable reference gene for normalization of absolute SIV RNA quantities in tissues and is most appropriate for intra-tissue or similar tissue type comparisons of SIV copy number. PMID:27510462

  15. Validation of RPS13 as a reference gene for absolute quantification of SIV RNA in tissue of rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Robichaux, Spencer; Lacour, Nedra; Bagby, Gregory J; Amedee, Angela M

    2016-10-01

    Persistent HIV reservoirs and the absolute quantification of viral RNA copies in tissues have become a prominent focus of multiple areas ofHIV/SIV research. Absolute quantification of viral RNA via reverse transcription, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) necessitates the use of an appropriate RNA reference gene whose expression is unaffected by both experimental and confounding conditions. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of ribosomal protein S13 mRNA (RPS13) as a stable, medium abundance reference gene for RT-qPCR normalization of HIV/SIV RNA copy number. We developed a RPS13 RNA standard assay utilizing an in vitro RNA transcript for normalization of absolute SIV RNA quantities in tissues reservoirs. The RT-qPCR assay showed a high degree of repeatability and reproducibility across RNA levels appropriate for absolute SIV quantification. In assessing the utility of RPS13 as a reference gene, limited variation in the absolute, inter-tissue quantities of RPS13 mRNA was observed within multiple tissue samples obtained from rhesus macaques (average CV=2.86%). We demonstrate rhesus macaque RPS13 mRNA expression is not affected by alcohol administration, SIV infection, or antiviral therapy (PMPA/FTC). Additionally, assay functionality was validated for normalization of SIV copy number using cellular RNA prepared from samples of variable RNA integrity. RPS13 is a suitable reference gene for normalization of absolute SIV RNA quantities in tissues and is most appropriate for intra-tissue or similar tissue type comparisons of SIV copy number.

  16. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  17. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  18. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Colquhoun, David R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-04-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  19. Absolute Quantification of Norovirus Capsid Protein in Food, Water, and Soil Using Synthetic Peptides with Electrospray and MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences. PMID:25603302

  20. Method for estimating absolute lung volumes at constant inflation pressure.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Barrow, R E

    1979-10-01

    A method has been devised for measuring functional residual capacity in the intact killed animal or absolute lung volumes in any excised lung preparation without changing the inflation pressure. This is achieved by titrating the absolute pressure of a chamber in which the preparation is compressed until a known volume of air has entered the lungs. This technique was used to estimate the volumes of five intact rabbit lungs and five rigid containers of known dimensions by means of Boyle's law. Results were found to agree to within +/- 1% with values determined by alternative methods. In the discussion the advantage of determining absolute lung volumes at almost any stage in a study of lung mechanics without the determination itself changing inflation pressure and, hence, lung volume is emphasized. PMID:511699

  1. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  2. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  3. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  4. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jatin G; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  5. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  6. Absolutely maximally entangled states, combinatorial designs, and multiunitary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Alsina, Daniel; Latorre, José I.; Riera, Arnau; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are those multipartite quantum states that carry absolute maximum entanglement in all possible bipartitions. AME states are known to play a relevant role in multipartite teleportation, in quantum secret sharing, and they provide the basis novel tensor networks related to holography. We present alternative constructions of AME states and show their link with combinatorial designs. We also analyze a key property of AME states, namely, their relation to tensors, which can be understood as unitary transformations in all of their bipartitions. We call this property multiunitarity.

  7. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  8. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  9. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  10. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  11. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  12. A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.

  13. STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and absolute intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the absolute intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. Absolute intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 times more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.

  14. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  15. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  16. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  17. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  18. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  19. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  20. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  1. Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.

  2. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  3. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises, even though it is…

  4. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  5. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  6. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  7. Is There a Rule of Absolute Neutralization in Nupe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A previously prosed rule of absolute neutralization (merging underlying low vowels) is eliminated in an alternative analysis including instead a rule that "breaks" the feature matrix of certain low vowels and redistributes the features of each vowel as a sequence of vowel-like transition plus (a). (Author/RM)

  8. Absolute Radiometer for Reproducing the Solar Irradiance Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapritskii, V. I.; Pavlovich, M. N.

    1989-01-01

    A high-precision absolute radiometer with a thermally stabilized cavity as receiving element has been designed for use in solar irradiance measurements. The State Special Standard of the Solar Irradiance Unit has been built on the basis of the developed absolute radiometer. The Standard also includes the sun tracking system and the system for automatic thermal stabilization and information processing, comprising a built-in microcalculator which calculates the irradiance according to the input program. During metrological certification of the Standard, main error sources have been analysed and the non-excluded systematic and accidental errors of the irradiance-unit realization have been determined. The total error of the Standard does not exceed 0.3%. Beginning in 1984 the Standard has been taking part in a comparison with the Å 212 pyrheliometer and other Soviet and foreign standards. In 1986 it took part in the international comparison of absolute radiometers and standard pyrheliometers of socialist countries. The results of the comparisons proved the high metrological quality of this Standard based on an absolute radiometer.

  9. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  10. Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, Maik; Baaske, Kai; Koch, Martin

    2010-04-12

    We present a tunable multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectrometer based on two laser diodes, photoconductive antennas, and a coherent detection scheme. The system is employed to determine the absolute thickness of samples utilizing a proposed synthetic difference frequency method to circumvent the 2pi uncertainty known from conventional photomixing systems while preserving a high spatial resolution.

  11. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  12. Comparison of different standards for real-time PCR-based absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Doherty, T Mark; Kenneth, John

    2010-03-31

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool used for both research and diagnostic, which has the advantage, compared to relative quantification, of providing an absolute copy number for a particular target. However, reliable standards are essential for qPCR. In this study, we have compared four types of commonly-used standards--PCR products (with and without purification) and cloned target sequences (circular and linear plasmid) for their stability during storage (using percentage of variance in copy numbers, PCR efficiency and regression curve correlation coefficient (R(2))) using hydrolysis probe (TaqMan) chemistry. Results, expressed as copy numbers/microl, are presented from a sample human system in which absolute levels of HuPO (reference gene) and the cytokine gene IFN-gamma were measured. To ensure the suitability and stability of the four standards, the experiments were performed at 0, 7 and 14 day intervals and repeated 6 times. We have found that the copy numbers vary (due to degradation of standards) over the period of time during storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, which affected PCR efficiency significantly. The cloned target sequences were noticeably more stable than the PCR product, which could lead to substantial variance in results using standards constructed by different routes. Standard quality and stability should be routinely tested for assays using qPCR.

  13. Absolute photoionization cross sections of furanic fuels: 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural.

    PubMed

    Smith, Audrey R; Meloni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections of the molecules 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural, including partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are measured for the first time. These measurements are important because they allow fuel quantification via photoionization mass spectrometry and the development of quantitative kinetic modeling for the complex combustion of potential fuels. The experiments are carried out using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry with an orthogonal time-of-flight spectrometer used for mass analysis at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CBS-QB3 calculations of adiabatic ionization energies and appearance energies agree well with the experimental results. Several bond dissociation energies are also derived and presented.

  14. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  15. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  16. Absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Hua; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-12-07

    The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb{sup 3+} ions.

  17. [A novel quantitative PCR with fluorogenic probe].

    PubMed

    Isono, K

    1997-03-01

    The polymerase chain reaction(PCR) is a powerful tool to amplify small amounts of DNA or RNA for various molecular analysis. However, in these analyses, PCR only provides qualitative results. The availability of quantitative PCR provides valuable additional information in various applications. It is difficult to establish absolute quantitation, because PCR amplification is a complicated reaction process of exponential growth. To trace the amplification process, the initial amount of template and the efficiency of amplification in each cycle, has to be determined. Conventional methods have not achieved absolute quantitative analysis. The ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System has solved these problems with real-time monitoring of the PCR process. The real-time detection system provides essential information to quantify the initial target copy number, because it can draw an amplification curve. Using the 5' nuclease assay, a specific fluorescent signal is generated and measured at every cycle during a run. This system can perform a variety of applications including, quantitation, allele discrimination, PCR optimization and viral screening. Using the ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System, the rice genome has been quantitatively analyzed. To monitor maturation of the chloroplast genome from proplastid during germ development, 5' nuclease assay set up for Cab and rbcL genes which are located in the nuclear genome and chloroplast genome, respectively. Cab was used as an internal standard for normalization of cell numbers. The maturation process of chloroplast was estimated using the ratio of gene dosage, [rbcL]/[Cab]. After development of cotyledon, a significant increase in copy numbers of the chloroplast was observed. These results indicate that a light-induced chloroplast maturation process is coupled with an increase in chloroplast genome copy numbers.

  18. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification. PMID:26843055

  19. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification.

  20. Cancer detection by quantitative fluorescence image analysis.

    PubMed

    Parry, W L; Hemstreet, G P

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a rapidly evolving biophysical cytochemical technology with the potential for multiple clinical and basic research applications. We report the application of this technique for bladder cancer detection and discuss its potential usefulness as an adjunct to methods used currently by urologists for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a cytological method that incorporates 2 diagnostic techniques, quantitation of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid and morphometric analysis, in a single semiautomated system to facilitate the identification of rare events, that is individual cancer cells. When compared to routine cytopathology for detection of bladder cancer in symptomatic patients, quantitative fluorescence image analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity (76 versus 33 per cent) for the detection of low grade transitional cell carcinoma. The specificity of quantitative fluorescence image analysis in a small control group was 94 per cent and with the manual method for quantitation of absolute nuclear fluorescence intensity in the screening of high risk asymptomatic subjects the specificity was 96.7 per cent. The more familiar flow cytometry is another fluorescence technique for measurement of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid. However, rather than identifying individual cancer cells, flow cytometry identifies cellular pattern distributions, that is the ratio of normal to abnormal cells. Numerous studies by others have shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive method to monitor patients with diagnosed urological disease. Based upon results in separate quantitative fluorescence image analysis and flow cytometry studies, it appears that these 2 fluorescence techniques may be complementary tools for urological screening, diagnosis and management, and that they also may be useful separately or in combination to elucidate the oncogenic process, determine the biological potential of tumors

  1. Absolute perfusion measurements and associated iodinated contrast agent time course in brain metastasis: a study for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layal; Deman, Pierre; Tessier, Alexandre; Balosso, Jacques; Estève, François; Adam, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment that combines the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using medium energy X-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the absolute amount of iodine reached in the tumor and its time course. Quantitative, postinfusion iodine biodistribution and associated brain perfusion parameters were studied in human brain metastasis as key parameters for treatment feasibility and quality. Twelve patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (40 mL, 4 mL/s), followed by a steady-state infusion (160 mL, 0.5 mL/s) to ensure stable intratumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations and quantitative perfusion maps were derived from 40 multislice dynamic computed tomography (CT) images of the brain. The postinfusion mean intratumoral iodine concentration (over 30 minutes) reached 1.94 ± 0.12 mg/mL. Reasonable correlations were obtained between these concentrations and the permeability surface area product and the cerebral blood volume. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study of CA biodistribution versus time in brain metastasis. The study shows that suitable and stable amounts of iodine can be reached for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy. Moreover, the associated perfusion measurements provide useful information for the patient recruitment and management processes.

  2. Absolute Configurations of Zingiberenols Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Shirali, Shyam; Guzman, Filadelfo

    2015-12-24

    Two stereoisomeric zingiberenols in ginger were identified as (3R,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (2) and (3S,6R,7S)-1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol (5). Absolute configurations were assigned by utilizing 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol stereoisomers and two gas-chromatography columns: a 25 m Hydrodex-β-6TBDM and 60 m DB-5MS. The C-6 and C-7 absolute configurations in both zingiberenols match those of zingiberene present abundantly in ginger rhizomes. Interestingly, zingiberenol 2 has recently been identified as a male-produced sex pheromone of the rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus, thus indicating that ginger plants may be a potential source of the sex pheromone of this bug.

  3. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  4. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  5. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  6. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  7. Absolute concentration measurements inside a jet plume using video digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauquelin, O.

    An experimental system based on digitized video image analysis is used to measure the local value of the concentration inside a plume. Experiments are carried out in a wind-tunnel for a smoke-seeded turbulent jet plume illuminated with a laser beam. Each test is filmed, subsequently video images are digitized and analysed in order to determine the smoke absolute concentration corresponding to each pixel gray level. This non-intrusive measurement technique is first calibrated and different laws connecting gray level to concentration are established. As a first application, concentration measurements are made inside a turbulent jet plume and compared with measurements conducted using a classic gas analysis method. We finally present and discuss the possibilities offered for the measurements of absolute concentration fluctuations.

  8. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  9. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein`s theory of relativity, Le Chatelier`s principle, causality and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 M{circle_dot} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable, an extraordinary conclusion.

  10. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  11. Precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder.

    PubMed

    Xiaowei, Z; Ando, M; Jidong, W

    1998-05-01

    The calibration of a compact precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder is presented. The goniometer is a modified Huber 410 goniometer: the diffraction angles can be coarsely generated by a stepping-motor-driven worm gear and precisely interpolated by a piezoactuator-driven tangent arm. The angular accuracy of the precision rotary stage was evaluated with an autocollimator. It was shown that the deviation from circularity of the rolling bearing utilized in the precision rotary stage restricts the angular positioning accuracy of the goniometer, and results in an angular accuracy ten times larger than the angular resolution of 0.01 arcsec. The 22-bit encoder was calibrated by an incremental rotary encoder. It became evident that the accuracy of the absolute encoder is approximately 18 bit due to systematic errors.

  12. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  13. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  14. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  15. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, J. W. G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor (gamma); the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics.

  16. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  17. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D.

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences.

  18. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  19. Recovery of absolute threshold with UVA-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henton, W.W.; Sykes, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    A within-trial psychophysical procedure tracked the initial loss and subsequent recovery of visual thresholds in albino rats exposed to ultraviolet light at 350 nanometers and 0.4 milliwatts per square centimeter. Absolute thresholds increased up to 5 log units immediately following the 15 hour ultraviolet exposure, with a daily recovery of 1-2 log to asymptotic thresholds over a 7-day post-exposure period. The corresponding retinal damage on Day 1 included extensive vesiculation of the photoreceptor outer segments, vacuolation of the inner segments, and pyknosis of cell nuclei. The total number of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segments was unchanged relative to control eyes through post-exposure Day 3. Both nuclei and outer segment counts then consistently decreased 15-20 percent between Days 3-7. The two-stage loss of photoreceptors but daily recovery of absolute thresholds again suggests a significant dissociation of retinal structure and psychophysical function in light-induced ocular pathology.

  20. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  1. Absolute Helicity Induction in Three-Dimensional Homochiral Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Three Co(II) isomers assembled from d-, or l-, or dl-camphorate together with achiral isonicotinate exhibit a clear relationship between chirality and helicity even though chiral molecules are not in the backbone of the helix: the absolute sense of helix made of achiral components is controlled by chains of metal and enantiopure chiral ligands running perpendicular to helix in two enantiomeric forms. PMID:19099070

  2. Absolute configuration of hydroxycitric acid produced by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2006-08-01

    Optical resolution for (2S,3R) and (2R,3S)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) enantiomers was developed using chiral column chromatography. HCA from Bacillus megaterium G45C and Streptomyces sp. U121, newly isolated in our previous study, was analyzed to determine the absolute configuration. These results indicate that both strains generate optically pure (2S,3R)-hibiscus type HCA enantiomer. PMID:16926511

  3. On the Absolute Continuity of the Blackwell Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárány, Balázs; Kolossváry, István

    2015-04-01

    In 1957, Blackwell expressed the entropy of hidden Markov chains using a measure which can be characterised as an invariant measure for an iterated function system with place-dependent weights. This measure, called the Blackwell measure, plays a central role in understanding the entropy rate and other important characteristics of fundamental models in information theory. We show that for a suitable set of parameter values the Blackwell measure is absolutely continuous for almost every parameter in the case of binary symmetric channels.

  4. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  5. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  6. Successful treatment of pyogenic granuloma with injection of absolute ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ichimiya, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a small, almost always solitary, sessile or pedunculated, raspberry-like vegetation of exuberant granulation tissue. Conservative treatment by techniques such as cryosurgery, laser surgery, and electrodesiccation are usually adequate, whereas excisional treatment can often result in noticeable scars. We attempted a different approach using an injection of absolute ethanol in five patients with recurrence due to inadequate cryosurgery. This therapy is less invasive than surgical excision and appears to be an alternative therapy for PG.

  7. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  8. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  9. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  10. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  11. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()∩H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  12. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  13. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  14. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  15. Absolute measurements of nonlinear absorption near LIDT at 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Holger; Ristau, Detlev; Welsch, Eberhard; Apel, Oliver

    2001-04-01

    Previous investigations indicate that oxide coatings exhibit non-linear absorption phenomena below 200 nm. Hereby, absorption data of Al2O3 thin film coatings has been determined absolutely by laser calorimetry (LCA) at 193 nm in the low fluence regime. As an alternative, on the basis of the pulsed surface thermal lens technique (STL), photothermal measurements allow to determine the absorption relatively at fluence levels both in the subdamage fluence range far from the damage onset and close to the LIDT. By combining the two measurement techniques, the absolute determination of linear as well as multiphoton absorption can be achieved also in the vicinity of the laser damage fluences. This is of crucial interest because the initiation of damage onset can be observed immediately. Absolute absorption data of Al2O3 coatings at different laser fluences stating of some mJoule/cm2 will be presented for the wavelength 193 nm. Thus, the correlation between the increase of absorption and the onset of breakdown can be illustrated impressively. The evaluation and discussion of the experimental results are focused on the degree of non-linearity of the investigated absorption behavior of oxide single layers initiating the optical breakdown of UV oxide coatings.

  16. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  17. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  18. An Absolute Measurement of Resonance-Resolved Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel Brett

    1998-11-01

    An experiment to measure electron-impact excitation (EIE) of multiply-charged ions is described. An absolute measurement has been carried out of the cross section for EIE of Si2+(3s2/ 1S/to3s3p/ 1P) from energies below threshold to 11 eV above. A beams modulation technique with inclined electron and ion beams was used. Radiation at 120.7 nm from the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The analysis of the experimental data requires a determination of the population fraction of the Si2+ (3s3p/ 3Po) metastable state in the incident ion beam, which was measured to be 0.210 ± 0.018. The data have been corrected for contributions to the signal from radiative decay following excitation from the metastable state to 3s3p1P and 3p2/ 3P, and excitation of the ground state to levels above 3s3p/ 1P. The experimental 0.56 ± 0.08 eV energy spread has allowed us to resolve complex resonance structure throughout the studied energy range. At the reported ±14% uncertainty level (90% confidence limit), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in good agreement with 12-state close-coupling R-matrix calculations.

  19. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  20. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  1. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  2. Rigour in quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  3. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  4. (99m)Tc-DMSA absolute and relative renal uptake in cats: procedure and normal values.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Waelbers, Tim; Vermeire, Simon T; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2011-06-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of technical factors (positioning, background (BG) correction and attenuation correction) on qualitative and quantitative (absolute (AU) and relative (RU) uptake) assessment of feline kidneys with (99m)technetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). Eleven healthy adult cats were included. Influence of BG and depth correction on quantitative assessment was evaluated. Depth correction was based on the geometric mean method (using dorsal and ventral images) and the use of two standards placed over each individual kidney. Visual evaluation showed superiority of dorsal and ventral over lateral positioning due to increased separation of the kidneys permitting region of interest (ROI) placement without overlap. No apparent influence of BG correction was found for RU. However, AU was systematically overestimated without BG correction. Depth correction did not seem to affect RU in most cases, however, in some cats the differences were not negligible. The values for AU without depth correction were lower compared to depth corrected values.

  5. In situ TDLAS measurement of absolute acetylene concentration profiles in a non-premixed laminar counter-flow flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Klein, M.; Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Kissel, T.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2012-06-01

    Acetylene (C2H2), as an important precursor for chemiluminescence species, is a key to understand, simulate and model the chemiluminescence and the related reaction paths. Hence we developed a high resolution spectrometer based on direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allowing the first quantitative, calibration-free and spatially resolved in situ C2H2 measurement in an atmospheric non-premixed counter-flow flame supported on a Tsuji burner. A fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode laser near 1535 nm was used to measure several absolute C2H2 concentration profiles (peak concentrations up to 9700 ppm) in a laminar non-premixed CH4/air flame ( T up to 1950 K) supported on a modified Tsuji counter-flow burner with N2 purge slots to minimize end flames. We achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 5×10-5 OD (1 σ) in the flame, resulting in temperature-dependent acetylene detection limits for the P17e line at 6513 cm-1 of up to 2.1 ppmṡm. Absolute C2H2 concentration profiles were obtained by translating the burner through the laser beam using a DC motor with 100 μm step widths. Intercomparisons of the experimental C2H2 profiles with simulations using our new hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms show excellent agreement in position, shape and in the absolute C2H2 values.

  6. Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Heidi S.; Pakkenberg, Bente; Dam, Maria; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Eriksen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Possessing large brains and complex behavioral patterns, cetaceans are believed to be highly intelligent. Their brains, which are the largest in the Animal Kingdom and have enormous gyrification compared with terrestrial mammals, have long been of scientific interest. Few studies, however, report total number of brain cells in cetaceans, and even fewer have used unbiased counting methods. In this study, using stereological methods, we estimated the total number of cells in the neocortex of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) brain. For the first time, we show that a species of dolphin has more neocortical neurons than any mammal studied to date including humans. These cell numbers are compared across various mammals with different brain sizes, and the function of possessing many neurons is discussed. We found that the long-finned pilot whale neocortex has approximately 37.2 × 109 neurons, which is almost twice as many as humans, and 127 × 109 glial cells. Thus, the absolute number of neurons in the human neocortex is not correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans (at least compared to cetaceans) as has previously been hypothesized. However, as neuron density in long-finned pilot whales is lower than that in humans, their higher cell number appears to be due to their larger brain. Accordingly, our findings make an important contribution to the ongoing debate over quantitative relationships in the mammalian brain. PMID:25505387

  7. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  8. Morphology and Absolute Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antón, S.

    2014-10-01

    The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, dynamics, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive absolute magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on absolute magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman α forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and absolute magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.

  9. Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

  10. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  11. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference. PMID:19901237

  12. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  14. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  19. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  20. Measuring Postglacial Rebound with GPS and Absolute Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; vanDam, Tonie

    2000-01-01

    We compare vertical rates of deformation derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and episodic measurements of absolute gravity. We concentrate on four sites in a region of North America experiencing postglacial rebound. The rates of uplift from gravity and GPS agree within one standard deviation for all sites. The GPS vertical deformation rates are significantly more precise than the gravity rates, primarily because of the denser temporal spacing provided by continuous GPS tracking. We conclude that continuous GPS observations are more cost efficient and provide more precise estimates of vertical deformation rates than campaign style gravity observations where systematic errors are difficult to quantify.

  1. On the convective-absolute nature of river bedform instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Chomaz, Jean Marc

    2014-12-01

    River dunes and antidunes are induced by the morphological instability of stream-sediment boundary. Such bedforms raise a number of subtle theoretical questions and are crucial for many engineering and environmental problems. Despite their importance, the absolute/convective nature of the instability has never been addressed. The present work fills this gap as we demonstrate, by the cusp map method, that dune instability is convective for all values of the physical control parameters, while the antidune instability exhibits both behaviors. These theoretical predictions explain some previous experimental and numerical observations and are important to correctly plan flume experiments, numerical simulations, paleo-hydraulic reconstructions, and river works.

  2. Absolute dating of dedolomitization by means of paleomagnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, R. Douglas; Dunn, William; Peck, Craig

    1985-08-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis, in conjunction with petrographic studies, is an approach whereby absolute dates can be placed on diagenetic events. Hematite is associated with dedolomite in the Lower Ordovician Kindblade Formation in south-central Oklahoma and is interpreted as a by-product of the dedolomitization of ferroan dolomite. Paleomagnetic results date the time of dedolomitization as Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian. Dedolomitization was probably caused by oxidizing fluids with high calcium contents that migrated through the Kindblade Formation following uplift of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  3. Electromagnetic hydrophone with tomographic system for absolute velocity field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Gilles, Bruno; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2012-06-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  4. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  5. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  6. (+)- and (-)-mutisianthol: first total synthesis, absolute configuration, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Graziela G; Ferraz, Helena M C; Costa, Arinice M; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Schrems, Marcus G; Pfaltz, Andreas; Silva, Luiz F

    2009-03-20

    The first synthesis of the natural product (+)-mutisianthol was accomplished in 11 steps and in 21% overall yield from 2-methylanisole. The synthesis of its enantiomer was also performed in a similar overall yield. The absolute configuration of the sesquiterpene (+)-mutisianthol was assigned as (1S,3R). Key steps in the route are the asymmetric hydrogenation of a nonfunctionalized olefin using chiral iridium catalysts and the ring contraction of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes using thallium(III) or iodine(III). The target molecules show moderate activity against the human tumor cell lines SF-295, HCT-8, and MDA-MB-435.

  7. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  8. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  9. Absolute quantification of transferrin in blood samples of harbour seals using HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Mechthild; Pröfrock, Daniel; Kakuschke, Antje; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    baseline reference range for male (1.42-2.35 g L(-1)) and female German North Sea seals (1.93-2.74 g L(-1)) as well as a CDT level of 0.00-0.10 g L(-1), respectively, which provides valuable further diagnostic information regarding the health status of these specific marine mammals. Compared to assay based quantification approaches the proposed technique indicates great potential to obtain comparable and traceable absolute quantitative results, which are in particular important for long term investigations. This absolute quantification is based on an accurate, traceable element standard, while assay based approaches often show variations depending on the kit quality or changing activities of the used antibodies. PMID:21270996

  10. Computations of absolute solvation free energies of small molecules using explicit and implicit solvent model.

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, D.; Deng, Y.; Roux, B.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of absolute solvation free energy plays a critical role in numerous areas of biomolecular modeling and drug discovery. A quantitative representation of ligand and receptor desolvation, in particular, is an essential component of current docking and scoring methods. Furthermore, the partitioning of a drug between aqueous and nonpolar solvents is one of the important factors considered in pharmacokinetics. In this study, the absolute hydration free energy for a set of 239 neutral ligands spanning diverse chemical functional groups commonly found in drugs and drug-like candidates is calculated using the molecular dynamics free energy perturbation method (FEP/MD) with explicit water molecules, and compared to experimental data as well as its counterparts obtained using implicit solvent models. The hydration free energies are calculated from explicit solvent simulations using a staged FEP procedure permitting a separation of the total free energy into polar and nonpolar contributions. The nonpolar component is further decomposed into attractive (dispersive) and repulsive (cavity) components using the Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) separation scheme. To increase the computational efficiency, all of the FEP/MD simulations are generated using a mixed explicit/implicit solvent scheme with a relatively small number of explicit TIP3P water molecules, in which the influence of the remaining bulk is incorporated via the spherical solvent boundary potential (SSBP). The performances of two fixed-charge force fields designed for small organic molecules, the General Amber force field (GAFF), and the all-atom CHARMm-MSI, are compared. Because of the crucial role of electrostatics in solvation free energy, the results from various commonly used charge generation models based on the semiempirical (AM1-BCC) and QM calculations [charge fitting using ChelpG and RESP] are compared. In addition, the solvation free energies of the test set are also calculated using

  11. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Chumbley, Chad W.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R2) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, <9% relative errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%.

  12. Control of separation and quantitative analysis by GC-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmoud, A.; Huvenne, Jean P.; Legrand, P.

    1992-03-01

    Software for 3-D representations of the 'Absorbance-Wavenumber-Retention time' is used to control the quality of the GC separation. Spectral information given by the FTIR detection allows the user to be sure that a chromatographic peak is 'pure.' The analysis of peppermint essential oil is presented as an example. This assurance is absolutely required for quantitative applications. In these conditions, we have worked out a quantitative analysis of caffeine. Correlation coefficients between integrated absorbance measurements and concentration of caffeine are discussed at two steps of the data treatment.

  13. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  14. Enabling Dark Energy and Beyond Science with Precise Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Hines, D. C.; Bohlin, R.; Gordon, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtain WFC3/IR observations of 15 carefully selected stars with the immediate objective of establishing their Absolute Physical Flux (ABF), and an ultimate goal of achieving the sub-1% absolute photometric accuracies required by Dark Energy science with JWST and other facilities. Even with the best data available, the current determination of ABFs is plagued by the reliance on the Vega photometric system, which is known to be problematic primarily due to the fact that Vega is a pole-on rapid rotator with an infrared excess from its circumstellar disk! which makes it difficult to model. Vega is also far too bright for large aperture telescopes. In an effort to remedy these difficulties, teams from the National Institute of Standards (NIST), the University of New Mexico, Johns Hopkins University and STScI have begun to develop a catalog of stars that have spectral energy distributions that are tied directly to NIST (diode) standards with very precisely determined physical characteristics. A key element in this pursuit has been the efforts at STScI to measure the spectra of many of these objects with STIS. We discuss our program to extend this effort into the near-IR which is crucial to reliably extend the SEDs to longer wavelengths, including the mid IR.

  15. Absolute phase effects on CPMG-type pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumyajit; Oh, Sangwon; Hürlimann, Martin D

    2015-12-01

    We describe and analyze the effects of transients within radio-frequency (RF) pulses on multiple-pulse NMR measurements such as the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence. These transients are functions of the absolute RF phases at the beginning and end of the pulse, and are thus affected by the timing of the pulse sequence with respect to the period of the RF waveform. Changes in transients between refocusing pulses in CPMG-type sequences can result in signal decay, persistent oscillations, changes in echo shape, and other effects. We have explored such effects by performing experiments in two different low-frequency NMR systems. The first uses a conventional tuned-and-matched probe circuit, while the second uses an ultra-broadband un-tuned or non-resonant probe circuit. We show that there are distinct differences between the absolute phase effects in these two systems, and present simple models that explain these differences. PMID:26575106

  16. Low cost varying synthetic wavelength technique for absolute distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, S.; Salvadé, Y.

    2010-04-01

    A new low-cost superheterodyne configuration, without acousto-optic modulator, is applied to the two-wavelength interferometry for absolute distance measurement. The principle relies on a synchronized frequency sweep of two optical signals, but with different frequency excursions. The frequency difference between the two optical waves is highly accurate. This is realized by injecting a frequency modulated laser signal in an intensity modulator that is biased at halfwave voltage and driven by a digitally swept radio-frequency signal between 13 and 15 GHz. This latter is a continuous up and down ramp. The two synchronized optical signals emerging from the modulator produce in a Michelson interferometer a distance dependent superheterodyne signal, with a variable synthetic wavelength of about 10 mm. The superheterodyne frequency depends linearly on distance and on the radio-frequency excursion. The integration time for a distance measurement point corresponds to the duration of single sweep (i.e. one millisecond in our case). Absolute distance measurements from 1 to 15 meters yield an accuracy of +/-50 μm, showing the validity of the technique.

  17. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  18. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  19. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  20. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  1. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-08-18

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  2. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  3. Molecular structure and absolute configuration of the diterpene lactone, praelolide.

    PubMed

    Dai, J B; Wan, Z L; Rao, Z H; Liang, D C; Fang, Z; Luo, Y K; Long, K H

    1985-11-01

    Praelolide is a new compound which was isolated out from the gorgonian, Menella praelonga (Ridley), collected from the South Sea of China at Zhanjiang, Guangdong. The molecular formula is C28H35O12Cl. The research result by X-ray diffraction method on the crystal structure is presented. The compound is orthorhombic with space group P2(1)2(1)2, cell dimensions a = 16.936, b = 16.709, c = 10.333 A, and Z = 4. The structure has been solved by direct method and refined to R = 0.055 for 2257 unique observable reflexions by least-squares. The molecule is composed of the major conformational isomer in which the three main rings (a six-membered ring, an eight-membered ring, a six-membered ring) take separately the form of chair-chairboat-chair, a five-membered actone ring, a C1 substitution, 4 acetate groups, and a three-membered epoxide ring. The absolute configuration of the molecule has also been determined by statistics (R factor ratio R = 1.012) and Bijvoet pairs observation. For 30 pairs of the greatest anomalous contributions the residuals are R'(+) = 0.057 for the first enantiomorph and R'(-) = 0.005 for the second one, so the latter should unambiguously correspond to the absolute configuration of the molecule.

  4. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  5. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  6. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (Bz) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T2 or T*2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy Bz data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured Bz data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging slice and

  7. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  8. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  9. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Thome, Kurtis J.; Helder, Dennis L.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2003-04-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than +/-1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than +/-5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than +/- 0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of +/- 0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  10. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, Oleg

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both to operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.

  11. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  12. Choice deferral can arise from absolute evaluations or relative comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Chris M; Hoffrage, Ulrich; Reisen, Nils

    2015-06-01

    When choosing among several options, people may defer choice for either of 2 reasons: because none of the options is good enough or because there is uncertainty regarding which is the best. These reasons form the basis of the 2-stage, 2-threshold (2S2T) framework, which posits that a different kind of processing corresponds to these 2 reasons for choice deferral: absolute evaluations and relative comparisons, respectively. Three experiments are reported in which each type of processing was triggered in different conditions either via different payoff structures or different degrees of attribute knowledge. The effects of the 3 main independent variables (the size of the choice set, the utility of the best option, and the number of competitive options) differed depending on the payoff structure or attribute knowledge conditions in ways predicted by the 2S2T framework. Implications for consumer decision making, marketing, and eyewitness identification are discussed. PMID:25938974

  13. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  14. Absolute positioning using DORIS tracking of the SPOT-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Ries, J. C.; Davis, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the French DORIS system operating on the SPOT-2 satellite to provide absolute site positioning at the 20-30-centimeter level using 80 d of data is demonstrated. The accuracy of the vertical component is comparable to that of the horizontal components, indicating that residual troposphere error is not a limiting factor. The translation parameters indicate that the DORIS network realizes a geocentric frame to about 50 nm in each component. The considerable amount of data provided by the nearly global, all-weather DORIS network allowed this complex parameterization required to reduce the unmodeled forces acting on the low-earth satellite. Site velocities with accuracies better than 10 mm/yr should certainly be possible using the multiyear span of the SPOT series and Topex/Poseidon missions.

  15. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  16. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  17. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  18. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary V1918 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system V1918 Cyg from analyzed CCD (BVR) light curves and radial velocity data. We used the photometric data published by Yang et al. (2013) and spectroscopic data obtained in 2012 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). The light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2015 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters of the system. It is confirmed that the system is an A-type W UMa as indicated by Yang et al. (2013). Combining our spectroscopic data with the photometric solution we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system as M1 = 1.302M⊙ , M2 = 0.362M⊙ , R1 = 1.362R⊙ and R2 = 0.762R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  19. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  20. Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Gervain, Judit; Vines, Bradley W.; Chen, Lawrence M.; Seo, Rubo J.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.; Young, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute pitch, the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without a reference point, has a critical period, i.e., it can only be acquired early in life. However, research has shown that histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) enable adult mice to establish perceptual preferences that are otherwise impossible to acquire after youth. In humans, we found that adult men who took valproate (VPA) (a HDAC inhibitor) learned to identify pitch significantly better than those taking placebo—evidence that VPA facilitated critical-period learning in the adult human brain. Importantly, this result was not due to a general change in cognitive function, but rather a specific effect on a sensory task associated with a critical-period. PMID:24348349

  1. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary BO Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system BO Ari from analyzed CCD (BVRI) light curves and radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2009 and 2010 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic observations were made in 2007 and 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). These light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be an A-type W UMa system. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.995M⊙,M2 = 0.189M⊙,R1 = 1.090R⊙ and R2 = 0.515R⊙ . Finally, we discuss the evolutionary status of the system.

  2. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  3. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  4. Absolute parameters of stars in semidetached eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    1985-06-01

    A number of questions concerning the absolute parameters of stars in semidetached binary systems are addressed. Consideration is given to: similarities between Algol-type binaries and unevolved detached binaries with respect to the mass-luminosity law; and the single-line classical Algol candidates with known mass functions and photometric solutions for mass ratio. It is shown that the validity of the mass luminosity-law cannot be verified for individual Algol-type binaries though it does hold well on average; and (2), the existence of a definite class of sd-binaries not containing a proportion of significantly undersize types is apparent. The conclusions are found to be in general agreement with the observations of Hall and Neff (1979).

  5. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  6. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLE STAR CF TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-12-01

    CF Tau is now known to be an eclipsing triple star with relatively deep total and annular eclipses. New light and radial velocity curves as well as new times of minima were obtained and used for further modeling of the system. Very accurate (better than 0.9%) masses and radii of the eclipsing pair are determined from analysis of the two new light curves, the radial velocity curve, and the times of minimum light. The mass and luminosity of the distant third component is accurately determined as well. Theoretical models of the detached, evolved eclipsing pair match the observed absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 4.3 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.14.

  7. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR HY VIRGINIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Fekel, Francis C. E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2011-12-15

    HY Vir is found to be a double-lined F0m+F5 binary star with relatively shallow (0.3 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7509 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 8862 from the NFO WebScope, and 68 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope, and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Very accurate (better than 0.5%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the new light curves and radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 1.35 Gy.

  8. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2012-08-15

    V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  9. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  10. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  11. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  12. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  13. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p → 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  14. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary GW Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gökay, G.; Saral, G.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Cerit, S.; Terzioğlu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system GW Cnc. We analyzed the photometric data obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic data obtained in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain the absolute and geometrical parameters. We derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.257M⊙ , M2 = 0.971M⊙ , R1 = 0.526R⊙ and R2 = 0.961R⊙ with an orbital inclination i(∘) = 83.38 ± 0.25 and we determined the GW Cnc system to be a W-type W UMa over-contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 3.773 ± 0.007 .

  15. Conductance and Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of 1D Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, L.; Jakšić, V.; Last, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operators {h = -Δ + v} acting on {ℓ^2(mathbb{Z}_+)} in terms of the limiting behaviour of the Landauer-Büttiker and Thouless conductances of the associated finite samples. The finite sample is defined by restricting h to a finite interval {[1, L] \\cap mathbb{Z}_+} and the conductance refers to the charge current across the sample in the open quantum system obtained by attaching independent electronic reservoirs to the sample ends. Our main result is that the conductances associated to an energy interval {I} are non-vanishing in the limit {L to infty} iff {sp_ac(h) \\cap I neq emptyset}. We also discuss the relationship between this result and the Schrödinger Conjecture (Avila, J Am Math Soc 28:579-616, 2015; Bruneau et al., Commun Math Phys 319:501-513, 2013).

  16. Absolute stellar photometry on moderate-resolution FPA images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of star (and Moon) images has been collected by the ground-based RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) as part of the US Geological Survey program for lunar calibration. The stellar data are used to derive nightly atmospheric corrections for the observations from extinction measurements, and absolute calibration of the ROLO sensors is based on observations of Vega and published reference flux and spectrum data. The ROLO telescopes were designed for imaging the Moon at moderate resolution, thus imposing some limitations for the stellar photometry. Attaining accurate stellar photometry with the ROLO image data has required development of specialized processing techniques. A key consideration is consistency in discriminating the star core signal from the off-axis point spread function. The analysis and processing methods applied to the ROLO stellar image database are described. ?? 2009 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. The preference of visualization in teaching and learning absolute value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan Konyalioğlu, Alper; Aksu, Zeki; Özge Şenel, Esma

    2012-07-01

    Visualization is mostly despised although it complements and - sometimes - guides the analytical process. This study mainly investigates teachers' preferences concerning the use of the visualization method and determines the extent to which they encourage their students to make use of it within the problem-solving process. This study was conducted for the ninth-grade students and their mathematics teacher in a social science intensive public school in the city of Erzurum, Turkey. Utilizing case study as the preferred method, data were collected through observations, interviews and student evaluations. This study revealed that visualization has a positive effect at the preliminary phases of teaching the absolute value concept but generates a lack of stimulation during problem solving in further phases of the instruction. This could be explained as a result of current examination system which requires a habituation of the analytical process in solving mathematical questions.

  18. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  19. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  20. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  1. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  2. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both tomore » operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.« less

  3. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  4. Updated Absolute Flux Calibration of the COS FUV Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, D.; Ely, J.; Osten, R.; Penton, S.; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Proffitt, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present newly derived point source absolute flux calibrations for the COS FUV modes at both the original and second lifetime positions. The analysis includes observa- tions through the Primary Science Aperture (PSA) of the standard stars WD0308-565, GD71, WD1057+729 and WD0947+857 obtained as part of two calibration programs. Data were were obtained for all of the gratings at all of the original CENWAVE settings at both the original and second lifetime positions and for the G130M CENWAVE = 1222 at the second lifetime position. Data were also obtained with the FUVB segment for the G130M CENWAVE = 1055 and 1096 setting at the second lifetime position. We also present the derivation of L-flats that were used in processing the data and show that the internal consistency of the primary standards is 1%. The accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations over the UV are estimated to be 1-2% for the medium resolution gratings, and 2-3% over most of the wavelength range of the G140L grating, although the uncertainty can be as large as 5% or more at some G140L wavelengths. We note that these errors are all relative to the optical flux near the V band and small additional errors may be present due to inaccuracies in the V band calibration. In addition, these error estimates are for the time at which the flux calibration data were obtained; the accuracy of the flux calibration at other times can be affected by errors in the time dependent sensitivity (TDS) correction.

  5. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  6. Absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross sections from rare gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Salvador

    The absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross section has been measured for 28 and 50 keV electrons incident on the rare gases Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. The cross sections are differential with respect to energy and photon emission. A SiLi solid state detector measured data at 90° with respect to the beam line. A thorough analysis of the experimental systematic error yielded a high degree of confidence in the experimental data. The absolute bremsstrahlung doubly differential cross sections provided for a rigorous test of the normal bremsstrahlung theory, tabulated by Kissel, Quarles and Pratt1 (KQP) and of the SA theory2 that includes the contribution from polarization bremsstrahlung. To test the theories a comparison of the overall magnitude of the cross section as well as comparison of the photon energy dependence was carried out. The KQP theoretical values underestimated the magnitude of the cross section for all targets and for both energies. The SA values were in excellent agreement with the 28 keV data. For the 50keV data the fit was also very good. However, there were energy regions where there was a small discrepancy between the theory and the data. This suggests that the Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) mechanism does contribute to the overall spectrum and is detectable in this parameter space. 1Kissel, L., Quarles, C. A., Pratt, R. H., Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983). 2Avdonina N. B., Pratt, R. H., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 4261 (1999).

  7. Absolute quantification of genetically modified MON810 maize (Zea mays L.) by digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Philippe; Bhat, Somanath; Partis, Lina; Xie, Vicki Rui Dan; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) foods requires estimation of the amount of the transgenic event relative to an endogenous gene. Regulatory authorities in the European Union (EU) have defined the labelling threshold for GM food on the copy number ratio between the transgenic event and an endogenous gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently being used for quantification of GM organisms (GMOs). Limitations in real-time PCR applications to detect very low number of DNA targets has led to new developments such as the digital PCR (dPCR) which allows accurate measurement of DNA copies without the need for a reference calibrator. In this paper, the amount of maize MON810 and hmg copies present in a DNA extract from seed powders certified for their mass content and for their copy number ratio was measured by dPCR. The ratio of these absolute copy numbers determined by dPCR was found to be identical to the ratios measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a plasmid DNA calibrator. These results indicate that both methods could be applied to determine the copy number ratio in MON810. The reported values were in agreement with estimations from a model elaborated to convert mass fractions into copy number fractions in MON810 varieties. This model was challenged on two MON810 varieties used for the production of MON810 certified reference materials (CRMs) which differ in the parental origin of the introduced GM trait. We conclude that dPCR has a high metrological quality and can be used for certifying GM CRMs in terms of DNA copy number ratio.

  8. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G.; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light–matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  9. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-05-27

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  10. Changes in absolute theta power in bipolar patients during a saccadic attention task.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Consuelo; Diniz, Claudia; Di Girogio, Luiza; Bittencourt, Juliana; Gongora, Mariana; Ken Tanaka, Guaraci; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Novis, Fernanda; Angélica Silveira, Luciana; da Silva, Rafael de Assis; Cagy, Mauricio; Cheniaux, Elie; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-08-30

    The present study analyzed absolute theta power (ATP) in brain areas involved with attention in the three phase of BD while the patients performing a saccadic attention task. We hypothesized that patients in depression and mania states show a higher ATP compared to euthymic patients, since a higher ATP is indicative of attention deficit. We analyzed the frontal (F7, F3, Fz, F4 and F8) and central (C3, Cz and C4) areas. Thirty bipolar patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed a saccadic attention task while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography (20 channels). Our results showed a main effect for group over C3, C4, Cz, F7, F4, F8 electrodes, and a main effect for moment over Cz, F7, F8 electrodes. These results indicate that both task and groups produce changes in theta activity in distinct cortical areas that participate in the organization of attention. Our results therefore demonstrate that, although it is well established in the literature that theta has a relevant role in the attention process, it is necessary to deepen the investigations to better understand the specifics of theta during visual processing tasks that have a demand for attention.

  11. Comparison and applications of label-free absolute proteome quantification methods on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arike, L; Valgepea, K; Peil, L; Nahku, R; Adamberg, K; Vilu, R

    2012-09-18

    Three different label-free proteome quantification methods--APEX, emPAI and iBAQ--were evaluated to measure proteome-wide protein concentrations in the cell. All the methods were applied to a sample from Escherichia coli chemostat culture. A Pearson squared correlation of approximately 0.6 among the three quantification methods was demonstrated. Importantly, the sum of quantified proteins by iBAQ and emPAI corresponded with the Lowry total protein quantification, demonstrating applicability of label-free methods for an accurate calculation of protein concentrations at the proteome level. The iBAQ method showed the best correlation between biological replicates, a normal distribution among all protein abundances, and the lowest variation among ribosomal protein abundances, which are expected to have equal amounts. Absolute quantitative proteome data enabled us to evaluate metabolic cost for protein synthesis and apparent catalytic activities of enzymes by integration with flux analysis. All the methods demonstrated similar ATP costs for protein synthesis for different cellular processes and that costs for expressing biomass synthesis related proteins were higher than those for energy generation. Importantly, catalytic activities of energy metabolism enzymes were an order or two higher than those of monomer synthesis. Interestingly, a staircase-like protein expression was demonstrated for most of the transcription units. PMID:22771841

  12. Quantification of silane molecules on oxidized silicon: are there options for a traceable and absolute determination?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, P M; Streeck, C; Glamsch, S; Ehlert, C; Lippitz, A; Nutsch, A; Kulak, N; Beckhoff, B; Unger, W E S

    2015-10-01

    Organosilanes are used routinely to functionalize various support materials for further modifications. Nevertheless, reliable quantitative information about surface functional group densities after layer formation is rarely available. Here, we present the analysis of thin organic nanolayers made from nitrogen containing silane molecules on naturally oxidized silicon wafers with reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An areic density of 2-4 silane molecules per nm(2) was calculated from the layer's nitrogen mass deposition per area unit obtained by reference-free TXRF. Complementary energy and angle-resolved XPS (ER/AR-XPS) in the Si 2p core-level region was used to analyze the outermost surface region of the organic (silane layer)-inorganic (silicon wafer) interface. Different coexisting silicon species as silicon, native silicon oxide, and silane were identified and quantified. As a result of the presented proof-of-concept, absolute and traceable values for the areic density of silanes containing nitrogen as intrinsic marker are obtained by calibration of the XPS methods with reference-free TXRF. Furthermore, ER/AR-XPS is shown to facilitate the determination of areic densities in (mono)layers made from silanes having no heteroatomic marker other than silicon. After calibration with reference-free TXRF, these areic densities of silane molecules can be determined when using the XPS component intensity of the silane's silicon atom.

  13. Selective and absolute quantification of endogenous hypochlorous acid with quantum-dot conjugated microbeads.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Cyun; Lu, Hsueh-Han; Wang, Wei-Ti; Liau, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Endogenous hypochlorous acid (HOCl) secreted by leukocytes plays a critical role in both the immune defense of mammalians and the pathogenesis of various diseases intimately related to inflammation. We report the first selective and absolute quantification of endogenous HOCl produced by leukocytes in vitro and in vivo with a novel quantum dot-based sensor. An activated human neutrophil secreted 6.5 ± 0.9 × 10(8) HOCl molecules into its phagosome, and kinetic measurement for the secretions showed that the extracellular generation of HOCl was temporally retarded, but the quantity eventually attained a level comparable with its intraphagosomal counterpart with a delay of about 1.5 h. The quantity of HOCl secreted from the hepatic leukocytes of rats with or without stimulation of lipopolysaccharide was also determined. These results indicate a possibility to extend our approach to not only clinical settings for quantitative assessment of the bactericidal capability of isolated leukocytes of patients but also fundamental biomedical research that requires critical evaluation of the inflammatory response of animals. PMID:21950322

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations of Absolute Binding Free Energy of Targeted Nanocarriers to Cell Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Zern, B.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.; Muzykantov, V. R.; Radhakrishnan, R.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a computational methodology based on Metropolis Monte Carlo and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) to calculate the absolute binding free energy between functionalized nanocarriers (NC) and endothelial cell (EC) surfaces. The calculated binding affinities agree quantitatively with the measurements of specific antibody coated NCs (100 nm in diameter) to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressing EC surface in in vitro experiments. We then systematically explore the effects of experimentally tunable parameters including the antibody surface coverage σs of NC, glycocalyx, shear flow and NC size. Of particular biological significance, our model predicts a threshold σs value below which the NC binding affinities reduce drastically and drop below that of single anti-ICAM-1 molecule to ICAM-1; our results reveal that this is due to a change in the multivalency (or number of bonds formed per NC). This trend and threshold value are recovered exactly in the in vivo measurements of the endothelium targeting of NCs in the pulmonary vascular in mice.

  15. Direct and Absolute Quantification of over 1800 Yeast Proteins via Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Craig; Holman, Stephen W.; Brownridge, Philip; Lanthaler, Karin; Harman, Victoria M.; Watkins, Rachel; Hammond, Dean E.; Miller, Rebecca L.; Sims, Paul F. G.; Grant, Christopher M.; Eyers, Claire E.; Beynon, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Defining intracellular protein concentration is critical in molecular systems biology. Although strategies for determining relative protein changes are available, defining robust absolute values in copies per cell has proven significantly more challenging. Here we present a reference data set quantifying over 1800 Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins by direct means using protein-specific stable-isotope labeled internal standards and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, far exceeding any previous study. This was achieved by careful design of over 100 QconCAT recombinant proteins as standards, defining 1167 proteins in terms of copies per cell and upper limits on a further 668, with robust CVs routinely less than 20%. The selected reaction monitoring-derived proteome is compared with existing quantitative data sets, highlighting the disparities between methodologies. Coupled with a quantification of the transcriptome by RNA-seq taken from the same cells, these data support revised estimates of several fundamental molecular parameters: a total protein count of ∼100 million molecules-per-cell, a median of ∼1000 proteins-per-transcript, and a linear model of protein translation explaining 70% of the variance in translation rate. This work contributes a “gold-standard” reference yeast proteome (including 532 values based on high quality, dual peptide quantification) that can be widely used in systems models and for other comparative studies. PMID:26750110

  16. Absolute quantification of lung cancer related microRNA by droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jing, Fengxiang; Li, Gang; Wu, Zhenhua; Cheng, Zule; Zhang, Jishen; Zhang, Honglian; Jia, Chunping; Jin, Qinghui; Mao, Hongju; Zhao, Jianlong

    2015-12-15

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR) enables the absolute quantification of nucleic acids through the counting of single molecules, thus eliminating the need for standard curves or endogenous controls. In this study, we developed a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) system based on an oil saturated PDMS (OSP) microfluidic chip platform for quantification of lung cancer related microRNA (miRNA). The OSP chip was made with PDMS and was oil saturated to constrain oil swallow and maintain the stability of droplets. Two inlets were designed for oil and sample injection with a syringe pump at the outlet. Highly uniform monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets to be used for subsequent detection and analysis were generated at the cross section of the channel. We compared miRNA quantification by the ddPCR system and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to demonstrate that the ddPCR system was superior to qPCR both in its detection limit and smaller fold changes measurement. This droplet PCR system provides new possibilities for highly sensitive and efficient detection of cancer-related genes. PMID:26232679

  17. Infrared mapping of ultrasound fields generated by medical transducers: Feasibility of determining absolute intensity levels

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Vera A.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Martin, Eleanor; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Shaw, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the use of infrared (IR) techniques for qualitative mapping of acoustic fields of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. The authors have previously developed and demonstrated a method based on IR camera measurement of the temperature rise induced in an absorber less than 2 mm thick by ultrasonic bursts of less than 1 s duration. The goal of this paper was to make the method more quantitative and estimate the absolute intensity distributions by determining an overall calibration factor for the absorber and camera system. The implemented approach involved correlating the temperature rise measured in an absorber using an IR camera with the pressure distribution measured in water using a hydrophone. The measurements were conducted for two HIFU transducers and a flat physiotherapy transducer of 1 MHz frequency. Corresponding correction factors between the free field intensity and temperature were obtained and allowed the conversion of temperature images to intensity distributions. The system described here was able to map in good detail focused and unfocused ultrasound fields with sub-millimeter structure and with local time average intensity from below 0.1 W/cm2 to at least 50 W/cm2. Significantly higher intensities could be measured simply by reducing the duty cycle. PMID:23927199

  18. Quantitative optical phase microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barty, A; Nugent, K A; Paganin, D; Roberts, A

    1998-06-01

    We present a new method for the extraction of quantitative phase data from microscopic phase samples by use of partially coherent illumination and an ordinary transmission microscope. The technique produces quantitative images of the phase profile of the sample without phase unwrapping. The technique is able to recover phase even in the presence of amplitude modulation, making it significantly more powerful than existing methods of phase microscopy. We demonstrate the technique by providing quantitatively correct phase images of well-characterized test samples and show that the results obtained for more-complex samples correlate with structures observed with Nomarski differential interference contrast techniques.

  19. Quantitative genetic study of the adaptive process.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R G; Shaw, F H

    2014-01-01

    The additive genetic variance with respect to absolute fitness, VA(W), divided by mean absolute fitness, , sets the rate of ongoing adaptation. Fisher's key insight yielding this quantitative prediction of adaptive evolution, known as the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, is well appreciated by evolutionists. Nevertheless, extremely scant information about VA(W) is available for natural populations. Consequently, the capacity for fitness increase via natural selection is unknown. Particularly in the current context of rapid environmental change, which is likely to reduce fitness directly and, consequently, the size and persistence of populations, the urgency of advancing understanding of immediate adaptive capacity is extreme. We here explore reasons for the dearth of empirical information about VA(W), despite its theoretical renown and critical evolutionary role. Of these reasons, we suggest that expectations that VA(W) is negligible, in general, together with severe statistical challenges of estimating it, may largely account for the limited empirical emphasis on it. To develop insight into the dynamics of VA(W) in a changing environment, we have conducted individual-based genetically explicit simulations. We show that, as optimizing selection on a trait changes steadily over generations, VA(W) can grow considerably, supporting more rapid adaptation than would the VA(W) of the base population. We call for direct evaluation of VA(W) and in support of prediction of rates adaptive evolution, and we advocate for the use of aster modeling as a rigorous basis for achieving this goal.

  20. Progress in quantitative GPR development at CNDE

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, David; Margetan, F. J.; Chiou, C.-P.; Roberts, Ron; Wendt, Scott

    2014-02-18

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) uses electromagnetic (EM) radiation pulses to locate and map embedded objects. Commercial GPR instruments are generally geared toward producing images showing the location and extent of buried objects, and often do not make full use of available absolute amplitude information. At the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) at Iowa State University efforts are underway to develop a more quantitative approach to GPR inspections in which absolute amplitudes and spectra of measured signals play a key role. Guided by analogous work in ultrasonic inspection, there are three main thrusts to the effort. These focus, respectively, on the development of tools for: (1) analyzing raw GPR data; (2) measuring the EM properties of soils and other embedding media; and (3) simulating GPR inspections. This paper reviews progress in each category. The ultimate goal of the work is to develop model-based simulation tools that can be used assess the usefulness of GPR for a given inspection scenario, to optimize inspection choices, and to determine inspection reliability.

  1. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  2. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  3. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  4. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  5. On the Error Sources in Absolute Individual Antenna Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Bilich, Andria; Bruyninx, Carine; Legrand, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    field) multi path errors, both during calibration and later on at the station, absolute sub-millimeter positioning with GPS is not (yet) possible. References [1] G. Wübbena, M. Schmitz, G. Boettcher, C. Schumann, "Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration with a Robot: Repeatability of Phase Variations, Calibration of GLONASS and Determination of Carrier-to-Noise Pattern", International GNSS Service: Analysis Center workshop, 8-12 May 2006, Darmstadt, Germany. [2] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, "On the Accuracy of Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration and the Conception of a New Anechoic Chamber", FIG Working Week 2008, 14-19 June 2008, Stockholm, Sweden. [3] P. Zeimetz, H. Kuhlmann, L. Wanninger, V. Frevert, S. Schön and K. Strauch, "Ringversuch 2009", 7th GNSS-Antennen-Workshop, 19-20 March 2009, Dresden, Germany.

  6. Quantitative receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

  7. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  8. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  9. The Absolute Calibration of the HiRes Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the absolute response it is necessary to understand the absolute light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported

  10. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  11. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.; Fujita, S.; Hoffman, J.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1983-09-30

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  12. Development of new free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothleitner, Ch; Svitlov, S.; Mérimèche, H.; Hu, H.; Wang, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    The design and first results of two free-fall absolute gravimeters are reported: a stationary gravimeter is designed and can be used as a reference system and a portable gravimeter is aimed at field measurements. The determination of the acceleration due to gravity is done interferometrically in both instruments. The whole fringe signal is digitized by a high-speed analogue-to-digital converter, which is locked to a rubidium frequency standard. This fringe recording and processing is novel as compared with commercial free-fall gravimeters, which use an electronic zero-crossing discrimination. Advantages such as the application of a zero-phase-shifting digital filter to the digitized data are depicted. The portable gravimeter's mechanics deviate from the conventional type. Springs are used to accelerate and decelerate the carriage supporting the falling object. A detailed uncertainty budget is given for both gravimeters. The combined standard uncertainty for the portable and for the stationary gravimeter is estimated at 38.8 µGal and 16.6 µGal, respectively. The corresponding statistical uncertainties are 1.6 µGal (over one day of measurement) and 0.6 µGal (over one month of measurement). The different designs and dimensions of the new free-fall gravimeters can help to reveal unknown or so far underestimated systematic effects. The assessments of the uncertainties due to seismic noise and shock vibrations, and electronic phase shifts give validity to this assumption.

  13. Numerical aspects of searching convective/absolute instability transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, Sergey A.

    2006-02-01

    An overview of various numerical techniques used to determine the spatio-temporal character of instabilities in fluid flows is given. The advantageous features of various previously known individual techniques are discussed and a practical procedure combining them is suggested for a specific task of determining the complete boundary between linearly convectively and absolutely unstable regimes in a multi-parameter space in problems with a fully numerical dispersion relation. Special attention is paid to aspects of automatization of computations as this is a crucial condition for their efficiency. The suggested procedure is successfully used and is shown to provide a high degree of automatism in the physical example of non-Boussinesq mixed convection in a vertical channel. This example comprises most of the major numerical difficulties found in various spatio-temporal instability studies of two-dimensional fluid flows which previously could not be handled without frequent human intervention and visual inspection of intermediate results. This paper focuses on the general numerical aspects of the computations leaving the detailed discussion of the obtained physical results for a separate publication.

  14. Primacy and frequency effects in absolute judgments of visual velocity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A; Pavlova, M; Ehrenstein, W H

    2000-07-01

    In absolute judgment tasks, identical stimuli are rated higher (or lower) when presented in a series of more frequent small (or large) stimuli. Using visual stimuli differing in velocity, we show that this conventional frequency effect is largely modulated by the primacy effect--that is, by the stimuli occurring on the early trials of a run. In Experiment 1, a frequency-like primacy effect was obtained with equal-frequent velocities. Identical velocities were rated faster when mainly slow rather than fast ones occurred on initial trials. In Experiment 2, we contrasted the frequency effect and the primacy effect: In runs with frequent slow velocities, mainly fast ones occurred earlier, whereas in runs with infrequent slow velocities, mainly slow ones did so. Lack of differences of ratings in the two conditions suggests that the two effects canceled each other. In Experiment 3, when mainly frequent velocities occurred earlier, the conventional frequency effect was obtained. We conclude that the conventional frequency effect represents a combination of the primacy effect and the pure frequency effect.

  15. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  16. Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lulu; Woolf, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle’s absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 μm from the surface. This represents an approximate 10× improvement in error and 3× improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique’s advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle’s scattering intensity vs. height profile in situ, rather than relying on assumptions, inexact system analogs, or detailed knowledge of system parameters for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle. PMID:25512542

  17. An absolute interval scale of order for point patterns

    PubMed Central

    Protonotarios, Emmanouil D.; Baum, Buzz; Johnston, Alan; Hunter, Ginger L.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order has an interval scale structure spanning roughly 10 just-notable-differences (jnd) between disorder and order. We describe a geometric algorithm that estimates order to an accuracy of half a jnd by quantifying the variability of the size and shape of spaces between points. The algorithm is 70% more accurate than the best available measures. By anchoring the output of the algorithm so that Poisson point processes score on average 0, perfect lattices score 10 and unit steps correspond closely to jnds, we construct an absolute interval scale of order. We demonstrate its utility in biology by using this scale to quantify order during the development of the pattern of bristles on the dorsal thorax of the fruit fly. PMID:25079866

  18. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  19. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  20. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:24517804

  1. Scanning micro-resonator direct-comb absolute spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gambetta, Alessio; Cassinerio, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Direct optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy (DFCS) is proving to be a fundamental tool in many areas of science and technology thanks to its unique performance in terms of ultra-broadband, high-speed detection and frequency accuracy, allowing for high-fidelity mapping of atomic and molecular energy structure. Here we present a novel DFCS approach based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity resonator (SMART) providing a simple, compact and accurate method to resolve the mode structure of an optical frequency comb. The SMART approach, while drastically reducing system complexity, allows for a straightforward absolute calibration of the optical-frequency axis with an ultimate resolution limited by the micro-resonator resonance linewidth and can be used in any spectral region from UV to THz. We present an application to high-precision spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.54 μm, demonstrating performances comparable or even better than current state-of-the-art DFCS systems in terms of sensitivity, optical bandwidth and frequency-resolution. PMID:27752132

  2. Absolute and relative diffusion in a turbulent compressibile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, J. R.; Goldburg, W. I.

    2002-11-01

    Floating Particles that move on the surface of a tank of water driven into turbulent motion, move in a plane. Calling the coordinates of this plane x and y, with z=0 at the surface, the velocity of the floating particles obeys the equation partialx u_x(x,y,0,t) +partial_yu_y(x,y,0,t)= - partial_zu_z(x,y,0,t), assuring that their motion is compressible. From PIV measurements made at the surface, one can deduce the absolute and the relative motion of the floaters (Richardson diffusion). The relative diffusion measurements are compared with the Richardson result, t^3 and with computer simulations of Eckhardt and Schumacher [1]. The dimensionless compressibility l C is roughly 0.5 for the floaters, which is large enough to raise questions about the validity of the Kolmogorov paradigm, according to which energy is passed from large to small spatial scales [2]. References 1. G. Falkovich et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 913 (2001). 2. J. Schumacher and B. Eckhardt, Phys. Rev. E 66, 017303 (2002).

  3. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

    PubMed

    Athos, E Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-09-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

  4. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    PubMed Central

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability. PMID:17724340

  5. Voyager absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Forrester, W. T.; Shemansky, D. E.; Barry, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager observations in the 912-1200 A spectral region are used to indirectly intercompare absolute stellar spectrophotometry from previous experiments. Measurements of hot stars obtained by the Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers show considerably higher 912-1200 A continuum fluxes than the recent observations of Brune et al. (1979) and Carruthers et al. (1981). The intercomparisons show all observations in basic agreement near 1200 A. The Carruthers et al. flux measurements are preferred down to 1050 A at which point the Voyager and Brune et al. values are respectively 60% higher and 60% lower. Below 1050 A the diasgreement among the observations becomes very large and the fluxes predicted by model atmospheres have been adopted. The pure hydrogen line-blanketed model atmosphere calculations of Wesemael et al. 1980) in comparison with Voyager observations of HZ 43 are used to adjust the Voyager calibration below 1050 A. This adjusted Voyager calibration, which is in good agreement with current model atmosphere fluxes for both early-type stars and DA white dwarfs, will be used for Voyager astronomical observations.

  6. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

  7. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  8. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  9. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  10. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  11. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Marchuk, O.; Barnsley, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  12. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  13. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A.; Turner, Matthew D.; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/sqrt{Hz} above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10-5 rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/sqrt{Hz} sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  14. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  15. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR BF DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Sabby, Jeffrey A.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu

    2012-06-15

    BF Dra is now known to be an eccentric double-lined F6+F6 binary star with relatively deep (0.7 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7494 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 9700 from the NFO WebScope, 106 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 31 accurate radial velocities from the CfA. Very accurate (better than 0.6%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and four radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 2.72 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.17, and tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric. Our observations of BF Dra constrain the convective core overshooting parameter to be larger than about 0.13 H{sub p}. We find, however, that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed slow rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

  16. Absolute pitch exhibits phenotypic and genetic overlap with synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Peter K; Kowalsky, Elena; Lee, Annette; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Fisher, Simon E; Asher, Julian E; Ballard, David; Freudenberg, Jan; Li, Wentian

    2013-05-15

    Absolute pitch (AP) and synesthesia are two uncommon cognitive traits that reflect increased neuronal connectivity and have been anecdotally reported to occur together in an individual. Here we systematically evaluate the occurrence of synesthesia in a population of 768 subjects with documented AP. Out of these 768 subjects, 151 (20.1%) reported synesthesia, most commonly with color. These self-reports of synesthesia were validated in a subset of 21 study subjects, using an established methodology. We further carried out combined linkage analysis of 53 multiplex families with AP and 36 multiplex families with synesthesia. We observed a peak NPL LOD = 4.68 on chromosome 6q, as well as evidence of linkage on chromosome 2, using a dominant model. These data establish the close phenotypic and genetic relationship between AP and synesthesia. The chromosome 6 linkage region contains 73 genes; several leading candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment were investigated by exon resequencing. However, further studies will be required to definitively establish the identity of the causative gene(s) in the region.

  17. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  18. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Key, William S.; Sanders, Alvin J.; Earl, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  20. Absolute phase image reconstruction: a stochastic nonlinear filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Leitão, J N; Figueiredo, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper formulates and proposes solutions to the problem of estimating/reconstructing the absolute (not simply modulo-2pi) phase of a complex random field from noisy observations of its real and imaginary parts. This problem is representative of a class of important imaging techniques such as interferometric synthetic aperture radar, optical interferometry, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffraction tomography. We follow a Bayesian approach; then, not only a probabilistic model of the observation mechanism, but also prior knowledge concerning the (phase) image to be reconstructed, are needed. We take as prior a nonsymmetrical half plane autoregressive (NSHP AR) Gauss-Markov random field (GMRF). Based on a reduced order state-space formulation of the (linear) NSHP AR model and on the (nonlinear) observation mechanism, a recursive stochastic nonlinear filter is derived, The corresponding estimates are compared with those obtained by the extended Kalman-Bucy filter, a classical linearizing approach to the same problem. A set of examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:18276299

  1. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  2. A unique asymmetrical stroop effect in absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has been employed to study automaticity or failures of selective attention for many years. The effect is known to be asymmetrical, with words affecting color naming but not vice versa. In the current work two auditory-visual Stroop-like tasks were devised in order to study the automaticity of pitch processing in both absolute pitch (AP) possessors and musically trained controls without AP (nAP). In the tone naming task, participants were asked to name the auditory tone while ignoring a visual note name. In the note naming task, participants were asked to read a note name while ignoring the auditory tone. The nAP group showed a significant congruency effect only in the tone naming task, whereas AP possessors showed the reverse pattern, with a significant congruency effect only in the note reading task. Thus, AP possessors were unable to ignore the auditory tone when asked to read the note, but were unaffected by the verbal note name when asked to label the auditory tone. The results suggest that pitch identification in participants endowed with AP ability is automatic and impossible to suppress.

  3. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space ("APS") for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of `unique solvability' and `identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  4. Rate Change Graph Technology: Absolute Value Point Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Absolute Value Point Methodology (AVPM) is a new theoretical tool for science research centered on Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). The modeling techniques of AVPM surpass conventional methods by extending the geometrical rules of mathematics. Exact geometrical structures of matter and energy become clearer revealing new ways to compile advanced data. RCGT mechanics is realized from geometrical intersections that are the result of plotting changing value vs. changing geometry. RCGT methods ignore size and value to perform an objective analysis in geometry. Value and size are then re-introduced back into the analytical system for a clear and concise solution. Available AVPM applications reveal that a massive amount of data from the Big Bang to vast super-clusters is untouched by human thought. Once scientists learn to design tools from RCGT Mechanics, new and formidable approaches to experimentation and theory may lead to new discoveries. In the creation of AVPM, it has become apparent there is a particle-world that exists between strings and our familiar universe. These unrealized particles in their own nature exhibit inflation like properties and may be the progenitor of the implements of our universe. Thus space, time, energy, motion, space-time and gravity are born from its existence and decay. This announcement will be the beginning of many new ideas from the study of RCGT mechanics.

  5. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  6. Quantitative aspects of septicemia.

    PubMed Central

    Yagupsky, P; Nolte, F S

    1990-01-01

    For years, quantitative blood cultures found only limited use as aids in the diagnosis and management of septic patients because the available methods were cumbersome, labor intensive, and practical only for relatively small volumes of blood. The development and subsequent commercial availability of lysis-centrifugation direct plating methods for blood cultures have addressed many of the shortcomings of the older methods. The lysis-centrifugation method has demonstrated good performance relative to broth-based blood culture methods. As a result, quantitative blood cultures have found widespread use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Most episodes of clinical significant bacteremia in adults are characterized by low numbers of bacteria per milliliter of blood. In children, the magnitude of bacteremia is generally much higher, with the highest numbers of bacteria found in the blood of septic neonates. The magnitude of bacteremia correlates with the severity of disease in children and with mortality rates in adults, but other factors play more important roles in determining the patient's outcome. Serial quantitative blood cultures have been used to monitor the in vivo efficacy of antibiotic therapy in patients with slowly resolving sepsis, such as disseminated Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex infections. Quantitative blood culture methods were used in early studies of bacterial endocarditis, and the results significantly contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Comparison of paired quantitative blood cultures obtained from a peripheral vein and the central venous catheter has been used to help identify patients with catheter-related sepsis and is the only method that does not require removal of the catheter to establish the diagnosis. Quantitation of bacteria in the blood can also help distinguish contaminated from truly positive blood cultures; however, no quantitative criteria can invariably differentiate

  7. Extension of the absolute flux density scale to 22.285 GHz. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Golden, L. M.; Welch, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Extending the absolute flux density scale at microwave wavelengths, the absolute flux densities at 22.285 GHz of several standard sources were determined using the absolute calibrations of the 6.1 meter antenna of the Hat Creek Observatory. Interpolation formulas for each nonthermal standard source have been derived by combining these data with those determined at lower frequencies. The suitability of employing the standard sources for calibrating other antennas is discussed.

  8. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  9. A Simple Apparatus for Screening Absolute Photosynthetic Rates of Single Algal Colonies in an Anoxic Atmosphere 1

    PubMed Central

    Graves, D. A.; Greenbaum, E.

    1989-01-01

    Photosynthetically generated O2 was measured from single algal colonies in a He atmosphere, using an enhanced Hersch galvanic cell. The enhancement consisted of using ultrapure potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and ultrapure lead as the anode. The galvanic cell was placed in a regulated helium-flow system containing a reaction cuvette with the colonies and an electrolysis cell for calibration. Colonies were individually irradiated using a He-Ne laser. Data collection and laser positioning for colony irradiation were microcomputer controlled. This assay system was capable of detecting O2 production rates of 500 femtomoles per second with a signal to noise ratio of 2, a level of sensitivity that permitted the detection of photoevolved O2 from single algal colonies. This capability provides, for the first time, an approach for quantitatively measuring the absolute rate of photosynthetic O2 evolution from a single algal colony. PMID:16666743

  10. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons. PMID:23487181

  11. Quantitative Glycomics Strategies*

    PubMed Central

    Mechref, Yehia; Hu, Yunli; Desantos-Garcia, Janie L.; Hussein, Ahmed; Tang, Haixu

    2013-01-01

    The correlations between protein glycosylation and many biological processes and diseases are increasing the demand for quantitative glycomics strategies enabling sensitive monitoring of changes in the abundance and structure of glycans. This is currently attained through multiple strategies employing several analytical techniques such as capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The detection and quantification of glycans often involve labeling with ionic and/or hydrophobic reagents. This step is needed in order to enhance detection in spectroscopic and mass spectrometric measurements. Recently, labeling with stable isotopic reagents has also been presented as a very viable strategy enabling relative quantitation. The different strategies available for reliable and sensitive quantitative glycomics are herein described and discussed. PMID:23325767

  12. Absolute cross section for low-energy-electron damage to condensed macromolecules: A case study of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Michaud, Marc; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon

    2012-09-01

    Cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low-energy electrons (LEE) with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters for accurate modeling of radiation-induced molecular decomposition and chemical synthesis. Electron irradiation of dry nanometer-scale macromolecular solid films has often been employed to measure CSs and other quantitative parameters for LEE interactions. Since such films have thicknesses comparable with electron thermalization distances, energy deposition varies throughout the film. Moreover, charge accumulation occurring inside the films shields a proportion of the macromolecules from electron irradiation. Such effects complicate the quantitative comparison of the CSs obtained in films of different thicknesses and limit the applicability of such measurements. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model, termed the molecular survival model, that employs a CS for a particular damage process together with an attenuation length related to the total CS, to investigate how a measured CS might be expected to vary with experimental conditions. As a case study, we measure the absolute CS for the formation of DNA strand breaks (SBs) by electron irradiation at 10 and 100 eV of lyophilized plasmid DNA films with thicknesses between 10 and 30 nm. The measurements are shown to depend strongly on the thickness and charging condition of the nanometer-scale films. Such behaviors are in accord with the model and support its validity. Via this analysis, the CS obtained for SB damage is nearly independent of film thickness and charging effects. In principle, this model can be adapted to provide absolute CSs for electron-induced damage or reactions occurring in other molecular solids across a wider range of experimental conditions.

  13. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  14. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  15. Uranium isotopic composition and absolute ages of Allende chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2015-11-01

    A handful of events, such as the condensation of refractory inclusions and the formation of chondrules, represent important stages in the formation and evolution of the early solar system and thus are critical to understanding its development. Compared to the refractory inclusions, chondrules appear to have a protracted period of formation that spans millions of years. As such, understanding chondrule formation requires a catalog of reliable ages, free from as many assumptions as possible. The Pb-Pb chronometer has this potential; however, because common individual chondrules have extremely low uranium contents, obtaining U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of individual chondrules is unrealistic in the vast majority of cases at this time. Thus, in order to obtain the most accurate 238U/235U ratio possible for chondrules, we separated and pooled thousands of individual chondrules from the Allende meteorite. In this work, we demonstrate that no discernible differences exist in the 238U/235U compositions between chondrule groups when separated by size and magnetic susceptibility, suggesting that no systematic U-isotope variation exists between groups of chondrules. Consequently, chondrules are likely to have a common 238U/235U ratio for any given meteorite. A weighted average of the six groups of chondrule separates from Allende results in a 238U/235U ratio of 137.786 ± 0.004 (±0.016 including propagated uncertainty on the U standard [Richter et al. 2010]). Although it is still possible that individual chondrules have significant U isotope variation within a given meteorite, this value represents our best estimate of the 238U/235U ratio for Allende chondrules and should be used for absolute dating of these objects, unless such chondrules can be measured individually.

  16. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  17. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    PubMed Central

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. Methods/Principal Findings A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Conclusions/Significance Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP. PMID:21085598

  18. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  19. Non-invasive quantification of brain glycogen absolute concentration

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Xin, Lijing; Laus, Sabrina; Frenkel, Hanne; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The only currently available method to measure brain glycogen in vivo is 13C NMR spectroscopy. Incorporation of 13C-labeled glucose (Glc) is necessary to allow glycogen measurement, but might be affected by turnover changes. Our aim was to measure glycogen absolute concentration in the rat brain by eliminating label turnover as variable. The approach is based on establishing an increased, constant 13C isotopic enrichment (IE). 13C-Glc infusion is then performed at the IE of brain glycogen. As glycogen IE cannot be assessed in vivo, we validated that it can be inferred from that of N-acetyl-aspartate IE in vivo: After [1-13C]-Glc ingestion, glycogen IE was 2.2 ± 0.1 fold that of N-acetyl-aspartate (n = 11, R2 = 0.77). After subsequent Glc infusion, glycogen IE equaled brain Glc IE (n = 6, paired t-test, p = 0.37), implying isotopic steady-state achievement and complete turnover of the glycogen molecule. Glycogen concentration measured in vivo by 13C NMR (mean ± SD: 5.8 ± 0.7 μmol/g) was in excellent agreement with that in vitro (6.4 ± 0.6 μmol/g, n = 5). When insulin was administered, the stability of glycogen concentration was analogous to previous biochemical measurements implying that glycogen turnover is activated by insulin. We conclude that the entire glycogen molecule is turned over and that insulin activates glycogen turnover. PMID:19013831

  20. [Asthma and scuba diving Absolute contraindication? in all asthma patients?].

    PubMed

    Coëtmeur, D; Briens, E; Dassonville, J; Vergne, M

    2001-09-01

    Physical and psychological fitness are required for scuba diving, leading to medical contraindications in certain subjects. Asthma, a condition exhibiting increasing prevalence in the general population is currently considered an absolute contraindication for scuba diving by the French Federation for Submarine Sports and Education (FFESSM). There is however no documented evidence demonstrating a higher risk in asthmatic divers. Our English-speaking colleagues have suggested that certain asthmatic subjects could participate in scuba diving sports under certain conditions without any higher risk compared with non-asthmatic divers. We recall here the impact of diving on respiratory function and potential consequences in asthmatic subjects, proposing that the formal contraindication against scuba diving should be maintained for asthmatic patients who experience frequent symptoms (step 2 or more of the International Consensus Report on Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma) and/or have a baseline obstructive syndrome. It would appear reasonable to discuss the contraindication concerning patients with rare acute episodes and who have a perfectly normal respiratory function. The question of bronchodilator inhalation prior to diving may be a question to debate. However, such a proposal cannot be considered to be valid unless well-conducted studies of the clinical manifestations are available (frequency and severity of the acute episodes, triggering factors) for the diver candidate. Because of the highly restrictive nature of the contraindication notification and the absence of arguments backing up the decision, the question should be put to competent authorities (sports federations, learned societies) in order to ascertain the pathophysiological mechanisms involved and collect reliable epidemiological data before proposing a consensus discussion. This process may lead to the delivery of scuba diving authorizations for selected asthmatic subjects without a higher risk than non