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Sample records for absolute radiance standard

  1. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documentedmore » methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten

  2. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  3. Intercomparison of Laboratory Radiance Calibration Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavri, Betina; Chrien, Tom; Green, Robert; Williams, Orlesa

    2000-01-01

    Several standards for radiometric calibration were measured repeatedly with a spectroradiometer in order to understand how they compared in accuracy and stability. The tested radiance standards included a NIST 1000 W bulb and halon panel, two calibrated and stabilized integrating spheres, and a cavity blackbody. Results indicate good agreement between the blackbody and 1000 W bulb/spectralon panel, If these two radiance sources are assumed correct, then the integrating spheres did not conform. to their manufacturer-reported radiances in several regions of the spectrum. More detailed measurements am underway to investigate the discrepancy.

  4. Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A new automated observatory dedicated to the radiometry of the moon has been constructed to provide new radiance information for calibration of earth-orbiting imaging instruments, particularly Earth Observing System instruments. Instrumentation includes an imaging photometer with 4.5-in. resolution on a fully digital mount and a full-aperture radiance calibration source. Interference filters within 0.35-0.95 ??m correspond to standard stellar magnitude systems, accommodate wavelengths of lunar spectral contrast, and approximate some band-passes of planned earth-orbiting instruments (ASTER, Landsat-7 ETM, MISR, MODIS, and SeaWIFS). The same equipment is used for lunar and stellar observations, with the use of an aperture stop in lunar imaging to comply with Nyquist's theorem and lengthen exposure times to avoid scintillation effects. A typical robotic night run involves observation of about 60 photometric standard stars and the moon; about 10 of the standard stars are observed repeatedly to determine atmospheric extinction, and the moon is observed several times. Observations are to be made on every photometric night during the bright half of the month for at least 4.5 years to adequately cover phase and libration variation. Each lunar image is reduced to absolute exoatmospheric radiance and reprojected to a fixed selenographic grid system. The collection of these images at various librations and phase angles will be reduced to photometric models for each of the approximately 120 000 points in the lunar grid for each filter. Radiance models of the moon can then be produced for the precise geometry of an orbiting instrument observation. Expected errors are under 1% relative and 2.5% absolute. A second telescope operating from 1.0 to 2.5 ??m is planned.

  5. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  6. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  7. Spectral radiance source based on supercontinuum laser and wavelength tunable bandpass filter: the spectrally tunable absolute irradiance and radiance source.

    PubMed

    Levick, Andrew P; Greenwell, Claire L; Ireland, Jane; Woolliams, Emma R; Goodman, Teresa M; Bialek, Agnieszka; Fox, Nigel P

    2014-06-01

    A new spectrally tunable source for calibration of radiometric detectors in radiance, irradiance, or power mode has been developed and characterized. It is termed the spectrally tunable absolute irradiance and radiance source (STAIRS). It consists of a supercontinuum laser, wavelength tunable bandpass filter, power stabilization feedback control scheme, and output coupling optics. It has the advantages of relative portability and a collimated beam (low étendue), and is an alternative to conventional sources such as tungsten lamps, blackbodies, or tunable lasers. The supercontinuum laser is a commercial Fianium SC400-6-02, which has a wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm and a total power of 6 W. The wavelength tunable bandpass filter, a PhotonEtc laser line tunable filter (LLTF), is tunable between 400 and 1000 nm and has a bandwidth of 1 or 2 nm depending on the wavelength selected. The collimated laser beam from the LLTF filter is converted to an appropriate spatial and angular distribution for the application considered (i.e., for radiance, irradiance, or power mode calibration of a radiometric sensor) with the output coupling optics, for example, an integrating sphere, and the spectral radiance/irradiance/power of the source is measured using a calibration optical sensor. A power stabilization feedback control scheme has been incorporated that stabilizes the source to better than 0.01% for averaging times longer than 100 s. The out-of-band transmission of the LLTF filter is estimated to be < -65 dB (0.00003%), and is sufficiently low for many end-user applications, for example the spectral radiance calibration of earth observation imaging radiometers and the stray light characterization of array spectrometers (the end-user optical sensor). We have made initial measurements of two end-user instruments with the STAIRS source, an array spectrometer and ocean color radiometer.

  8. Preliminary Error Budget for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Gubbels, Timothy; Barnes, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements. The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those in the IPCC Report. A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO Project will implement a spaceborne earth observation mission designed to provide rigorous SI traceable observations (i.e., radiance, reflectance, and refractivity) that are sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables, including: 1) Surface temperature and atmospheric temperature profile 2) Atmospheric water vapor profile 3) Far infrared water vapor greenhouse 4) Aerosol properties and anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing 5) Total and spectral solar

  9. Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance for Instrument Calibration in the Ultraviolet to Short Wave Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAndrew, Brendan; McCorkel, Joel; Shuman, Timothy; Zukowski, Barbara; Traore, Aboubakar; Rodriguez, Michael; Brown, Steven; Woodward, John

    2018-01-01

    A description of the Goddard Laser for Absolute Calibration of Radiance, a tunable, narrow linewidth spectroradiometric calibration tool, and results from calibration of an earth science satellite instrument from ultraviolet to short wave infrared wavelengths.

  10. Instrumentation and First Results of the Reflected Solar Demonstration System for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Jennings, Don; Rabin, Douglas; Daw, Adrian; Lundsford, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission key goals include enabling observation of high accuracy long-term climate change trends, use of these observations to test and improve climate forecasts, and calibration of operational and research sensors. The spaceborne instrument suites include a reflected solar spectroradiometer, emitted infrared spectroradiometer, and radio occultation receivers. The requirement for the RS instrument is that derived reflectance must be traceable to Sl standards with an absolute uncertainty of <0.3% and the error budget that achieves this requirement is described in previo1L5 work. This work describes the Solar/Lunar Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS), a calibration demonstration system for RS instrument, and presents initial calibration and characterization methods and results. SOLARIS is an Offner spectrometer with two separate focal planes each with its own entrance aperture and grating covering spectral ranges of 320-640, 600-2300 nm over a full field-of-view of 10 degrees with 0.27 milliradian sampling. Results from laboratory measurements including use of integrating spheres, transfer radiometers and spectral standards combined with field-based solar and lunar acquisitions are presented. These results will be used to assess the accuracy and repeatability of the radiometric and spectral characteristics of SOLARIS, which will be presented against the sensor-level requirements addressed in the CLARREO RS instrument error budget.

  11. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  12. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration

  13. Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.

    2001-06-04

    Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participatingmore » pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.« less

  14. Vacuum Radiance-Temperature Standard Facility for Infrared Remote Sensing at NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. P.; Song, J.; Xu, M.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Yuan, Z. D.; Lu, X. F.

    2018-06-01

    As infrared remote sensors are very important parts of Earth observation satellites, they must be calibrated based on the radiance temperature of a blackbody in a vacuum chamber prior to launch. The uncertainty of such temperature is thus an essential component of the sensors' uncertainty. This paper describes the vacuum radiance-temperature standard facility (VRTSF) at the National Institute of Metrology of China, which will serve to calibrate infrared remote sensors on Chinese meteorological satellites. The VRTSF can be used to calibrate vacuum blackbody radiance temperature, including those used to calibrate infrared remote sensors. The components of the VRTSF are described in this paper, including the VMTBB, the LNBB, the FTIR spectrometer, the reduced-background optical system, the vacuum chamber used to calibrate customers' blackbody, the vacuum-pumping system and the liquid-nitrogen-support system. The experimental methods and results are expounded. The uncertainty of the radiance temperature of VMTBB is 0.026 °C at 30 °C over 10 μm.

  15. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  16. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  17. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heft, R. E.; Koszykowski, R. F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials: flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, are analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  18. Absolute Infrared Calibration of Standard Stars by the Midcourse Space Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    analytic expressions have been adopted for limb darkening (see the discussion and references in Neckel, 1996 , for examples) the fact is that the ratio...expression is of little consequence. Spickler, Benner and Russell ( 1996 ) noted that their measurements showed more infrared limb darkening than the...that calculated by Neckel and Labs (1981) from absolute radiances at the center of the Sun. However, Colina, Bohlin and Castelli ( 1996 ) questioned the

  19. Determining the Performance of Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Devices using Traceable Working Standards with SI Units of Radiance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni

    2017-01-01

    To date, no emerging preclinical or clinical near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices for non-invasive and/or surgical guidance have their performances validated on working standards with SI units of radiance that enable comparison or quantitative quality assurance. In this work, we developed and deployed a methodology to calibrate a stable, solid phantom for emission radiance with units of mW · sr−1 · cm−2 for use in characterizing the measurement sensitivity of ICCD and IsCMOS detection, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast. In addition, at calibrated radiances, we assess transverse and lateral resolution of ICCD and IsCMOS camera systems. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS camera system and superior resolution of the IsCMOS over the ICCD camera system. Contrast depended upon the camera settings (binning and integration time) and gain of intensifier. Finally, because of architecture of CMOS and CCD camera systems resulting in vastly different performance, we comment on the utility of these systems for small animal imaging as well as clinical applications for non-invasive and surgical guidance. PMID:26552078

  20. Lunar Spectral Irradiance and Radiance (LUSI): New Instrumentation to Characterize the Moon as a Space-Based Radiometric Standard

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan W.; Lorentz, Steven R.; Stone, Thomas C.; Datla, Raju V.

    2012-01-01

    The need to understand and monitor climate change has led to proposed radiometric accuracy requirements for space-based remote sensing instruments that are very stringent and currently outside the capabilities of many Earth orbiting instruments. A major problem is quantifying changes in sensor performance that occur from launch and during the mission. To address this problem on-orbit calibrators and monitors have been developed, but they too can suffer changes from launch and the harsh space environment. One solution is to use the Moon as a calibration reference source. Already the Moon has been used to remove post-launch drift and to cross-calibrate different instruments, but further work is needed to develop a new model with low absolute uncertainties capable of climate-quality absolute calibration of Earth observing instruments on orbit. To this end, we are proposing an Earth-based instrument suite to measure the absolute lunar spectral irradiance to an uncertainty1 of 0.5 % (k=1) over the spectral range from 320 nm to 2500 nm with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.3 %. Absolute measurements of lunar radiance will also be acquired to facilitate calibration of high spatial resolution sensors. The instruments will be deployed at high elevation astronomical observatories and flown on high-altitude balloons in order to mitigate the effects of the Earth’s atmosphere on the lunar observations. Periodic calibrations using instrumentation and techniques available from NIST will ensure traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and low absolute radiometric uncertainties. PMID:26900523

  1. Lunar Spectral Irradiance and Radiance (LUSI): New Instrumentation to Characterize the Moon as a Space-Based Radiometric Standard.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan W; Lorentz, Steven R; Stone, Thomas C; Datla, Raju V

    2012-01-01

    The need to understand and monitor climate change has led to proposed radiometric accuracy requirements for space-based remote sensing instruments that are very stringent and currently outside the capabilities of many Earth orbiting instruments. A major problem is quantifying changes in sensor performance that occur from launch and during the mission. To address this problem on-orbit calibrators and monitors have been developed, but they too can suffer changes from launch and the harsh space environment. One solution is to use the Moon as a calibration reference source. Already the Moon has been used to remove post-launch drift and to cross-calibrate different instruments, but further work is needed to develop a new model with low absolute uncertainties capable of climate-quality absolute calibration of Earth observing instruments on orbit. To this end, we are proposing an Earth-based instrument suite to measure the absolute lunar spectral irradiance to an uncertainty(1) of 0.5 % (k=1) over the spectral range from 320 nm to 2500 nm with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.3 %. Absolute measurements of lunar radiance will also be acquired to facilitate calibration of high spatial resolution sensors. The instruments will be deployed at high elevation astronomical observatories and flown on high-altitude balloons in order to mitigate the effects of the Earth's atmosphere on the lunar observations. Periodic calibrations using instrumentation and techniques available from NIST will ensure traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and low absolute radiometric uncertainties.

  2. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  3. Evaluation of the CMODIS-measured radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhihua; Pan, Delu; Huang, Haiqing

    2006-12-01

    A Chinese Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CMODIS) on "Shenzhou-3" spaceship was launched on March 25, 2002. CMODIS has 34 channels, with 30 visible and near-infrared channels and 4 infrared channels. The 30 channels are 20nm width with wavelength ranging from 403nm to 1023nm. The radiance calibration of CMODIS was finished in the laboratory measurements before it was launched and the laboratory calibration coefficients were used to calibrate the CMODIS raw data. Since none of on-board radiance absolute calibration devices including internal lamps system and calibration system which is based on solar reflectance and lunar irradiance were installed with the sensor, how about the accuracy of CMODIS-measured radiance is a key question for the remote sensing data processing and ocean applications. A new model was developed as a program to evaluate the accuracy of calibrated radiance measured by CMODIS at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The program can compute the Rayleigh scattering radiance and aerosol scattering radiance together with the radiance component from the water-leaving radiance to deduce the total radiance at TOA under some similar observation conditions of CMODIS. Both the multiple-scattering effects and atmosphere absorbing effects are taken into account on the radiative transfer model to improve the accuracy of atmospheric scattering radiances. The model was used to deduce the spectral radiances at TOA and compared with the radiances measured by Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) to check the performance of the model, showing that the spectral radiances from the model with small differences from those of SeaWiFS. The spectral radiances of the model can be taken as reference values to evaluate the accuracy of CMODIS calibrated radiance. The relative differences of the two radiances are large from 16% to 300%, especially for CMODIS at the near-infrared channels with more than one time larger than those of the model. It is shown that

  4. Universal absolute quantification of biomolecules using element mass spectrometry and generic standards.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz

    2018-01-23

    We present a novel and highly sensitive ICP-MS approach for absolute quantification of all important target biomolecule containing P, S, Se, As, Br, and/or I (e.g., proteins and phosphoproteins, metabolites, pesticides, drugs), under the same simple instrumental conditions and without requiring any specific and/or isotopically enriched standard.

  5. Modeling the Radiance of the Moon for On-orbit Calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Becker, K.J.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed radiometric models of the Moon for disk-integrated irradiance and spatially resolved radiance. Although the brightness of the Moon varies spatially and with complex dependencies upon illumination and viewing geometry, the surface photometric properties are extremely stable, and therefore potentially knowable to high accuracy. The ROLO project has acquired 5+ years of spatially resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR and 9 SWIR filter bands at phase angles up to 90??. These images are calibrated to exoatmospheric radiance using nightly stellar observations in a band-coupled extinction algorithm and a radiometric scale based upon observations of the star Vega. An effort is currently underway to establish an absolute scale with direct traceability to NIST radiometric standards. The ROLO radiance model performs linear fitting of the spatially resolved lunar image data on an individual pixel basis. The results are radiance images directly comparable to spacecraft observations of the Moon. Model-generated radiance images have been produced for the ASTER lunar view conducted on 14 April 2003. The radiance model is still experimental - simplified photometric functions have been used, and initial results show evidence of computational instabilities, particularly at the lunar poles. The ROLO lunar image dataset is unique and extensive and presents opportunities for development of novel approaches to lunar photometric modeling.

  6. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  7. Absolute Standard Hydrogen Electrode Potential Measured by Reduction of Aqueous Nanodrops in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Donald, William A.; Leib, Ryan D.; O'Brien, Jeremy T.; Bush, Matthew F.; Williams, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    In solution, half-cell potentials are measured relative to those of other half cells, thereby establishing a ladder of thermochemical values that are referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is arbitrarily assigned a value of exactly 0 V. Although there has been considerable interest in, and efforts toward, establishing an absolute electrochemical half-cell potential in solution, there is no general consensus regarding the best approach to obtain this value. Here, ion-electron recombination energies resulting from electron capture by gas-phase nanodrops containing individual [M(NH3)6]3+, M = Ru, Co, Os, Cr, and Ir, and Cu2+ ions are obtained from the number of water molecules that are lost from the reduced precursors. These experimental data combined with nanodrop solvation energies estimated from Born theory and solution-phase entropies estimated from limited experimental data provide absolute reduction energies for these redox couples in bulk aqueous solution. A key advantage of this approach is that solvent effects well past two solvent shells, that are difficult to model accurately, are included in these experimental measurements. By evaluating these data relative to known solution-phase reduction potentials, an absolute value for the SHE of 4.2 ± 0.4 V versus a free electron is obtained. Although not achieved here, the uncertainty of this method could potentially be reduced to below 0.1 V, making this an attractive method for establishing an absolute electrochemical scale that bridges solution and gas-phase redox chemistry. PMID:18288835

  8. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R Joseph; Guthrie, William F; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008-0.25 Å -1 , together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.

  9. Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet - The deuterium lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. D.; Ott, W. R.; Bridges, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A set of deuterium lamps is calibrated as spectral irradiance standards in the 200-350-nm spectral region utilizing both a high accuracy tungsten spectral irradiance standard and a newly developed argon mini-arc spectral radiance standard. The method which enables a transfer from a spectral radiance to a spectral irradiance standard is described. The following characteristics of the deuterium lamp irradiance standard are determined: sensitivity to alignment; dependence on input power and solid angle; reproducibility; and stability. The absolute spectral radiance is also measured in the 167-330-nm region. Based upon these measurements, values of the spectral irradiance below 200 nm are obtained through extrapolation.

  10. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    PubMed

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  11. Directly Relating Gas-Phase Cluster Measurements to Solution-Phase Hydrolysis, the Absolute Standard Hydrogen Electrode Potential, and the Absolute Proton Solvation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Donald, William A.; Leib, Ryan D.; O’Brien, Jeremy T.; Williams, Evan R.

    2009-01-01

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M-(H2O)242+(g)+e−(g)→M(H2O)24+(g) and 2) M(H2O)242+(g)+e−(g)→MOH(H2O)23+(g)+H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H2O)23+(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e−(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of −265 kcal mol−1 are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution. PMID:19440999

  12. An automated LS(β)- NaI(Tl)(γ) coincidence system as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Das, A P; Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D B; Kulkarni, M S

    2018-07-01

    4πβ-γ coincidence method is a powerful and widely used method to determine the absolute activity concentration of radioactive solutions. A new automated liquid scintillator based coincidence system has been designed, developed, tested and established as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements. The automation is achieved using PLC (programmable logic controller) and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). Radioactive solution of 60 Co was standardized to compare the performance of the automated system with proportional counter based absolute standard maintained in the laboratory. The activity concentrations determined using these two systems were in very good agreement; the new automated system can be used for absolute measurement of activity concentration of radioactive solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  14. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  15. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; ...

    2017-03-07

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å –1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments thatmore » employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  16. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å –1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments thatmore » employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  17. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  18. Validation of OMI Measured Radiances Over Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaross, G.; Cebula, R. P.; Warner, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched aboard the EOS Aura satellite on 15 July, 2004 and has since performed quite well. Calibrated radiances in the form of Level 1 data products are produced regularly every orbit with minimal data loss. A total of 12 atmospheric constituent data products are currently planned for the OMI science data processing. All rely, to varying degrees, on the sun-normalized radiances of the OMI sensor. Retrievals of atmospheric trace constituents, such as NO{}_2, BrO, OCLO, and HCHO, rely upon spectroscopy and tend to be insensitive to errors in the absolute radiance levels. But column O{}_3 amount, aerosol properties, cloud heights, and UV surface radiation have significant sensitivities to changes in the sun-normalized radiances. In this presentation we discuss our evaluation of the OMI sun-normalized radiances between 330 nm and 500 nm. This covers most of the OMI spectral range where ozone absorption is small. Our technique involves a comparison of normalized radiances measured by OMI over the Antarctic continent with top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) values computed with a radiative transfer model. In our model we assume a Rayleigh-scattering, aerosol-free, cloud-free atmosphere, and a mean surface reflectance derived from measurements on the ground. TOA radiances are sensitive to the bi-directional distribution of surface reflectance, especially at high solar zenith angles. We have developed a surface reflectance model to help correct these effects, but it still remains the largest source of uncertainty. We estimate the residual uncertainty at all wavelengths to be 2%.

  19. NIST TXR Validation of S-HIS radiances and a UW-SSEC Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; O'Connell, J.; Rice, J. P.; Revercomb, H. E.; Best, F. A.; Tobin, D. C.; Knuteson, R. O.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. C.; Dutcher, S. T.; Laporte, D. D.; Ellington, S. D.; Werner, M. W.; Garcia, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to accurately validate infrared spectral radiances measured from space by direct comparison with airborne spectrometer radiances was first demonstrated using the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aircraft instrument flown under the AIRS on the NASA Aqua spacecraft in 2002 with subsequent successful comparisons in 2004 and 2006. The comparisons span a range of conditions, including arctic and tropical atmospheres, daytime and nighttime, and ocean and land surfaces. Similar comprehensive and successful comparisons have also been conducted with S-HIS for the MODIS sensors, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and most recently the MetOp Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). These comparisons are part of a larger picture that already shows great progress toward transforming our ability to make, and verify, highly accurate spectral radiance observations from space. A key challenge, especially for climate, is to carefully define the absolute accuracy of satellite radiances. Our vision of the near-term future of spectrally resolved infrared radiance observation includes a new space-borne mission that provides benchmark observations of the emission spectrum for climate. This concept, referred to as the CLimate Absolute Radiance and REfractivity Observatory (CLARREO) in the recent NRC Decadal Survey provides more complete spectral and time-of-day coverage and would fly basic physical standards to eliminate the need to assume on-board reference stability. Therefore, the spectral radiances from this mission will also serve as benchmarks to propagate a highly accurate calibration to other space-borne IR instruments. For the current approach of calibrating infrared flight sensors, in which thermal vacuum tests are conducted before launch and stability is assumed after launch, in-flight calibration validation is essential for highly accurate applications. At present, airborne observations provide the only source of direct

  20. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-04-01

    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  1. 'Florida Radiance' strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Florida Radiance' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) is a new strawberry cultivar released by the University of Florida. It appears to be a good cultivar to complement the current commercial cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' during the early part of the production season as its yields are higher wh...

  2. A strategy for absolute proteome quantification with mass spectrometry by hierarchical use of peptide-concatenated standards.

    PubMed

    Kito, Keiji; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Ishibashi, Yuko; Okada, Satoshi; Ito, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The accurate and precise absolute abundance of proteins can be determined using mass spectrometry by spiking the sample with stable isotope-labeled standards. In this study, we developed a strategy of hierarchical use of peptide-concatenated standards (PCSs) to quantify more proteins over a wider dynamic range. Multiple primary PCSs were used for quantification of many target proteins. Unique "ID-tag peptides" were introduced into individual primary PCSs, allowing us to monitor the exact amounts of individual PCSs using a "secondary PCS" in which all "ID-tag peptides" were concatenated. Furthermore, we varied the copy number of the "ID-tag peptide" in each PCS according to a range of expression levels of target proteins. This strategy accomplished absolute quantification over a wider range than that of the measured ratios. The quantified abundance of budding yeast proteins showed a high reproducibility for replicate analyses and similar copy numbers per cell for ribosomal proteins, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of this strategy. A comparison with the absolute abundance of transcripts clearly indicated different post-transcriptional regulation of expression for specific functional groups. Thus, the approach presented here is a faithful method for the absolute quantification of proteomes and provides insights into biological mechanisms, including the regulation of expressed protein abundance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The NBS scale of radiance temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, William R.; Walker, James H.; Hattenburg, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement methods and instrumentation used in the realization and transfer of the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-68) above the temperature of freezing gold are described. The determination of the ratios of spectral radiance of tungsten-strip lamps to a gold-point blackbody at a wavelength of 654.6 nm is detailed. The response linearity, spectral responsivity, scattering error, and polarization properties of the instrumentation are described. The analysis of the sources of error and estimates of uncertainty are presented. The assigned uncertainties (three standard deviations) in radiance temperature range from + or - 2 K at 2573 K to + or - 0.5 K at 1073 K.

  4. Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Eyvind; HøJerslev, Niels K.

    1999-04-01

    A primary data set consisting of 70 series of angular radiance distributions observed in clear blue western Mediterranean water and a secondary set of 12 series from the more green and turbid Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, have been analyzed. The results demonstrate that the main variation of the shape of the downward radiance distribution occurs within the Snell cone. Outside the cone the variation of the shape decreases with increasing zenith angle. The most important shape changes of the upward radiance appear within the zenith angle range 90°-130°. The variation in shape reaches its minimum around nadir, where an almost constant upward radiance distribution implies that a flat sea surface acts like a Lambert emitter within ±8% in the zenith angle interval 140°-180° in air. The ratio Q of upward irradiance and nadir radiance, as well as the average cosines μd and μu for downward and upward radiance, respectively, have rather small standard deviations, ≤10%, within the local water type. In contrast, the irradiance reflectance R has been observed to change up to 400% with depth in the western Mediterranean, while the maximum observed change of Q with depth is only 40%. The dependence of Q on the solar elevation for blue light at 5 m depth in the Mediterranean coincides with observations from the central Atlantic as well as with model computations. The corresponding dependence of μd shows that diffuse light may have a significant influence on its value. Two simple functions describing the observed angular radiance distributions are proposed, and both functions can be determined by two field observations as input parameters. The ɛ function approximates the azimuthal means of downward radiance with an average error ≤7% and of upward radiance with an error of ˜1%. The α function describes the zenith angle dependence of the azimuthal means of upward radiance with an average error ≤7% in clear ocean water, increasing to ≤20% in turbid lake water. The a

  5. Development of a Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) assay for the quantification of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in serum.

    PubMed

    Adrait, Annie; Lebert, Dorothée; Trauchessec, Mathieu; Dupuis, Alain; Louwagie, Mathilde; Masselon, Christophe; Jaquinod, Michel; Chevalier, Benoît; Vandenesch, François; Garin, Jérôme; Bruley, Christophe; Brun, Virginie

    2012-06-06

    Enterotoxin A (SEA) is a staphylococcal virulence factor which is suspected to worsen septic shock prognosis. However, the presence of SEA in the blood of sepsis patients has never been demonstrated. We have developed a mass spectrometry-based assay for the targeted and absolute quantification of SEA in serum. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, we combined an immunoaffinity-based sample preparation with mass spectrometry analysis in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Absolute quantification of SEA was performed using the PSAQ™ method (Protein Standard Absolute Quantification), which uses a full-length isotope-labeled SEA as internal standard. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were estimated at 352pg/mL and 1057pg/mL, respectively. SEA recovery after immunocapture was determined to be 7.8±1.4%. Therefore, we assumed that less than 1femtomole of each SEA proteotypic peptide was injected on the liquid chromatography column before SRM analysis. From a 6-point titration experiment, quantification accuracy was determined to be 77% and precision at LLOQ was lower than 5%. With this sensitive PSAQ-SRM assay, we expect to contribute to decipher the pathophysiological role of SEA in severe sepsis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental and Metrological Basis for SI-Traceable Infrared Radiance Measurements From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J. G.; Leroy, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to establish a climate benchmark record and to be useful in interdecadal climate forecast testing, satellite measurements of high spectral resolution infrared radiance must have uncertainty estimates that can be proven beyond a doubt. An uncertainty in radiance of about 1 part in 1000 is required for climate applications. This can be accomplished by appealing to the best measurement practices of the metrology community. The International System of Units (SI) are linked to fundamental physical properties of matter, and can be realized anywhere in the world without bias. By doing so, one can make an accurate observation to within a specified uncertainty. Achieving SI-traceable radiance measurements from space is a novel requirement, and requires specialized sensor design and a disciplined experimental approach. Infrared remote sensing satellite instruments typically employ blackbody calibration targets, which are tied to the SI through Planck's law and the definition of the Kelvin. The blackbody temperature and emissivity, however, must be determined accurately on- orbit, in order for the blackbody emission scale to be SI-traceable. We outline a methodology of instrument design, pre-flight calibration and on-orbit diagnostics for realizing SI- traceable infrared radiance measurements. This instrument is intended as a component of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Earth Observatory (CLARREO), a high priority recommendation of the National Research Council decadal survey. Calibration blackbodies for remote sensing differ from a perfect Planckian blackbody; thus the component uncertainties must be evaluated in order to confer traceability. We have performed traceability experiments in the laboratory to verify blackbody temperature, emissivity and the end-to-end radiance scale. We discuss the design of the Harvard standard blackbody and an intercomparison campaign that will be conducted with the GIFTS blackbody (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and

  7. Comparison of spectral radiance responsivity calibration techniques used for backscatter ultraviolet satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-02-01

    Methods of absolute radiometric calibration of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration uncertainties. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Mapping Instrument, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based spectral responsivities agree to within the derived combined standard uncertainty of 1.87% relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary spectral radiance responsivity calibration method for BUV instruments. The combined standard uncertainty for these calibration techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Radiometric Calibration and Development Laboratory is shown to less than 2% at 250 nm when using a single traceable calibration standard.

  8. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  9. Absolute Quantitation of Glycosylation Site Occupancy Using Isotopically Labeled Standards and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhikai; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather

    2014-06-01

    N-linked glycans are required to maintain appropriate biological functions on proteins. Underglycosylation leads to many diseases in plants and animals; therefore, characterizing the extent of glycosylation on proteins is an important step in understanding, diagnosing, and treating diseases. To determine the glycosylation site occupancy, protein N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) is typically used to detach the glycan from the protein, during which the formerly glycosylated asparagine undergoes deamidation to become an aspartic acid. By comparing the abundance of the resulting peptide containing aspartic acid against the one containing non-glycosylated asparagine, the glycosylation site occupancy can be evaluated. However, this approach can give inaccurate results when spontaneous chemical deamidation of the non-glycosylated asparagine occurs. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method to measure the glycosylation site occupancy that does not rely on converting glycosylated peptides to their deglycosylated forms. Specifically, the overall protein concentration and the non-glycosylated portion of the protein are quantified simultaneously by using heavy isotope-labeled internal standards coupled with LC-MS analysis, and the extent of site occupancy is accurately determined. The efficacy of the method was demonstrated by quantifying the occupancy of a glycosylation site on bovine fetuin. The developed method is the first work that measures the glycosylation site occupancy without using PNGase F, and it can be done in parallel with glycopeptide analysis because the glycan remains intact throughout the workflow.

  10. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and SCIAMACHY Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Bhartia, P. K.; Bojkov, B.; Kowaleski, M.; Labow, G.; Ahmad, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that validation of radiances is a very effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called 'Skyrad', employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and possibly others) will be calibrated and maintained to a precision of a few tenths of a percent. Skyrad data will then enable long term calibration of upcoming satellite instruments such as QuickTOMS, SBUV/2s and SCIAMACHY with a high degree of precision. This technique can be further employed to monitor the performance of future instruments such as GOMEZ, OMI, and OMPS. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  11. Cross Calibration of TOMS, SBUV/2 and Sciamachy Radiances from Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsenrath, Ernest; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify recovery. We have shown that validation of radiances is the most effective means for correcting absolute accuracy and long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements. This method by-passes the algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements which are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Validation of radiances will also improve all higher level data products derived from the satellite observations. Backscatter algorithms suffer from several errors such as unrepresentative a-priori data and air mass factor corrections. Radiance comparisons employ forward models but are inherently more accurate and than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. A new method for satellite validation is planned which will compliment measurements from the existing ground-based networks. This method will employ very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sky radiances and satellite nadir radiances. These comparisons will rely heavily on the experience derived from the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) program which provided a reference standard of radiance measurements for SBUV/2, TOMS, and GOME. This new measurement program, called "Skyrad", employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. The Skyrad instruments (SSBUV, Brewer spectrophotometers, and

  12. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) comparisons of chlorophyll (r = 0.869), PIC (r = 0.868), and a CDOC (r =0.890) with satellite data. Additionally, diatoms (r = 0.890), cyanobacteria (r = 0.732), and coccolithophores (r = 0.716) were significantly correlated with in situ data. Global assimilated distributions of optical constituents were coupled with a radiative transfer model (Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250-800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within 0.074 mW/sq cm/micron/sr of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of 10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P < 0.05) was found with global

  13. The Pathfinder Mission for Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, R. R.; Boyer, C.; Cageao, R.; Currey, C.; Fleming, G. A.; Jackson, T.; Johnson, D. G.; Leckey, J.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen.

  14. Absolute Flux Calibration of the IRAC Instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope Using Hubble Space Telescope Flux Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Ardila, D.; Carey, S.; Deustua, S.; Engelbracht, C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Su, K. Y. L.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of ~2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 μm band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% ± 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 μm result.

  15. Accurate Quantification of Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Serum Using Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) and Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Huillet, Céline; Adrait, Annie; Lebert, Dorothée; Picard, Guillaume; Trauchessec, Mathieu; Louwagie, Mathilde; Dupuis, Alain; Hittinger, Luc; Ghaleh, Bijan; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Jaquinod, Michel; Garin, Jérôme; Bruley, Christophe; Brun, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Development of new biomarkers needs to be significantly accelerated to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and toxicity monitoring as well as therapeutic follow-up. Biomarker evaluation is the main bottleneck in this development process. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising option to speed this step, particularly because of its multiplexing capacities. However, analytical variabilities because of upstream sample handling or incomplete trypsin digestion still need to be resolved. In 2007, we developed the PSAQ™ method (Protein Standard Absolute Quantification), which uses full-length isotope-labeled protein standards to quantify target proteins. In the present study we used clinically validated cardiovascular biomarkers (LDH-B, CKMB, myoglobin, and troponin I) to demonstrate that the combination of PSAQ and SRM (PSAQ-SRM) allows highly accurate biomarker quantification in serum samples. A multiplex PSAQ-SRM assay was used to quantify these biomarkers in clinical samples from myocardial infarction patients. Good correlation between PSAQ-SRM and ELISA assay results was found and demonstrated the consistency between these analytical approaches. Thus, PSAQ-SRM has the capacity to improve both accuracy and reproducibility in protein analysis. This will be a major contribution to efficient biomarker development strategies. PMID:22080464

  16. Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.

    PubMed

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.

  17. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cécile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P <0.05) comparisons of chlorophyll (r = 0.869), PIC (r = 0.868), and aCDOC (r = 0.890) with satellite data. Additionally, diatoms (r = 0.890), cyanobacteria (r = 0.732), and coccolithophores (r = 0.716) were significantly correlated with in situ data. Global assimilated distributions of optical constituents were coupled with a radiative transfer model (Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250–800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within −0.074 mW cm−2 μm1 sr−1 of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of −10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P < 0.05) was found with

  18. Spectral Radiance of a Large-Area Integrating Sphere Source

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James H.; Thompson, Ambler

    1995-01-01

    The radiance and irradiance calibration of large field-of-view scanning and imaging radiometers for remote sensing and surveillance applications has resulted in the development of novel calibration techniques. One of these techniques is the employment of large-area integrating sphere sources as radiance or irradiance secondary standards. To assist the National Aeronautical and Space Administration’s space based ozone measurement program, a commercially available large-area internally illuminated integrating sphere source’s spectral radiance was characterized in the wavelength region from 230 nm to 400 nm at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Spectral radiance determinations and spatial mappings of the source indicate that carefully designed large-area integrating sphere sources can be measured with a 1 % to 2 % expanded uncertainty (two standard deviation estimate) in the near ultraviolet with spatial nonuniformities of 0.6 % or smaller across a 20 cm diameter exit aperture. A method is proposed for the calculation of the final radiance uncertainties of the source which includes the field of view of the instrument being calibrated. PMID:29151725

  19. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  1. Computation of diffuse sky irradiance from multidirectional radiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Deering, Donald W.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate determination of the diffuse solar spectral irradiance directly above the land surface is important in characterizing the reflectance properties of these surfaces, especially vegetation canopies. This determination is also needed to infer the net radiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system above these surfaces. An algorithm is developed here for the computation of hemispheric diffuse irradiance using the measurements from an instrument called PARABOLA, which rapidly measures upwelling and downwelling radiances in three selected wavelength bands. The validity of the algorithm is established from simulations. The standard reference data set of diffuse radiances of Dave (1978), obtained by solving the radiative transfer equation numerically for realistic atmospheric models, is used to simulate PARABOLA radiances. Hemispheric diffuse irradiance is estimated from a subset of simulated radiances by using the algorithm described. The algorithm is validated by comparing the estimated diffuse irradiance with the true diffuse irradiance of the standard data set. The validations include sensitivity studies for two wavelength bands (visible, 0.65-0.67 micron; near infrared, 0.81-0.84 micron), different atmospheric conditions, solar elevations, and surface reflectances. In most cases the hemispheric diffuse irradiance computed from simulated PARABOLA radiances and the true irradiance obtained from radiative transfer calculations agree within 1-2 percent. This technique can be applied to other sampling instruments designed to estimate hemispheric diffuse sky irradiance.

  2. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  3. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  4. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  5. Absolute detector-based spectrally tunable radiant source using digital micromirror device and supercontinuum fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Yuquan; Li, Futian

    2017-06-10

    High-accuracy absolute detector-based spectroradiometric calibration techniques traceable to cryogenic absolute radiometers have made progress rapidly in recent decades under the impetus of atmospheric quantitative spectral remote sensing. A high brightness spectrally tunable radiant source using a supercontinuum fiber laser and a digital micromirror device (DMD) has been developed to meet demands of spectroradiometric calibrations for ground-based, aeronautics-based, and aerospace-based remote sensing instruments and spectral simulations of natural scenes such as the sun and atmosphere. Using a supercontinuum fiber laser as a radiant source, the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is 20 times higher than the spectrally tunable radiant source using conventional radiant sources such as tungsten halogen lamps, xenon lamps, or LED lamps, and the stability is better than ±0.3%/h. Using a DMD, the spectrally tunable radiant source possesses two working modes. In narrow-band modes, it is calibrated by an absolute detector, and in broad-band modes, it can calibrate for remote sensing instrument. The uncertainty of the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is estimated at less than 1.87% at 350 nm to 0.85% at 750 nm, and compared to only standard lamp-based calibration, a greater improvement is gained.

  6. Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao

    2016-01-10

    Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.

  7. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  8. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  9. Absolute Frequency Measurements with a Set of Transportable HE-NE/CH4 Optical Frequency Standards and Prospects for Future Design and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, M.; Kovalchuk, E.; Petrukhin, E.; Shelkovnikov, A.; Tyurikov, D.; Gamidov, R.; Erdogan, C.; Sahin, E.; Felder, R.; Gill, P.; Lea, S. N.; Kramer, G.; Lipphardt, B.

    2002-04-01

    The accumulated results of absolute frequency measurements (AFM) carried out in 1997-2000 with transportable double-mode He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards (λ = 3 .39μm) in a collaboration of several laboratories are presented. The performance of this secondary optical frequency standard is estimated on the level of 10-13 (in repeatability), and 1 × 10-14/s (in stability). The next steps towards He-Ne/CH4 standards with one order of magnitude better performance, including devices based on monolithic zerodur resonators, are discussed. Important applications of transportable He-Ne/CH4 optical frequency standards have appeared now due to dramatic progress in the field of optical frequency measurements. Used to stabilize the repetition rate of a Ti:Sa fs laser, these compact secondary standards can transfer their performance into the whole optical range covered by a fs comb. Thus they can play the role of a narrow spectrum interrogative oscillator for super-accurate optical or microwave frequency standards substituting in some tasks a H-maser or oscillators based on cryogenic sapphire resonators.

  10. Radiance Data Products at the GES DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savtchenko, A.; Ouzounov, D.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Qin, J.; Rui, H.; Smith, P.; Teng, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has been archiving and distributing Radiance data, and serving science and application users of these data, for over 10 years now. The user-focused stewardship of the Radiance data from the AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS instruments exemplifies the GES DAAC tradition and experience. Radiance data include raw radiance counts, onboard calibration data, geolocation products, radiometric calibrated and geolocated-calibrated radiance/reflectance. The number of science products archived at the GES DAAC is steadily increasing, as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms. Thus, the main challenge for the GES DAAC is to guide users through the variety of Radiance data sets, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and provide uninterrupted access to the data. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage of the science products. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of Radiance data; suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities; provide data services and tools information; and to give expert help in the science data formats and applications.

  11. Rayleigh, the unit for light radiance.

    PubMed

    Baker, D J

    1974-09-01

    A 0.7% accurate formula is derived for the easy conversion of power spectral radiance L(lambda) in W cm(-2) sr(-1) microm(-1)to rayleigh spectral radiance R(lambda) in rayleigh/microm, R(lambda) = 2pilambdaL(lambda) x 10(13), where the wavelength lambda is in microm. The rationale for the rayleigh unit is discussed in terms of a photon rate factor and a solid angle factor. The latter is developed in terms of an equivalence theorem about optical receivers and extended sources, and the concept is extended to the computation of photon volume emission rates from altitude profiles of zenith radiance.

  12. Relative or Absolute Standards for Child Poverty: A State-Level Analysis of Infant and Child Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Kaplan, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to compare the associations of state-referenced and federal poverty measures with states’ infant and child mortality rates. Methods. Compressed mortality and Current Population Survey data were used to examine relationships between mortality and (1) state-referenced poverty (percentage of children below half the state median income) and (2) percentage of children below the federal poverty line. Results. State-referenced poverty was not associated with mortality among infants or children, whereas poverty as defined by national standards was strongly related to mortality. Conclusions. Infant and child mortality is more closely tied to families’ capacity for meeting basic needs than to relative position within a state’s economic hierarchy. PMID:12660213

  13. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  14. CORSAIR-Calibrated Observations of Radiance Spectra from the Atmosphere in the Far- Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D.; Abedin, N.; Liu, X.; Kratz, D.; Jordan, D.; Wang, J.; Bingham, G.; Latvakoski, H.; Bowman, K.; Kaplan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The CORSAIR project is a new NASA Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) whose primary goal is to develop and demonstrate the necessary technologies to achieve SI-traceable, on-orbit measurements of Earth's spectral radiance in the far-infrared (far-IR). The far-IR plays a vital role in the energy balance of the Earth yet its spectrum has not been comprehensively observed from space for the purposes of climate sensing. The specific technologies being developed under CORSAIR include: passively cooled, antenna-coupled terahertz detectors for the far-IR (by Raytheon Vision Systems); accurately calibrated, SI-traceable blackbody sources for the far-IR (by Space Dynamics Laboratory); and high-performance broad bandpass beamsplitters (by ITT). These technologies complement those already developed under past Langley IIP projects (FIRST; INFLAME) in the areas of Fourier Transform Spectrometers and dedicated far-IR beamsplitters. The antenna-coupled far-IR detectors will be validated in the FIRST instrument at Langley. The SI-traceable far-IR blackbodies will be developed in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An overview of the CORSAIR technologies will be presented as well as their larger role in the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. Upon successful completion of CORSAIR these IIP efforts will provide the necessary technologies to achieve the first comprehensive, accurate, high-resolution measurements from a satellite of the far-IR spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere, enabling major advances in our understanding of Earth's climate.

  15. [Application of BaSO4 diffuser plate in 250-400 nm spectral radiance calibration].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hui; Li, Fu-tian

    2004-01-01

    Sprayed BaSO4 diffuser plate is the most Lambertian surface actually used in spectral radiance calibration known by now. Its hemispheric reflectance and Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) were measured in the experiment. Its diffuse characteristics were compared with Lambertian surface. In order to calibrate spectral radiance more accurately, the small variation of diffuser's BRDF with scattered angles and the nonuniformity of spectral irradiance on diffuser surface illuminated by the standard lamp should be considered. By integrating the radiation flux reflected by the element area and that entering the entrance slit within the viewing area of spectrometer, the measured spectral radiance can be calculated. Furthermore, the spectral radiance of Lambertian surface whose BRDF was derived from hemispheric reflectance was compared with that from the average of the measured BRDF.

  16. Absolute quantification of protein NP24 in tomato fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope-labelled tryptic peptide standard.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2015-04-15

    Protein NP24 is a thaumatin-like protein contained in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This protein is reported to be a putative tomato allergen and is listed as a food allergen in Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP). In this research, we developed the quantitative analysis of NP24 by employing the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) technology composed of stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide (GQTWVINAPR[(13)C6,(15)N4]) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) was found throughout the concentration range (2.0-500 fmol/μL). The coefficients of variation (CVs) measured on each of the five days when NP24 contained in the tomato skin was analysed did not exceed 13%. Our developed assay of NP24 will contribute to the allergological examination of tomato and its derived products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling and Assimilating Ocean Color Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2012-01-01

    Radiances are the source of information from ocean color sensors to produce estimates of biological and geochemical constituents. They potentially provide information on various other aspects of global biological and chemical systems, and there is considerable work involved in deriving new information from these signals. Each derived product, however, contains errors that are derived from the application of the radiances, above and beyond the radiance errors. A global biogeochemical model with an explicit spectral radiative transfer model is used to investigate the potential of assimilating radiances. The results indicate gaps in our understanding of radiative processes in the oceans and their relationships with biogeochemical variables. Most important, detritus optical properties are not well characterized and produce important effects of the simulated radiances. Specifically, there does not appear to be a relationship between detrital biomass and its optical properties, as there is for chlorophyll. Approximations are necessary to get beyond this problem. In this reprt we will discuss the challenges in modeling and assimilation water-leaving radiances and the prospects for improving our understanding of biogeochemical process by utilizing these signals.

  18. A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Brown, James W.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Smith, Raymond C.

    1988-01-01

    A semianalytical radiance model is developed which predicts the upwelled spectral radiance at the sea surface as a function of the phytoplankton pigment concentration for Morel Case 1 waters. The model is in good agreement with experimental measurements carried out in waters which were not included in the data base used to derive it. It suggests that the observed variability in the radiance is due to variations in the backscattering of plankton and the associated detrital material. The model is extended to include other material in the water, such as dissolved organic material, referred to as yellow substances, and detached coccoliths from coccolithophorids, e.g., Emiliana huxleyi. Potential applications include an improved biooptical algorithm for the retrieval of pigment concentrations from satellite imagery in the presence of interference from detached coccoliths and an improved atmospheric correction for satellite imagery. The model also serves to identify and to interpret deviations from Case 1 waters.

  19. Absolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II) from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Highly accurate water vapor measurements are indispensable for understanding a variety of scientific questions as well as industrial processes. While in metrology water vapor concentrations can be defined, generated, and measured with relative uncertainties in the single percentage range, field-deployable airborne instruments deviate even under quasistatic laboratory conditions up to 10-20 %. The novel SEALDH-II hygrometer, a calibration-free, tuneable diode laser spectrometer, bridges this gap by implementing a new holistic concept to achieve higher accuracy levels in the field. We present in this paper the absolute validation of SEALDH-II at a traceable humidity generator during 23 days of permanent operation at 15 different H2O mole fraction levels between 5 and 1200 ppmv. At each mole fraction level, we studied the pressure dependence at six different gas pressures between 65 and 950 hPa. Further, we describe the setup for this metrological validation, the challenges to overcome when assessing water vapor measurements on a high accuracy level, and the comparison results. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first airborne, metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.

  20. Radiance calibration of the High Altitude Observatory white-light coronagraph on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Macqueen, R. M.; Munro, R. H.; Gosling, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of over 35,000 photographs of the solar corona obtained by the white-light coronograph on Skylab is described. Calibration of the vast amount of data was complicated by temporal effects of radiation fog and latent image loss. These effects were compensated by imaging a calibration step wedge on each data frame. Absolute calibration of the wedge was accomplished through comparison with a set of previously calibrated glass opal filters. Analysis employed average characteristic curves derived from measurements of step wedges from many frames within a given camera half-load. The net absolute accuracy of a given radiance measurement is estimated to be 20%.

  1. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  2. Assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargan, K.; Read, W.; Livesey, N.; Wagner, P.; Nguyen. H.; Pawson, S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.

  3. Calibration of TOMS Radiances From Ground Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Kowalewski, M.; Wellemeyer, C.; Labow, G.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahmad, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify its recovery. We show that validation of radiances from the ground can be a very effective means for correcting long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements and can be used to cross calibrate all BUV instruments in orbit (TOMS, SBUV/2, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This method bypasses the retrieval algorithms used to derive ozone products from both satellite and ground based measurements that are normally used to validate the satellite data. Radiance comparisons employ forward models, but they are inherently more accurate than the retrieval This method employs very accurate comparisons between ground based zenith sicy radiances and satellite nadir radiances and employs two well established capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 1) the SSBUV calibration facilities and 2) the radiative transfer codes used for the TOMS and SBUV/2 algorithms and their subsequent refinements. The zenith sky observations are made by the SSBUV where its calibration is maintained to a high degree of accuracy and precision. Radiative transfer calculations show that ground based zenith sky and satellite nadir backscatter ultraviolet comparisons can be made very accurately under certain viewing conditions. Initial ground observations taken from Goddard Space Flight Center compared with radiative transfer calculations has indicated the feasibility of this method. The effect of aerosols and varying ozone amounts are considered in the model simulations and the theoretical comparisons. The radiative transfer simulations show that the ground and satellite radiance comparisons can be made with an uncertainty of less than l

  4. Modeling and experimental validation of angular radiance and distance-dependent radiance in a turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingling; Li, Chenxi; Zhao, Huijuan; Yi, Xi; Gao, Feng; Meng, Wei; Lu, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    Radiance is sensitive to the variations of tissue optical parameters, such as absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, and anisotropy factor g. Therefore, similar to fluence, radiance can be used for tissue characterization. Compared with fluence, radiance has the advantage of offering the direction information of light intensity. Taking such advantage, the optical parameters can be determined by rotating the detector through 360 deg with only a single optode pair. Instead of the translation mode used in the fluence-based technologies, the Rotation mode has less invasiveness in the clinical diagnosis. This paper explores a new method to obtain the optical properties by measuring the distribution of light intensity in liquid phantom with only a single optode pair and the detector rotation through 360 deg. The angular radiance and distance-dependent radiance are verified by comparing experimental measurement data with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the short source-detector separations and diffusion approximation for the large source-detector separations. Detecting angular radiance with only a single optode pair under a certain source-detection separation will present a way for prostate diagnose and light dose calculation during the photon dynamic therapy (PDT).

  5. Active fire detection using a peat fire radiance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Honma, T.; Kaku, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2011-12-01

    The fire fractional area and radiances at 4 and 11 μm of active fires in Indonesia were estimated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. Based on these fire information, a stochastic fire model was used for evaluating two fire detection algorithms of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). One is single-image stochastic fire detection, and the other is multitemporal stochastic fire detection (Kushida, 2010 - IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett.). The average fire fractional area per one 1 km2 ×1 km2 pixel was 1.7%; this value corresponds to 32% of that of Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires. The average radiances at 4 and 11 μm of active fires were 7.2 W/(m2.sr.μm) and 11.1 W/(m2.sr.μm); these values correspond to 47% and 91% of those of Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires, respectively. In order to get false alarms less than 20 points per 106 km2 area, for the Siberian and Mongolian boreal forest fires, omission errors (OE) of 50-60% and about 40% were expected for the detections by using the single and multitemporal images, respectively. For Indonesian peat fires, OE of 80-90% was expected for the detections by using the single images. For the peat-fire detections by using the multitemporal images, OE of about 40% was expected, provided that the background radiances were estimated from past multitemporal images with less than the standard deviation of 1K. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain sufficient active-fire information of Indonesian peat fires from single MODIS images for the fire fighting, and that the use of the multitemporal images was important.

  6. Iterative discrete ordinates solution of the equation for surface-reflected radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radkevich, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of numerical solution of the integral equation for the radiance reflected from an anisotropic surface. The equation relates the radiance at the surface level with BRDF and solutions of the standard radiative transfer problems for a slab with no reflection on its surfaces. It is also shown that the kernel of the equation satisfies the condition of the existence of a unique solution and the convergence of the successive approximations to that solution. The developed method features two basic steps: discretization on a 2D quadrature, and solving the resulting system of algebraic equations with successive over-relaxation method based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Presented numerical examples show good coincidence between the surface-reflected radiance obtained with DISORT and the proposed method. Analysis of contributions of the direct and diffuse (but not yet reflected) parts of the downward radiance to the total solution is performed. Together, they represent a very good initial guess for the iterative process. This fact ensures fast convergence. The numerical evidence is given that the fastest convergence occurs with the relaxation parameter of 1 (no relaxation). An integral equation for BRDF is derived as inversion of the original equation. The potential of this new equation for BRDF retrievals is analyzed. The approach is found not viable as the BRDF equation appears to be an ill-posed problem, and it requires knowledge the surface-reflected radiance on the entire domain of both Sun and viewing zenith angles.

  7. Extraction of Profile Information from Cloud Contaminated Radiances. Appendixes 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.; Zhou, D. K.; Huang, H.-L.; Li, Jun; Liu, X.; Larar, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds act to reduce the signal level and may produce noise dependence on the complexity of the cloud properties and the manner in which they are treated in the profile retrieval process. There are essentially three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances: (1) cloud-clearing using spatially adjacent cloud contaminated radiance measurements, (2) retrieval based upon the assumption of opaque cloud conditions, and (3) retrieval or radiance assimilation using a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model which accounts for the absorption and scattering of the radiance observed. Cloud clearing extracts the radiance arising from the clear air portion of partly clouded fields of view permitting soundings to the surface or the assimilation of radiances as in the clear field of view case. However, the accuracy of the clear air radiance signal depends upon the cloud height and optical property uniformity across the two fields of view used in the cloud clearing process. The assumption of opaque clouds within the field of view permits relatively accurate profiles to be retrieved down to near cloud top levels, the accuracy near the cloud top level being dependent upon the actual microphysical properties of the cloud. The use of a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model enables accurate retrievals down to cloud top levels and below semi-transparent cloud layers (e.g., cirrus). It should also be possible to assimilate cloudy radiances directly into the model given a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model using geometric and microphysical cloud parameters retrieved from the radiance spectra as initial cloud variables in the radiance assimilation process. This presentation reviews the above three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances. NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer radiance spectra and Aqua satellite AIRS radiance spectra are used to illustrate how cloudy radiances can be used

  8. Spectral Dimensionality and Scale of Urban Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Characterization of urban radiance and reflectance is important for understanding the effects of solar energy flux on the urban environment as well as for satellite mapping of urban settlement patterns. Spectral mixture analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery suggest that the urban radiance field can very often be described with combinations of three or four spectral endmembers. Dimensionality estimates of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) radiance measurements of urban areas reveal the existence of 30 to 60 spectral dimensions. The extent to which broadband imagery collected by operational satellites can represent the higher dimensional mixing space is a function of both the spatial and spectral resolution of the sensor. AVIRIS imagery offers the spatial and spectral resolution necessary to investigate the scale dependence of the spectral dimensionality. Dimensionality estimates derived from Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) eigenvalue distributions show a distinct scale dependence for AVIRIS radiance measurements of Milpitas, California. Apparent dimensionality diminishes from almost 40 to less than 10 spectral dimensions between scales of 8000 m and 300 m. The 10 to 30 m scale of most features in urban mosaics results in substantial spectral mixing at the 20 m scale of high altitude AVIRIS pixels. Much of the variance at pixel scales is therefore likely to result from actual differences in surface reflectance at pixel scales. Spatial smoothing and spectral subsampling of AVIRIS spectra both result in substantial loss of information and reduction of apparent dimensionality, but the primary spectral endmembers in all cases are analogous to those found in global analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery of other urban areas.

  9. One Moon, many measurements 1: Radiance values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.; Green, R. O.; Mall, U.; Staid, M. I.; Isaacson, P. J.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Besse, S.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Several modern optical instruments orbited the Moon during 2008 and 2009 onboard the SELENE and Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and provided a welcomed feast of spectroscopic data to be used for scientific analyses. The different spatial and spectral resolutions of these sensors along with diverse illumination geometry during data acquisition make each set of data unique, and each instrument contributes special value to integrated science analyses. In order to provide the maximum science benefit, we have undertaken a careful cross-validation of radiance data among these orbital instruments and also a set of systematic data acquired using Earth-based telescopes. Most radiance values at 750 nm fall between 0 and 100 W/(m2 μm sr), but a small important fraction can be up to ×2 to ×3 that value, with the largest values occurring at the highest spatial resolution. All instruments are in agreement about overall spectral properties of lunar materials, but small systematic differences are documented between instruments. Lunar radiance values measured with remote sensors for landing sites are all not as high as that estimated from laboratory measurements of returned soil. This is largely because laboratory measurements of lunar soils cannot retain or duplicate the fine structure of lunar regolith found in the natural space environment.

  10. Measurements of scene spectral radiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, Juliette A.; Wack, Edward C.; Mooney, Daniel L.; Muldoon, Michael; Shey, Shen; Upham, Carolyn A.; Harvey, John M.; Czerwinski, Richard N.; Jordan, Michael P.; Vallières, Alexandre; Chamberland, Martin

    2006-05-01

    Detection performance of LWIR passive standoff chemical agent sensors is strongly influenced by various scene parameters, such as atmospheric conditions, temperature contrast, concentration-path length product (CL), agent absorption coefficient, and scene spectral variability. Although temperature contrast, CL, and agent absorption coefficient affect the detected signal in a predictable manner, fluctuations in background scene spectral radiance have less intuitive consequences. The spectral nature of the scene is not problematic in and of itself; instead it is spatial and temporal fluctuations in the scene spectral radiance that cannot be entirely corrected for with data processing. In addition, the consequence of such variability is a function of the spectral signature of the agent that is being detected and is thus different for each agent. To bracket the performance of background-limited (low sensor NEDN), passive standoff chemical sensors in the range of relevant conditions, assessment of real scene data is necessary1. Currently, such data is not widely available2. To begin to span the range of relevant scene conditions, we have acquired high fidelity scene spectral radiance measurements with a Telops FTIR imaging spectrometer 3. We have acquired data in a variety of indoor and outdoor locations at different times of day and year. Some locations include indoor office environments, airports, urban and suburban scenes, waterways, and forest. We report agent-dependent clutter measurements for three of these backgrounds.

  11. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  12. Activities of NIST (National Inst. of Standards and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Radiometric Physics Division of the NIST is responsible for the national standards in radiation thermometry, spectroradiometry, photometry, and spectrophotometry; dissemination of these standards by providing measurement services to customers requiring calibrations of the highest accuracy; and conducting fundamental and applied research to develop the scientific basis for future measurement services. Its relevance to EOS/TIR calibration includes calibrating unknown blackbody for radiance using a well-characterized NIST blackbody source by matching the radiant fluxes with an IR radiometer. The TIR Round Robin is used to verify the calibration of the sources that are used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the individual EOS sensors.

  13. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  14. Four Years of Absolutely Calibrated Hyperspectral Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Eos Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steve; Elliott, Denis; Gregorich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews four years of absolute calibration of hyperspectral data from the AIRS instrument located on the EOS AQUA spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: 1) A quick overview of AIRS; 2) What absolute calibration accuracy and stability are required for climate applications?; 3) Validating of radiance accuracy and stability: Results from four years of AIRS data; and 4) Conclusions.

  15. Final report on EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010: Key and supplementary comparison of national pressure standards in the range 1 Pa to 15 kPa of absolute and gauge pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajíček, Zdeněk; Bergoglio, Mercede; Jousten, Karl; Otal, Pierre; Sabuga, Wladimir; Saxholm, Sari; Pražák, Dominik; Vičar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a EURAMET comparison of five European National Metrology Institutes in low gauge and absolute pressure in gas (nitrogen), denoted as EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010. Its main intention is to state equivalence of the pressure standards, in particular those based on the technology of force-balanced piston gauges such as e.g. FRS by Furness Controls, UK and FPG8601 by DHI-Fluke, USA. It covers the range from 1 Pa to 15 kPa, both gauge and absolute. The comparison in absolute mode serves as a EURAMET Key Comparison which can be linked to CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 via PTB. The comparison in gauge mode is a supplementary comparison. The comparison was carried out from September 2008 till October 2012. The participating laboratories were the following: CMI, INRIM, LNE, MIKES, PTB-Berlin (absolute pressure 1 kPa and below) and PTB-Braunschweig (absolute pressure 1 kPa and above and gauge pressure). CMI was the pilot laboratory and provided a transfer standard for the comparison. This transfer standard was also the laboratory standard of CMI at the same time, which resulted in a unique and logistically difficult star comparison. Both in gauge and absolute pressures all the participating institutes successfully proved their equivalence with respect to the reference value and all also proved mutual bilateral equivalences in all the points. All the participating laboratories are also equivalent with the reference values of CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 in the relevant points. The comparison also proved the ability of FPG8601 to serve as a transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXVI.. Setting a new standard: Masses, radii, and abundances for the F-type systems AD Bootis VZ Hydrae, and WZ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, J. V.; Torres, G.; Bruntt, H.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Stefanik, R. P.; Latham, D. W.; Southworth, J.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Accurate mass, radius, and abundance determinations from binaries provide important information on stellar evolution, fundamental to central fields in modern astrophysics and cosmology. Aims: We aim to determine absolute dimensions and abundances for the three F-type main-sequence detached eclipsing binaries AD Boo, VZ Hya, and WZ Oph and to perform a detailed comparison with results from recent stellar evolutionary models. Methods: uvby light curves and uvbyβ standard photometry were obtained with the Strömgren Automatic Telescope at ESO, La Silla, radial velocity observations at CfA facilities, and supplementary high-resolution spectra with ESO's FEROS spectrograph. State-of-the-art methods were applied for the analyses: the EBOP and Wilson-Devinney binary models, two-dimensional cross-correlation and disentangling, and the VWA abundance analysis tool. Results: Masses and radii that are precise to 0.5-0.7% and 0.4-0.9%, respectively, have been established for the components, which span the ranges of 1.1 to 1.4 M⊙ and 1.1 to 1.6 R⊙. The [Fe/H] abundances are from -0.27 to +0.10, with uncertainties between 0.07 and 0.15 dex. We find indications of a slight α-element overabundance of [α/Fe] ˜ + 0.1 for WZ Oph. The secondary component of AD Boo and both components of WZ Oph appear to be slightly active. Yale-Yonsai and Victoria-Regina evolutionary models fit the components of AD Boo and VZ Hya almost equally well, assuming coeval formation, at ages of about 1.75/1.50 Gyr (AD Boo) and 1.25/1.00 Gyr (VZ Hya). BaSTI models, however, predict somewhat different ages for the primary and secondary components. For WZ Oph, the models from all three grids are significantly hotter than observed. A low He content, decreased envelope convection coupled with surface activity, and/or higher interstellar absorption would remove the discrepancy, but its cause has not been definitively identified. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the power of testing and comparing

  17. Uncertainty in cloud optical depth estimates made from satellite radiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pincus, Robert; Szczodrak, Malgorzata; Gu, Jiujing; Austin, Philip

    1995-01-01

    The uncertainty in optical depths retrieved from satellite measurements of visible wavelength radiance at the top of the atmosphere is quantified. Techniques are briefly reviewed for the estimation of optical depth from measurements of radiance, and it is noted that these estimates are always more uncertain at greater optical depths and larger solar zenith angles. The lack of radiometric calibration for visible wavelength imagers on operational satellites dominates the uncertainty retrievals of optical depth. This is true for both single-pixel retrievals and for statistics calculated from a population of individual retrievals. For individual estimates or small samples, sensor discretization can also be significant, but the sensitivity of the retrieval to the specification of the model atmosphere is less important. The relative uncertainty in calibration affects the accuracy with which optical depth distributions measured by different sensors may be quantitatively compared, while the absolute calibration uncertainty, acting through the nonlinear mapping of radiance to optical depth, limits the degree to which distributions measured by the same sensor may be distinguished.

  18. Development of defined microbial population standards using fluorescence activated cell sorting for the absolute quantification of S. aureus using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Martinon, Alice; Cronin, Ultan P; Wilkinson, Martin G

    2012-01-01

    In this article, four types of standards were assessed in a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR procedure for the quantification of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in DNA samples. The standards were purified S. aureus genomic DNA (type A), circular plasmid DNA containing a thermonuclease (nuc) gene fragment (type B), DNA extracted from defined populations of S. aureus cells generated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) technology with (type C) or without purification of DNA by boiling (type D). The optimal efficiency of 2.016 was obtained on Roche LightCycler(®) 4.1. software for type C standards, whereas the lowest efficiency (1.682) corresponded to type D standards. Type C standards appeared to be more suitable for quantitative real-time PCR because of the use of defined populations for construction of standard curves. Overall, Fieller Confidence Interval algorithm may be improved for replicates having a low standard deviation in Cycle Threshold values such as found for type B and C standards. Stabilities of diluted PCR standards stored at -20°C were compared after 0, 7, 14 and 30 days and were lower for type A or C standards compared with type B standards. However, FACS generated standards may be useful for bacterial quantification in real-time PCR assays once optimal storage and temperature conditions are defined.

  19. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  20. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  1. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth's atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3-19.2 μm (520-3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3-25.0 μm (400-3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  2. Platform and Environmental Effects on Above- and In-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.

  3. The Intercalibration of Geostationary Visible Imagers Using Operational Hyperspectral SCIAMACHY Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelling, David R.; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Morstad, Daniel; Gopalan, Arun; Bhatt, Rajendra; Lukashin, Constantine; Minnis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Spectral band differences between sensors can complicate the process of intercalibration of a visible sensor against a reference sensor. This can be best addressed by using a hyperspectral reference sensor whenever possible because they can be used to accurately mitigate the band differences. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using operational Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) large-footprint hyperspectral radiances to calibrate geostationary Earth-observing (GEO) sensors. Near simultaneous nadir overpass measurements were used to compare the temporal calibration of SCIAMACHY with Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer band radiances, which were found to be consistent to within 0.44% over seven years. An operational SCIAMACHY/GEO ray-matching technique was presented, along with enhancements to improve radiance pair sampling. These enhancements did not bias the underlying intercalibration and provided enough sampling to allow up to monthly monitoring of the GEO sensor degradation. The results of the SCIAMACHY/GEO intercalibration were compared with other operational four-year Meteosat-9 0.65-µm calibration coefficients and were found to be within 1% of the gain, and more importantly, it had one of the lowest temporal standard errors of all the methods. This is more than likely that the GEO spectral response function could be directly applied to the SCIAMACHY radiances, whereas the other operational methods inferred a spectral correction factor. This method allows the validation of the spectral corrections required by other methods.

  4. Evaluation of ISCCP multisatellite radiance calibration for geostationary imager visible channels using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Thomas C.; William B. Rossow,; Joseph Ferrier,; Laura M. Hinkelman,

    2013-01-01

    Since 1983, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has collected Earth radiance data from the succession of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by weather agencies worldwide. Meeting the ISCCP goals of global coverage and decade-length time scales requires consistent and stable calibration of the participating satellites. For the geostationary imager visible channels, ISCCP calibration provides regular periodic updates from regressions of radiances measured from coincident and collocated observations taken by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instruments. As an independent check of the temporal stability and intersatellite consistency of ISCCP calibrations, we have applied lunar calibration techniques to geostationary imager visible channels using images of the Moon found in the ISCCP data archive. Lunar calibration enables using the reflected light from the Moon as a stable and consistent radiometric reference. Although the technique has general applicability, limitations of the archived image data have restricted the current study to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series. The results of this lunar analysis confirm that ISCCP calibration exhibits negligible temporal trends in sensor response but have revealed apparent relative biases between the satellites at various levels. However, these biases amount to differences of only a few percent in measured absolute reflectances. Since the lunar analysis examines only the lower end of the radiance range, the results suggest that the ISCCP calibration regression approach does not precisely determine the intercept or the zero-radiance response level. We discuss the impact of these findings on the development of consistent calibration for multisatellite global data sets.

  5. Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Harmel, Tristan; Gilerson, Alexander; Tonizzo, Alberto; Chowdhary, Jacek; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Sam

    2012-12-10

    Above-water measurements of water-leaving radiance are widely used for water-quality monitoring and ocean-color satellite data validation. Reflected skylight in above-water radiometry needs to be accurately estimated prior to derivation of water-leaving radiance. Up-to-date methods to estimate reflection of diffuse skylight on rough sea surfaces are based on radiative transfer simulations and sky radiance measurements. But these methods neglect the polarization state of the incident skylight, which is generally highly polarized. In this paper, the effects of polarization on the sea surface reflectance and the subsequent water-leaving radiance estimation are investigated. We show that knowledge of the polarization field of the diffuse skylight significantly improves above-water radiometry estimates, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum where the reflected skylight is dominant. A newly developed algorithm based on radiative transfer simulations including polarization is described. Its application to the standard Aerosol Robotic Network-Ocean Color and hyperspectral radiometric measurements of the 1.5-year dataset acquired at the Long Island Sound site demonstrates the noticeable importance of considering polarization for water-leaving radiance estimation. In particular it is shown, based on time series of collocated data acquired in coastal waters, that the azimuth range of measurements leading to good-quality data is significantly increased, and that these estimates are improved by more than 12% at 413 nm. Full consideration of polarization effects is expected to significantly improve the quality of the field data utilized for satellite data validation or potential vicarious calibration purposes.

  6. Ground-based retrieval of atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud properties, and aerosols using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, W.; Turner, D.; Knuteson, R.; Revercomb, H.; Best, F.; Dedecker, R.; Li, J.; Buijs, H.; Clateauneuf, F.; Roy, C.

    The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer AERI system measures infrared downwelling radiances at one wavenumber resolution from 3-20 mu m with better than 10-minute temporal resolution The robust and fully automated AERI instruments are monitored in the field via the Internet in near real-time The AERI absolute radiometric accuracy is better than 1 of ambient radiance The calibrated AERI radiances are used to validate high spectral resolution line-by-line model calculations retrieve profiles of atmospheric constituents derive cloud aerosol properties and surface oceanic skin properties The University of Wisconsin -- Madison Space Science and Engineering Center SSEC developed the AERI for use within the United States Department of Energy DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM research program DOE ARM has funded the development and installation of eight ground-based AERI systems based in several international locations including Darwin Australia Niger Africa Barrow Alaska and Nauru Island in the South Pacific The AERI systems have shown high reliability including over ten years of continuous operation at Lamont Oklahoma USA The AERI technology has been licensed to ABB Bomem of Quebec City Canada and plans are underway to provide commercial versions of a variety of atmospheric measurement capabilities The most mature and demonstrated capability allows direct retrieval of meteorological information about the vertical structure of temperature and water vapor in the planetary boundary layer PBL 0-3 km New

  7. Neural network method to correct bidirectional effects in water-leaving radiance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yongzhen; Li, Wei; Voss, Kenneth J; Gatebe, Charles K; Stamnes, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms that rely on "atmospherically corrected" nadir water-leaving radiances to infer information about marine constituents such as the chlorophyll concentration depend on a reliable method to convert the angle-dependent measured radiances from the observation direction to the nadir direction. It is also important to convert the measured radiances to the nadir direction when comparing and merging products from different satellite missions. The standard correction method developed by Morel and coworkers requires knowledge of the chlorophyll concentration. Also, the standard method was developed based on the Case 1 (open ocean) assumption, which makes it unsuitable for Case 2 situations such as turbid coastal waters. We introduce a neural network method to convert the angle-dependent water-leaving radiance (or the corresponding remote sensing reflectance) from the observation direction to the nadir direction. This method relies on neither an "atmospheric correction" nor prior knowledge of the water constituents or the inherent optical properties. It directly converts the remote sensing reflectance from an arbitrary slanted viewing direction to the nadir direction by using a trained neural network. This method is fast and accurate, and it can be easily adapted to different remote sensing instruments. Validation using NuRADS measurements in different types of water shows that this method is suitable for both Case 1 and Case 2 waters. In Case 1 or chlorophyll-dominated waters, our neural network method produces corrections similar to those of the standard method. In Case 2 waters, especially sediment-dominated waters, a significant improvement was obtained compared to the standard method.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  11. Absolute quantification of prion protein (90-231) using stable isotope-labeled chymotryptic peptide standards in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert; Sheynkman, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd M; Pedersen, Joel A; Li, Lingjun

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrP(TSE)) constitutes the etiologic agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrP(TSE) has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrP(TSE) at subfemtomole levels, whereas animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer higher sensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein's signature peptide, often with subfemtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrP(TSE), the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

  12. Absolute quantification of prion protein (90-231) using stable isotope-labeled chymotryptic peptide standards in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert; Kreitinger, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd; Pedersen, Joel; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrPTSE) constitutes the etiological agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrPTSE has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into a β-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrPTSE at sub-femtomole levels while animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer ultrasensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein’s signature peptide, often with sub-femtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrPTSE, the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow. PMID:22714949

  13. Absolute Quantification of Prion Protein (90-231) Using Stable Isotope-Labeled Chymotryptic Peptide Standards in a LC-MRM AQUA Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Robert; Sheynkman, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrPTSE) constitutes the etiologic agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrPTSE has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into a β-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrPTSE at subfemtomole levels, whereas animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer higher sensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein's signature peptide, often with subfemtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrPTSE, the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

  14. Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Haapanala, Päivi; Räisänen, Petri; McFarquhar, Greg M.; ...

    2017-06-12

    The impact of ice clouds on solar disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0 to 8° from the center of the sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements obtained by the Sun and Aureole Measurements (SAM) instrument. First, the sensitivity of the radiances to themore » ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness is addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances is found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals) and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in comparisons with SAM data, the ice cloud optical thickness is adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agree closely (i.e., within 3 %) with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than ≈ 3° are systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, whereas the agreement with the measurements is better when rough ice crystals are assumed. In conclusion, our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.« less

  15. A New Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) for Shipboard Atmospheric and Oceanic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Knuteson, R. O.; Hackel, D.; Best, F. A.; Garcia, R.; Phillips, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Smith, W. L.; Verret, E.; Lantagne, S. M.; Roy, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    A new ship-based Fourier transform spectrometer has been developed to measure the atmospheric downwelling and reflected infrared radiance spectrum at the Earth's surface with high absolute accuracy. This instrument was designed and built by ABB (Québec, Canada) based on the heritage of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) designed by the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Prior versions of the M-AERI have been operated by the University of Miami for over a decade on research ships transiting the Atlantic and Pacific in support of NASA and NOAA satellite validation. The M-AERI measures infrared radiance between 520-3020 cm-1 (3.3-19 μm), at a resolution of 1 cm-1, using two detectors cooled to cryogenic temperatures with a Stirling cycle cooler. A gold-coated rotating scene mirror allows the M-AERI to selectively view the atmospheric scene at zenith, and ocean/atmospheric scenes over a range of +/- 45° from the horizon. The AERI uses two high-emissivity blackbodies for radiometric calibration, which in conjunction with the instrument design and a suite of rigorous laboratory diagnostics, ensures the radiometric accuracy to be better than 1% (3σ) of the ambient radiance. The M-AERI radiance spectra can be used to retrieve profiles of temperature and water vapor in the troposphere, as well as measurements of trace gases, cloud properties, and ocean skin temperature. The M-AERI measurement of ocean skin temperature has a demonstrated accuracy of better than 0.1 K. The first marine deployment of the new M-AERI will be as part of the second ARM mobile facility (AMF-2) during the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) on board the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in early 2015, occurring jointly with the NOAA CalWater 2 experiment. This field campaign aims to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud

  16. Sea-based Infrared Radiance Measurements of Ocean and Atmosphere from the ACAPEX/CalWater2 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Knuteson, R.; Hackel, D.; Phillips, C.; Westphall, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) / CalWater2 was a joint DOE/NOAA field campaign in early 2015 to study atmospheric rivers in the Pacific Ocean and their impacts on the western United States. The campaign goals were to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western United States. Coordinated measurements were made from ground-, aircraft- and sea-based platforms. The second ARM mobile facility (AMF-2) was deployed on board the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown for this campaign, which included a new Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) to measure the atmospheric downwelling and reflected infrared radiance spectrum at the Earth's surface with high absolute accuracy. The M-AERI measures spectral infrared radiance between 520-3020 cm-1 (3.3-19 μm) at a resolution of 0.5 cm-1. The M-AERI can selectively view the atmospheric scene at zenith, and ocean/atmospheric scenes over a range of ±45° from the horizon. The AERI uses two high-emissivity blackbodies for radiometric calibration, which in conjunction with the instrument design and a suite of rigorous laboratory diagnostics, ensures the radiometric accuracy to be better than 1% (3σ) of the ambient radiance. The M-AERI radiance spectra can be used to retrieve profiles of temperature and water vapor in the troposphere, as well as measurements of trace gases, cloud properties, surface emissivity and ocean skin temperature. We present preliminary results on measurements of ocean skin temperature, ocean emissivity properties as a function of view angle and wind speed, as well as comparisons with radiosondes and satellite observations.

  17. Wheat signature modeling and analysis for improved training statistics: Supplement. Simulated LANDSAT wheat radiances and radiance components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Cicone, R. C.; Gleason, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Simulated scanner system data values generated in support of LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) research and development efforts are presented. Synthetic inband (LANDSAT) wheat radiances and radiance components were computed and are presented for various wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions and scanner view geometries. Values include: (1) inband bidirectional reflectances for seven stages of wheat crop growth; (2) inband atmospheric features; and (3) inband radiances corresponding to the various combinations of wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions. Analyses of these data values are presented in the main report.

  18. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existent hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using the rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Analysis of field data showed unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends were proposed. A 3-D model was developed and is unique in that it predicts: (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy; (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene; and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. The model was expanded to include the anisotropic scattering properties of leaves as a function of the leaf orientation distribution in both the zenith and azimuth angle modes.

  19. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  20. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  1. Theory of spectral radiance of pollutants at sea, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Remote measurement of pollutants dumped in the sea, not oil slicks, but soluble pollutants that change the color of the water, is addressed. The sensor is a spectral radiometer that flies over the polluted area and compares its spectral radiance (color) to that of surrounding clean seawater. The goal is to infer the concentration of pollutants using the measured radiance of the sea compared to laboratory measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of the pollutants. The subject is treated in three steps: (1) the quantities involved are defined and means for measuring them are described; (2) the equations for remote sensing with a low-flying aircraft are derived, in which wase the absorption and radiance of intervening air is negligible; and (3) high-flying aircraft and satellites are applied, in which case the radiance of intervening air is the major problem.

  2. Theory of spectral radiance of pollutants at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurement of soluble pollutants that change the color of the water in the sea is reported. The sensor is a spectral radiometer that flies over the polluted area and compares its spectral radiance to that of surrounding clean seawater. A quantitative analysis of the concentration of pollutants using the measured radiance of the sea compared to laboratory measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of the pollutants is presented. The quantities involved are defined and means for measuring them are described. The equations for remote sensing with a low-flying aircraft, in which case the absorption and radiance of intervening air is negligible are derived. High-flying aircraft and satellites, in which case the radiance of intervening air is the major problem are applied.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of upwelling thermal radiance in presence of clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, S. V.; Tiwari, S. N.; Suttles, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    Total upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere is evaluated theoretically in the presence of clouds. The influence of cloud heights, thicknesses and different cloud covers on the upwelling radiance is also investigated. The characteristics of the two cloud types considered in this study closely correspond to altocumulus and cirrus with the cloud emissivity as a function of its liquid water (or ice) content. For calculation of the integrated transmittance of atmospheric gases such as, H2O, CO2, O3, and N2O, the Quasi Random Band (QRB) model approach is adopted. Results are obtained in three different spectral ranges and are compared with the clearsky radiance results. It is found that the difference between the clearsky and cloudy radiance increases with increasing cloud height and liquid water content. This difference also decreases as the surface temperature approaches the value of the cloud top temperature.

  4. Directional radiance measurements: Challenges in the sampling of landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Most earth surfaces, particularly those supporting natural vegetation ecosystems, constitute structurally and spectrally complex surfaces that are distinctly non-Lambertian reflectors. Obtaining meaningful measurements of the directional radiances of landscapes and obtaining estimates of the complete bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of ground targets with complex and variable landscape and radiometric features are challenging tasks. Reasons for the increased interest in directional radiance measurements are presented, and the issues that must be addressed when trying to acquire directional radiances for vegetated land surfaces from different types of remote sensing platforms are discussed. Priority research emphases are suggested, concerning field measurements of directional surface radiances and reflectances for future research. Primarily, emphasis must be given to the acquisition of more complete and directly associated radiometric and biometric parameter data sets that will empower the exploitation of the 'angular dimension' in remote sensing of vegetation through enabling the further development and rigorous validation of state of the art plant canopy models.

  5. Physical Mechanism, Spectral Detection, and Potential Mitigation of 3D Cloud Effects on OCO-2 Radiances and Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, S.; Schmidt, S.; Massie, S. T.; Iwabuchi, H.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of multiple partially cloudy scenes as observed by OCO-2 in nadir and target mode (published previously and reviewed here) revealed that XCO2 retrievals are systematically biased in presence of scattered clouds. The bias can only partially be removed by applying more stringent filtering, and it depends on the degree of scene inhomogeneity as quantified with collocated MODIS/Aqua imagery. The physical reason behind this effect was so far not well understood because in contrast to cloud-mediated biases in imagery-derived aerosol retrievals, passive gas absorption spectroscopy products do not depend on the absolute radiance level and should therefore be less sensitive to 3D cloud effects and surface albedo variability. However, preliminary evidence from 3D radiative transfer calculations suggested that clouds in the vicinity of an OCO-2 footprint not only offset the reflected radiance spectrum, but introduce a spectrally dependent perturbation that affects absorbing channels disproportionately, and therefore bias the spectroscopy products. To understand the nature of this effect for a variety of scenes, we developed the OCO-2 radiance simulator, which uses the available information on a scene (e.g., MODIS-derived surface albedo, cloud distribution, and other parameters) as the basis for 3D radiative transfer calculations that can predict the radiances observed by OCO-2. We present this new tool and show examples of its utility for a few specific scenes. More importantly, we draw conclusions about the physical mechanism behind this 3D cloud effect on radiances and ultimately OCO-2 retrievals, which involves not only the clouds themselves but also the surface. Harnessed with this understanding, we can now detect cloud vicinity effects in the OCO-2 spectra directly, without actually running the 3D radiance simulator. Potentially, it is even possible to mitigate these effects and thus increase data harvest in regions with ubiquitous cloud cover such as the Amazon

  6. Atmospheric radiance interpolation for the modeling of hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuehrer, Perry; Healey, Glenn; Rauch, Brian; Slater, David; Ratkowski, Anthony

    2008-04-01

    The calibration of data from hyperspectral sensors to spectral radiance enables the use of physical models to predict measured spectra. Since environmental conditions are often unknown, material detection algorithms have emerged that utilize predicted spectra over ranges of environmental conditions. The predicted spectra are typically generated by a radiative transfer (RT) code such as MODTRAN TM. Such techniques require the specification of a set of environmental conditions. This is particularly challenging in the LWIR for which temperature and atmospheric constituent profiles are required as inputs for the RT codes. We have developed an automated method for generating environmental conditions to obtain a desired sampling of spectra in the sensor radiance domain. Our method provides a way of eliminating the usual problems encountered, because sensor radiance spectra depend nonlinearly on the environmental parameters, when model conditions are specified by a uniform sampling of environmental parameters. It uses an initial set of radiance vectors concatenated over a set of conditions to define the mapping from environmental conditions to sensor spectral radiance. This approach enables a given number of model conditions to span the space of desired radiance spectra and improves both the accuracy and efficiency of detection algorithms that rely upon use of predicted spectra.

  7. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  9. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  10. Using Medtronic's MAST Quadrant, Radiance, and Radiance X Illumination Systems with high-power light sources increases burn risk.

    PubMed

    2010-11-01

    Connecting the Medtronic MAST Quadrant Illumination System, Radiance Illumination System, or Radiance X Illumination System--all of which are specialized fiberoptic light cables used with the company's minimally invasive spinal products--to a high-power surgical light source significantly increases the risk of patient burns. Hospitals should ensure that the products are used only with 100 W light sources and 5 mm light cables, as prescribed in the product labeling.

  11. Release Path Temperatures of Shock-Compressed Tin from Dynamic Reflectance and Radiance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R0 are < 2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are < 5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stressmore » and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of < 2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.« less

  12. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  13. A New Instrument for Measurement of the Solar Aureole Radiance Distribution from Unstable Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joseph M.; Voss, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel imaging solar aureole radiometer, which can obtain absolute radiometric measurements of the solar aureole when operated on an unstable platform is described. A CCD array is used to image the aureole, while a neutral density occulter on a long pole blocks the direct solar radiation. This ensures accurate direction registration as the sun appears in acquired images, and the total circumsolar region is measured simultaneously. The imaging nature of this instrument along with a special triggering device permit acquisition of the circumsolar sky radiance within 7.5 degrees of the center of the solar disk, and within 1 degree of the edge of the solar disk. This innovation makes possible for the first time, reliable and accurate radiometric measurements of the solar aureole from unstable mobile platforms such as ships. This allows determination small angle atmospheric scattering. The instrument has been used in field studies of atmospheric aerosols and will be used in satellite validation and calibration campaigns.

  14. Effect of molecular anisotropy on backscattered ultraviolet radiance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Bhartia, P K

    1995-12-20

    The effect of molecular anisotropy on backscattered UV (BUV) radiances is computed by accounting for it in both Rayleigh optical thickness and the scattering-phase matrix. If the effect of molecular anisotropy is included only in the optical thickness and not in the phase matrix, then for high sun (θ(0) ∼ 0°), the nadir radiance (I(0)) leaving the top of the atmosphere is approximately 1.8% higher than the radiance (I(op)) computed with the effect included in the phase matrix. For very low sun (θ(0) > 80°), I(0) is approximately 2.3% lower than I(op). For off-nadir radiances the relative increase (decrease) depends on both the local zenith angle as well as the azimuth angle. Also, an increase in the surface reflectivity decreases the effect of molecular anisotropy on the upwelling radiances. Exclusion of the anisotropy factor in the Rayleigh-phase matrix has very little effect (<1%) on ozone retrieval from the BUV-type instruments. This is because of the ratio technique used in the retrieval algorithm, which practically cancels out the anisotropy effect.

  15. A Systematic Error Correction Method for TOVS Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Rokke, Laurie; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of systematic errors is crucial for the successful use of satellite data in a data assimilation system. Systematic errors in TOVS radiance measurements and radiative transfer calculations can be as large or larger than random instrument errors. The usual assumption in data assimilation is that observational errors are unbiased. If biases are not effectively removed prior to assimilation, the impact of satellite data will be lessened and can even be detrimental. Treatment of systematic errors is important for short-term forecast skill as well as the creation of climate data sets. A systematic error correction algorithm has been developed as part of a 1D radiance assimilation. This scheme corrects for spectroscopic errors, errors in the instrument response function, and other biases in the forward radiance calculation for TOVS. Such algorithms are often referred to as tuning of the radiances. The scheme is able to account for the complex, air-mass dependent biases that are seen in the differences between TOVS radiance observations and forward model calculations. We will show results of systematic error correction applied to the NOAA 15 Advanced TOVS as well as its predecessors. We will also discuss the ramifications of inter-instrument bias with a focus on stratospheric measurements.

  16. IASI Radiance Data Assimilation in Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K.; Hyoung-Wook, C.; Jo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Korea institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is developing NWP model with data assimilation systems. Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) system, one of the data assimilation systems, has been developed for KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM) based on cubed-sphere grid and has successfully assimilated real data. LETKF data assimilation system has been extended to 4D- LETKF which considers time-evolving error covariance within assimilation window and IASI radiance data assimilation using KPOP (KIAPS package for observation processing) with RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS). The LETKF system is implementing semi operational prediction including conventional (sonde, aircraft) observation and AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance data from April. Recently, the semi operational prediction system updated radiance observations including GPS-RO, AMV, IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data at July. A set of simulation of KIM with ne30np4 and 50 vertical levels (of top 0.3hPa) were carried out for short range forecast (10days) within semi operation prediction LETKF system with ensemble forecast 50 members. In order to only IASI impact, our experiments used only conventional and IAIS radiance data to same semi operational prediction set. We carried out sensitivity test for IAIS thinning method (3D and 4D). IASI observation number was increased by temporal (4D) thinning and the improvement of IASI radiance data impact on the forecast skill of model will expect.

  17. The importance and attainment of accurate absolute radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of accurate absolute radiometric calibration is discussed by reference to the needs of those wishing to validate or use models describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and earth surface features. The in-flight calibration methods used for the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre, Haute Resolution visible (SPOT/HRV) systems are described and their limitations discussed. The questionable stability of in-flight absolute calibration methods suggests the use of a radiative transfer program to predict the apparent radiance, at the entrance pupil of the sensor, of a ground site of measured reflectance imaged through a well characterized atmosphere. The uncertainties of such a method are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of upwelling infrared radiance from earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    Basic equations for calculating the upwelling atmospheric radiation are presented which account for various sources of radiation coming out at the top of the atmosphere. The theoretical formulation of the transmittance models (line-by-line and quasi-random band model) and the computational procedures used for the evaluation of the transmittance and radiance are discussed in detail. By employing the Lorentz line-by-line and quasi-random computer programs, model calculations were made to determine the upwelling radiance and signal change in the wave number interval of CO fundamental band. These results are useful in determining the effects of different interfering molecules, water vapor profiles, ground temperatures, and ground emittances on the upwelling radiance and signal change. This information is of vital importance in establishing the feasibility of measuring the concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere from a gas filter correlation instrument flown on an aircraft or mounted on a satellite.

  19. Solar radiance models for determination of ERBE scanner filter factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arduini, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Shortwave spectral radiance models for use in the spectral correction algorithms for the ERBE Scanner Instrument are provided. The required data base was delivered to the ERBe Data Reduction Group in October 1984. It consisted of two sets of data files: (1) the spectral bidirectional angular models and (2) the spectral flux modes. The bidirectional models employ the angular characteristics of reflection by the Earth-atmosphere system and were derived from detailed radiance calculations using a finite difference model of the radiative transfer process. The spectral flux models were created through the use of a delta-Eddington model to economically simulate the effects of atmospheric variability. By combining these data sets, a wide range of radiances may be approximated for a number of scene types.

  20. Downscaling Thermal Infrared Radiance for Subpixel Land Surface Temperature Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Desheng; Pu, Ruiliang

    2008-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from satellite thermal sensors often consists of mixed temperature components. Retrieving subpixel LST is therefore needed in various environmental and ecological studies. In this paper, we developed two methods for downscaling coarse resolution thermal infrared (TIR) radiance for the purpose of subpixel temperature retrieval. The first method was developed on the basis of a scale-invariant physical model on TIR radiance. The second method was based on a statistical relationship between TIR radiance and land cover fraction at high spatial resolution. The two methods were applied to downscale simulated 990-m ASTER TIR data to 90-m resolution. When validated against the original 90-m ASTER TIR data, the results revealed that both downscaling methods were successful in capturing the general patterns of the original data and resolving considerable spatial details. Further quantitative assessments indicated a strong agreement between the true values and the estimated values by both methods. PMID:27879844

  1. Downscaling Thermal Infrared Radiance for Subpixel Land Surface Temperature Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Liu, Desheng; Pu, Ruiliang

    2008-04-06

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from satellite thermal sensors often consists of mixed temperature components. Retrieving subpixel LST is therefore needed in various environmental and ecological studies. In this paper, we developed two methods for downscaling coarse resolution thermal infrared (TIR) radiance for the purpose of subpixel temperature retrieval. The first method was developed on the basis of a scale-invariant physical model on TIR radiance. The second method was based on a statistical relationship between TIR radiance and land cover fraction at high spatial resolution. The two methods were applied to downscale simulated 990-m ASTER TIR data to 90-m resolution. When validated against the original 90-m ASTER TIR data, the results revealed that both downscaling methods were successful in capturing the general patterns of the original data and resolving considerable spatial details. Further quantitative assessments indicated a strong agreement between the true values and the estimated values by both methods.

  2. Effects of Raman scattering on the water-leaving radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Kirk J.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of Raman scattering to the water-leaving radiance is examined using Monte Carlo simulations. Exit angle information is retained, allowing a comparison of different satellite viewing directions. Chlorophyll values of 0.0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg Chl/cu m are simulated. Little directional variability is found, with the exception of the direct solar backscatter direction. The wavelength variability is greatest for low chlorophyll concentrations and is negligible for 1.0 mg Chl/cu m. At 550 nm the Raman contribution ranges from approximately 18% of the total water-leaving radiance for pure water to 3% for 1.0 mg Chl/cu m. At 440 nm the range is from 6% to 2%, indicating that Raman scattering will impact radiance ratios for ocean color satellite algorithms.

  3. Measurements of downwelling far-infrared radiance during the RHUBC-II campaign at Cerro Toco, Chile and comparisons with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.

    2017-09-01

    Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.

  4. A neural network method to correct bidirectional effects in water-leaving radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yongzhen; Li, Wei; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Stamnes, Knut

    2017-02-01

    The standard method to convert the measured water-leaving radiances from the observation direction to the nadir direction developed by Morel and coworkers requires knowledge of the chlorophyll concentration (CHL). Also, the standard method was developed for open ocean water, which makes it unsuitable for turbid coastal waters. We introduce a neural network method to convert the water-leaving radiance (or the corresponding remote sensing reflectance) from the observation direction to the nadir direction. This method does not require any prior knowledge of the water constituents or the inherent optical properties (IOPs). This method is fast, accurate and can be easily adapted to different remote sensing instruments. Validation using NuRADS measurements in different types of water shows that this method is suitable for both open ocean and coastal waters. In open ocean or chlorophyll-dominated waters, our neural network method produces corrections similar to those of the standard method. In turbid coastal waters, especially sediment-dominated waters, a significant improvement was obtained compared to the standard method.

  5. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  6. Scaling properties of observed and simulated satellite visible radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Howard W.; Qu, Zhipeng; Bélair, Stéphane; Leroyer, Sylvie; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Vaillancourt, Paul A.

    2017-09-01

    Structure functions Sq, which are related to power spectra and used to study turbulence, were computed for GOES-13 visible radiances measured on 16 May 2015 over French Guiana and adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The nested Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model was run for the same time and area. Cloud data generated by GEM over (300 km)2 domains, with one-way nesting ending at horizontal grid-spacing of 0.25 km, were operated on by a 3-D solar radiative transfer model with resulting radiances degraded to GOES-13 resolution ( 1 km) and Sq computed for them, too. For GOES-13 radiances, scaling exponents ζ(2) associated with S2, for separation distances between 5 km and 25 km, were typically >0.6 for deep convective and marine boundary layer clouds and <0.4 for shallow cumuli over land. ζ(2) for GEM agreed well with GOES-13 for deep convective clouds. This suggests that the self-organizing properties of deep convection in GEM exhibit realistic geometric features, a potentially important point given the link between cloud structure and precipitation, with the latter being much more difficult to measure and assess than visible radiances. Regarding radiances for GEM's marine boundary layer clouds, their Sq differed markedly from GOES-13's; better resembling fair-weather cumulus. Likewise, GEM's shallow cumuli over land appear to have bypassed the "scattered" fair-weather stage and went straight into more organized convection. Thus, it appears that comparing time series of Sq for geostationary satellite data and corresponding modeled radiances has the potential to benefit assessment of cloud system-resolving models.

  7. Polarized radiance distribution measurement of skylight. II. Experiment and data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Voss, K

    1997-11-20

    Measurements of the skylight polarized radiance distribution were performed at different measurement sites, atmospheric conditions, and three wavelengths with our newly developed Polarization Radiance Distribution Camera System (RADS-IIP), an analyzer-type Stokes polarimeter. Three Stokes parameters of skylight (I, Q, U), the degree of polarization, and the plane of polarization are presented in image format. The Arago point and neutral lines have been observed with RADS-IIP. Qualitatively, the dependence of the intensity and polarization data on wavelength, solar zenith angle, and surface albedo is in agreement with the results from computations based on a plane-parallel Rayleigh atmospheric model.

  8. Inference of cirrus cloud properties using satellite-observed visible and infrared radiances. I - Parameterization of radiance fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Takano, Yoshihide

    1993-01-01

    The impact of using phase functions for spherical droplets and hexagonal ice crystals to analyze radiances from cirrus is examined. Adding-doubling radiative transfer calculations are employed to compute radiances for different cloud thicknesses and heights over various backgrounds. These radiances are used to develop parameterizations of top-of-the-atmosphere visible reflectance and IR emittance using tables of reflectances as a function of cloud optical depth, viewing and illumination angles, and microphysics. This parameterization, which includes Rayleigh scattering, ozone absorption, variable cloud height, and an anisotropic surface reflectance, reproduces the computed top-of-the-atmosphere reflectances with an accruacy of +/- 6 percent for four microphysical models: 10-micron water droplet, small symmetric crystal, cirrostratus, and cirrus uncinus. The accuracy is twice that of previous models.

  9. RADIANCE PROCESS EVALUATION FOR PARTICLE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microelectronics industry (wafer, flat panel displays, photomasks, and storage media) is transitioning to higher device densities and larger substrate formats. These changes will challenge standard cleaning methods and will require significant increases to the fabricator inf...

  10. CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Wiscombe, Warren; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Starting from October 1, 2001, Cimel at the ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma has been switched to a new "cloud mode." This mode allows taking measurements of zenith radiance when the Sun in blocked by clouds. In this case, every 13 min. Cimel points straight up and takes 10 measurements with 9 sec. time interval. The new Cimel's mode has four filters at 440, 670, 870 and 1020 nm. For cloudy conditions, the spectral contrast in surface albedo dominates over Rayleigh and aerosol effects; this makes normalized zenith radiances at 440 and 670 as well as for 870 and 1020 almost indistinguishable. We compare Cimel measurements with other ARM cart site instruments: Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), Narrow Field of View (NFOV) sensor, and MicroWave Radiometer(MWR). Based on Cimel and MFRSR 670 and 870 nm channels, we build a normalized difference cloud index (NDCI) for radiances and fluxes, respectively. Radiance NDCI from Cimel and flux NDCI from MFRSR are compared between themselves as well as with cloud Liquid Water Path (LWP) retrieved from MWR. Based on our theoretical calculations and preliminary data analysis,there is a good correlation between NDCIs and LWP for cloudy sky above green vegetation. Based on this correlation, an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth from NDCI is proposed.

  11. A technique for directly comparing radiances from two satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Backscattering Ultraviolet-2 (SBUV/2) instrument on NOAA-9 orbit on June 1987, solar zenith angles of the observations; plot of weekly average differences between SBUV (Nimbus-7 and SBUV/2 (NOAA-9); radiance comparisons for March 1986; time dependence of relative change between SBUV and SBUV/2; and explicit wavelength dependence are presented in viewgraph format. Each is briefly discussed.

  12. Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

  13. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  14. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  15. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  16. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R.M.; Petracci, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates. PMID:21643476

  17. Absolute auditory threshold: testing the absolute.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peter; Matysiak, Artur

    2017-11-02

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of sounds in quiet, one of the simplest tasks for auditory systems, are debated. Several models proposed to explain the threshold for sounds in quiet and its dependence on sound parameters include a minimum sound intensity ('hard threshold'), below which sound has no effect on the ear. Also, many models are based on the assumption that threshold is mediated by integration of a neural response proportional to sound intensity. Here, we test these ideas. Using an adaptive forced choice procedure, we obtained thresholds of 95 normal-hearing human ears for 18 tones (3.125 kHz carrier) in quiet, each with a different temporal amplitude envelope. Grand-mean thresholds and standard deviations were well described by a probabilistic model according to which sensory events are generated by a Poisson point process with a low rate in the absence, and higher, time-varying rates in the presence, of stimulation. The subject actively evaluates the process and bases the decision on the number of events observed. The sound-driven rate of events is proportional to the temporal amplitude envelope of the bandpass-filtered sound raised to an exponent. We find no evidence for a hard threshold: When the model is extended to include such a threshold, the fit does not improve. Furthermore, we find an exponent of 3, consistent with our previous studies and further challenging models that are based on the assumption of the integration of a neural response that, at threshold sound levels, is directly proportional to sound amplitude or intensity. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  19. Experimental Insight into the Thermodynamics of the Dissolution of Electrolytes in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: From the Mass Action Law to the Absolute Standard Chemical Potential of a Proton

    DOE PAGES

    Matsubara, Yasuo; Grills, David C.; Koide, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-28

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of nonaqueous solvents that have expanded the realm of modern chemistry, drawing increasing interest over the last few decades, not only in terms of their own unique physical chemistry but also in many applications including organic synthesis, electrochemistry, and biological systems, wherein charged solutes (i.e., electrolytes) often play vital roles. But, our fundamental understanding of the dissolution of an electrolyte in an IL is still rather limited. For example, the activity of a charged species has frequently been assumed to be unity without a clear experimental basis. In this study, we have discussedmore » a standard component-based scheme for the dissolution of an electrolyte in an IL, supported by our observation of ideal Nernstian responses for the reduction of silver and ferrocenium salts in a representative IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([emim +][NTf 2 -] or [emim +][TFSI -]). Using this scheme, which was also supported by temperature-dependent measurements with ILs having longer alkyl chains in the imidazolium ring, and the solubility of the IL in water, we established the concept of Gibbs transfer energies of “pseudo-single ions” from the IL to conventional neutral molecular solvents (water, acetonitrile, and methanol). This concept, which bridges component- and constituent-based energetics, utilizes an extrathermodynamic assumption, which itself was justified by experimental observations. Furthermore, these energies enable us to eliminate inner potential differences between the IL and molecular solvents (solvent-solvent interactions), that is, on a practical level, conditional liquid junction potential differences, so that we can discuss ion-solvent interactions independently. Specifically, we have examined the standard electrode potential of the ferrocenium/ferrocene redox couple, Fc +/Fc, and the absolute intrinsic standard chemical potential of a proton

  20. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  1. Ground-based determination of atmospheric radiance for correction of ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating the atmospheric radiance observed by a downward sensor (ERTS) using ground-based measurements. A formula is obtained for the sky radiance at the time of the ERTS overpass from the radiometric measurement of the sky radiance made at a particular solar zenith angle and air mass. A graph illustrates ground-based sky radiance measurements as a function of the scattering angle for a range of solar air masses. Typical values for sky radiance at a solar zenith angle of 48 degrees are given.

  2. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  3. Combining the AIRS, CrIS and IASI Radiance Records for Climate Level Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strow, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The AIRS record is now 14+ years long, and with the addition of CrIS should provide a 30+ year long hyperspectral radiance record that can be supplemented with another two times in the diurnal cycle with IASI starting in 2007. The stability of these sensors can be established by comparisons to CO2 variability and to tropical sea surface temperature trends. At present the observed stabilities are much better than climate requirements of 0.01/year. SNO observations indicate radiometric agreement among these sensors of 0.1 - 0.3K before any empirical adjustments. A 1-year set of SNO overlaps have statistical uncertainties of less than 0.01K between these three sensors. Moreover, we show that IASI can be used as a transfer standard between AIRS and CrIS (or between CrIS-1 and CrIS-2) should there be a gap in overlap of sensors in the PM orbit. We have done these SNO comparisons by converting AIRS and IASI spectral to the CrIS instrument lineshape (ILS). Achieving climate quality retrievals, trends, and anomalies of temperature and humidity is non-trivial and requires error characterization (not validation) that to date has not been done with single-footprint hyperspectral sensor retrievals. We suggest that the infrared hyperspectral community utilize a common ILS radiance product as a first-step in achieving climate-quality retrievals in order to remove uncertainties in differential instrument sensitivies and in different forward radiative transfer models. We propose a very different approach for Level 3 (climate) products where anomalies and trends (one of the main products of interest to the climate community) are derived directly from Level 3 radiance products, giving far superior error traceability and retrieval regularization in the vertical. Tempertature and humidity trends and anomalies for 14-years of AIRS will be presented and compared to those provided by ERA-Interim, AIRS Level3 data, and microwave sensors. A significant advantage of this approach, which

  4. Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

  5. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  6. Physical Retrieval of Surface Emissivity Spectrum from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Weisz, Elisabeth; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    Retrieval of temperature, moisture profiles and surface skin temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) radiances requires spectral information about the surface emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large retrieval errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity spectrum is large both spectrally and spatially. In this study, a physically based algorithm has been developed to retrieve a hyperspectral IR emissivity spectrum simultaneously with the temperature and moisture profiles, as well as the surface skin temperature. To make the solution stable and efficient, the hyperspectral emissivity spectrum is represented by eigenvectors, derived from the laboratory measured hyperspectral emissivity database, in the retrieval process. Experience with AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) radiances shows that a simultaneous retrieval of the emissivity spectrum and the sounding improves the surface skin temperature as well as temperature and moisture profiles, particularly in the near surface layer.

  7. Patterns of reflected radiance associated with geobotanical anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnie, R. W.; Stone, T. A.; Francica, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes three remote sensing experiments in which changes in remotely measured reflected radiance patterns of vegetation correlated with changes in geology. In two cases using airborne spectroradiometer data, changes in the physical properties of a uniform species correlated with zones of porphyry copper mineralization. In another case using Landsat digital data, changes were detected in the distribution and density of a number of species and combined with soil brightness data to produce a composite index useful for distinguishing lithologies.

  8. Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Radiance Research PSAPs as described in this Handbook are deployed in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Aerosol Observing System (AOS), the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) AOS, ENA AOS and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)-A. An earlier version of the PSAP is currently operated in the ARM Aerial Facility and at SGP. The older SGP instrument is covered in a separate Handbook.

  9. Sun and Sky Radiance Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Holben, Brent; Miller, Mark; Pietras, Christophe; Porter, John; Voss, Ken

    2001-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with two types of radiometric measurements essential to verify atmospheric correction algorithms and to calibrate vicariously satellite ocean color sensors. The first type is a photometric measurement of the direct solar beam to determine the optical thickness of the atmosphere. The intensity of the solar beam can be measured directly, or obtained indirectly from measurements of diffuse global upper hemispheric irradiance. The second type is a measurement of the solar aureole and sky radiance distribution using a CCD camera, or a scanning radiometer viewing in and perpendicular to the solar principal plane. From the two types of measurements, the optical properties of aerosols, highly variable in space and time, can be derived. Because of the high variability, the aerosol properties should be known at the time of satellite overpass. Atmospheric optics measurements, however, are not easy to perform at sea, from a ship or any platform. This complicates the measurement protocols and data analysis. Some instrumentation cannot be deployed at sea, and is limited to island and coastal sites. In the following, measurement protocols are described for radiometers commonly used to measure direct atmospheric transmittance and sky radiance, namely standard sun photometers, fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers, automated sky scanning systems, and CCD cameras. Methods and procedures to analyze and quality control the data are discussed, as well as proper measurement strategies for evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms and satellite-derived ocean color.

  10. A Microwave Radiance Assimilation Study for a Tundra Snowpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Durand, Michael; Margulis, Steve; England, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have begun exploring the assimilation of microwave radiances for the modeling and retrieval of snow properties. At a point scale, and for short durations (i week), radiance assimilation (RA) results are encouraging. However, in order to determine how practical RA might be for snow retrievals when applied over longer durations, larger spatial scales, and/or different snow types, we must expand the scope of the tests. In this paper we use coincident microwave radiance measurements and station data from a tundra site on the North Slope of Alaska. The field data are from the 3rd Radio-brightness Energy Balance Experiment (REBEX-3) carried out in 1994-95 by the University of Michigan. This dataset will provide a test of RA over months instead of one week, and for a very different type of snow than previous snow RA studies. We will address the following questions: flow well can a snowpack physical model (SM), forced with local weather, match measured conditions for a tundra snowpack?; How well can a microwave emission model, driven by the snowpack model, match measured microwave brightnesses for a tundra snowpack?; How well does RA increase or decrease the fidelity of estimates of snow depth and temperatures for a tundra snowpack?

  11. Quantitative Spectral Radiance Measurements in the HYMETS Arc Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hires, Drew V.; Johansen, Craig T.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Calibrated spectral radiance measurements of gaseous emission spectra have been obtained from the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A fiber-optic coupled spectrometer collected natural luminosity from the flow. Spectral radiance measurements are reported between 340 and 1000 nm. Both Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) samples were placed in the flow. Test gases studied included a mostly-N2 atmosphere (95% nitrogen, 5% argon), a simulated Earth Air atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon). The bulk enthalpy of the flow was varied as was the location of the measurement. For the intermediate flow enthalpy tested (20 MJ/kg), emission from the Mars simulant gas was about 10 times higher than the Air flow and 15 times higher than the mostly-N2 atmosphere. Shock standoff distances were estimated from the spectral radiance measurements. Within-run, run-to-run and day-to-day repeatability of the emission were studied, with significant variations (15-100%) noted.

  12. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  13. Near-Continuous Profiling of Temperature, Moisture, and Atmospheric Stability Using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, W. F.; Smith, W. L.; Howell, H. B.; Knuteson, R. O.; Woolf, H.; Revercomb, H. E.

    2003-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) has funded the development and installation of five ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the AERI instrument, improvement of the AERI temperature and moisture retrieval technique, new profiling utility, and validation of high-temporal-resolution AERI-derived stability indices important for convective nowcasting. AERI systems have been built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, and deployed in the Oklahoma-Kansas area collocated with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 404-MHz wind profilers at Lamont, Vici, Purcell, and Morris, Oklahoma, and Hillsboro, Kansas. The AERI systems produce absolutely calibrated atmospheric infrared emitted radiances at one-wavenumber resolution from 3 to 20 m at less than 10-min temporal resolution. The instruments are robust, are automated in the field, and are monitored via the Internet in near-real time. The infrared radiances measured by the AERI systems contain meteorological information about the vertical structure of temperature and water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL; 0-3 km). A mature temperature and water vapor retrieval algorithm has been developed over a 10-yr period that provides vertical profiles at less than 10-min temporal resolution to 3 km in the PBL. A statistical retrieval is combined with the hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder water vapor or Rapid Update Cycle, version 2, numerical weather prediction (NWP) model profiles to provide a nominal hybrid first guess of temperature and moisture to the AERI physical retrieval algorithm. The hourly satellite or NWP data provide a best estimate of the atmospheric state in the upper PBL; the AERI radiances provide the mesoscale temperature and moisture profile correction in the PBL to the

  14. Description and performance of the OGSE for VNIR absolute spectroradiometric calibration of MTG-I satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glastre, W.; Marque, J.; Compain, E.; Deep, A.; Durand, Y.; Aminou, D. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Programme is being realised through the well-established and successful Cooperation between EUMETSAT and ESA. It will ensure the future continuity of MSG with the capabilities to enhance nowcasting, global and regional numerical weather prediction, climate and atmospheric chemistry monitoring data from Geostationary Orbit. This will be achieved through a series of 6 satellites named MTG-I and MTG-S to bring to the meteorological community continuous high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution observations and geophysical parameters of the Earth based on sensors from the geo-stationary orbit. In particular, the imagery mission MTG-I will bring an improved continuation of the MSG satellites series with the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) a broad spectral range (from UV to LWIR) with better spatial and spectral resolutions. The FCI will be able to take high spatial resolution pictures of the Earth within 8 VNIR and 8 IR channels. As one of the mission of this instrument is to provide a quantitative analysis of atmosphere compounds, the absolute observed radiance needs to be known with a specified accuracy for VNIR as low as to 5% at k=3 over its full dynamic. While the FCI is regularly recalibrated every 6 month at equinoxes, it is however requiring initial ground calibration for the beginning of its mission. The Multi Optical Test Assembly (MOTA) is one of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) dedicated to various missions necessary for the integration of the FCI . This equipment, provided by Bertin Technologies, will be delivered to TAS-F by the end of 2016. One of its mission, is the on-ground absolute calibration of VNIR channels. In order to handle this, the MOTA will be placed in front of the FCI under representative vacuum conditions and will be able to project a perfectly known, calibrated radiance level within the full dynamic of FCI instrument. The main difficulty is the very demanding calibration level with

  15. Modeling Seasonal Thermal Radiance Cycles for Change Detection at Volcanic / Geothermal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R.; Beuttel, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing observations of thermal features associated with (and often preceding) volcanic activity have been used for decades to detect and monitor volcanism. However, anomalous thermal precursors to volcanic eruptions are usually only recognized retrospectively. One of the reasons for this is that precursor thermal activity is often too subtle in magnitude (spatially, temporally, or in absolute temperature) to be unambiguously detected in time to issue warnings or forecasts. Part of the reason for this is the trade-off between high spatial and high temporal resolution associated with satellite imaging systems. Thus, the goal of this work has been to develop some techniques for using high-temporal-resolution, coarse-spatial-resolution imagery to try to detect subtle thermal anomalies. To identify anomalies, background thermal activity must first be characterized. Every active, or potentially active, volcano has a unique thermal history that provides information about normal background thermal activity due to seasonal or diurnal variations. Understanding these normal variations allows recognition of anomalous activity that may be due to volcanic / hydrothermal processes - ultimately with a lead time that may be sufficient to issue eruption warnings or forecasts. Archived MODIS data, acquired ~daily from 2000 to 2012, were used to investigate seasonal thermal cycles at three volcanic areas with different types of thermal features: Mount St. Helens, which had a dacite dome-building eruption from 2004-2008; Mount Ruapehu, which has a 500-m diameter active summit crater lake; and Yellowstone, which is a large active geothermal system that has hundreds of hot springs and fumarole fields spread out over a very large area. The focus has been on using MODIS 1-km sensor radiance data in the MIR and TIR wavelength regions that are sensitive to thermal emission from features that range in temperature from hundreds of °C, down to tens of °C (below the boiling temperature

  16. Development of multi-sensor global cloud and radiance composites for earth radiation budget monitoring from DSCOVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Duda, David; Thieman, Mandana; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying; Bedka, Kristopher

    2017-10-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) enables analysis of the daytime Earth radiation budget via the onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers have to be co-located with EPIC pixels to provide scene identification in order to select anisotropic directional models needed to calculate shortwave and longwave fluxes. A new algorithm is proposed for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-km resolution. An aggregated rating is employed to incorporate several factors and to select the best observation at the time nearest to the EPIC measurement. Spatial accuracy is improved using inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function defined with a half-pixel accuracy. PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed separately for each cloud phase. The algorithm has demonstrated contiguous global coverage for any requested time of day with a temporal lag of under 2 hours in over 95% of the globe.

  17. Development of Multi-Sensor Global Cloud and Radiance Composites for Earth Radiation Budget Monitoring from DSCOVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Duda, David; Thieman, Mandana; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying; Bedka, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) enables analysis of the daytime Earth radiation budget via the onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers have to be co-located with EPIC pixels to provide scene identification in order to select anisotropic directional models needed to calculate shortwave and longwave fluxes. A new algorithm is proposed for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-kilometer resolution. An aggregated rating is employed to incorporate several factors and to select the best observation at the time nearest to the EPIC measurement. Spatial accuracy is improved using inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function (PSF) defined with a half-pixel accuracy. PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed separately for each cloud phase. The algorithm has demonstrated contiguous global coverage for any requested time of day with a temporal lag of under 2 hours in over 95 percent of the globe.

  18. The Use of Transfer Radiometers in Validating the Visible through Shortwave Infrared Calibrations of Radiance Sources Used by Instruments in NASA's Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Barnes, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The detection and study of climate change over a time frame of decades requires successive generations of satellite, airborne, and ground-based instrumentation carefully calibrated against a common radiance scale. In NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the pre-launch radiometric calibration of these instruments in the wavelength region from 400 nm to 2500 nm is accomplished using internally illuminated integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance panels illuminated by irradiance standard lamps. Since 1995, the EOS Calibration Program operating within the EOS Project Science Office (PSO) has enlisted the expertise of national standards laboratories and government and university metrology laboratories in an effort to validate the radiance scales assigned to sphere and panel radiance sources by EOS instrument calibration facilities. This state-of-the-art program has been accomplished using ultra-stable transfer radiometers independently calibrated by the above participating institutions. In ten comparisons since February 1995, the agreement between the radiance measurements of the transfer radiometers is plus or minus 1.80% at 411 nm, plus or minus 1.31% at 552.5 nm, plus or minus 1.32% at 868.0 nm, plus or minus 2.54% at 1622nm, and plus or minus 2.81% at 2200nm (sigma =1).

  19. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca

    2014-08-17

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  20. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon. PMID:27478293

  1. Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of computing the inherent sea surface radiance for regions of clear water from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery given only a knowledge of the local solar zenith angle is examined. The inherent sea surface radiance is related to the upwelling and downwelling irradiances just beneath the sea surface, and an expression is obtained for a normalized inherent sea surface radiance which is nearly independent of solar zenith angle for low phytoplankton pigment concentrations. An analysis of a data base consisting of vertical profiles of upwelled spectral radiance and pigment concentration, which was used in the development of the CZCS program, confirms the virtual constancy of the normalized inherent sea surface radiance at wavelengths of 520 and 550 nm for cases when the pigment concentration is less than 0.25 mg/cu m. A strategy is then developed for using the normalized inherent sea surface radiance in the atmospheric correction of CZCS imagery.

  2. Capability of MODIS radiance to analyze Iberian turbid plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Novoa, Diego; deCastro, Maite; Des, Marisela; Costoya, Xurxo; Mendes, Renato; Gomez-Gesteira, Moncho

    2017-04-01

    River plumes are formed near river mouths by freshwater and riverine materials. Therefore, the area influenced by freshwater (salinity plume) is usually negatively correlated with the area occupied by suspension and dissolved material (turbid plume). Suspended material results in a strong signal detected by satellite sensors whereas ocean clear waters have negligible contributions. Thus, remote sensing data, such as radiance obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are a very useful tool to analyze turbid plumes due to the high spatial and time resolution provided. Here, MODIS capability for characterizing similarities and differences among the most important Iberian plumes was assessed under the influence of their main forcing. Daily radiance data from MODIS-Aqua and MODIS-Terra satellite sensors were processed obtaining a resolution of 500 m. Two approaches are usually used for atmospheric correction treatments: Near-Infrared (NIR) bands and a combined algorithm using NIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands. In the particular case of Iberian Peninsula plumes both methods offered similar results, although NIR bands present a lower associated error. MODIS allows working with several bands of normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw). Focusing in the resolution provided, nLw555 and 645 were the most appropriate because both provide the best coverage and correlation with river discharge. The nLw645 band was chosen because has a lower water penetration avoiding overestimations of turbidity caused by shallow seafloor areas and/or upwelling blooms. Daily data from both satellites were merged to enhance the robustness and precision of the study by increasing the number of available pixels. Results indicate that differences between radiance data from both satellites are negligible for Iberian plumes, justifying the merging. By last, each turbid limit, to delimit the respective plume from adjacent seawater, was obtained using two alternative

  3. Community Radiative Transfer Model for Satellite Radiance Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; van Delst, P.; Weng, F.

    2007-12-01

    The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) [Weng et al., 2005], developed at U.S. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), has been used for the satellite radiance simulation and the radiance derivatives to the surface/atmospheric parameters in the physical retrieval [Boukabara et al., 2007], data assimilation [Le Marshall et al., 2006] and many others [Han et al., 2006; Liu and Weng, 2006]. CRTM has been become a key component in U.S. data assimilation at the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) [Okamoto and. Derber, 2006]. It is a core engine for NOAA/NESDIS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) [Boukabara et al., 2007]. The CRTM has also been implemented into Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. The CRTM is known as modular program development [van Delst et al., 2006], which breaks down the radiative transfer model into components, each of which is encapsulated in one or several program modules and can be developed independently of the others. The key components of the CRTM are the advanced surface emissivity and reflectivity models [van Delst and Wu, 2000; English 1999; Weng et al. 2001] including a polarimetric surface emissivity model [Liu and Weng, 2003], the fast Optical Path Transmittance (OPTRAN) model [Xiong et al., 2006], the cloud absorption/scattering look-up tables [Yang et al., 2000], and the advanced radiative solver [Liu and Weng, 2006]. The CRTM can also compute aerosol radiance. The CRTM can deal with Zeeman splitting effect, the energy received in the channels for the stratosphere and mesosphere depends strongly on the geomagnetic field and its orientation with respect to the direction of observation [Han et al., 2007]. We will also present the applications of the CRTM in hurricane detection and forecasting, in the determination of stratospheric temperature, a key contributing factor to photochemical ozone depletion, and in reanalysis and climate studies.

  4. The thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengzhou; Pan, Delu; Tu, Qianguang; Gong, Fang; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Asian dust storms, which can long-range transport to ocean, often occur on spring. The present of Asian dust aerosols over ocean makes some difficult for other studies, such as cloud detection, and also take some advantage for ocean, such as take nutrition into the ocean by dry or wet deposition. Therefore, it is important to study the dust aerosol and retrieve the properties of dust from satellite observations that is mainly from the thermal infrared radiance. In this paper, the thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean are analyzed from MODIS and MTSAT2 observations and Streamer model simulations. By analyzing some line samples and a series of dust aerosol region, it shows that the dust aerosol brightness temperature at 12μm (BT12) is always greater than BT11 and BT8.5, and BT8.5 is general greater than BT11. The brightness temperature different between 11μm and 12μm (BTD11-12) increases with the dust intensity. And the BTD11-12 will become positive when the atmospheric relative humidity is greater than 70%. The BTD11-12 increases gradually with the surface temperature while the effect on BTD11-12 of dust layer temperature is not evident. Those are caused by the transmission of the dust aerosol is different at the two thermal infrared channels. During daytime, dust infrared brightness temperature at mid-infrared bands should reduce the visual radiance, which takes about 25K or less. In general, BT3.7 is greater than BT11 for dust aerosol. Those results are helpful to monitor or retrieve dust aerosol physical properties over ocean from satellite.

  5. Calculations of Reflected and Transmitted Radiance for Earth's Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-06-01

    The reflected and transmitted radiance of the earth's atmosphere is calculated by Monte Carlo techniques. The exact scattering function for the aerosols is used as calculated from the Mie theory. The aerosol vs height distributions proposed by Elterman and by Kondratiev et al. are compared. The Rayleigh and aerosol scattering events are included in the calculation, as well as the ozone absorption, where appropriate. Results are given at wavelengths of 0.27 micro, 0.3 micro, 0.4 micro, 0.7 micro, and 1.67 micro. The mean optical paths of the reflected and transmitted photons, the flux at the lower boundary, and the planetary albedo are tabulated.

  6. Mesoscale Gravity Wave Variances from AMSU-A Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2004-01-01

    A variance analysis technique is developed here to extract gravity wave (GW) induced temperature fluctuations from NOAA AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance measurements. By carefully removing the instrument/measurement noise, the algorithm can produce reliable GW variances with the minimum detectable value as small as 0.1 K2. Preliminary analyses with AMSU-A data show GW variance maps in the stratosphere have very similar distributions to those found with the UARS MLS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder). However, the AMSU-A offers better horizontal and temporal resolution for observing regional GW variability, such as activity over sub-Antarctic islands.

  7. P161 Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    For over 6 years, AIRS radiances have been assimilated operationally into National (e.g. Environmental Modeling Center (EMC)) and International (e.g. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)), operational centers; assimilated in the North American Mesoscale (NAM) since 2008. Due partly to data latency and operational constraints, hyperspectral radiance assimilation has had less impact on the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system used in the NAM and GFS. Objective of this project is to use AIRS retrieved profiles as a proxy for the AIRS radiances in situations where AIRS radiances are unable to be assimilated in the current operational system by evaluating location and magnitude of analysis increments.

  8. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOEpatents

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  9. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  10. Reverse radiance: a fast accurate method for determining luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kenneth E.; Rykowski, Ronald F.; Gangadhara, Sanjay

    2012-10-01

    Reverse ray tracing from a region of interest backward to the source has long been proposed as an efficient method of determining luminous flux. The idea is to trace rays only from where the final flux needs to be known back to the source, rather than tracing in the forward direction from the source outward to see where the light goes. Once the reverse ray reaches the source, the radiance the equivalent forward ray would have represented is determined and the resulting flux computed. Although reverse ray tracing is conceptually simple, the method critically depends upon an accurate source model in both the near and far field. An overly simplified source model, such as an ideal Lambertian surface substantially detracts from the accuracy and thus benefit of the method. This paper will introduce an improved method of reverse ray tracing that we call Reverse Radiance that avoids assumptions about the source properties. The new method uses measured data from a Source Imaging Goniometer (SIG) that simultaneously measures near and far field luminous data. Incorporating this data into a fast reverse ray tracing integration method yields fast, accurate data for a wide variety of illumination problems.

  11. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-11-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurement of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and PAR relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  12. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  13. Development of Multi-Sensor Global Cloud and Radiance Composites for DSCOVR EPIC Imager with Subpixel Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopenkov, K. V.; Duda, D. P.; Thieman, M. M.; Sun-Mack, S.; Su, W.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is designed to study the daytime Earth radiation budget by means of onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). EPIC imager observes in several shortwave bands (317-780 nm), while NISTAR measures the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) whole-disk radiance in shortwave and total broadband windows. Calculation of albedo and outgoing longwave flux requires a high-resolution scene identification such as the radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers. These properties have to be co-located with EPIC imager pixels to provide scene identification and to select anisotropic directional models, which are then used to adjust the NISTAR-measured radiance and subsequently obtain the global daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes. This work presents an algorithm for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-km resolution. The highest quality observation is selected by means of an aggregated rating which incorporates several factors such as the nearest time relative to EPIC observation, lowest viewing zenith angle, and others. This process provides a smoother transition and avoids abrupt changes in the merged composite data. Higher spatial accuracy in the composite product is achieved by using the inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into the EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function (PSF) defined with a half-pixel accuracy. Within every EPIC footprint, the PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed for each cloud phase and then stored within five data subsets (clear-sky, water cloud, ice cloud, total cloud, and no

  14. Correction for reflected sky radiance in low-altitude coastal hyperspectral images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Park, Joong Yong; Kopilevich, Yuri; Tuell, Grady; Philpot, William

    2013-11-10

    Low-altitude coastal hyperspectral imagery is sensitive to reflections of sky radiance at the water surface. Even in the absence of sun glint, and for a calm water surface, the wide range of viewing angles may result in pronounced, low-frequency variations of the reflected sky radiance across the scan line depending on the solar position. The variation in reflected sky radiance can be obscured by strong high-spatial-frequency sun glint and at high altitude by path radiance. However, at low altitudes, the low-spatial-frequency sky radiance effect is frequently significant and is not removed effectively by the typical corrections for sun glint. The reflected sky radiance from the water surface observed by a low-altitude sensor can be modeled in the first approximation as the sum of multiple-scattered Rayleigh path radiance and the single-scattered direct-solar-beam radiance by the aerosol in the lower atmosphere. The path radiance from zenith to the half field of view (FOV) of a typical airborne spectroradiometer has relatively minimal variation and its reflected radiance to detector array results in a flat base. Therefore the along-track variation is mostly contributed by the forward single-scattered solar-beam radiance. The scattered solar-beam radiances arrive at the water surface with different incident angles. Thus the reflected radiance received at the detector array corresponds to a certain scattering angle, and its variation is most effectively parameterized using the downward scattering angle (DSA) of the solar beam. Computation of the DSA must account for the roll, pitch, and heading of the platform and the viewing geometry of the sensor along with the solar ephemeris. Once the DSA image is calculated, the near-infrared (NIR) radiance from selected water scan lines are compared, and a relationship between DSA and NIR radiance is derived. We then apply the relationship to the entire DSA image to create an NIR reference image. Using the NIR reference image

  15. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  16. Asymptotic radiance and polarization in optically thick media: ocean and clouds.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1976-12-01

    Deep in a homogeneous medium that both scatters and absorbs photons, such as a cloud, the ocean, or a thick planetary atmosphere, the radiance decreases exponentially with depth, while the angular dependence of the radiance and polarization is independent of depth. In this diffusion region, the asymptotic radiance and polarization are also independent of the incident distribution of radiation at the upper surface of the medium. An exact expression is derived for the asymptotic radiance and polarization for Rayleigh scattering. The approximate expression for the asymptotic radiance derived from the scalar theory is shown to be in error by as much as 16.4%. An exact expression is also derived for the relation between the diffusion exponent k and the single scattering albedo. A method is developed for the numerical calculation of the asymptotic radiance and polarization for any scattering matrix. Results are given for scattering from the haze L and cloud C3 distributions for a wide range of single scattering albedos. When the absorption is large, the polarization in the diffusion region approaches the values obtained for single scattered photons, while the radiance approaches the value calculated from the expression: phase function divided by (1 + kmicro), where micro is the cosine of the zenith angle. The asymptotic distribution of the radiation is of interest since it depends only on the inherent optical properties of the medium. It is, however, difficult to observe when the absorption is large because of the very low radiance values in the diffusion region.

  17. Satellite radiance data assimilation for binary tropical cyclone cases over the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yonghan; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Joowan; Jin, Chun-Sil; Park, Sang-Hun; Joh, Min-Su

    2017-06-01

    A total of three binary tropical cyclone (TC) cases over the Western North Pacific are selected to investigate the effects of satellite radiance data assimilation on analyses and forecasts of binary TCs. Two parallel cycling experiments with a 6 h interval are performed for each binary TC case, and the difference between the two experiments is whether satellite radiance observations are assimilated. Satellite radiance observations are assimilated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation (WRFDA)'s three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) system, which includes the observation operator, quality control procedures, and bias correction algorithm for radiance observations. On average, radiance assimilation results in slight improvements of environmental fields and track forecasts of binary TC cases, but the detailed effects vary with the case. When there is no direct interaction between binary TCs, radiance assimilation leads to better depictions of environmental fields, and finally it results in improved track forecasts. However, positive effects of radiance assimilation on track forecasts can be reduced when there exists a direct interaction between binary TCs and intensities/structures of binary TCs are not represented well. An initialization method (e.g., dynamic initialization) combined with radiance assimilation and/or more advanced DA techniques (e.g., hybrid method) can be considered to overcome these limitations.

  18. The Impact of Assimilation of GPM Clear Sky Radiance on HWRF Hurricane Track and Intensity Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. L.; Pu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of GPM microwave imager (GMI) clear sky radiances on hurricane forecasting is examined by ingesting GMI level 1C recalibrated brightness temperature into the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)- based ensemble-variational hybrid data assimilation system for the operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) system. The GMI clear sky radiances are compared with the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) simulated radiances to closely study the quality of the radiance observations. The quality check result indicates the presence of bias in various channels. A static bias correction scheme, in which the appropriate bias correction coefficients for GMI data is evaluated by applying regression method on a sufficiently large sample of data representative to the observational bias in the regions of concern, is used to correct the observational bias in GMI clear sky radiances. Forecast results with and without assimilation of GMI radiance are compared using hurricane cases from recent hurricane seasons (e.g., Hurricane Joaquin in 2015). Diagnoses of data assimilation results show that the bias correction coefficients obtained from the regression method can correct the inherent biases in GMI radiance data, significantly reducing observational residuals. The removal of biases also allows more data to pass GSI quality control and hence to be assimilated into the model. Forecast results for hurricane Joaquin demonstrates that the quality of analysis from the data assimilation is sensitive to the bias correction, with positive impacts on the hurricane track forecast when systematic biases are removed from the radiance data. Details will be presented at the symposium.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE: CHEMICAL-FREE CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTORS BY THE RADIANCE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Radiance Process is a patented dry process for removing contaminants from surfaces. It uses light, usually from a pulsed laser and a gas inert to the surface, to entrain released contaminants. The focus of this effort is to assess the applicability of the Radiance Process t...

  20. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  1. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Hakala, Teemu; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK). PMID:29751560

  2. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-05-03

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).

  3. Improving AIRS Radiance Spectra in High Contrast Scenes Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.; Elliott, Denis A.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS acquires hyperspectral infrared radiances in 2378 channels ranging in wavelength from 3.7-15.4 microns with spectral resolution of better than 1200, and spatial resolution of 13.5 km with global daily coverage. The AIRS is designed to measure temperature and water vapor profiles for improvement in weather forecast accuracy and improved understanding of climate processes. As with most instruments, the AIRS Point Spread Functions (PSFs) are not the same for all detectors. When viewing a non-uniform scene, this causes a significant radiometric error in some channels that is scene dependent and cannot be removed without knowledge of the underlying scene. The magnitude of the error depends on the combination of non-uniformity of the AIRS spatial response for a given channel and the non-uniformity of the scene, but is typically only noticeable in about 1% of the scenes and about 10% of the channels. The current solution is to avoid those channels when performing geophysical retrievals. In this effort we use data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument to provide information on the scene uniformity that is used to correct the AIRS data. For the vast majority of channels and footprints the technique works extremely well when compared to a Principal Component (PC) reconstruction of the AIRS channels. In some cases where the scene has high inhomogeneity in an irregular pattern, and in some channels, the method can actually degrade the spectrum. Most of the degraded channels appear to be slightly affected by random noise introduced in the process, but those with larger degradation may be affected by alignment errors in the AIRS relative to MODIS or uncertainties in the PSF. Despite these errors, the methodology shows the ability to correct AIRS radiances in non-uniform scenes under some of the worst case conditions and improves the ability to

  4. The Relationship Between X-Ray Radiance and Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Fisher, George H.; Acton, Loren W.; Longcope, Dana W.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    2003-12-01

    We use soft X-ray and magnetic field observations of the Sun (quiet Sun, X-ray bright points, active regions, and integrated solar disk) and active stars (dwarf and pre-main-sequence) to study the relationship between total unsigned magnetic flux, Φ, and X-ray spectral radiance, LX. We find that Φ and LX exhibit a very nearly linear relationship over 12 orders of magnitude, albeit with significant levels of scatter. This suggests a universal relationship between magnetic flux and the power dissipated through coronal heating. If the relationship can be assumed linear, it is consistent with an average volumetric heating rate Q~B/L, where B is the average field strength along a closed field line and L is its length between footpoints. The Φ-LX relationship also indicates that X-rays provide a useful proxy for the magnetic flux on stars when magnetic measurements are unavailable.

  5. Infrared Spectral Radiance Intercomparisons With Satellite and Aircraft Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement system validation is critical for advanced satellite sounders to reach their full potential of improving observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface for enabling enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Experimental field campaigns, focusing on satellite under-flights with well-calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft, are an essential part of the validation task. Airborne FTS systems can enable an independent, SI-traceable measurement system validation by directly measuring the same level-1 parameters spatially and temporally coincident with the satellite sensor of interest. Continuation of aircraft under-flights for multiple satellites during multiple field campaigns enables long-term monitoring of system performance and inter-satellite cross-validation. The NASA / NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) has been a significant contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral/spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This presentation gives an overview of benefits achieved using airborne sensors such as NAST-I utilizing examples from recent field campaigns. The methodology implemented is not only beneficial to new sensors such as the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flying aboard the Suomi NPP and future JPSS satellites but also of significant benefit to sensors of longer flight heritage such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the AQUA and METOP-A platforms, respectively, to ensure data quality continuity important for climate and other applications. Infrared spectral radiance inter-comparisons are discussed with a particular focus on usage of NAST-I data for enabling inter-platform cross-validation.

  6. Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    As the first gravity wave (GW) climatology study using nadir-viewing infrared sounders, 50 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance channels are selected to estimate GW variances at pressure levels between 2-100 hPa. The GW variance for each scan in the cross-track direction is derived from radiance perturbations in the scan, independently of adjacent scans along the orbit. Since the scanning swaths are perpendicular to the satellite orbits, which are inclined meridionally at most latitudes, the zonal component of GW propagation can be inferred by differencing the variances derived between the westmost and the eastmost viewing angles. Consistent with previous GW studies using various satellite instruments, monthly mean AIRS variance shows large enhancements over meridionally oriented mountain ranges as well as some islands at winter hemisphere high latitudes. Enhanced wave activities are also found above tropical deep convective regions. GWs prefer to propagate westward above mountain ranges, and eastward above deep convection. AIRS 90 field-of-views (FOVs), ranging from +48 deg. to -48 deg. off nadir, can detect large-amplitude GWs with a phase velocity propagating preferentially at steep angles (e.g., those from orographic and convective sources). The annual cycle dominates the GW variances and the preferred propagation directions for all latitudes. Indication of a weak two-year variation in the tropics is found, which is presumably related to the Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). AIRS geometry makes its out-tracks capable of detecting GWs with vertical wavelengths substantially shorter than the thickness of instrument weighting functions. The novel discovery of AIRS capability of observing shallow inertia GWs will expand the potential of satellite GW remote sensing and provide further constraints on the GW drag parameterization schemes in the general circulation models (GCMs).

  7. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  8. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  9. Autoshaping as a psychophysical paradigm: Absolute visual sensitivity in the pigeon

    PubMed Central

    Passe, Dennis H.

    1981-01-01

    A classical conditioning procedure (autoshaping) was used to determine absolute visual threshold in the pigeon. This method provides the basis for a standardized visual psychophysical paradigm. PMID:16812228

  10. Dependence of NOAA-AVHRR recorded radiance on scan angle, atmospheric turbidity and unresolved cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piwinski, D. J.; Schoch, L. B.; Duggin, M. J.; Whitehead, V.; Ryland, E.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental evidence on the scan angle and sun angle dependence of radiance recorded by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) devices on the NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 satellites is presented. The effects of atmospheric turbidity at various scan angles is shown, and simulations of angular anisotropy and recorded radiance are compared with the recorded digital data from the AVHRR obtained over the Great Plains area of the US. Evidence is presented on the effects of unresolved cloud on the recorded radiance and vegetative indices from uniform, vegetative targets.

  11. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  12. Evaluation and Assimilation of Cloud Cleared Radiances for AIRS in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hui-chun

    2008-01-01

    The use of clear (cloud-free) channels for AIRS in GEOS-5 had shown positive impact on forecast skills in both hemispheres. However, improvements in forecast skills due to the assimilation of AIRS data are less impressive since the number of assimilated channels from AIRS is much larger than that from other Infrared sounders such as HIRS-3 onboard NOAA 15-17 satellites. This limitation of AIRS radiance data to improve the forecast skill is mainly due to the fact that channels capable of peaking below clouds are not used in the assimilation and yet those have highest vertical resolving capability of AIRS instrument are concentrated in the lower troposphere. On average, the percentage of AIRS footprints completely clear for all channels is less than 10%. The percentage of assimilated AIRS channel radiances however ranges from 100% for channels peaking in the upper stratosphere, above the cloud, to no more that 5% in the lower atmosphere due to cloud contamination. Our current ability to model and predict clouds accurately in global model, and to fully characterize and parameterize optical properties of cloud particles in radiative transfer model are the two major obstacles prohibiting us to use cloudy radiance directly in the assimilation. To further improve forecast skill using AIRS data, we ought to use the channels peaking below the clouds in the troposphere, which can be accomplished by assimilating cloud-cleared radiance. The cloud-cleared radiance data for AIRS used in this study were obtained from optimal cloud clearing procedures developed by researchers at CIMSS of University of Wisconsin at Madison to retrieve clear column radiances for all AIRS channels by collocating multi-band MODIS IR clear radiance observations with the AIRS cloudy radiances on a single footprint basis. Two adjacent AIRS cloudy footprints are used to retrieve one AIRS cloud-cleared radiance spectrum and no background information (first guess) is needed. To assimilate the cloud

  13. Science Enabling Applications of Gridded Radiances and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Wolf, W.; Zhou, L.

    2005-12-01

    New generations of hyperspectral sounders and imagers are not only providing vastly improved information to monitor, assess and predict the Earth's environment, they also provide tremendous volumes of data to manage. Key management challenges must include data processing, distribution, archive and utilization. At the NOAA/NESDIS Office of Research and Applications, we have started to address the challenge of utilizing high volume satellite by thinning observations and developing gridded datasets from the observations made from the NASA AIRS, AMSU and MODIS instrument. We have developed techniques for intelligent thinning of AIRS data for numerical weather prediction, by selecting the clearest AIRS 14 km field of view within a 3 x 3 array. The selection uses high spatial resolution 1 km MODIS data which are spatially convolved to the AIRS field of view. The MODIS cloud masks and AIRS cloud tests are used to select the clearest. During the real-time processing the data are thinned and gridded to support monitoring, validation and scientific studies. Products from AIRS, which includes profiles of temperature, water vapor and ozone and cloud-corrected infrared radiances for more than 2000 channels, are derived from a single AIRS/AMSU field of regard, which is a 3 x 3 array of AIRS footprints (each with a 14 km spatial resolution) collocated with a single AMSU footprint (42 km). One of our key gridded dataset is a daily 3 x 3 latitude/longitude projection which contains the nearest AIRS/AMSU field of regard with respect to the center of the 3 x 3 lat/lon grid. This particular gridded dataset is 1/40 the size of the full resolution data. This gridded dataset is the type of product request that can be used to support algorithm validation and improvements. It also provides for a very economical approach for reprocessing, testing and improving algorithms for climate studies without having to reprocess the full resolution data stored at the DAAC. For example, on a single CPU

  14. Development of Multi-Sensor Global Cloud and Radiance Composites for DSCOVR EPIC Imager with Subpixel Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Duda, David; Thieman, Mandana; Sun-mack, Szedung; Su, Wenying; Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) enables analysis of the daytime Earth radiation budget via the onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). EPIC delivers adequate spatial resolution imagery but only in shortwave bands (317-780 nm), while NISTAR measures the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) whole-disk radiance in shortwave and longwave broadband windows. Accurate calculation of albedo and outgoing longwave flux requires a high-resolution scene identification such as the radiance observations and cloud properties retrievals from low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, Suomi-NPP VIIRS, and NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES east and west, METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and Himawari-8) satellite imagers. The cloud properties are derived using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission Cloud Subsystem group algorithms. These properties have to be co-located with EPIC pixels to provide the scene identification and to select anisotropic directional models (ADMs), which are then used to adjust the NISTAR-measured radiance and subsequently obtain the global daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes. This work presents an algorithm for optimal merging of selected radiance and cloud property parameters derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-km resolution. Selection of satellite data for each 5-km pixel is based on an aggregated rating that incorporates five parameters: nominal satellite resolution, pixel time relative to the EPIC time, viewing zenith angle, distance from day/night terminator, and probability of sun glint. To provide a smoother transition in the merged output, in regions where candidate pixel data from two satellite sources have comparable aggregated rating, the selection decision is defined by the cumulative function of the normal distribution so that abrupt changes in

  15. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Narrow-Swath Imaging Sensors with Reference to Non-Coincident Wide-Swath Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Lockwood, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    An inter-calibration method is developed to provide absolute radiometric calibration of narrow-swath imaging sensors with reference to non-coincident wide-swath sensors. The method predicts at-sensor radiance using non-coincident imagery from the reference sensor and knowledge of spectral reflectance of the test site. The imagery of the reference sensor is restricted to acquisitions that provide similar view and solar illumination geometry to reduce uncertainties due to directional reflectance effects. Spectral reflectance of the test site is found with a simple iterative radiative transfer method using radiance values of a well-understood wide-swath sensor and spectral shape information based on historical ground-based measurements. At-sensor radiance is calculated for the narrow-swath sensor using this spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters that are also based on historical in situ measurements. Results of the inter-calibration method show agreement on the 2 5 percent level in most spectral regions with the vicarious calibration technique relying on coincident ground-based measurements referred to as the reflectance-based approach. While the variability of the inter-calibration method based on non-coincident image pairs is significantly larger, results are consistent with techniques relying on in situ measurements. The method is also insensitive to spectral differences between the sensors by transferring to surface spectral reflectance prior to prediction of at-sensor radiance. The utility of this inter-calibration method is made clear by its flexibility to utilize image pairings with acquisition dates differing in excess of 30 days allowing frequent absolute calibration comparisons between wide- and narrow-swath sensors.

  16. ScaRaB: first results of absolute and cross calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Aznay, Ouahid; Chomette, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    ScaRaB (SCAnner for RAdiation Budget) is the name of three radiometers whose two first flight models have been launched in 1994 and 1997. The instruments were mounted on-board Russian satellites, METEOR and RESURS. On October 12th 2011, a last model has been launched from the Indian site of Sriharikota. ScaRaB is a passenger of MEGHA-TROPIQUES, an Indo-French joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. ScaRaB is composed of four parallel and independent channels. Channel-2 and channel-3 are considered as the main ones. Channel-1 is dedicated to measure solar radiance (0.5 to 0.7 μm) while channel-4 (10 to 13 μm) is an infrared window. The absolute calibration of ScaRab is assured by internal calibration sources (black bodies and a lamp for channel-1). However, during the commissioning phase, the lamp used for the absolute calibration of channel-1 revealed to be inaccurate. We propose here an alternative calibration method based on terrestrial targets. Due to the spectral range of channel-1, only calibration over desert sites (temporal monitoring) and clouds (cross band) is suitable. Desert sites have been widely used for sensor calibration since they have a stable spectral response over time. Because of their high reflectances, the atmospheric effect on the upward radiance is relatively minimal. In addition, they are spatially uniform. Their temporal instability without atmospheric correction has been determined to be less than 1-2% over a year. Very-high-altitude (10 km) bright clouds are good validation targets in the visible and near-infrared spectra because of their high spectrally consistent reflectance. If the clouds are very high, there is no need to correct aerosol scattering and water vapor absorption as both aerosol and water vapor are distributed near the surface. Only Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption need to be considered. This method has been found to give a 4% uncertainty. Radiometric cross

  17. Emission- and fluorescence-spectroscopic investigation of a glow discharge plasma: absolute number density of radiative and nonradiative atoms in the negative glow.

    PubMed

    Takubo, Y; Sato, T; Asaoka, N; Kusaka, K; Akiyama, T; Muroo, K; Yamamoto, M

    2008-01-01

    The excited-state atom densities in the negative glow of a direct-current glow discharge are derived from the spectral-line intensity of radiative atoms and the resonance-fluorescence photon flux of nonradiative atoms. The discharge is operated in a helium-argon gas mixture (molar fraction ratio 91:9; total gas pressure 5 Torr) at a dc current of 0.7-1.2 mA. The observations are made in the region of the maximum luminance in the cathode region, where high-energy electrons accelerated in the cathode fall are injected into the negative glow. The emission intensities of the He I, He II, Ar I, and Ar II spectral lines are measured with a calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp as an absolute spectral-radiance standard. Fluorescence photons scattered by helium and argon atoms in the metastable state and argon atoms in the resonance state are detected by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method with the Rayleigh scattering of nitrogen molecules as an absolute standard of scattering cross section. The laser absorption method is incorporated to confirm the result of the LIF measurement. Excitation energies of the measured spectral lines range from 11.6 (Ar I) to 75.6 eV (He II), where the excitation energy is measured from the ground state of the neutral atom on the assumption that, in the plasma of this study, both the neutral and the ionic lines are excited by electron impact in a single-step process from the ground state of the corresponding neutral atoms. Experimental evidence is shown for the validity of this assumption.

  18. Determining index of refraction from polarimetric hyperspectral radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jacob A.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2015-09-01

    Polarimetric hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI) combines two of the most common remote sensing modalities. This work leverages the combination of these techniques to improve material classification. Classifying and identifying materials requires parameters which are invariant to changing viewing conditions, and most often a material's reflectivity or emissivity is used. Measuring these most often requires assumptions be made about the material and atmospheric conditions. Combining both polarimetric and hyperspectral imaging, we propose a method to remotely estimate the index of refraction of a material. In general, this is an underdetermined problem because both the real and imaginary components of index of refraction are unknown at every spectral point. By modeling the spectral variation of the index of refraction using a few parameters, however, the problem can be made overdetermined. A number of different functions can be used to describe this spectral variation, and some are discussed here. Reducing the number of spectral parameters to fit allows us to add parameters which estimate atmospheric downwelling radiance and transmittance. Additionally, the object temperature is added as a fit parameter. The set of these parameters that best replicate the measured data is then found using a bounded Nelder-Mead simplex search algorithm. Other search algorithms are also examined and discussed. Results show that this technique has promise but also some limitations, which are the subject of ongoing work.

  19. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  20. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  2. Effect of aerosol variation on radiance in the earth's atmosphere-ocean system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plass, G. N.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the radiance at the top and bottom of the atmosphere with a realistic model of both the atmosphere and ocean. It is found that the upward flux at the top of the atmosphere, as well as the angular distribution of the radiation, changes appreciably as the aerosol amount increases from normal to ten times normal. At the same time, the upward and downward radiance just above the ocean surface undergoes important changes. The radiance does not change appreciably with variations in the aerosol distribution with height so long as the total aerosol amount remains constant. Similarly, changes in the ozone amount cause only small changes in the radiance at the wavelengths considered (0.7, 0.9, and 1.67 micron). Very little radiation returns to the atmosphere from the ocean at 0.9 and 1.67 micron because of the high absorption of water at these wavelengths.

  3. Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media. III Scattering from Haze L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.

    1975-01-01

    The interior radiances are calculated within an optically deep absorbing medium scattering according to the Haze L phase function. The dependence on the solar zenith angle, the single scattering albedo, and the optical depth within the medium is calculated by the matrix operator method. The development of the asymptotic angular distribution of the radiance in the diffusion region is illustrated through a number of examples; it depends only on the single scattering albedo and on the phase function for single scattering. The exact values of the radiance in the diffusion region are compared with values calculated from the approximate equations proposed by Van de Hulst. The variation of the radiance near the lower boundary of an optically thick medium is illustrated with examples. The attenuation length is calculated for various single scattering albedos and compared with the corresponding values for Rayleigh scattering. The ratio of the upward to the downward flux is found to be remarkably constant within the medium.

  4. Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance Around Cloud Edges Observed by ARM SWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, J. C.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The ARM Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) measures zenith radiance at 418 wavelengths between 350 and 2170 nm. Because of its 1-sec sampling resolution, the SWS provides a unique capability to study the transition zone between cloudy and clear sky areas. A spectral invariant behavior is found between ratios of zenith radiance spectra during the transition from cloudy to cloud-free. This behavior suggests that the spectral signature of the transition zone is a linear mixture between the two extremes (definitely cloudy and definitely clear). The weighting function of the linear mixture is a wavelength-independent characteristic of the transition zone. It is shown that the transition zone spectrum is fully determined by this function and zenith radiance spectra of clear and cloudy regions. An important result of these discoveries is that high temporal resolution radiance measurements in the clear-to-cloud transition zone can be well approximated by lower temporal resolution measurements plus linear interpolation.

  5. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  6. Assessment of COSMIC radio occultation and AIRS hyperspectral IR sounder temperature products in the stratosphere using observed radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, M. L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Revercomb, H. E.

    2017-08-01

    Upper air temperature is defined as an essential climate variable by the World Meteorological Organization. Two remote sensing technologies being promoted for monitoring stratospheric temperatures are GPS radio occultation (RO) and spectrally resolved IR radiances. This study assesses RO and hyperspectral IR sounder derived temperature products within the stratosphere by comparing IR spectra calculated from GPS RO and IR sounder products to coincident IR observed radiances, which are used as a reference standard. RO dry temperatures from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission are compared to NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals using a previously developed profile-to-profile collocation method and vertical temperature averaging kernels. Brightness temperatures (BTs) are calculated for both COSMIC and AIRS temperature products and are then compared to coincident AIRS measurements. The COSMIC calculated minus AIRS measured BTs exceed the estimated 0.5 K measurement uncertainty for the winter time extratropics around 35 hPa. These differences are attributed to seasonal UCAR COSMIC biases. Unphysical vertical oscillations are seen in the AIRS L2 temperature product in austral winter Antarctic regions, and results imply a small AIRS tropical warm bias around 35 hPa in the middle stratosphere.

  7. Carbon dioxide /V2/ radiance results using a new nonequilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. D.; Nadile, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    It was observed during the SPIRE experiment (Spectral Infrared Rocket Experiment) that the 15 micron limb radiance stays constant from 95 to 110 km despite the fact that CO2 concentration over this altitude range decreases by a factor of 20. The results of a 15 micron CO2 radiance model are presented which explain the observed anomaly. It is shown that CO2 deactivation by oxygen is the predominant factor in 15 micron emission above 95 km.

  8. Additional confirmation of the validity of laboratory simulation of cloud radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Cox, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a laboratory experiment are presented that provide additional verification of the methodology adopted for simulation of the radiances reflected from fields of optically thick clouds using the Cloud Field Optical Simulator (CFOS) at Colorado State University. The comparison of these data with their theoretically derived counterparts indicates that the crucial mechanism of cloud-to-cloud radiance field interaction is accurately simulated in the CFOS experiments and adds confidence to the manner in which the optical depth is scaled.

  9. Horizon Brightness Revisited: Measurements and a Model of Clear-Sky Radiances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    Clear daytime skies persistently display a subtle local maximum of radiance near the astronomical horizon. Spectroradiometry and digital image analysis confirm this maximum’s reality, and they show that its angular width and elevation vary with solar elevation, azimuth relative to the Sun, and aerosol optical depth. Many existing models of atmospheric scattering do not generate this near-horizon radiance maximum, but a simple second-order scattering model does, and it reproduces many of the maximum’s details.

  10. Assessment of the first radiances received from the VSSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Uccellini, L. W.; Montgomery, H.; Mostek, A.; Robinson, W.

    1981-01-01

    The first orderly, calibrated radiances from the VAS-D instrument on the GOES-4 satellite are examined for: image quality, radiometric precision, radiation transfer verification at clear air radiosonde sites, regression retrieval accuracy, and mesoscale analysis features. Postlaunch problems involving calibration and data processing irregularities of scientific or operational significance are included. The radiances provide good visual and relative radiometric data for empirically conditioned retrievals of mesoscale temperature and moisture fields in clear air.

  11. Nonuniformity correction of infrared cameras by reading radiance temperatures with a spatially nonhomogeneous radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method of nonuniformity correction (NUC) of infrared cameras and focal plane arrays (FPA) in a wide optical spectral range by reading radiance temperatures and by applying a radiation source with an unknown and spatially nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution. The benefit of this novel method is that it works with the display and the calculation of radiance temperatures, it can be applied to radiation sources of arbitrary spatial radiance temperature distribution, and it only requires sufficient temporal stability of this distribution during the measurement process. In contrast to this method, an initially presented method described the calculation of NUC correction with the reading of monitored radiance values. Both methods are based on the recording of several (at least three) images of a radiation source and a purposeful row- and line-shift of these sequent images in relation to the first primary image. The mathematical procedure is explained in detail. Its numerical verification with a source of a predefined nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution and a thermal imager of a predefined nonuniform FPA responsivity is presented.

  12. Calculation of the angular radiance distribution for a coupled atmosphere and canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shunlin; Strahler, Alan H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative transfer equations for a coupled atmosphere and canopy are solved numerically by an improved Gauss-Seidel iteration algorithm. The radiation field is decomposed into three components: unscattered sunlight, single scattering, and multiple scattering radiance for which the corresponding equations and boundary conditions are set up and their analytical or iterational solutions are explicitly derived. The classic Gauss-Seidel algorithm has been widely applied in atmospheric research. This is its first application for calculating the multiple scattering radiance of a coupled atmosphere and canopy. This algorithm enables us to obtain the internal radiation field as well as radiances at boundaries. Any form of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) as a boundary condition can be easily incorporated into the iteration procedure. The hotspot effect of the canopy is accommodated by means of the modification of the extinction coefficients of upward single scattering radiation and unscattered sunlight using the formulation of Nilson and Kuusk. To reduce the computation for the case of large optical thickness, an improved iteration formula is derived to speed convergence. The upwelling radiances have been evaluated for different atmospheric conditions, leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution (LAD), leaf size and so on. The formulation presented in this paper is also well suited to analyze the relative magnitude of multiple scattering radiance and single scattering radiance in both the visible and near infrared regions.

  13. Implementation and application of an interactive user-friendly validation software for RADIANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Anand; Boonn, William W.; Kim, Woojin; Cook, Tessa S.

    2012-02-01

    RADIANCE extracts CT dose parameters from dose sheets using optical character recognition and stores the data in a relational database. To facilitate validation of RADIANCE's performance, a simple user interface was initially implemented and about 300 records were evaluated. Here, we extend this interface to achieve a wider variety of functions and perform a larger-scale validation. The validator uses some data from the RADIANCE database to prepopulate quality-testing fields, such as correspondence between calculated and reported total dose-length product. The interface also displays relevant parameters from the DICOM headers. A total of 5,098 dose sheets were used to test the performance accuracy of RADIANCE in dose data extraction. Several search criteria were implemented. All records were searchable by accession number, study date, or dose parameters beyond chosen thresholds. Validated records were searchable according to additional criteria from validation inputs. An error rate of 0.303% was demonstrated in the validation. Dose monitoring is increasingly important and RADIANCE provides an open-source solution with a high level of accuracy. The RADIANCE validator has been updated to enable users to test the integrity of their installation and verify that their dose monitoring is accurate and effective.

  14. The Absolute Reflectance and New Calibration Site of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Wang, Zhenchao; Cai, Wei; Lu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    How bright the Moon is forms a simple but fundamental and important question. Although numerous efforts have been made to answer this question such as use of sophisticated electro-optical measurements and suggestions for calibration sites, the answer is still debated. An in situ measurement with a calibration panel on the surface of the Moon is crucial for obtaining the accurate absolute reflectance and resolving the debate. China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) “Yutu” rover accomplished this type of measurement using the Visible-Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS). The measurements of the VNIS, which were at large emission and phase angles, complement existing measurements for the range of photometric geometry. The in situ reflectance shows that the CE-3 landing site is very dark with an average reflectance of 3.86% in the visible bands. The results are compared with recent mission instruments: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC), the Spectral Profiler (SP) on board the SELENE, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board the Chandrayaan-1, and the Chang’E-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM). The differences in the measurements of these instruments are very large and indicate inherent differences in their absolute calibration. The M3 and IIM measurements are smaller than LROC WAC and SP, and the VNIS measurement falls between these two pairs. When using the Moon as a radiance source for the on-orbit calibration of spacecraft instruments, one should be cautious about the data. We propose that the CE-3 landing site, a young and homogeneous surface, should serve as the new calibration site.

  15. The use of multidate multichannel radiance data in urban feature analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J.; Rowntree, R.; Emmons, M.; Hubbard, N.; Odell, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two images were obtained from thematic mappers on Landsats 4 and 5 over the Washington, DC area during November 1982 and March 1984. Selected training areas containing different types of urban land use were examined,one area consisting entirely of forest. Mean digital radiance values for each bandpass in each image were examined, and variances, standard deviations, and covariances between bandpasses were calculated. It has been found that two bandpasses caused forested areas to stand out from other land use types, especially for the November 1982 image. In order to evaluate quantitatively the possible utility of the principal components analysis in selected feature extraction, the eigenvectors were evaluated for principal axes rotations which rendered each selected land use type most separable from all other land use types. The evaluated eigenvectors were plotted as a function of land use type, whose order was decided by considering anticipated shadow component and by examining the relative loadings indicative of vegetation for each of the principal components for the different features considered. The analysis was performed for each seven-band image separately and for the two combined images. It was found that by combining the two images, more dramatic land use type separation could be obtained.

  16. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  17. Simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness and water-leaving radiance from multispectral measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chong; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2018-03-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties and water-leaving radiance over ocean is challenging since the latter mostly accounts for ˜ 10 % of the satellite-observed signal and can be easily influenced by the atmospheric scattering. Such an effort would be more difficult in turbid coastal waters due to the existence of optically complex oceanic substances or high aerosol loading. In an effort to solve such problems, we present an optimization approach for the simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) from multispectral satellite measurements. In this algorithm, a coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model combined with a comprehensive bio-optical oceanic module is used to jointly simulate the satellite-observed reflectance at the top of atmosphere and water-leaving radiance just above the ocean surface. Then, an optimal estimation method is adopted to retrieve AOT and nLw iteratively. The algorithm is validated using Aerosol Robotic Network - Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) products selected from eight OC sites distributed over different waters, consisting of observations that covered glint and non-glint conditions from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. Results show a good consistency between retrieved and in situ measurements at each site. It is demonstrated that more accurate AOTs are determined based on the simultaneous retrieval method, particularly in shorter wavelengths and sunglint conditions, where the averaged percentage difference (APD) of retrieved AOT is generally reduced by approximate 10 % in visible bands compared with those derived from the standard atmospheric correction (AC) scheme, since all the spectral measurements can be used jointly to increase the information content in the inversion of AOT, and the wind speed is also simultaneously retrieved to compensate the specular reflectance error estimated from the rough ocean surface model. For the

  18. Radiation in the earth's atmosphere: its radiance, polarization, and ellipticity.

    PubMed

    Hitzfelder, S J; Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1976-10-01

    The complete radiation field including polarization is calculated by the matrix operator method for a model of the real atmosphere. The radiance, direction and amount of polarization, and ellipticity are obtained at the top and bottom of the atmosphere for three values of the surface albedo (0, 0.15, 0.90) and five solar zenith angles. Scattering and absorption by molecules (including ozone) and by aerosols are taken into account together with the variation of the number density of these substances with height. All results are calculated for both a normal aerosol number and a distribution that is one-third of the normal amount at all heights. The calculated values show general qualitative agreement with the available experimental measurements. The position of the neutral points of the polarization in the principal plane is a sensitive indicator of the characteristics of the aerosol particles in the atmosphere, since it depends on the sign and value of the single scattered polarization for scattering angles around 20 degrees and 160 degrees for transmitted and reflected photons, respectively. This, in turn, depends on the index of refraction and size distribution of the aerosols. The neutral point position does not depend appreciably on the surface albedo and, over a considerable range, depends little on the solar zenith angle. The value of the maximum polarization in the principal plane depends on the aerosol amount, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. It could be used to measure the aerosol amount. The details of the ellipticity curves are similar to those for scattering from pure aerosol layers and, thus, are little modified by the Rayleigh scattering. Aerosols could be identified by their characteristic ellipticity curves.

  19. Multi-RTM-based Radiance Assimilation to Improve Snow Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y.; Zhao, L.; Hoar, T. J.; Yang, Z. L.; Toure, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Data assimilation of microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations (i.e., radiance assimilation (RA)) has been proven to improve snowpack characterization at relatively small scales. However, large-scale applications of RA require a considerable amount of further efforts. Our objective in this study is to explore global-scale snow RA. In a RA scheme, a radiative transfer model (RTM) is an observational operator predicting TB; therefore, the quality of the assimilation results may strongly depend upon the RTM used as well as the land surface model (LSM). Several existing RTMs show different sensitivities to snowpack properties and thus they simulate significantly different TB. At the global scale, snow physical properties vary widely with local climate conditions. No single RTM has been shown to be able to accurately reproduce the observed TB for such a wide range of snow conditions. In this study, therefore, we hypothesize that snow estimates using a microwave RA scheme can be improved through the use of multiple RTMs (i.e., multi-RTM-based approaches). As a first step, here we use two snowpack RTMs, i.e., the Dense Media Radiative Transfer-Multi Layers model (DMRT-ML) and the Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS). The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is used to simulate snow dynamics. The assimilation process is conducted by the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), which is a community facility developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for ensemble-based data assimilation studies. In the RA experiments, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) TB at 18.7 and 36.5 GHz vertical polarization channels are assimilated into the RA system using the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter. The results are evaluated using the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) daily snow depth, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction, and in-situ snowpack and river

  20. Effects of Nighttime Light Radiance on the Sleep of the General Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to verify if the exposure to greater nighttime radiance is associated with changes in the sleep/wake schedule and with greater sleep disturbances. Methods: The target population was the adults (18 years and older) living in California, USA. This represents 24 million of inhabitants. A total of 3,104 subjects participated in the survey (participation rate 85.6%). The participants were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The interviews covered several topics including sleeping habits, sleep quality, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms related to menopause. Chronic insomnia was defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep for at least 3 months. Global nighttime light emissions have been collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) sensors. We extracted the radiance calibrated nighttime lights corresponding to the date of the interviews for a three by three window centered on each coordinate corresponding to an interview address. Results: Dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and/or quality was associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p=0.02). Similarly, excessive sleepiness accompanied with impaired functioning was significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Confusional arousals were also significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Bedtime hour was linearly increasing with the intensity of nighttime radiance: the later the bedtime, the greater the nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Similarly, wakeup time became progressively later as the nighttime radiance increased (p (is) less than 0.0001). Both associations remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Circadian Rhythm Disorders were the

  1. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k = 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k = 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  2. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  3. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Palikonda, R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Su, W.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  4. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  5. Determining absolute protein numbers by quantitative fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien Suzanne; Lawrimore, Josh; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Biological questions are increasingly being addressed using a wide range of quantitative analytical tools to examine protein complex composition. Knowledge of the absolute number of proteins present provides insights into organization, function, and maintenance and is used in mathematical modeling of complex cellular dynamics. In this chapter, we outline and describe three microscopy-based methods for determining absolute protein numbers--fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stepwise photobleaching, and ratiometric comparison of fluorescence intensity to known standards. In addition, we discuss the various fluorescently labeled proteins that have been used as standards for both stepwise photobleaching and ratiometric comparison analysis. A detailed procedure for determining absolute protein number by ratiometric comparison is outlined in the second half of this chapter. Counting proteins by quantitative microscopy is a relatively simple yet very powerful analytical tool that will increase our understanding of protein complex composition. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate Quality Broadband and Narrowband Solar Reflected Radiance Calibration Between Sensors in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.; Young, David F.; Loeb, Norman G.; Garber, Donald P.; MacDonnell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    vAs the potential impacts of global climate change become more clear [1], the need to determine the accuracy of climate prediction over decade-to-century time scales has become an urgent and critical challenge. The most critical tests of climate model predictions will occur using observations of decadal changes in climate forcing, response, and feedback variables. Many of these key climate variables are observed by remotely sensing the global distribution of reflected solar spectral and broadband radiance. These "reflected solar" variables include aerosols, clouds, radiative fluxes, snow, ice, vegetation, ocean color, and land cover. Achieving sufficient satellite instrument accuracy, stability, and overlap to rigorously observe decadal change signals has proven very difficult in most cases and has not yet been achieved in others [2]. One of the earliest efforts to make climate quality observations was for Earth Radiation Budget: Nimbus 6/7 in the late 1970s, ERBE in the 1980s/90s, and CERES in 2000s are examples of the most complete global records. The recent CERES data products have carried out the most extensive intercomparisons because if the need to merge data from up to 11 instruments (CERES, MODIS, geostationary imagers) on 7 spacecraft (Terra, Aqua, and 5 geostationary) for any given month. In order to achieve climate calibration for cloud feedbacks, the radiative effect of clear-sky, all-sky, and cloud radiative effect must all be made with very high stability and accuracy. For shortwave solar reflected flux, even the 1% CERES broadband absolute accuracy (1-sigma confidence bound) is not sufficient to allow gaps in the radiation record for decadal climate change. Typical absolute accuracy for the best narrowband sensors like SeaWiFS, MISR, and MODIS range from 2 to 4% (1-sigma). IPCC greenhouse gas radiative forcing is approx. 0.6 W/sq m per decade or 0.6% of the global mean shortwave reflected flux, so that a 50% cloud feedback would change the global

  7. Validation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances with the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aircraft instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, David C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Moeller, Chris C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L.; van Delst, Paul; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark D.; Dedecker, Ralph G.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Howell, Hugh B.; Dutcher, Steven B.; Taylor, Joe K.

    2004-11-01

    The ability to accurately validate high spectral resolution infrared radiance measurements from space using comparisons with aircraft spectrometer observations has been successfully demonstrated. The demonstration is based on an under-flight of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua spacecraft by the Scanning High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft on 21 November 2002 and resulted in brightness temperature differences approaching 0.1K for most of the spectrum. This paper presents the details of this AIRS/S-HIS validation case and also presents comparisons of Aqua AIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiance observations. Aircraft comparisons of this type provide a mechanism for periodically testing the absolute calibration of spacecraft instruments with instrumentation for which the calibration can be carefully maintained on the ground. This capability is especially valuable for assuring the long-term consistency and accuracy of climate observations. It is expected that aircraft flights of the S-HIS and its close cousin the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Atmospheric Sounder Testbed (NAST) will be used to check the long-term stability of the NASA EOS spacecrafts (Terra, Aqua and Aura) and the follow-on complement of operational instruments, including the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  8. Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) that mimics the analysis methodology, domain, and observational datasets for the regional North American Mesoscale (NAM) model run at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) are run to examine the impact of each type of AIRS data set. The first configuration will assimilate the AIRS radiance data along with other conventional and satellite data using techniques implemented within the operational system; the second configuration will assimilate AIRS retrieved profiles instead of AIRS radiances in the same manner. Preliminary results of this study will be presented and focus on the analysis impact of the radiances and profiles for selected cases.

  9. Role of laser beam radiance in different ceramic processing: A two wavelengths comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Pratik; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    Effects of laser beam radiance (brightness) of the fibre and the Nd3+:YAG laser were investigated during surface engineering of the ZrO2 and Si3N4 advanced ceramics with respect to dimensional size and microstructure of both of the advanced ceramics. Using identical process parameters, the effects of radiance of both the Nd3+:YAG laser and a fibre laser were compared thereon the two selected advanced ceramics. Both the lasers showed differences in each of the ceramics employed in relation to the microstructure and grain size as well as the dimensional size of the laser engineered tracks-notwithstanding the use of identical process parameters namely spot size; laser power; traverse speed; Gaussian beam modes; gas flow rate and gas composition as well the wavelengths. From this it was evident that the difference in the laser beam radiance between the two lasers would have had much to do with this effect. The high radiance fibre laser produced larger power per unit area in steradian when compared to the lower radiance of the Nd3+:YAG laser. This characteristically produced larger surface tracks through higher interaction temperature at the laser-ceramic interface. This in turn generated bigger melt-zones and different cooling rates which then led to the change in the microstructure of both the Si3N4 and ZrO2 advance ceramics. Owing to this, it was indicative that lasers with high radiance would result in much cheaper and cost effective laser assisted surface engineering processes, since lower laser power, faster traverse speeds, larger spot sizes could be used in comparison to lasers with lower radiance which require much slower traverse speed, higher power levels and finer spot sizes to induce the same effect thereon materials such as the advanced ceramics.

  10. High-radiance LDP source for mask inspection and beam line applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Yamatani, Daiki; Shirai, Takahiro; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. One of the key technologies to realize such inspection tools is a high-radiance EUV source of which radiance is supposed to be as high as 100 W/mm2/sr. Ushio is developing laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) sources. Ushio's LDP source is able to provide sufficient radiance as well as cleanliness, stability and reliability. Radiance behind the debris mitigation system was confirmed to be 120 W/mm2/sr at 9 kHz and peak radiance at the plasma was increased to over 200 W/mm2/sr in the recent development which supports high-throughput, high-precision mask inspection in the current and future technology nodes. One of the unique features of Ushio's LDP source is cleanliness. Cleanliness evaluation using both grazing-incidence Ru mirrors and normal-incidence Mo/Si mirrors showed no considerable damage to the mirrors other than smooth sputtering of the surface at the pace of a few nm per Gpulse. In order to prove the system reliability, several long-term tests were performed. Data recorded during the tests was analyzed to assess two-dimensional radiance stability. In addition, several operating parameters were monitored to figure out which contributes to the radiance stability. The latest model that features a large opening angle was recently developed so that the tool can utilize a large number of debris-free photons behind the debris shield. The model was designed both for beam line application and high-throughput mask inspection application. At the time of publication, the first product is supposed to be in use at the customer site.

  11. Structure elucidation and absolute stereochemistry of isomeric monoterpene chromane esters.

    PubMed

    Batista, João M; Batista, Andrea N L; Mota, Jonas S; Cass, Quezia B; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Freedman, Teresa B; López, Silvia N; Furlan, Maysa; Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-04-15

    Six novel monoterpene chromane esters were isolated from the aerial parts of Peperomia obtusifolia (Piperaceae) using chiral chromatography. This is the first time that chiral chromane esters of this kind, ones with a tethered chiral terpene, have been isolated in nature. Due to their structural features, it is not currently possible to assess directly their absolute stereochemistry using any of the standard classical approaches, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, optical rotation, or electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Herein we report the absolute configuration of these molecules, involving four chiral centers, using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations. This work further reinforces the capability of VCD to determine unambiguously the absolute configuration of structurally complex molecules in solution, without crystallization or derivatization, and demonstrates the sensitivity of VCD to specify the absolute configuration for just one among a number of chiral centers. We also demonstrate the sufficiency of using the so-called inexpensive basis set 6-31G* compared to the triple-ζ basis set TZVP for absolute configuration analysis of larger molecules using VCD. Overall, this work extends our knowledge of secondary metabolites in plants and provides a straightforward way to determine the absolute configuration of complex natural products involving a chiral parent moiety combined with a chiral terpene adduct.

  12. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  13. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  14. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  15. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  16. Sky radiance at a coastline and effects of land and ocean reflectivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuter, Axel; Blumthaler, Mario; Tiefengraber, Martin; Kift, Richard; Webb, Ann R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a unique case study of the spectral sky radiance distribution above a coastline. Results are shown from a measurement campaign in Italy involving three diode array spectroradiometers which are compared to 3-D model simulations from the Monte Carlo model MYSTIC. On the coast, the surrounding is split into two regions, a diffusely reflecting land surface and a water surface which features a highly anisotropic reflectance function. The reflectivities and hence the resulting radiances are a nontrivial function of solar zenith and azimuth angle and wavelength. We show that for low solar zenith angles (SZAs) around noon, the higher land albedo causes the sky radiance at 20° above the horizon to increase by 50 % in the near infrared at 850 nm for viewing directions towards the land with respect to the ocean. Comparing morning and afternoon radiances highlights the effect of the ocean's sun glint at high SZA, which contributes around 10 % to the measured radiance ratios. The model simulations generally agree with the measurements to better than 10 %. We investigate the individual effects of model input parameters representing land and ocean albedo and aerosols. Different land and ocean bi-directional reflectance functions (BRDFs) do not generally improve the model agreement. However, consideration of the uncertainties in the diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth can explain the remaining discrepancies between measurements and model. We further investigate the anisotropy effect of the ocean BRDF which is featured in the zenith radiances. Again, the uncertainty of the aerosol loading is dominant and obscures the modelled sun glint effect of 7 % at 650 nm. Finally, we show that the effect on the zenith radiance is restricted to a few kilometres from the coastline by model simulations along a perpendicular transect and by comparing the radiances at the coast to those measured at a site 15 km inland. Our findings are relevant to, for example, ground

  17. Adjusting the tasseled cap brightness and greenness factors for atmospheric path radiance and absorption on a pixel by pixel basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.

  18. Evaluation of the Impact of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  19. Effect of Aerosol Variation on Radiance in the Earth's Atmosphere-Ocean System.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1972-07-01

    The reflected and transmitted radiance is calculated for a realistic model of the atmosphere-ocean system. Multiple scattering to all orders as well as anisotropic scattering from aerosols are taken into account by a Monte Carlo technique. The probability for reflection or refraction at the ocean surface is calculated for each photon. Scattering and absorption by water molecules (Rayleigh) and by hydrosols (Mie) are taken into account within the ocean. The radiance is calculated for a normal aerosol distribution as well as for a three and ten times normal distribution. Calculations are also made for an aerosol layer near the earth as well as for one in the stratosphere. The upward radiance at the top of the atmosphere depends strongly on the total number of aerosols but not on their spatial distribution. Variations in the ozone amount also have little effect on the upward radiance. The calculations are made at the following wavelengths: 0.7 micro, 0.9 micro, 1.67 micro. The radiance above and below the ocean surface as well as the flux at various levels are also discussed.

  20. Bioluminescence in a complex coastal environment: 1. Temporal dynamics of nighttime water-leaving radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moline, Mark A.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Sundman, Lydia; Bensky, Thomas; Bergmann, Trisha; Bissett, W. Paul; Case, James; Raymond, Erika H.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Nighttime water-leaving radiance is a function of the depth-dependent distribution of both the in situ bioluminescence emissions and the absorption and scattering properties of the water. The vertical distributions of these parameters were used as inputs for a modified one-dimensional radiative transfer model to solve for spectral bioluminescence water-leaving radiance from prescribed depths of the water column. Variation in the water-leaving radiance was consistent with local episodic physical forcing events, with tidal forcing, terrestrial runoff, particulate accumulation, and biological responses influencing the shorter timescale dynamics. There was a >90 nm shift in the peak water-leaving radiance from blue (˜474 nm) to green as light propagated to the surface. In addition to clues in ecosystem responses to physical forcing, the temporal dynamics in intensity and spectral quality of water-leaving radiance provide suitable ranges for assessing detection. This may provide the information needed to estimate the depth of internal light sources in the ocean, which is discussed in part 2 of this paper.

  1. A comparison of measured radiances from AIRS and HIRS across different cloud types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Staten, P.

    2015-12-01

    The observation of Earth's atmosphere with passive remote sensing instruments is ongoing for decades and resulting in a long-term global dataset. Two prominent examples are operational satellite platforms from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or research platforms like NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The observed spectral ranges of these observations are often similar among the different platforms, but have large differences when it comes to resolution, accuracy and quality control. Our approach is to combine different kinds of instruments at the pixel-scale to improve the characterization of infrared radiances. We focus on data from the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and compare the observations to radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua. The high spectral resolution of AIRS is used to characterize and possibly recalibrate the observed radiances from HIRS. Our approach is unique in that we use additional information from other passive instruments on the same platforms including the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We will present comparisons of radiances from HIRS and AIRS within different types of clouds that are determined from the imagers. In this way, we can analyze and select the most homogeneous conditions for radiance comparisons and a possible re-calibration of HIRS. We hope to achieve a cloud-type-dependent calibration and quality control for HIRS, which can be extrapolated into the past via inter-calibration of the different HIRS instruments beyond the time of AIRS.

  2. Use of MODIS Cloud Top Pressure to Improve Assimilation Yields of AIRS Radiances in GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Radiances from hyperspectral sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are routinely assimilated both globally and regionally in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems using the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system. However, only thinned, cloud-free radiances from a 281-channel subset are used, so the overall percentage of these observations that are assimilated is somewhere on the order of 5%. Cloud checks are performed within GSI to determine which channels peak above cloud top; inaccuracies may lead to less assimilated radiances or introduction of biases from cloud-contaminated radiances.Relatively large footprint from AIRS may not optimally represent small-scale cloud features that might be better resolved by higher-resolution imagers like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Objective of this project is to "swap" the MODIS-derived cloud top pressure (CTP) for that designated by the AIRS-only quality control within GSI to test the hypothesis that better representation of cloud features will result in higher assimilated radiance yields and improved forecasts.

  3. Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis; St-Germain, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France. When atmosphere radiances are matched at the horizon to remove possible calibration offsets, the implementation of the BRDF in MODTRAN produces good sea surface radiance agreement, usually within 2% and at worst 4% from off-glint azimuthally averaged measurements. Simulations also compare quite favorably to glint measurements. The observed sea radiance deviations between model and measurements are not systematic, and are well within expected experimental uncertainties. This is largely attributed to proper radiative coupling between the surface and the atmosphere implemented using the DISORT multiple scattering algorithm.

  4. Sky-radiance gradient measurements at narrow bands in the visible.

    PubMed

    Winter, E M; Metcalf, T W; Stotts, L B

    1995-07-01

    Accurate calibrated measurements of the radiance of the daytime sky were made in narrow bands in the visible portion of the spectrum. These measurements were made over several months and were tabulated in a sun-referenced coordinate system. The radiance as a function of wavelength at angles ranging from 5 to 90 deg was plotted. A best-fit inverse power-law fit shows inversely linear behavior of the radiance versus wavelength near the Sun (5 deg) and a slope approaching inverse fourth power far from the Sun (60 deg). This behavior fits a Mie-scattering interpretation near the Sun and a Rayleigh-scattering interpretation away from the Sun. The results are also compared with LOWTRAN models.

  5. Aureole radiance field about a source in a scattering-absorbing medium.

    PubMed

    Zachor, A S

    1978-06-15

    A technique is described for computing the aureole radiance field about a point source in a medium that absorbs and scatters according to an arbitrary phase function. When applied to an isotropic source in a homogenous medium, the method uses a double-integral transform which is evaluated recursively to obtain the aureole radiances contributed by successive scattering orders, as in the Neumann solution of the radiative transfer equation. The normalized total radiance field distribution and the variation of flux with field of view and range are given for three wavelengths in the uv and one in the visible, for a sea-level model atmosphere assumed to scatter according to a composite of the Rayleigh and modified Henyey-Greenstein phase functions. These results have application to the detection and measurement of uncollimated uv and visible sources at short ranges in the lower atmosphere.

  6. The angular distribution of infrared radiances emerging from broken fields of cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naber, P. S.; Weinman, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared radiances were simultaneously measured from broken cloud fields over the eastern Pacific Ocean by means of the eastern and western geostationary satellites. The measurements were compared with the results of models that characterized the clouds as black circular cylinders disposed randomly on a plane and as black cuboids disposed in regular and in shifted periodic arrays. The data were also compared with the results obtained from a radiative transfer model that considered emission and scattering by a regular array of periodic cuboidal clouds. It was found that the radiances did not depend significantly on the azimuth angle; this suggested that the observed cloud fields were not regular periodic arrays. However, the dependence on zenith angle suggested that the clouds were not disposed randomly either. The implication of these measurements on the understanding of the transfer of infrared radiances through broken cloud fields is considered.

  7. The proper weighting function for retrieving temperatures from satellite measured radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arking, A.

    1976-01-01

    One class of methods for converting satellite measured radiances into atmospheric temperature profiles, involves a linearization of the radiative transfer equation: delta r = the sum of (W sub i) (delta T sub i) where (i=1...s) and where delta T sub i is the deviation of the temperature in layer i from that of a reference atmosphere, delta R is the difference in the radiance at satellite altitude from the corresponding radiance for the reference atmosphere, and W sub i is the discrete (or vector) form of the T-weighting (i.e., temperature weighting) function W(P), where P is pressure. The top layer of the atmosphere corresponds to i = 1, the bottom layer to i = s - 1, and i = s refers to the surface. Linearization in temperature (or some function of temperature) is at the heart of all linear or matrix methods. The weighting function that should be used is developed.

  8. Spectral radiance measurements and calculated soot concentrations along the length of an experimental combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric data were obtained over a range of parametric test conditions at three positions along the length of an experimental combustor segment corresponding to the primary, intermediate, and dilution zones. The concentration of soot entrained in the combustion gases was calculated by a technique using spectral radiance measurements. Tests were conducted primarily with Jet A fuel, although limited data were taken with two fuels having higher aromatic content, diesel oil number 2 and a blend of 40 percent tetralin in Jet A fuel. Radiometric observation of the combustion gases indicated that the maximum total radiance peaked at the intermediate zone, which was located immediately upstream of the dilution holes. Soot concentrations calculated from optical measurements in the dilution zone compared favorably with those obtained by in situ gas sampling at the exhaust. The total radiance increased with the higher aromatic content fuels.

  9. Use of simulated satellite radiances from a mesoscale numerical model to understand kinematic and dynamic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Michael; Robertson, Franklin; Jedlovec, Gary; Perkey, Donald

    1987-01-01

    Techniques by which mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output and radiative transfer codes are combined to simulate the radiance fields that a given passive temperature/moisture satellite sensor would see if viewing the evolving model atmosphere are introduced. The goals are to diagnose the dynamical atmospheric processes responsible for recurring patterns in observed satellite radiance fields, and to develop techniques to anticipate the ability of satellite sensor systems to depict atmospheric structures and provide information useful for numerical weather prediction (NWP). The concept of linking radiative transfer and dynamical NWP codes is demonstrated with time sequences of simulated radiance imagery in the 24 TIROS vertical sounder channels derived from model integrations for March 6, 1982.

  10. A Study of Global Cirrus Cloud Morphology with AIRS Cloud-clear Radiances (CCRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Version 6 (V6) AIRS cloud-clear radiances (CCR) are used to derive cloud-induced radiance (Tcir=Tb-CCR) at the infrared frequencies of weighting functions peaked in the middle troposphere. The significantly improved V 6 CCR product allows a more accurate estimation of the expected clear-sky radiance as if clouds are absent. In the case where strong cloud scattering is present, the CCR becomes unreliable, which is reflected by its estimated uncertainty, and interpolation is employed to replace this CCR value. We find that Tcir derived from this CCR method are much better than other methods and detect more clouds in the upper and lower troposphere as well as in the polar regions where cloud detection is particularly challenging. The cloud morphology derived from the V6 test month, as well as some artifacts, will be shown.

  11. Comparing airborne and satellite retrievals of cloud optical thickness and particle effective radius using a spectral radiance ratio technique: two case studies for cirrus and deep convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisna, Trismono C.; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Werner, Frank; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Mahnke, Christoph; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Voigt, Christiane; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation reflected by cirrus and deep convective clouds (DCCs) was measured by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurement System (SMART) installed on the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) during the Mid-Latitude Cirrus (ML-CIRRUS) and the Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interaction and Dynamic of Convective Clouds System - Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modelling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (ACRIDICON-CHUVA) campaigns. On particular flights, HALO performed measurements closely collocated with overpasses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite. A cirrus cloud located above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are analyzed in this paper. Based on the nadir spectral upward radiance measured above the two clouds, the optical thickness τ and particle effective radius reff of the cirrus and DCC are retrieved using a radiance ratio technique, which considers the cloud thermodynamic phase, the vertical profile of cloud microphysical properties, the presence of multilayer clouds, and the heterogeneity of the surface albedo. For the cirrus case, the comparison of τ and reff retrieved on the basis of SMART and MODIS measurements yields a normalized mean absolute deviation of up to 1.2 % for τ and 2.1 % for reff. For the DCC case, deviations of up to 3.6 % for τ and 6.2 % for reff are obtained. The larger deviations in the DCC case are mainly attributed to the fast cloud evolution and three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects. Measurements of spectral upward radiance at near-infrared wavelengths are employed to investigate the vertical profile of reff in the cirrus. The retrieved values of reff are compared with corresponding in situ measurements using a vertical weighting method. Compared to the MODIS observations, measurements of SMART provide more information on the

  12. Upwelling Radiance at 976 nm Measured from Space Using a CCD Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Wright, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System on-board the International Space Station uses a charge coupled device (CCD) camera for receiving a beacon laser from Earth. Relative measurements of the background contributed by upwelling radiance under diverse illumination conditions and varying terrain is presented. In some cases clouds in the field-of-view allowed a comparison of terrestrial and cloud-top upwelling radiance. In this paper we will report these measurements and examine the extent of agreement with atmospheric model predictions.

  13. The Goddard Snow Radiance Assimilation Project: An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Snow/cold Land Surface Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; Reichle, R.; Choudhury, B.; Peters-Lidard C.; Foster, J.; Hall, D.; Riggs, G.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave-based retrievals of snow parameters from satellite observations have a long heritage and have so far been generated primarily by regression-based empirical "inversion" methods based on snapshots in time. Direct assimilation of microwave radiance into physical land surface models can be used to avoid errors associated with such retrieval/inversion methods, instead utilizing more straightforward forward models and temporal information. This approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success. Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling, physical land surface modeling, and land data assimilation are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated framework for snow/cold lands modeling and radiance assimilation. The objective of the Goddard snow radiance assimilation project is to develop such a framework and explore its capabilities. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. In fact, multiple models are available for each element enabling optimization to match the needs of a particular study. Together these form a modular and flexible framework for self-consistent, physically-based remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster. Capabilities for assimilation of snow retrieval products are already under development for LIS. We will describe plans to add radiance-based assimilation capabilities. Plans for validation activities using field measurements will also be discussed.

  14. Radiance and Jacobian Intercomparison of Radiative Transfer Models Applied to HIRS and AMSU Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garand, L.; Turner, D. S.; Larocque, M.; Bates, J.; Boukabara, S.; Brunel, P.; Chevallier, F.; Deblonde, G.; Engelen, R.; Hollingshead, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study are the evaluation of current fast radiative transfer models (RTMs) and line-by-line (LBL) models. The intercomparison focuses on the modeling of 11 representative sounding channels routinely used at numerical weather prediction centers: 7 HIRS (High-resolution Infrared Sounder) and 4 AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) channels. Interest in this topic was evidenced by the participation of 24 scientists from 16 institutions. An ensemble of 42 diverse atmospheres was used and results compiled for 19 infrared models and 10 microwave models, including several LBL RTMs. For the first time, not only radiances, but also Jacobians (of temperature, water vapor and ozone) were compared to various LBL models for many channels. In the infrared, LBL models typically agree to within 0.05-0.15 K (standard deviation) in terms of top-of-the-atmosphere brightness temperature (BT). Individual differences up to 0.5 K still exist, systematic in some channels, and linked to the type of atmosphere in others. The best fast models emulate LBL BTs to within 0.25 K, but no model achieves this desirable level of success for all channels. The ozone modeling is particularly challenging, In the microwave, fast models generally do quite well against the LBL model to which they were tuned. However significant differences were noted among LBL models, Extending the intercomparison to the Jacobians proved very useful in detecting subtle and more obvious modeling errors. In addition, total and single gas optical depths were calculated, which provided additional insight on the nature of differences. Recommendations for future intercomparisons are suggested.

  15. Radiance and Jacobian Intercomparison of Radiative Transfer Models Applied to HIRS and AMSU Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garand, L.; Turner, D. S.; Larocque, M.; Bates, J.; Boukabara, S.; Brunel, P.; Chevallier, F.; Deblonde, G.; Engelen, R.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study are the evaluation of current fast radiative transfer models (RTMs) and line-by-line (LBL) models. The intercomparison focuses on the modeling of 11 representative sounding channels routinely used at numerical weather prediction centers: seven HIRS (High-resolution Infrared Sounder) and four AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) channels. Interest in this topic was evidenced by the participation of 24 scientists from 16 institutions. An ensemble of 42 diverse atmospheres was used and results compiled for 19 infrared models and 10 microwave models, including several LBL RTMs. For the first time, not only radiances, but also Jacobians (of temperature, water vapor, and ozone) were compared to various LBL models for many channels. In the infrared, LBL models typically agree to within 0.05-0.15 K (standard deviation) in terms of top-of-the-atmosphere brightness temperature (BT). Individual differences up to 0.5 K still exist, systematic in some channels, and linked to the type of atmosphere in others. The best fast models emulate LBL BTs to within 0.25 K, but no model achieves this desirable level of success for all channels. The ozone modeling is particularly challenging. In the microwave, fast models generally do quite well against the LBL model to which they were tuned. However significant differences were noted among LBL models. Extending the intercomparison to the Jacobians proved very useful in detecting subtle and more obvious modeling errors. In addition, total and single gas optical depths were calculated, which provided additional insight on the nature of differences. Recommendations for future intercomparisons are suggested.

  16. Assessment of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Correction of Above-Water and Satellite Water-Leaving Radiance in Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Harmal, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO's time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  18. Use of the Polarized Radiance Distribution Camera System in the RADYO Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-28

    characterization and validation of a high dynamic range radiance camera", Ocean Optics XX, Anchorage, Ak., October 2010. POSTER G. Zibordi and K. J. Voss...on light in the ocean", Submitted to Physics Today, Dec 2010. H. Zhang and K. J. Voss, "On Hapke photometric model predictions on reflectance of

  19. Remote Sensing of Cloud Properties using Ground-based Measurements of Zenith Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. Christine; Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Barker, Howard W.; Barnard, James C.; Luo, Yi

    2006-01-01

    An extensive verification of cloud property retrievals has been conducted for two algorithms using zenith radiances measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground-based passive two-channel (673 and 870 nm) Narrow Field-Of-View Radiometer. The underlying principle of these algorithms is that clouds have nearly identical optical properties at these wavelengths, but corresponding spectral surface reflectances (for vegetated surfaces) differ significantly. The first algorithm, the RED vs. NIR, works for a fully three-dimensional cloud situation. It retrieves not only cloud optical depth, but also an effective radiative cloud fraction. Importantly, due to one-second time resolution of radiance measurements, we are able, for the first time, to capture detailed changes in cloud structure at the natural time scale of cloud evolution. The cloud optical depths tau retrieved by this algorithm are comparable to those inferred from both downward fluxes in overcast situations and microwave brightness temperatures for broken clouds. Moreover, it can retrieve tau for thin patchy clouds, where flux and microwave observations fail to detect them. The second algorithm, referred to as COUPLED, couples zenith radiances with simultaneous fluxes to infer 2. In general, the COUPLED and RED vs. NIR algorithms retrieve consistent values of tau. However, the COUPLED algorithm is more sensitive to the accuracies of measured radiance, flux, and surface reflectance than the RED vs. NIR algorithm. This is especially true for thick overcast clouds where it may substantially overestimate z.

  20. Radiance and polarization in the diffusion region with an arbitrary scattering phase matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bingqiang; Kattawar, George W.; Yang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    Radiance and polarization patterns in an optically deep region, the so-called diffusion region or asymptotic region, of a homogeneous atmosphere or ocean, depend mainly on the scattering phase matrix and the single-scattering albedo of the medium. The radiance and polarization properties in the diffusion region for an arbitrary scattering phase matrix can be obtained in terms of a series of the generalized spherical functions. The number of terms is closely related to the single-scattering albedo of the medium. If the medium is conservative, the radiance is isotropic in conjunction with no polarization. If the single-scattering albedo is close to 1, several terms are sufficient to obtain the patterns, in which the degree of polarization feature is less than 1%. If the medium is highly absorptive, more expansion terms are required to obtain the diffusion patterns. The examples of simulated radiance and polarization patterns for Rayleigh scattering, Henyey-Greenstein-Rayleigh scattering, and haze L and cloud C1 scattering, defined by Deirmendjian, are calculated.

  1. Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media. 3: Scattering from Haze L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    The interior radiances are calculated within an optically deep absorbing medium scattering according to the Haze L phase function. The dependence on the solar zenith angle, the single scattering albedo, and the optical depth within the medium is calculated by the matrix operator method. The development of the asymptotic angular distribution of the radiance in the diffusion region is illustrated through a number of examples; it depends only on the single scattering albedo and on the phase function for single scattering. The exact values of the radiance in the diffusion region are compared with values calculated from the approximate equations proposed by Van de Hulst. The variation of the radiance near the lower boundary of an optically thick medium is illustrated with examples. The attenuation length is calculated for various single scattering albedos and compared with the corresponding values for Rayleigh scattering. The ratio of the upward to the downward flux is found to be remarkably constant within the medium. The heating rate is calculated and found to have a maximum value at an optical depth of two within a Haze L layer when the sun is at the zenith.

  2. Imaging Gravity Waves in Lower Stratospheric AMSU-A Radiances. Part 1: Simple Forward Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-14

    brightening” of microwave radiances acquired from purely vertical background temperature profiles by cross- track scanners. Waves propagating along track...three-dimensional wave fields. For example, some limb sensors return high- resolution vertical temperature profiles with wave oscilla- tions...provide only ver- tical profiles of wave oscillations, similar to radiosonde and rocketsonde data. Similarly, limb-tracking measurements from the

  3. Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) spectral scan solar irradiance and Earth radiance product user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Barry M.; Cebula, Richard P.; Heath, Donald F.; Fleig, Albert J.

    1988-01-01

    The archived tape products from the spectral scan mode measurements of solar irradiance (SUNC tapes) and Earth radiance (EARTH tapes) by the Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 are described. Incoming radiation from 160 to 400 nm is measured at intervals of 0.2 nm. The scan-to-scan repeatability of the solar irradiance measurements ranges from approximately 0.5 to 1 percent longward of 280 nm, to 2 percent around 210 nm and 4 percent near 175 nm. The repeatability of the Earth radiance values ranges from 2 to 3 percent at longer wavelengths and low zenith angles to 10 percent at shorter wavelengths and high zenith angles. The tape formats are described in detail, including file structure and contents of each type of record. Catalogs of the tapes and the time period covered are provided, along with lists of the days lacking solar irradiance measurements and the days dedicated to Earth radiance measurements. The method for production of the tapes is outlined and quality control measures are described. How radiances and irradiances are derived from the raw counts, the corrections for changes in instrument sensitivity, and related uncertainties are discussed.

  4. Self Validation of Radiance Measurements from the CERES (TRMM)Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Priestley, Kory J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight continuous months of earth-nadir-viewing radiance measurements from the 3-channel Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM,) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometric measurement instrument, have been analyzed. While previous remote sensing satellites, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) covered all subsets of the broadband radiance spectrum (total, longwave and shortwave.) CERES has two subset channels (window and shortwave) which do not give continuous frequency coverage over the total band. Previous experience with ERBE indicated the need for us to model the equivalent daytime longwave radiance using a window channel regression, which will allow us to validate the performance of the instrument using a three-channel inter-comparison. Limiting our consideration to the fixed azimuth plane, cross-track, scanning mode (FAPS), each nadir-viewing measurement was averaged into three subjective categories called daytime, nighttime, and twilight. Daytime was defined as any measurement taken when the solar zenith angle (SZA) was less than 90 ; nighttime was taken to be any measurement where the SZA was greater than 117 ; and twilight was everything else. Our analysis indicates that there are only two distinct categories of nadir-view data; daytime, and non-daytime (i.e., the union of the nighttime and twilight sets); and that the CERES longwave radiance is predictable to an accuracy of 1%, based on the SZA, and window channel measurements.

  5. Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, Andre; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gentili, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters is conveniently described in a normalized way by forming the ratio of the upwelling irradiance E(sub u) to any upwelling radiance L(sub u)(theta prime, phi). This ratio, Q (theta prime, theta(sub 0), (phi(sub 0) - phi), where theta prime, phi are the nadir and azimuth angles for the upward radiance and theta(sub 0), phi(sub 0) are the zenith and azimuth angles of the Sun, has been determined from measurements at sea and computed via Monte Carlo simulations using the inherent optical properties measured in the field and appropriate boundary conditions (clear sky, no wind, varying Sun angle). Experimental ad computed Q values are in excellent agreement. This successful comparison confirms the importance of the bidirectional character of ocean reflectance, already pointed out from a purely numerical approach without field validation, and corroborates the extended range of the Q variations. The later point is of importance when interpreting the marine signals detected by an ocean color satellite-borne sensor. The validation is extended by considering the historical data for the radiance distributions in Lake Pend Oreille determined at various depths. The closure issue in ocean optics is examined by solving the direct problem of radiative transfer and through a model-data comparison in terms of radiance field.

  6. Hyperspectral material identification on radiance data using single-atmosphere or multiple-atmosphere modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Adrian V.; Grossmann, John M.

    2010-11-01

    Reflectance-domain methods convert hyperspectral data from radiance to reflectance using an atmospheric compensation model. Material detection and identification are performed by comparing the compensated data to target reflectance spectra. We introduce two radiance-domain approaches, Single atmosphere Adaptive Cosine Estimator (SACE) and Multiple atmosphere ACE (MACE) in which the target reflectance spectra are instead converted into sensor-reaching radiance using physics-based models. For SACE, known illumination and atmospheric conditions are incorporated in a single atmospheric model. For MACE the conditions are unknown so the algorithm uses many atmospheric models to cover the range of environmental variability, and it approximates the result using a subspace model. This approach is sometimes called the invariant method, and requires the choice of a subspace dimension for the model. We compare these two radiance-domain approaches to a Reflectance-domain ACE (RACE) approach on a HYDICE image featuring concealed materials. All three algorithms use the ACE detector, and all three techniques are able to detect most of the hidden materials in the imagery. For MACE we observe a strong dependence on the choice of the material subspace dimension. Increasing this value can lead to a decline in performance.

  7. Radiance and atmosphere propagation-based method for the target range estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonkyung; Chun, Joohwan

    2012-06-01

    Target range estimation is traditionally based on radar and active sonar systems in modern combat system. However, the performance of such active sensor devices is degraded tremendously by jamming signal from the enemy. This paper proposes a simple range estimation method between the target and the sensor. Passive IR sensors measures infrared (IR) light radiance radiating from objects in dierent wavelength and this method shows robustness against electromagnetic jamming. The measured target radiance of each wavelength at the IR sensor depends on the emissive properties of target material and is attenuated by various factors, in particular the distance between the sensor and the target and atmosphere environment. MODTRAN is a tool that models atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the result from MODTRAN and measured radiance, the target range is estimated. To statistically analyze the performance of proposed method, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and evaluate the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) via the probability density function of measured radiance. And we also compare CRLB and the variance of and ML estimation using Monte-Carlo.

  8. Use of near infrared/red radiance ratios for estimating vegetation biomass and physiological status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The application of photographic infrared/red (ir/red) reflectance or radiance ratios for the estimation of vegetation biomass and physiological status were investigated by analyzing in situ spectral reflectance data from experimental grass plots. Canopy biological samples were taken for total wet biomass, total dry biomass, leaf water content, dry green biomass, dry brown biomass, and total chlorophyll content at each sampling date. Integrated red and photographic infrared radiances were regressed against the various canopy or plot variables to determine the relative significance between the red, photographic infrared, and the ir/red ratio and the canopy variables. The ir/red ratio is sensitive to the photosynthetically active or green biomass, the rate of primary production, and actually measures the interaction between the green biomass and the rate of primary production within a given species type. The ir/red ratio resulted in improved regression significance over the red or the ir/radiances taken separately. Only slight differences were found between ir/red ratio, the ir-red difference, the vegetation index, and the transformed vegetation index. The asymptotic spectral radiance properties of the ir, red, ir/red ratio, and the various transformations were evaluated.

  9. Using sky radiances measured by ground based AERONET Sun-Radiometers for cirrus cloud detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyuk, A.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Lewis, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Screening of cirrus clouds using observations of optical depth (OD) only has proven to be a difficult task due mostly to some clouds having temporally and spatially stable OD. On the other hand, the sky radiances measurements which in AERONET protocol are taken throughout the day may contain additional cloud information. In this work the potential of using sky radiances for cirrus cloud detection is investigated. The detection is based on differences in the angular shape of sky radiances due to cirrus clouds and aerosol (see Figure). The range of scattering angles from 3 to 6 degrees was selected due to two primary reasons: high sensitivity to cirrus clouds presence, and close proximity to the Sun. The angular shape of sky radiances was parametrized by its curvature, which is a parameter defined as a combination of the first and second derivatives as a function of scattering angle. We demonstrate that a slope of the logarithm of curvature versus logarithm of scattering angle in this selected range of scattering angles is sensitive to cirrus cloud presence. We also demonstrate that restricting the values of the slope below some threshold value can be used for cirrus cloud screening. The threshold value of the slope was estimated using collocated measurements of AERONET data and MPLNET lidars.

  10. Structures observed on the spot radiance fields during the FIRE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seze, Genevieve; Smith, Leonard; Desbois, Michel

    1990-01-01

    Three Spot images taken during the FIRE experiment on stratocumulus are analyzed. From this high resolution data detailed observations of the true cloud radiance field may be made. The structure and inhomogeneity of these radiance fields hold important implications for the radiation budget, while the fine scale structure in radiance field provides information on cloud dynamics. Wieliki and Welsh, and Parker et al., have quantified the inhomogeneities of the cumulus clouds through a careful examination of the distribution of cloud (and hole) size as functions of an effective cloud diameter and radiance threshold. Cahalan (1988) has compared for different cloud types of (stratocumulus, fair weather cumulus, convective clouds in the ITCZ) the distributions of clouds (and holes) sizes, the relation between the size and the perimeter of these clouds (and holes), and examining the possibility of scale invariance. These results are extended from LANDSAT resolution (57 m and 30 m) to the Spot resolution (10 m) resolution in the case of boundary layer clouds. Particular emphasis is placed on the statistics of zones of high and low reflectivity as a function of a threshold reflectivity.

  11. Study on inverse estimation of radiative properties from directional radiances by using statistical RPSO algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kuk-Il; Kim, Do-Hwi; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kuk; Shin, Jong-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Infrared signals are widely used to discriminate objects against the background. Prediction of infrared signal from an object surface is essential in evaluating the detectability of the object. Appropriate and easy method of procurement of the radiative properties such as the surface emissivity, bidirectional reflectivity is important in estimating infrared signals. Direct measurement can be a good choice but a costly and time consuming way of obtaining the radiative properties for surfaces coated with many different newly developed paints. Especially measurement of the bidirectional reflectivity usually expressed by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is the most costly job. In this paper we are presenting an inverse estimation method of the radiative properties by using the directional radiances from the surface of concern. The inverse estimation method used in this study is the statistical repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) algorithm which uses the randomly picked directional radiance data emitted and reflected from the surface. In this paper, we test the proposed inverse method by considering the radiation from a steel plate surface coated with different paints at a clear sunny day condition. For convenience, the directional radiance data from the steel plate within a spectral band of concern are obtained from the simulation using the commercial software, RadthermIR, instead of the field measurement. A widely used BRDF model called as the Sandford-Robertson(S-R) model is considered and the RPSO process is then used to find the best fitted model parameters for the S-R model. The results obtained from this study show an excellent agreement with the reference property data used for the simulation for directional radiances. The proposed process can be a useful way of obtaining the radiative properties from field measured directional radiance data for surfaces coated with or without various kinds of paints of unknown radiative

  12. Influence of temperature fluctuations on infrared limb radiance: a new simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rialland, Valérie; Chervet, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Airborne infrared limb-viewing detectors may be used as surveillance sensors in order to detect dim military targets. These systems' performances are limited by the inhomogeneous background in the sensor field of view which impacts strongly on target detection probability. This background clutter, which results from small-scale fluctuations of temperature, density or pressure must therefore be analyzed and modeled. Few existing codes are able to model atmospheric structures and their impact on limb-observed radiance. SAMM-2 (SHARC-4 and MODTRAN4 Merged), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) background radiance code can be used to in order to predict the radiance fluctuation as a result of a normalized temperature fluctuation, as a function of the line-of-sight. Various realizations of cluttered backgrounds can then be computed, based on these transfer functions and on a stochastic temperature field. The existing SIG (SHARC Image Generator) code was designed to compute the cluttered background which would be observed from a space-based sensor. Unfortunately, this code was not able to compute accurate scenes as seen by an airborne sensor especially for lines-of-sight close to the horizon. Recently, we developed a new code called BRUTE3D and adapted to our configuration. This approach is based on a method originally developed in the SIG model. This BRUTE3D code makes use of a three-dimensional grid of temperature fluctuations and of the SAMM-2 transfer functions to synthesize an image of radiance fluctuations according to sensor characteristics. This paper details the working principles of the code and presents some output results. The effects of the small-scale temperature fluctuations on infrared limb radiance as seen by an airborne sensor are highlighted.

  13. View-angle-dependent AIRS Cloudiness and Radiance Variance: Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-01-01

    Upper tropospheric clouds play an important role in the global energy budget and hydrological cycle. Significant view-angle asymmetry has been observed in upper-level tropical clouds derived from eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) 15 um radiances. Here, we find that the asymmetry also exists in the extra-tropics. It is larger during day than that during night, more prominent near elevated terrain, and closely associated with deep convection and wind shear. The cloud radiance variance, a proxy for cloud inhomogeneity, has consistent characteristics of the asymmetry to those in the AIRS cloudiness. The leading causes of the view-dependent cloudiness asymmetry are the local time difference and small-scale organized cloud structures. The local time difference (1-1.5 hr) of upper-level (UL) clouds between two AIRS outermost views can create parts of the observed asymmetry. On the other hand, small-scale tilted and banded structures of the UL clouds can induce about half of the observed view-angle dependent differences in the AIRS cloud radiances and their variances. This estimate is inferred from analogous study using Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) radiances observed during the period of time when there were simultaneous measurements at two different view-angles from NOAA-18 and -19 satellites. The existence of tilted cloud structures and asymmetric 15 um and 6.7 um cloud radiances implies that cloud statistics would be view-angle dependent, and should be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations, measurement uncertainty evaluations and cloud climatology investigations. In addition, the momentum forcing in the upper troposphere from tilted clouds is also likely asymmetric, which can affect atmospheric circulation anisotropically.

  14. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  15. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  16. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  17. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  18. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  19. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  20. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  1. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  2. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  4. Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm

  5. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  6. MSTAR: an absolute metrology sensor with sub-micron accuracy for space-based applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Burger, Johan P.; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with subnanometer accuracy.

  7. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  8. Absolute and relative educational inequalities in depression in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dudal, Pieter; Bracke, Piet

    2016-09-01

    To investigate (1) the size of absolute and relative educational inequalities in depression, (2) their variation between European countries, and (3) their relationship with underlying prevalence rates. Analyses are based on the European Social Survey, rounds three and six (N = 57,419). Depression is measured using the shortened Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Education is coded by use of the International Standard Classification of Education. Country-specific logistic regressions are applied. Results point to an elevated risk of depressive symptoms among the lower educated. The cross-national patterns differ between absolute and relative measurements. For men, large relative inequalities are found for countries including Denmark and Sweden, but are accompanied by small absolute inequalities. For women, large relative and absolute inequalities are found in Belgium, Bulgaria, and Hungary. Results point to an empirical association between inequalities and the underlying prevalence rates. However, the strength of the association is only moderate. This research stresses the importance of including both measurements for comparative research and suggests the inclusion of the level of population health in research into inequalities in health.

  9. Retrieving SW fluxes from geostationary narrowband radiances for the NASA-CERES SYN1deg product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, F. J., IV; Doelling, D. R.; Liang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The CERES mission was designed to measure the natural variability of the net TOA flux over long time scales relevant to climate monitoring. To achieve this goal, CERES provides the level-3 SSF1deg, SYN1deg, and EBAF monthly 1° by 1° regional TOA flux. The single satellite (Terra or Aqua) SSF1deg 24-hour shortwave flux is based on one daytime measurements and assumes constant meteorology to model the diurnal change in albedo. To accurately describe regions with a prominent diurnal signal, the SYN1deg Edition4 dataset employs hourly geostationary (GEO) measurements. This improves upon Edition3, which used 3-hourly GEO measurements and with temporal interpolation. The EBAF product combines the temporal stability of the SSF1deg product with the diurnal information from SYN1deg and removes the CERES instrument calibration bias by constraining the net flux balance to the ocean heat storage term. The SYN-1deg product retrieves hourly SW fluxes from GEO measurements. Over regions with large diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and land afternoon convective locations, the GEO derived SW fluxes will capture the diurnal flux not observed with Terra or Aqua sun-synchronous satellites. Obtaining fluxes from geostationary satellite radiance is a multistep process. First, most GEO visible imagers lack calibration and must be calibrated to MODIS and VIIRS. Second, the GEO imager visible channel radiances are converted to broadband radiances using empirical and theoretical models. The lack of coincident, collocated, and co-angled GEO and CERES measurements makes building an empirical model difficult. The narrowband to broadband models are a function of surface and cloud conditions, which are difficult to identify due to the inconsistent cloud retrievals between the 16 GEO imagers used in the CERES record. Third, the GEO derived broadband radiances are passed through the CERES angular distribution model (ADM) to convert the radiances to fluxes. Lastly, the GEO derived

  10. Technology for detecting spectral radiance by a snapshot multi-imaging spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Ralf; Stührmann, Ansgar; Gugg-Helminger, Anton; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2017-12-01

    Technologies to determine spectral sky radiance distributions have evolved in recent years and have enabled new applications in remote sensing, for sky radiance measurements, in biological/diagnostic applications and luminance measurements. Most classical spectral imaging radiance technologies are based on mechanical and/or spectral scans. However, these methods require scanning time in which the spectral radiance distribution might change. To overcome this limitation, different so-called snapshot spectral imaging technologies have been developed that enable spectral and spatial non-scanning measurements. We present a new setup based on a facet mirror that is already used in imaging slicing spectrometers. By duplicating the input image instead of slicing it and using a specially designed entrance slit, we are able to select nearly 200 (14 × 14) channels within the field of view (FOV) for detecting spectral radiance in different directions. In addition, a megapixel image of the FOV is captured by an additional RGB camera. This image can be mapped onto the snapshot spectral image. In this paper, the mechanical setup, technical design considerations and first measurement results of a prototype are presented. For a proof of concept, the device is radiometrically calibrated and a 10 mm × 10 mm test pattern measured within a spectral range of 380 nm-800 nm with an optical bandwidth of 10 nm (full width at half maximum or FWHM). To show its potential in the UV spectral region, zenith sky radiance measurements in the UV of a clear sky were performed. Hence, the prototype was equipped with an entrance optic with a FOV of 0.5° and modified to obtain a radiometrically calibrated spectral range of 280 nm-470 nm with a FWHM of 3 nm. The measurement results have been compared to modeled data processed by UVSPEC, which showed deviations of less than 30%. This is far from being ideal, but an acceptable result with respect to available state

  11. Retrieving SW fluxes from geostationary narrowband radiances for the NASA-CERES SYN1deg product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, F. J., IV; Doelling, D. R.; Liang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The CERES mission was designed to measure the natural variability of the net TOA flux over long time scales relevant to climate monitoring. To achieve this goal, CERES provides the level-3 SSF1deg, SYN1deg, and EBAF monthly 1° by 1° regional TOA flux. The single satellite (Terra or Aqua) SSF1deg 24-hour shortwave flux is based on one daytime measurements and assumes constant meteorology to model the diurnal change in albedo. To accurately describe regions with a prominent diurnal signal, the SYN1deg Edition4 dataset employs hourly geostationary (GEO) measurements. This improves upon Edition3, which used 3-hourly GEO measurements and with temporal interpolation. The EBAF product combines the temporal stability of the SSF1deg product with the diurnal information from SYN1deg and removes the CERES instrument calibration bias by constraining the net flux balance to the ocean heat storage term. The SYN-1deg product retrieves hourly SW fluxes from GEO measurements. Over regions with large diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and land afternoon convective locations, the GEO derived SW fluxes will capture the diurnal flux not observed with Terra or Aqua sun-synchronous satellites. Obtaining fluxes from geostationary satellite radiance is a multistep process. First, most GEO visible imagers lack calibration and must be calibrated to MODIS and VIIRS. Second, the GEO imager visible channel radiances are converted to broadband radiances using empirical and theoretical models. The lack of coincident, collocated, and co-angled GEO and CERES measurements makes building an empirical model difficult. The narrowband to broadband models are a function of surface and cloud conditions, which are difficult to identify due to the inconsistent cloud retrievals between the 16 GEO imagers used in the CERES record. Third, the GEO derived broadband radiances are passed through the CERES angular distribution model (ADM) to convert the radiances to fluxes. Lastly, the GEO derived

  12. Snowpack modeling in the context of radiance assimilation for snow water equivalent mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M. T.; Kim, R. S.; Li, D.; Dumont, M.; Margulis, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation is often touted as a means of overcoming deficiences in both snowpack modeling and snowpack remote sensing. Direct assimilation of microwave radiances, rather than assimilating microwave retrievals, has shown promise, in this context. This is especially the case for deep mountain snow, which is often assumed to be infeasible to measure with microwave measurements, due to saturation issues. We first demonstrate that the typical way of understanding saturation has often been misunderstood. We show that deep snow leads to a complex microwave signature, but not to saturation per se, because of snowpack stratigraphy. This explains why radiance assimilation requires detailed snowpack models that adequatley stratgigraphy to function accurately. We examine this with two case studies. First, we show how the CROCUS predictions of snowpack stratigraphy allows for assimilation of airborne passive microwave measurements over three 1km2 CLPX Intensive Study Areas. Snowpack modeling and particle filter analysis is performed at 120 m spatial resolution. When run without the benefit of radiance assimilation, CROCUS does not fully capture spatial patterns in the data (R2=0.44; RMSE=26 cm). Assimlilation of microwave radiances for a single flight recovers the spatial pattern of snow depth (R2=0.85; RMSE = 13 cm). This is despite the presence of deep snow; measured depths range from 150 to 325 cm. Adequate results are obtained even for partial forest cover, and bias in precipitation forcing. The results are severely degraded if a three-layer snow model is used, however. The importance of modeling snowpack stratigraphy is highlighted. Second, we compare this study to a recent analysis assimilating spaceborne radiances for a 511 km2 sub-watershed of the Kern River, in the Sierra Nevada. Here, the daily Level 2A AMSR-E footprints (88 km2) are assimilated into a model running at 90 m spatial resolution. The three-layer model is specially adapted to predict "effective

  13. Establishing Ion Ratio Thresholds Based on Absolute Peak Area for Absolute Protein Quantification using Protein Cleavage Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Loziuk, Philip L.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry has become central to the field of proteomics and metabolomics. Selected reaction monitoring is a widely used method for the absolute quantification of proteins and metabolites. This method renders high specificity using several product ions measured simultaneously. With growing interest in quantification of molecular species in complex biological samples, confident identification and quantitation has been of particular concern. A method to confirm purity or contamination of product ion spectra has become necessary for achieving accurate and precise quantification. Ion abundance ratio assessments were introduced to alleviate some of these issues. Ion abundance ratios are based on the consistent relative abundance (RA) of specific product ions with respect to the total abundance of all product ions. To date, no standardized method of implementing ion abundance ratios has been established. Thresholds by which product ion contamination is confirmed vary widely and are often arbitrary. This study sought to establish criteria by which the relative abundance of product ions can be evaluated in an absolute quantification experiment. These findings suggest that evaluation of the absolute ion abundance for any given transition is necessary in order to effectively implement RA thresholds. Overall, the variation of the RA value was observed to be relatively constant beyond an absolute threshold ion abundance. Finally, these RA values were observed to fluctuate significantly over a 3 year period, suggesting that these values should be assessed as close as possible to the time at which data is collected for quantification. PMID:25154770

  14. Multi-sensor Cloud Retrieval Simulator and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters . Pt. 1; Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation; [Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, G.; DaSilva, A. M.; Norris, P. M.; Platnick, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating synthetic sensor radiances from variable output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint, the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probability density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The simulated sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies.We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products). We focus on clouds because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  15. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  16. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  17. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  18. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  19. Laboratory upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Kerr reservoir sediment waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance, chromaticity, and several other physical and chemical properties were measured for various water mixtures of bottom sediments taken from two sites at Kerr Reservoir, Virginia. Mixture concentrations ranged from 5 to 1000 ppm by weight of total suspended solids (TSS) in filtered deionized tap water. The two sets of radiance and reflectance spectra obtained were similar in shape and magnitude for comparable values of TSS. Upwelled reflectance was observed to be a nonlinear function of TSS with the degree of curvature a function of wavelength. Sediment from the downstream site contained a greater amount of particulate organic carbon than from the upstream site. No strong conclusions can be made regarding the effects of this difference on the radiance and reflectance spectra. Near-infrared wavelengths appear useful for measuring highly turbid water with concentrations up to 1000 ppm or more. Chromaticity characteristics do not appear useful for monitoring sediment loads above 150 ppm.

  20. Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization.

    PubMed

    Voss, K J; Liu, Y

    1997-08-20

    A new system to measure the natural skylight polarized radiance distribution has been developed. The system is based on a fish-eye lens, CCD camera system, and filter changer. With this system sequences of images can be combined to determine the linear polarization components of the incident light field. Calibration steps to determine the system 's polarization characteristics are described. Comparisons of the radiance measurements of this system and a simple pointing radiometer were made in the field and agreed within 10 % for measurements at 560 and 670 nm and 25 % at 860 nm. Polarization tests were done in the laboratory. The accuracy of the intensity measurements is estimated to be 10 %, while the accuracy of measurements of elements of the Mueller matrix are estimated to be 2 %.

  1. Radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light from haze and clouds.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1968-08-01

    The radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light is calculated from the Stokes' vectors by a Monte Carlo method. The exact scattering matrix for a typical haze and for a cloud whose spherical drops have an average radius of 12 mu is calculated from the Mie theory. The Stokes' vector is transformed in a collision by this scattering matrix and the rotation matrix. The two angles that define the photon direction after scattering are chosen by a random process that correctly simulates the actual distribution functions for both angles. The Monte Carlo results for Rayleigh scattering compare favorably with well known tabulated results. Curves are given of the reflected and transmitted radiances and polarizations for both the haze and cloud models and for several solar angles, optical thicknesses, and surface albedos. The dependence on these various parameters is discussed.

  2. Time-cumulated visible and infrared radiance histograms used as descriptors of surface and cloud variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seze, Genevieve; Rossow, William B.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial and temporal stability of the distributions of satellite-measured visible and infrared radiances, caused by variations in clouds and surfaces, are investigated using bidimensional and monodimensional histograms and time-composite images. Similar analysis of the histograms of the original and time-composite images provides separation of the contributions of the space and time variations to the total variations. The variability of both the surfaces and clouds is found to be larger at scales much larger than the minimum resolved by satellite imagery. This study shows that the shapes of these histograms are distinctive characteristics of the different climate regimes and that particular attributes of these histograms can be related to several general, though not universal, properties of clouds and surface variations at regional and synoptic scales. There are also significant exceptions to these relationships in particular climate regimes. The characteristics of these radiance histograms provide a stable well defined descriptor of the cloud and surface properties.

  3. A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueli; Gao, Xinbo; Qu, Xiaochao; Liang, Jimin; Wang, Lin; Yang, Da'an; Garofalakis, Anikitos; Ripoll, Jorge; Tian, Jie

    2009-08-31

    Noncontact optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to its significant advantages on detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, image quality and system simplicity compared with contact measurement. However, photon transport simulation in free-space is still an extremely challenging topic for the complexity of the optical system. For this purpose, this paper proposes an analytical model for photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem (HRRT). It combines Lambert's cosine law and the radiance theorem to handle the influence of the complicated lens and to simplify the photon transport process in the optical system. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated and validated with numerical simulations and physical experiments. Qualitative comparison results of flux distribution at the detector are presented. In particular, error analysis demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon propagation in free-space.

  4. A comparison of measured and calculated upwelling radiance over water as a function of sensor altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.; Salzman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper compares remote sensing data measured over water at altitudes ranging from 30 m to 15.2 km to data calculated for corresponding altitudes using surface measurements and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. The data were acquired on June 22, 1978 in Lake Erie and it was found that suspended solids and chlorophyll concentrations were 0.59 + or - 0.02 mg/liter and 2.42 + or - 0.03 micro gram/liter respectively throughout the duration of the experiment. Calculated and measured nadir radiances for altitudes of 152 m and 12.5 km agree to within 16% and 14% respectively. It is noted that the model offered a poor simulation of the variation in measured radiance with look angle. Finally, it is concluded that an accurate assessment of the source of error will require the inclusion in the analysis of the contributions made by the sea state and specular sky reflectance

  5. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  6. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Howard Robinson [Cincinnati, OH; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN

    2009-06-09

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  7. Interior radiances in optically deep absorbing media. 1: Exact solutions for one-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    The exact solutions are obtained for a one dimensional model of a scattering and absorbing medium. The results are given for both the reflected and transmitted radiance for any arbitrary surface albedo as well as for the interior radiance. These same quantities are calculated by the matrix operator method. The relative error of the solutions is obtained by comparison with the exact solutions as well as by an error analysis of the equations. The importance of an accurate starting value for the reflection and transmission operators is shown. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method can be used to solve the differential equations satisfied by these operators in order to obtain such accurate starting values.

  8. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP), InfraRed Integrating Sphere (IRIS), and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Comparisons and CIMO Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim M; Dooraghi, Michael R; Sengupta, Manajit

    Presenting results of five comparisons between ACPs and IRISs and the difference between the longwave irradiance measured by the ACPs and IRISs versus the average irradiance measured by the WISG. The process of CIMO recommendation to establish the world reference for measuring the atmospheric longwave irradiance with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is also presented.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  10. A Novel Method of Measuring Upwelling Radiance in the Hydrographic Sub-Hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüssmeier, N.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a new method useful in collecting upwelling radiance (Lu) from a platform submerged in a hydrographic sub-hull or moon pool of a research vessel. The information analyzed here was obtained during a field campaign in the Northwestern European shelf seas aboard the new research vessel SONNE. As the platform was located at the center of the ship, there is minimal effect from pitch and roll which is known to influence upwelling radiance observations. A comparison of the measurements from this platform with a free falling hyperspectral profiler was performed to determine the degree of uncertainty that results from ship shadow. For given Lu(λ) in situ data we observed ±33% intensity deviations compared to profiling measurements that can be attributed to instrument shading during moon pool installation and environmental perturbations. Furthermore Lu(λ) in situ spectra variations were observed at lower wavelengths, therefore a form fitting algorithm was adapted to receive corresponding depths with identical spectral form from Lu(z, λ) profiler casts. During an east to west transect in North Sea with a schedule speed up to 12 knots in situ radiance reflectance rrs(7, λ) measurements at 7 meter depth were performed with this novel radiometer setup. In spite of any restrictions originating from the sub-hull installation, water masses mixing zone from CDOM dominated coastal waters in the Skagerrak Strait towards the open North Sea were successfully derived thus offering an underway applicable upwelling radiance sensing not suffering from sun glint or other typical restrictions of above water radiometer installations.

  11. Spatially-resolved probing of biological phantoms by point-radiance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Palmer, Tyler J.; Whelan, William M.

    2011-03-01

    Interstitial fiber-optic based strategies for therapy monitoring and assessment rely on detecting treatment-induced changes in the light distribution in biological tissues. We present an optical technique to identify spectrally and spatially specific tissue chromophores in highly scattering turbid media. Typical optical sensors measure non-directional light intensity (i.e. fluence) and require fiber translation (i.e. 3-5 positions), which is difficult to implement clinically. Point radiance spectroscopy is based on directional light collection (i.e. radiance) at a single point with a side-firing fiber that can be rotated up to 360°. A side firing fiber accepts light within a well-defined solid angle thus potentially providing an improved spatial resolution. Experimental measurements were performed using an 800-μm diameter isotropic spherical diffuser coupled to a halogen light source and a 600 μm, ~43° cleaved fiber (i.e. radiance detector). The background liquid-based scattering phantom was fabricated using 1% Intralipid (i.e. scattering medium). Light was collected at 1-5° increments through 360°-segment. Gold nanoparticles, placed into a 3.5 mm diameter capillary tube were used as localized scatterers and absorbers introduced into the liquid phantom both on- and off-axis between source and detector. The localized optical inhomogeneity was detectable as an angular-resolved variation in the radiance polar plots. This technique is being investigated as a non-invasive optical modality for prostate cancer monitoring.

  12. Pilot Comparison of Radiance Temperature Scale Realization Between NIMT and NMIJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2015-03-01

    A pilot comparison of radiance temperature scale realizations between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) was conducted. At the two national metrology institutes (NMIs), a 900 nm radiation thermometer, used as the transfer artifact, was calibrated by a means of a multiple fixed-point method using the fixed-point blackbody of Zn, Al, Ag, and Cu points, and by means of relative spectral responsivity measurements according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) definition. The Sakuma-Hattori equation is used for interpolating the radiance temperature scale between the four fixed points and also for extrapolating the ITS-90 temperature scale to 2000 C. This paper compares the calibration results in terms of fixed-point measurements, relative spectral responsivity, and finally the radiance temperature scale. Good agreement for the fixed-point measurements was found in case a correction for the change of the internal temperature of the artifact was applied using the temperature coefficient measured at the NMIJ. For the realized radiance temperature range from 400 C to 1100 C, the resulting scale differences between the two NMIs are well within the combined scale comparison uncertainty of 0.12 C (). The resulting spectral responsivity measured at the NIMT has a comparable curve to that measured at the NMIJ especially in the out-of-band region, yielding a ITS-90 scale difference within 1.0 C from the Cu point to 2000 C, whereas the realization comparison uncertainty of NIMT and NMIJ combined is 1.2 C () at 2000 C.

  13. Potential for the use of reconstructed IASI radiances in the detection of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, N. C.; Hilton, F. I.; Illingworth, S. M.; Eyre, J. R.; Hultberg, T.

    2010-07-01

    Principal component (PC) analysis has received considerable attention as a technique for the extraction of meteorological signals from hyperspectral infra-red sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). In addition to achieving substantial bit-volume reductions for dissemination purposes, the technique can also be used to generate reconstructed radiances in which random instrument noise has been reduced. Studies on PC analysis of hyperspectral infrared sounder data have been undertaken in the context of numerical weather prediction, instrument monitoring and geophysical variable retrieval, as well as data compression. This study examines the potential of PC analysis for chemistry applications. A major concern in the use of PC analysis for chemistry is that the spectral features associated with trace gases may not be well represented in the reconstructed spectra, either due to deficiencies in the training set or due to the limited number of PC scores used in the radiance reconstruction. In this paper we show examples of reconstructed IASI radiances for several trace gases: ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide. It is shown that care must be taken in the selection of spectra for the initial training set: an iterative technique, in which outlier spectra are added to a base training set, gives the best results. For the four trace gases examined, key features of the chemical signatures are retained in the reconstructed radiances, whilst achieving a substantial reduction in instrument noise. A new regional re-transmission service for IASI is scheduled to start in 2010, as part of the EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS). For this EARS-IASI service it is intended to include PC scores as part of the data stream. The paper describes the generation of the reference eigenvectors for this new service.

  14. Potential for the use of reconstructed IASI radiances in the detection of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, N. C.; Hilton, F. I.; Illingworth, S. M.; Eyre, J. R.; Hultberg, T.

    2010-02-01

    Principal component (PC) analysis has received considerable attention as a technique for the extraction of meteorological signals from hyperspectral infra-red sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). In addition to achieving substantial bit-volume reductions for dissemination purposes, the technique can also be used to generate reconstructed radiances in which random instrument noise has been suppressed. To date, most studies have been in the context of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). This study examines the potential of PC analysis for chemistry applications. A major concern in the use of PC analysis for chemistry has been that the spectral features associated with trace gases may not be well represented in the reconstructed spectra, either due to deficiencies in the training set or due to the limited number of PC scores used in the radiance reconstruction. In this paper we show examples of reconstructed IASI radiances for several trace gases: ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide. It is shown that care must be taken in the selection of spectra for the initial training set: an iterative technique, in which outlier spectra are added to a base training set, gives the best results. For the four trace gases examined, the chemical signatures are retained in the reconstructed radiances, whilst achieving a substantial reduction in instrument noise. A new regional re-transmission service for IASI is scheduled to start in 2010, as part of the EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS). For this EARS-IASI service it is intended to include PC scores as part of the data stream. The paper describes the generation of the reference eigenvectors for this new service.

  15. High temperature radiance spectroscopy measurements of solid and liquid uranium and plutonium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Tougait, O.; Eloirdi, R.; Malki, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the radiance of liquid and solid uranium and plutonium carbides at wavelengths 550 nm ⩽ λ ⩽ 920 nm is reported. A fast multi-channel spectro-pyrometer has been employed for the radiance measurements of samples heated up to and beyond their melting point by laser irradiation. The melting temperature of uranium monocarbide, soundly established at 2780 K, has been taken as a radiance reference. Based on it, a wavelength-dependence has been obtained for the high-temperature spectral emissivity of some uranium carbides (1 ⩽ C/U ⩽ 2). Similarly, the peritectic temperature of plutonium monocarbide (1900 K) has been used as a reference for plutonium monocarbide and sesquicarbide. The present spectral emissivities of solid uranium and plutonium carbides are close to 0.5 at 650 nm, in agreement with previous literature values. However, their high temperature behaviour, values in the liquid, and carbon-content and wavelength dependencies in the visible-near infrared range have been determined here for the first time. Liquid uranium carbide seems to interact with electromagnetic radiation in a more metallic way than does the solid, whereas a similar effect has not been observed for plutonium carbides. The current emissivity values have also been used to convert the measured radiance spectra into real temperature, and thus perform a thermal analysis of the laser heated samples. Some high-temperature phase boundaries in the systems U-C and Pu-C are shortly discussed on the basis of the current results.

  16. BOREAS RSS-2 Level-1B ASAS Image Data: At-Sensor Radiance in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Dabney, P. W.; Kovalick, W.; Graham, D.; Bur, Michael; Irons, James R.; Tierney, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-2 team used the ASAS instrument, mounted on the NASA C-130 aircraft, to create at-sensor radiance images of various sites as a function of spectral wavelength, view geometry (combinations of view zenith angle, view azimuth angle, solar zenith angle, and solar azimuth angle), and altitude. The level-1b ASAS images of the BOREAS study areas were collected from April to September 1994 and March to July 1996.

  17. Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grabtchak, Serge; Palmer, Tyler J; Whelan, William M

    2011-07-01

    Interstitial fiber-optic-based approaches used in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications rely on localized light-tissue interactions. We present an optical technique to identify spectrally and spatially specific exogenous chromophores in highly scattering turbid media. Point radiance spectroscopy is based on directional light collection at a single point with a side-firing fiber that can be rotated up to 360 deg. A side firing fiber accepts light within a well-defined, solid angle, thus potentially providing an improved spatial resolution. Measurements were performed using an 800-μm diameter isotropic spherical diffuser coupled to a halogen light source and a 600 μm, ∼43 deg cleaved fiber (i.e., radiance detector). The background liquid-based scattering phantom was fabricated using 1% Intralipid. Light was collected with 1 deg increments through 360 deg-segment. Gold nanoparticles , placed into a 3.5-mm diameter capillary tube were used as localized scatterers and absorbers introduced into the liquid phantom both on- and off-axis between source and detector. The localized optical inhomogeneity was detectable as an angular-resolved variation in the radiance polar plots. This technique is being investigated as a potential noninvasive optical modality for prostate cancer monitoring.

  18. Impact of horizontal and vertical localization scales on microwave sounder SAPHIR radiance assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, C.; Balaji, C.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of horizontal and vertical localization scales on the assimilation of direct SAPHIR radiances is studied. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used as a surrogate for the forward radiative calculations. The training input dataset for ANN consists of vertical layers of atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and other hydrometeor profiles with 6 channel Brightness Temperatures (BTs) as output. The best neural network architecture has been arrived at, by a neuron independence study. Since vertical localization of radiance data requires weighting functions, a ANN has been trained for this purpose. The radiances were ingested into the NWP using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) technique. The horizontal localization has been taken care of, by using a Gaussian localization function centered around the observed coordinates. Similarly, the vertical localization is accomplished by assuming a function which depends on the weighting function of the channel to be assimilated. The effect of both horizontal and vertical localizations has been studied in terms of ensemble spread in the precipitation. Aditionally, improvements in 24 hr forecast from assimilation are also reported.

  19. An Investigation of the Characterization of Cloud Contamination in Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, William; Jedlovec, Gary J.; LeMarshall, John

    2007-01-01

    In regions lacking direct observations, the assimilation of radiances from infrared and microwave sounders is the primary method for characterizing the atmosphere in the analysis process. In recent years, technological advances have led to the launching of more advanced sounders, particularly in the thermal infrared spectrum. With the advent of these hyperspectral sounders, the amount of data available for the analysis process has and will continue to be dramatically increased. However, the utilization of infrared radiances in variational assimilation can be problematic in the presence of clouds; specifically the assessment of the presence of clouds in an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) and the contamination in the individual channels within the IFOV. Various techniques have been developed to determine if a channel is contaminated by clouds. The work presented in this paper and subsequent presentation will investigate traditional techniques and compare them to a new technique, the C02 sorting technique, which utilizes the high spectral resolution of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) within the framework of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3DVAR system. Ultimately, this work is done in preparation for the assessment of short-term forecast impacts with the regional assimilation of AIRS radiances within the analysis fields of the Weather Research and Forecast Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) at the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center.

  20. A fast code for channel limb radiances with gas absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Uymin, Gennady; Flittner, David; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Mlawer, Eli; Henderson, John; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    We present a radiative transfer code capable of accurately and rapidly computing channel limb radiances in the presence of gaseous absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere. The code has been prototyped for the Mars Climate Sounder measuring limb radiances in the thermal part of the spectrum (200-900 cm-1) where absorption by carbon dioxide and water vapor and absorption and scattering by dust and water ice particles are important. The code relies on three main components: 1) The Gauss Seidel Spherical Radiative Transfer Model (GSSRTM) for scattering, 2) The Planetary Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (P-LBLRTM) for gas opacity, and 3) The Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) for selecting a limited number of spectral points to simulate channel radiances and thus achieving a substantial increase in speed. The accuracy of the code has been evaluated against brute-force line-by-line calculations performed on the NASA Pleiades supercomputer, with satisfactory results. Additional improvements in both accuracy and speed are attainable through incremental changes to the basic approach presented in this paper, which would further support the use of this code for real-time retrievals and data assimilation. Both newly developed codes, GSSRTM/OSS for MCS and P-LBLRTM, are available for additional testing and user feedback.

  1. Estimating top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiance using MERRA-2 atmospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, Tania; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Kanan, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Thermal infrared satellite images have been widely used in environmental studies. However, satellites have limited temporal resolution, e.g., 16 day Landsat or 1 to 2 day Terra MODIS. This paper investigates the use of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product, produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to predict global topof-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance. The high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product presents opportunities for novel research and applications. Various methods were applied to estimate TOA radiance from MERRA-2 variables namely (1) a parameterized physics based method, (2) Linear regression models and (3) non-linear Support Vector Regression. Model prediction accuracy was evaluated using temporally and spatially coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared data as reference data. This research found that Support Vector Regression with a radial basis function kernel produced the lowest error rates. Sources of errors are discussed and defined. Further research is currently being conducted to train deep learning models to predict TOA thermal radiance

  2. Assimilation of SBUV Version 8 Radiances into the GEOS Ozone DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Martin D.; Stajner, Ivanka; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In operational weather forecasting, the assimilation of brightness temperatures from satellite sounders, instead of assimilation of 1D-retrievals has become increasingly common practice over the last two decades. Compared to these systems, assimilation of trace gases is still at a relatively early stage of development, and efforts to directly assimilate radiances instead of retrieved products have just begun a few years ago, partially because it requires much more computation power due to the employment of a radiative transport forward model (FM). This paper will focus on a method to assimilate SBUV/2 radiances (albedos) into the Global Earth Observation System Ozone Data Assimilation Scheme (GEOS-03DAS). While SBUV-type instruments cannot compete with newer sensors in terms of spectral and horizontal resolution, they feature a continuous data record back to 1978, which makes them very valuable for trend studies. Assimilation can help spreading their ground coverage over the whole globe, as has been previously demonstrated with the GEOS-03DAS using SBUV Version 6 ozone profiles. Now, the DAS has been updated to use the newly released SBUV Version 8 data. We will compare pre]lmlnarv results of SBUV radiance assimilation with the assimilation of retrieved ozone profiles, discuss methods to deal with the increased computational load, and try to assess the error characteristics and future potential of the new approach.

  3. BBAERI vs. BNAERI: A Comparison of Two Hyperspectral Atmospheric Downwelling Radiance Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R.; McMillan, W.; Shaw, J.

    2006-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric downwelling infrared radiances have been measured at UMBC's Atmospheric Remote sensing Facility (ARF). We present BBAERI and BNAERI spectral comparisons to demonstrate their consistent radiometric calibration and will show examples of retrieval products from each. The atmospheric emitted radiances were measured using two different Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers' (AERI): the Baltimore Bomem AERI (BBAERI) entirely built by ABB Bomem and the Baltimore NOAA AERI (BNAERI) assembled by research scientists at NOAA. BBAERI previously has been used for field experiments in support of satellite validation, but now will spend most of its time at UMBC. BNAERI was designed for autonomous field operations. Planned upcoming field campaigns for BNAERI include experiments in central Alaska or in the Baltimore-Washington area. AERI devices were originally designed by the University of Madison Wisconsin to retrieve temperature and water vapor profiles up to the boundary layer every eight to ten minutes. In addition to boundary layer temperature and water vapor profiling, we will report retrieved boundary layer abundances of trace gases.

  4. Detection of localized inclusions of gold nanoparticles in Intralipid-1% by point-radiance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Palmer, Tyler J.; Whelan, William M.

    2011-07-01

    Interstitial fiber-optic-based approaches used in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications rely on localized light-tissue interactions. We present an optical technique to identify spectrally and spatially specific exogenous chromophores in highly scattering turbid media. Point radiance spectroscopy is based on directional light collection at a single point with a side-firing fiber that can be rotated up to 360 deg. A side firing fiber accepts light within a well-defined, solid angle, thus potentially providing an improved spatial resolution. Measurements were performed using an 800-μm diameter isotropic spherical diffuser coupled to a halogen light source and a 600 μm, ~43 deg cleaved fiber (i.e., radiance detector). The background liquid-based scattering phantom was fabricated using 1% Intralipid. Light was collected with 1 deg increments through 360 deg-segment. Gold nanoparticles , placed into a 3.5-mm diameter capillary tube were used as localized scatterers and absorbers introduced into the liquid phantom both on- and off-axis between source and detector. The localized optical inhomogeneity was detectable as an angular-resolved variation in the radiance polar plots. This technique is being investigated as a potential noninvasive optical modality for prostate cancer monitoring.

  5. RADIANCE: An automated, enterprise-wide solution for archiving and reporting CT radiation dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa S; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Steingall, Scott R; Maidment, Andrew D A; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the ability to monitor, track, and report exposure to radiation from medical imaging. Historically, however, dose information has been stored on an image-based dose sheet, an arrangement that precludes widespread indexing. Although scanner manufacturers are beginning to include dose-related parameters in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) headers of imaging studies, there remains a vast repository of retrospective computed tomographic (CT) data with image-based dose sheets. Consequently, it is difficult for imaging centers to monitor their dose estimates or participate in the American College of Radiology (ACR) Dose Index Registry. An automated extraction software pipeline known as Radiation Dose Intelligent Analytics for CT Examinations (RADIANCE) has been designed that quickly and accurately parses CT dose sheets to extract and archive dose-related parameters. Optical character recognition of information in the dose sheet leads to creation of a text file, which along with the DICOM study header is parsed to extract dose-related data. The data are then stored in a relational database that can be queried for dose monitoring and report creation. RADIANCE allows efficient dose analysis of CT examinations and more effective education of technologists, radiologists, and referring physicians regarding patient exposure to radiation at CT. RADIANCE also allows compliance with the ACR's dose reporting guidelines and greater awareness of patient radiation dose, ultimately resulting in improved patient care and treatment.

  6. The effects of downwelling radiance on MER surface spectra: the evil that atmospheres do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Ghosh, A.; Arvidson, R.; Christensen, P.; Guinness, E.; Ruff, S.; Seelos, F.; Smith, M.; Athena Science

    2004-11-01

    While it may not be surprising to some that downwelling radiation in the martian atmosphere may contribute a non-negligible fraction of the radiance for a given surface scene, others remain shocked and surprised (and often dismayed) to discover this fact; particularly with regard to mini-TES observations. Naturally, the relative amplitude of this sky ``contamination'' is often a complicated function of meteorological conditions, viewing geometry, surface properties, and (for the IR) surface temperature. Ideally, one would use a specialized observations to mimic the actual hemispherical-directional nature of the problem. Despite repeated attempts to obtain Pancam complete sky observations and mini-TES sky octants, such observations are not available in the MER observational database. As a result, one is left with the less-enviable, though certainly more computationally intensive, task of connecting point observations (radiance and derived meteorological parameters) to a hemispherical integral of downwelling radiance. Naturally, one must turn to a radiative transfer analysis, despite oft-repeated attempts to assert otherwise. In our presentation, we offer insight into the conditions under which one must worry about atmospheric removal, as well as semi-empirical approaches (based upon said radiative transfer efforts) for producing the correction factors from the available MER atmospheric observations. This work is proudly supported by the MER program through NASA/JPL Contract No. 1242889 (MJW), as well as the contracts for the co-authors.

  7. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G; Pang, Bo; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhiyuan; Xia, Younan; Whelan, William M

    2015-01-01

    Radiance spectroscopy was applied to the interstitial detection of localized inclusions containing Au nanocages or nanorods with various concentrations embedded in porcine muscle phantoms. The radiance was quantified using a perturbation approach, which enabled the separation of contributions from the porcine phantom and the localized inclusion, with the inclusion serving as a perturbation probe of photon distributions in the turbid medium. Positioning the inclusion at various places in the phantom allowed for tracking of photons that originated from a light source, passed through the inclusion’s location, and reached a detector. The inclusions with high extinction coefficients were able to absorb nearly all photons in the range of 650–900 nm, leading to a spectrally flat radiance signal. This signal could be converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer–Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps. PMID:25709450

  8. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G; Pang, Bo; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhiyuan; Xia, Younan; Whelan, William M

    2015-01-01

    Radiance spectroscopy was applied to the interstitial detection of localized inclusions containing Au nanocages or nanorods with various concentrations embedded in porcine muscle phantoms. The radiance was quantified using a perturbation approach, which enabled the separation of contributions from the porcine phantom and the localized inclusion, with the inclusion serving as a perturbation probe of photon distributions in the turbid medium. Positioning the inclusion at various places in the phantom allowed for tracking of photons that originated from a light source, passed through the inclusion's location, and reached a detector. The inclusions with high extinction coefficients were able to absorb nearly all photons in the range of 650-900 nm, leading to a spectrally flat radiance signal. This signal could be converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer-Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps.

  9. Feasibility of inverse problem solution for determination of city emission function from night sky radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petržala, Jaromír

    2018-07-01

    The knowledge of the emission function of a city is crucial for simulation of sky glow in its vicinity. The indirect methods to achieve this function from radiances measured over a part of the sky have been recently developed. In principle, such methods represent an ill-posed inverse problem. This paper deals with the theoretical feasibility study of various approaches to solving of given inverse problem. Particularly, it means testing of fitness of various stabilizing functionals within the Tikhonov's regularization. Further, the L-curve and generalized cross validation methods were investigated as indicators of an optimal regularization parameter. At first, we created the theoretical model for calculation of a sky spectral radiance in the form of a functional of an emission spectral radiance. Consequently, all the mentioned approaches were examined in numerical experiments with synthetical data generated for the fictitious city and loaded by random errors. The results demonstrate that the second order Tikhonov's regularization method together with regularization parameter choice by the L-curve maximum curvature criterion provide solutions which are in good agreement with the supposed model emission functions.

  10. Use of MODIS Cloud Top Pressure to Improve Assimilation Yields of AIRS Radiances in GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Previously, it has been shown that cloud top designation associated with quality control procedures within the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system used operationally by a number of Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) partners may not provide the best representation of cloud top pressure (CTP). Because this designated CTP determines which channels are cloud-free and, thus, available for assimilation, ensuring the most accurate representation of this value is imperative to obtaining the greatest impact from satellite radiances. This paper examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing analysis increments and numerical forecasts generated using operational techniques with a research technique that swaps CTP from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the value of CTP calculated from the radiances within GSI.

  11. The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H. A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.

  12. GOSAT and OCO-2 Inter-comparison on Measured Spectral Radiance and Retrieved Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Crisp, D.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT and grating spectrometer on OCO-2 use different measurement techniques to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and molecular oxygen (O2). Both instruments observe sunlight reflected from the Earth's surface in almost the same spectral range. As a first step in cross calibrating these two instruments, we compared spectral radiance observations within the three short wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands centered on the O2 A-band (O2A), the weak CO2 band near 1.6 microns (Weak-CO2) and 2.06 micons (Strong-CO2) bands at temporally coincident and spatially collocated points. In this work, we reconciled the different size of the footprints and evaluated at various types of surface targets such as ocean, desert and forest. For radiometric inter-comparisons, we consider long term instrument sensitivity degradation in orbit and differences in viewing geometry and associated differences in surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Measured spectral radiances agree very well within 5% for all bands. This presentation will summarize these comparisons of GOSAT and OCO-2 spectral radiance observations and associated estimates of carbon dioxide and related parameters retrieved with the same algorithm at matchup points. We will also discuss instrument related uncertainties from various target observations.

  13. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Assessment of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Correction of Above-Water and Satellite Water-Leaving Radiance in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-10

    water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ... model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with...proposed model over the current one, demonstrating the need for a specific case 2 water BRDF correction algorithm as well as the feasibility of enhancing

  15. Assessment of a bidirectional reflectance distribution correction of above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Harmel, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2012-01-10

    Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO's time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm. This confirms the advantages of the proposed model over the current

  16. Optimal Estimation Retrieval of Mid-Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane Using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbiriba, B.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse contributions to climate change. Space-based remote sensing measurements of carbon dioxide and methane would help to understand the generation, absorption and transport mechanisms and characterization of such gases. Space-based hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing measurements using NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument can provide 14 years of observations of radiances at the top of the atmosphere.Here we present a Optimal Estimation based retrieval system for surface temperature, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other trace gases, based on selected AIRS channels that allow for CO2 sensitivity down to the lower part of the middle troposphere. We use the SARTA fast forward model developed at University of Maryland Baltimore County, and use the ERA product for prior state atmospheric profiles.We retrieve CO2 and CH4 column concentrations across 14 years of AIRS measurements, for clear only field-of-views, using the AIRS L1B Calibration Subset. We then compare these to the standard AIRS L2 CO2 retrievals, as well TES, and OCO2 data, and the GlobalView/CarbonTracker CO2/CH4 model data from NOAA. We evaluate the hemispheric seasonal cycles, growth rates, and possible interhemispheric transport. We also evaluate the use of atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration to correct for the errors in the temperature profile.

  17. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  18. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  19. A simple method to relate microwave radiances to upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, S. A.; John, V. O.

    2005-01-01

    A brightness temperature (BT) transformation method can be applied to microwave data to retrieve Jacobian weighted upper tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) in a broad layer centered roughly between 6 and 8 km altitude. The UTH bias is below 4% RH, and the relative UTH bias below 20%. The UTH standard deviation is between 2 and 6.5% RH in absolute numbers, or between 10 and 27% in relative numbers. The standard deviation is dominated by the regression noise, resulting from vertical structure not accounted for by the simple transformation relation. The UTH standard deviation due to radiometric noise alone has a relative standard deviation of approximately 7% for a radiometric noise level of 1 K. The retrieval performance was shown to be of almost constant quality for all viewing angles and latitudes, except for problems at high latitudes due to surface effects. A validation of AMSU UTH against radiosonde UTH shows reasonable agreement if known systematic differences between AMSU and radiosonde are taken into account. When the method is applied to supersaturation studies, regression noise and radiometric noise could lead to an apparent supersaturation even if there were no supersaturation. For a radiometer noise level of 1 K the drop-off slope of the apparent supersaturation is 0.17% RH-1, for a noise level of 2 K the slope is 0.12% RH-1. The main conclusion from this study is that the BT transformation method is very well suited for microwave data. Its particular strength is in climatological applications where the simplicity and the a priori independence are key advantages.

  20. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  2. Peripheral absolute threshold spectral sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Massof, R W; Johnson, M A; Finkelstein, D

    1981-01-01

    Dark-adapted spectral sensitivities were measured in the peripheral retinas of 38 patients diagnosed as having typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in 3 normal volunteers. The patients included those having autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. Results were analysed by comparisons with the CIE standard scotopic spectral visibility function and with Judd's modification of the photopic spectral visibility function, with consideration of contributions from changes in spectral transmission of preretinal media. The data show 3 general patterns. One group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by Judd's photopic visibility curve. Absolute threshold spectral sensitivities for a second group of patients were fit by a normal scotopic spectral visibility curve. The third group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by a combination of scotopic and photopic spectral visibility curves. The autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance were represented in each group of patients. These data indicate that RP patients have normal rod and/or cone spectral sensitivities, and support the subclassification of patients described previously by Massof and Finkelstein. PMID:7459312

  3. Design considerations and validation of the MSTAR absolute metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Burger, Johan; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-08-01

    Absolute metrology measures the actual distance between two optical fiducials. A number of methods have been employed, including pulsed time-of-flight, intensity-modulated optical beam, and two-color interferometry. The rms accuracy is currently limited to ~5 microns. Resolving the integer number of wavelengths requires a 1-sigma range accuracy of ~0.1 microns. Closing this gap has a large pay-off: the range (length measurement) accuracy can be increased substantially using the unambiguous optical phase. The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. In this paper, we present recent experiments that use dispersed white light interferometry to independently validate the zero-point of the system. We also describe progress towards reducing the size of optics, and stabilizing the laser wavelength for operation over larger target ranges. MSTAR is a general-purpose tool for conveniently measuring length with much greater accuracy than was previously possible, and has a wide range of possible applications.

  4. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  5. Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  6. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  7. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  8. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  9. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  10. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  11. Radiance distribution over a ruffled sea: contributions from glitter, sky, and ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W; Guinn, J A

    1976-12-01

    The upward radiance just above the ocean surface and at the top of the atmosphere is calculated for a realistic model including an ocean surface with waves. The separate contributions of the sun glitter, the reflected sky radiance, and the upwelling photons from the ocean are calculated. The Monte Carlo method takes account of both Rayleigh scattering by the molecules and Mie scattering by the aerosols as well as molecular and aerosol absorption in the atmosphere. Similarly, in the ocean, both Rayleigh scattering by the water molecules and Mie scattering by the hydrosols as well as absorption by the water molecules and hydrosols are considered. Separate single-scattering functions are used for the aerosols and hydrosols calculated from the Mie theory. Both the reflected and refracted rays, as well as the rays that undergo total internal reflection, are followed at the ocean surface. The wave slope is chosen from the Cox-Munk distribution. The upward radiance just above the ocean surface outside of the sun glitter region is dominated by the reflected sky radiation from the horizon to a nadir angle of observation of from 68 degrees to 23 degrees depending on the azimuthal angle and the solar zenith angle; the upwelling photons from the ocean dominate over the remainder of the hemisphere, except in the region of the sun glitter which centers around the mirror image of the sun on a calm ocean. It is possible to answer various questions about the interaction of light with the ocean from the quantitative results presented here.

  12. Retrievals of atmospheric parameters from radiances obtained by the Juno Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno microwave radiometer (MWR) makes a north-south scan of Jupiter on every perijove pass of the spacecraft (Fig. 1). The planet is observed in six channels, at wavelengths ranging from 1.3 cm to 50 cm, the peaks of whose weighting functions range from 0.6 bars to 30 bars, respectively. Within 25 degrees of the equator each latitude band 1 degree wide is observed at 5-10 different emission angles. Intermediate processing involves conversion of electrical signals into radiances, subtraction of the side lobe contributions, and deconvolution to achieve maximum spatial resolution. After that, one wants to convert the radiances into physical parameters of the atmosphere, all as functions of latitude. The two main goals of the MWR are (1) to determine the global water and ammonia abundances and (2) to document the latitude variations of water, ammonia, and temperature in the subcloud regions, in effect, to observe the deep Jovian weather. Prior probability is based on the Galileo probe results at 6 degrees north latitude, VLA maps at wavelengths shorter than 7 cm, and moist adiabats calculated from assumed deep abundances of water and ammonia. A complication is that ammonia dominates the microwave opacity, and water is detectable mainly through its effect on the temperature profile and the slope of the moist adiabat. MCMC analysis of synthetic data suggests that the radiances and limb-darkening parameters contain at most 4 pieces of information about the atmosphere at each latitude. Choosing the right parameters is the heart of the effort, and we will report on testing the choices using synthetic and real data. If we have preliminary results concerning objectives (1) and (2) above, we will share them.

  13. Quantitative impact of aerosols on numerical weather prediction. Part II: Impacts to IR radiance assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.

  14. SU-E-T-470: Beam Performance of the Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaryan, H; Nazaryan, V; Wang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system is a fully functional, compact proton radiotherapy system that provides advanced proton delivery capabilities. It supports three-dimensional beam scanning with energy and intensity modulation. A series of measurements have been conducted to characterize the beam performance of the first installation of the system at the McLaren Proton Therapy Center in Flint, Michigan. These measurements were part of the technical commissioning of the system. Select measurements and results are presented. Methods: The Radiance 330 proton beam energy range is 70–250 MeV for treatment, and up to 330 MeV for proton tomography and radiography.more » Its 3-D scanning capability, together with a small beam emittance and momentum spread, provides a highly efficient beam delivery. During the technical commissioning, treatment plans were created to deliver uniform maps at various energies to perform Gamma Index analysis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were irradiated using the Planned irradiation maps. Bragg Peak chamber was used to test the dynamic range during a scan in one layer for high (250 MeV) and Low (70 MeV) energies. The maximum and minimum range, range adjustment and modulation, distal dose falloff (80%–20%), pencil beam spot size, spot placement accuracy were also measured. The accuracy testing included acquiring images, image registration, receiving correction vectors and applying the corrections to the robotic patient positioner. Results: Gamma Index analysis of the Treatment Planning System (TPS) data vs. Measured data showed more than 90% of points within (3%, 3mm) for the maps created by the TPS. At Isocenter Beam Size (One sigma) < 3mm at highest energy (250 MeV) in air. Beam delivery was within 0.6 mm of the intended target at the entrance and the exit of the beam, through the phantom. Conclusion: The Radiance 330 Beam Performance Measurements have confirmed that the system operates as designed with excellent

  15. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    CENTRE DE RECHERCHES POUR LA DEFENSE VALCARTIER,QuEBEC DREV - R - 9608 Unlimited Distribution I Distribution illimitee REMOTE DETERMINATION OF...propose une methode d’evaluation de la temperature et de la transmittance des nuages en se basant sur des mesures de radiance spectrale effectuees au...niveau du sol. Cette methode tire avantage du fait qu’il y a une forte bande d’emission de l’ozone a 9.6 J!ffi, ce qui constitue une source naturelle

  16. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael

    2011-09-06

    We report on the acceleration of annual daylighting simulations for fenestration systems in the Radiance ray-tracing program. The algorithm was optimized to reduce both the redundant data input/output operations and the floating-point operations. To further accelerate the simulation speed, the calculation for matrix multiplications was implemented using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit. We used OpenCL, which is a cross-platform parallel programming language. Numerical experiments show that the combination of the above measures can speed up the annual daylighting simulations 101.7 times or 28.6 times when the sky vector has 146 or 2306 elements, respectively.

  17. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Forecast Sensitivity to Observation and Its Application to Satellite Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Forecast sensitivity to observation provides practical and useful metric for the assessment of observation impact without conducting computationally intensive data denial experiments. Quite often complex data assimilation systems use a simplified version of the forecast sensitivity formulation based on ensembles. In this talk, we first present the comparison of forecast sensitivity for 4DVar, Hybrid-4DEnVar, and 4DEnKF with or without such simplifications using a highly nonlinear model. We then present the results of ensemble forecast sensitivity to satellite radiance observations for Hybrid-4DEnVart using NOAA's Global Forecast System.

  19. New method to calculate back-reflected radiance for isotropic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinzema, Kees; ten Bosch, Jaap J.; Ferwerda, Hedzer A.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.

    1996-04-01

    We present a method to determine the back reflected radiance from an isotropically scattering halfspace with matched boundary. The bonus of this method lies in the fact that it is capable, in principle, to handle the case of narrow beams, something which, to our knowledge, no other analytic method can do. Essentially, the method derives from a mathematical criterion that effectively forbids the existence of solutions to the transport equation which grown exponentially as one moves away from the surface and deeper into the medium. Preliminary calculations for infinitely wide beams yield results which agree well with what is found in literature.

  20. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART

  1. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  2. Bidirectional reflectance correction model for coastal water and its application to minimization of uncertainties in satellite and in-situ water leaving radiances at Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, Soe Min

    Ocean Color data validation is the absolute requirement to provide the steady and reliable Ocean Color data stream. In the validation of Ocean Color data, water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be compared in very accurate manner. Both in-situ and satellite data to be used in the comparisons are required to be the representative of the typical water and environmental condition at the site without being affected by the unexpected natural and environmental perturbation. As the result, assessments of the uncertainties in the water leaving radiance data must be carried out in the measurement and the every step of data processing procedure. With the hyper- and multi-spectral water leaving radiance data retrieved for the different viewing geometries of the instruments at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO), uncertainties in the water leaving radiance data and processing procedures have been assessed and quantified. Recommendations and algorithm improvements have been also made to reduce the uncertainties in the processing and validation of Ocean Color data. Particularly, remote sensing reflectance model to correct the bidirectional angular dependencies in both in-situ and satellite data have been proposed. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multi- and hyper-spectral radiometers which have different viewing geometries installed at LISCO. Match-ups and inter-comparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with spectral average improvement of 2.4%. LISCO's time series data has also been used to evaluate improvements in the match-up comparisons of MODIS satellite data when the proposed Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It has been shown that the

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of 6 weeks of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  4. Delusion proneness and 'jumping to conclusions': relative and absolute effects.

    PubMed

    van der Leer, L; Hartig, B; Goldmanis, M; McKay, R

    2015-04-01

    That delusional and delusion-prone individuals 'jump to conclusions' is one of the most robust and important findings in the literature on delusions. However, although the notion of 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC) implies gathering insufficient evidence and reaching premature decisions, previous studies have not investigated whether the evidence gathering of delusion-prone individuals is, in fact, suboptimal. The standard JTC effect is a relative effect but using relative comparisons to substantiate absolute claims is problematic. In this study we investigated whether delusion-prone participants jump to conclusions in both a relative and an absolute sense. Healthy participants (n = 112) completed an incentivized probabilistic reasoning task in which correct decisions were rewarded and additional information could be requested for a small price. This combination of rewards and costs generated optimal decision points. Participants also completed measures of delusion proneness, intelligence and risk aversion. Replicating the standard relative finding, we found that delusion proneness significantly predicted task decisions, such that the more delusion prone the participants were, the earlier they decided. This finding was robust when accounting for the effects of risk aversion and intelligence. Importantly, high-delusion-prone participants also decided in advance of an objective rational optimum, gathering fewer data than would have maximized their expected payoff. Surprisingly, we found that even low-delusion-prone participants jumped to conclusions in this absolute sense. Our findings support and clarify the claim that delusion formation is associated with a tendency to 'jump to conclusions'. In short, most people jump to conclusions, but more delusion-prone individuals 'jump further'.

  5. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  6. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  7. Adding a solar-radiance function to the Hošek-Wilkie skylight model.

    PubMed

    Hošek, Lukáš; Wilkie, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    One prerequisite for realistic renderings of outdoor scenes is the proper capturing of the sky's appearance. Currently, an explicit simulation of light scattering in the atmosphere isn't computationally feasible, and won't be in the foreseeable future. Captured luminance patterns have proven their usefulness in practice but can't meet all user needs. To fill this capability gap, computer graphics technology has employed analytical models of sky-dome luminance patterns for more than two decades. For technical reasons, such models deal with only the sky dome's appearance, though, and exclude the solar disc. The widely used model proposed by Arcot Preetham and colleagues employed a separately derived analytical formula for adding a solar emitter of suitable radiant intensity. Although this yields reasonable results, the formula is derived in a manner that doesn't exactly match the conditions in their sky-dome model. But the more sophisticated a skylight model is and the more subtly it can represent different conditions, the more the solar radiance should exactly match the skylight's conditions. Toward that end, researchers propose a solar-radiance function that exactly matches a recently published high-quality analytical skylight model.

  8. Estimating snow depth of alpine snowpack via airborne multifrequency passive microwave radiance observations: Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R. S.; Durand, M. T.; Li, D.; Baldo, E.; Margulis, S. A.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a newly-proposed snow depth retrieval approach for mountainous deep snow using airborne multifrequency passive microwave (PM) radiance observation. In contrast to previous snow depth estimations using satellite PM radiance assimilation, the newly-proposed method utilized single flight observation and deployed the snow hydrologic models. This method is promising since the satellite-based retrieval methods have difficulties to estimate snow depth due to their coarse resolution and computational effort. Indeed, this approach consists of particle filter using combinations of multiple PM frequencies and multi-layer snow physical model (i.e., Crocus) to resolve melt-refreeze crusts. The method was performed over NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) area in Colorado during 2002 and 2003. Results showed that there was a significant improvement over the prior snow depth estimates and the capability to reduce the prior snow depth biases. When applying our snow depth retrieval algorithm using a combination of four PM frequencies (10.7,18.7, 37.0 and 89.0 GHz), the RMSE values were reduced by 48 % at the snow depth transects sites where forest density was less than 5% despite deep snow conditions. This method displayed a sensitivity to different combinations of frequencies, model stratigraphy (i.e. different number of layering scheme for snow physical model) and estimation methods (particle filter and Kalman filter). The prior RMSE values at the forest-covered areas were reduced by 37 - 42 % even in the presence of forest cover.

  9. A comparison of measured and calculated upwelling radiance over water as a function of sensor altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.; Salzman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between remote sensing data measured over water at altitudes ranging from 30 m to 15.2 km and data calculated for corresponding altitudes using surface measurements and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Data were acquired on June 22, 1978 in Lake Erie, a cloudless, calm, near haze free day. Suspended solids and chlorophyll concentrations were 0.59 + or - 0.02 mg/1 and 2.42 + or - 0.03 micrograms/1 respectively throughout the duration of the experiment. Remote sensor data were acquired by two multispectral scanners each having 10 bands between 410 nm and 1040 nm. Calculated and measured nadir radiances for altitudes of 152 m and 12.5 km agree to within 16% and 14% respectively. The variation in measured radiance with look angle was poorly simulated by the model. It was concluded that an accurate assessment of the source of error will require the inclusion in the analysis of the contributions made by the sea state and specular sky reflectance.

  10. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  11. Synergistic use of MODIS cloud products and AIRS radiance measurements for retrieval of cloud parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Menzel, W.; Sun, F.; Schmit, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS) Aqua satellite will enable global monitoring of the distribution of clouds. MODIS is able to provide at high spatial resolution (1 ~ 5km) the cloud mask, surface and cloud types, cloud phase, cloud-top pressure (CTP), effective cloud amount (ECA), cloud particle size (CPS), and cloud water path (CWP). AIRS is able to provide CTP, ECA, CPS, and CWP within the AIRS footprint with much better accuracy using its greatly enhanced hyperspectral remote sensing capability. The combined MODIS / AIRS system offers the opportunity for cloud products improved over those possible from either system alone. The algorithm developed was applied to process the AIRS longwave cloudy radiance measurements; results are compared with MODIS cloud products, as well as with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder cloud products, to demonstrate the advantage of synergistic use of high spatial resolution MODIS cloud products and high spectral resolution AIRS sounder radiance measurements for optimal cloud retrieval. Data from ground-based instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in Oklahoma were used for the validation; results show that AIRS improves the MODIS cloud products in certain cases such as low-level clouds.

  12. Introducing Multisensor Satellite Radiance-Based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  13. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtainmore » measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.« less

  14. Deriving mesoscale temperature and moisture fields from satellite radiance measurements over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillger, D. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ability to provide mesoscale temperature and moisture fields from operational satellite infrared sounding radiances over the United States is explored. High-resolution sounding information for mesoscale analysis and forecasting is shown to be obtainable in mostly clear areas. An iterative retrieval algorithm applied to NOAA-VTPR radiances uses a mean radiosonde sounding as a best initial-guess profile. Temperature soundings are then retrieved at a horizontal resolution of about 70 km, as is an indication of the precipitable water content of the vertical sounding columns. Derived temperature values may be biased in general by the initial-guess sounding or in certain areas by the cloud correction technique, but the resulting relative temperature changes across the field when not contaminated by clouds will be useful for mesoscale forecasting and models. The derived moisture, affected only by high clouds, proves to be reliable to within 0.5 cm of precipitable water and contains valuable horizontal information. Present-day applications from polar-orbiting satellites as well as possibilities from upcoming temperature and moisture sounders on geostationary satellites are noted.

  15. Validation of SCIAMACHY and TOMS UV Radiances Using Ground and Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bojkov, B. R.; Kowalewski, M.; Labow, G.; Ahmad, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Verification of a stratospheric ozone recovery remains a high priority for environmental research and policy definition. Models predict an ozone recovery at a much lower rate than the measured depletion rate observed to date. Therefore improved precision of the satellite and ground ozone observing systems are required over the long term to verify its recovery. We show that validation of satellite radiances from space and from the ground can be a very effective means for correcting long term drifts of backscatter type satellite measurements and can be used to cross calibrate all B W instruments in orbit (TOMS, SBW/2, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OM, GOME-2, OMPS). This method bypasses the retrieval algorithms used for both satellite and ground based measurements that are normally used to validate and correct the satellite data. Radiance comparisons employ forward models and are inherently more accurate than inverse (retrieval) algorithms. This approach however requires well calibrated instruments and an accurate radiative transfer model that accounts for aerosols. TOMS and SCIAMACHY calibrations are checked to demonstrate this method and to demonstrate applicability for long term trends.

  16. EPIC Radiance Simulator for Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Wang, Yujie; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) is a planned space weather mission for the Sun and Earth observations from the Lagrangian L1 point. Onboard of DSCOVR is a multispectral imager EPIC designed for unique observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and 10 km spatial resolution. Depending on latitude, EPIC will observe the same Earth surface area during the course of the day in a wide range of solar and view zenith angles in the backscattering view geometry with the scattering angle of 164-172 . To understand the information content of EPIC data for analysis of the Earth clouds, aerosols and surface properties, an EPIC radiance Simulator was developed covering the UV -VIS-NIR range including the oxygen A and B-bands (A=340, 388, 443, 555, 680, 779.5, 687.7, 763.3 nm). The Simulator uses ancillary data (surface pressure/height, NCEP wind speed) as well as MODIS-based geophysical fields such as spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, column water vapor, and properties of aerosols and clouds including optical depth, effective radius, phase and cloud top height. The original simulations are conducted at 1 km resolution using the look-up table approach and then are averaged to 10 km EPIC radiances. This talk will give an overview of the EPIC Simulator with analysis of results over the continental USA and northern Atlantic.

  17. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael

    2013-05-23

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach wasmore » evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.« less

  18. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  19. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  20. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  1. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  3. Telling in-tune from out-of-tune: widespread evidence for implicit absolute intonation.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Huang, Alex; Rutstein, Brooke; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2017-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to name or produce an isolated musical note without the aid of a reference note. One skill thought to be unique to AP possessors is the ability to provide absolute intonation judgments (e.g., classifying an isolated note as "in-tune" or "out-of-tune"). Recent work has suggested that absolute intonation perception among AP possessors is not crystallized in a critical period of development, but is dynamically maintained by the listening environment, in which the vast majority of Western music is tuned to a specific cultural standard. Given that all listeners of Western music are constantly exposed to this specific cultural tuning standard, our experiments address whether absolute intonation perception extends beyond AP possessors. We demonstrate that non-AP listeners are able to accurately judge the intonation of completely isolated notes. Both musicians and nonmusicians showed evidence for absolute intonation recognition when listening to familiar timbres (piano and violin). When testing unfamiliar timbres (triangle and inverted sine waves), only musicians showed weak evidence of absolute intonation recognition (Experiment 2). Overall, these results highlight a previously unknown similarity between AP and non-AP possessors' long-term musical note representations, including evidence of sensitivity to frequency.

  4. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  5. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  6. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  7. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  8. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  9. The Impact of Assimilating Precipitation-affected Radiance on Cloud and Precipitation in Goddard WRF-EDAS Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Sara Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency TMI and AMSR-E radiances, which are sensitive to precipitation over land, are assimilated into the Goddard Weather Research and Forecasting Model- Ensemble Data Assimilation System (WRF-EDAS) for a few heavy rain events over the continental US. Independent observations from surface rainfall, satellite IR brightness temperatures, as well as ground-radar reflectivity profiles are used to evaluate the impact of assimilating rain-sensitive radiances on cloud and precipitation within WRF-EDAS. The evaluations go beyond comparisons of forecast skills and domain-mean statistics, and focus on studying the cloud and precipitation features in the jointed rainradiance and rain-cloud space, with particular attentions on vertical distributions of height-dependent cloud types and collective effect of cloud hydrometers. Such a methodology is very helpful to understand limitations and sources of errors in rainaffected radiance assimilations. It is found that the assimilation of rain-sensitive radiances can reduce the mismatch between model analyses and observations by reasonably enhancing/reducing convective intensity over areas where the observation indicates precipitation, and suppressing convection over areas where the model forecast indicates rain but the observation does not. It is also noted that instead of generating sufficient low-level warmrain clouds as in observations, the model analysis tends to produce many spurious upperlevel clouds containing small amount of ice water content. This discrepancy is associated with insufficient information in ice-water-sensitive radiances to address the vertical distribution of clouds with small amount of ice water content. Such a problem will likely be mitigated when multi-channel multi-frequency radiances/reflectivity are assimilated over land along with sufficiently accurate surface emissivity information to better constrain the vertical distribution of cloud hydrometers.

  10. Relationships between chlorophyll density and ocean radiance as measured by U2/OCS: Algorithms, examples and comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.; Hart, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    An ocean atmosphere radiative transfer process computation method which is suitable for determining lower boundary ocean albedo and other radiation components from spectral measurements of upwelling radiance taken from a high altitude platform is described. The method was applied to a set of color scanner data taken from slope water of the South Atlantic Bight to determine the influence of cholorophyll-a pigments in the sea on the ratio of upwelling radiance to down welling irradiance as a function of wavelength. The resulting chlorophyll concentrations are compared with measurements made by ships stationed along the flight path.

  11. Absolute color scale for improved diagnostics with wavefront error mapping.

    PubMed

    Smolek, Michael K; Klyce, Stephen D

    2007-11-01

    Wavefront data are expressed in micrometers and referenced to the pupil plane, but current methods to map wavefront error lack standardization. Many use normalized or floating scales that may confuse the user by generating ambiguous, noisy, or varying information. An absolute scale that combines consistent clinical information with statistical relevance is needed for wavefront error mapping. The color contours should correspond better to current corneal topography standards to improve clinical interpretation. Retrospective analysis of wavefront error data. Historic ophthalmic medical records. Topographic modeling system topographical examinations of 120 corneas across 12 categories were used. Corneal wavefront error data in micrometers from each topography map were extracted at 8 Zernike polynomial orders and for 3 pupil diameters expressed in millimeters (3, 5, and 7 mm). Both total aberrations (orders 2 through 8) and higher-order aberrations (orders 3 through 8) were expressed in the form of frequency histograms to determine the working range of the scale across all categories. The standard deviation of the mean error of normal corneas determined the map contour resolution. Map colors were based on corneal topography color standards and on the ability to distinguish adjacent color contours through contrast. Higher-order and total wavefront error contour maps for different corneal conditions. An absolute color scale was produced that encompassed a range of +/-6.5 microm and a contour interval of 0.5 microm. All aberrations in the categorical database were plotted with no loss of clinical information necessary for classification. In the few instances where mapped information was beyond the range of the scale, the type and severity of aberration remained legible. When wavefront data are expressed in micrometers, this absolute scale facilitates the determination of the severity of aberrations present compared with a floating scale, particularly for distinguishing

  12. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  13. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  14. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  15. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  16. Estimating Top-of-Atmosphere Thermal Infrared Radiance Using MERRA-2 Atmospheric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, Tania

    Space borne thermal infrared sensors have been extensively used for environmental research as well as cross-calibration of other thermal sensing systems. Thermal infrared data from satellites such as Landsat and Terra/MODIS have limited temporal resolution (with a repeat cycle of 1 to 2 days for Terra/MODIS, and 16 days for Landsat). Thermal instruments with finer temporal resolution on geostationary satellites have limited utility for cross-calibration due to their large view angles. Reanalysis atmospheric data is available on a global spatial grid at three hour intervals making it a potential alternative to existing satellite image data. This research explores using the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product to predict top-of-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance globally at time scales finer than available satellite data. The MERRA-2 data product provides global atmospheric data every three hours from 1980 to the present. Due to the high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product, opportunities for novel research and applications are presented. While MERRA-2 has been used in renewable energy and hydrological studies, this work seeks to leverage the model to predict TOA thermal radiance. Two approaches have been followed, namely physics-based approach and a supervised learning approach, using Terra/MODIS band 31 thermal infrared data as reference. The first physics-based model uses forward modeling to predict TOA thermal radiance. The second model infers the presence of clouds from the MERRA-2 atmospheric data, before applying an atmospheric radiative transfer model. The last physics-based model parameterized the previous model to minimize computation time. The second approach applied four different supervised learning algorithms to the atmospheric data. The algorithms included a linear least squares regression model, a non-linear support vector regression (SVR) model, a multi

  17. Assessment of Mars Atmospheric Temperature Retrievals from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Weisenstein, Deborah; Uymin, Gennady; Moncet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of Mars data assimilation. particularly quantification of measurement errors and generation of averaging kernels. we have evaluated atmospheric temperature retrievals from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) radiances. Multiple sets of retrievals have been considered in this study; (1) retrievals available from the Planetary Data System (PDS), (2) retrievals based on variants of the retrieval algorithm used to generate the PDS retrievals, and (3) retrievals produced using the Mars 1-Dimensional Retrieval (M1R) algorithm based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS ) forward model. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared to the MGS Radio Science (RS) temperature profiles. For the samples tested, the M1R temperature profiles can be made to agree within 2 K with the RS temperature profiles, but only after tuning the prior and error statistics. Use of a global prior that does not take into account the seasonal dependence leads errors of up 6 K. In polar samples. errors relative to the RS temperature profiles are even larger. In these samples, the PDS temperature profiles also exhibit a poor fit with RS temperatures. This fit is worse than reported in previous studies, indicating that the lack of fit is due to a bias correction to TES radiances implemented after 2004. To explain the differences between the PDS and Ml R temperatures, the algorithms are compared directly, with the OSS forward model inserted into the PDS algorithm. Factors such as the filtering parameter, the use of linear versus nonlinear constrained inversion, and the choice of the forward model, are found to contribute heavily to the differences in the temperature profiles retrieved in the polar regions, resulting in uncertainties of up to 6 K. Even outside the poles, changes in the a priori statistics result in different profile shapes which all fit the radiances within the specified error. The importance of the a priori statistics prevents

  18. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  19. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  20. Examining Dense Data Usage near the Regions with Severe Storms in All-Sky Microwave Radiance Data Assimilation and Impacts on GEOS Hurricane Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Jin, Jianjun; McCarty, Will; El Akkraoui, Amal; Todling, Ricardo; Gelaro, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Many numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers assimilate radiances affected by clouds and precipitation from microwave sensors, with the expectation that these data can provide critical constraints on meteorological parameters in dynamically sensitive regions to make significant impacts on forecast accuracy for precipitation. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center assimilates all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave sensors such as all-sky GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), which includes the GEOS atmospheric model, the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) atmospheric analysis system, and the Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS). So far, most of NWP centers apply same large data thinning distances, that are used in clear-sky radiance data to avoid correlated observation errors, to all-sky microwave radiance data. For example, NASA GMAO is applying 145 km thinning distances for most of satellite radiance data including microwave radiance data in which all-sky approach is implemented. Even with these coarse observation data usage in all-sky assimilation approach, noticeable positive impacts from all-sky microwave data on hurricane track forecasts were identified in GEOS-5 system. The motivation of this study is based on the dynamic thinning distance method developed in our all-sky framework to use of denser data in cloudy and precipitating regions due to relatively small spatial correlations of observation errors. To investigate the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance on hurricane forecasts, several hurricane cases selected between 2016-2017 are examined. The dynamic thinning distance method is utilized in our all-sky approach to understand the sources and mechanisms to explain the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave radiance sensors like Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit

  1. Assimilation of Precipitation Measurement Missions Microwave Radiance Observations With GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; McCarty, Will; Akella, Santha; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory satellite was launched in February, 2014. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is a conically scanning radiometer measuring 13 channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz and sampling between 65 S 65 N. This instrument is a successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which has observed 9 channels at frequencies ranging 10 to 85 GHz between 40 S 40 N since 1997. This presentation outlines the base procedures developed to assimilate GMI and TMI radiances in clear-sky conditions, including quality control methods, thinning decisions, and the estimation of, observation errors. This presentation also shows the impact of these observations when they are incorporated into the GEOS-5 atmospheric data assimilation system.

  2. Multiple scattered radiation emerging from continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Hitzfelder, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    The complete radiation field is calculated for scattering layers of various optical thicknesses. Results obtained for Rayleigh and haze scattering are compared. Calculated radiances show differences as large as 23% compared to the approximate scalar theory of radiative transfer, while the same differences are approximately 0.1% for a continental haze phase function. The polarization of reflected and transmitted radiation is given for various optical thicknesses, solar zenith angles, and surface albedos. Two types of neutral points occur for aerosol phase functions. Rayleigh-like neutral points arise from zero polarization that occurs at scattering angles of 0 deg and 180 deg. For Rayleigh phase functions, the position of these points varies with the optical thickness of the scattering layer. Non-Rayleigh neutral points are associated with the zeros of polarization which occur between the end points of the single scattering curve, and are found over a wide range of azimuthal angles.

  3. Artificially lit surface of Earth at night increasing in radiance and extent.

    PubMed

    Kyba, Christopher C M; Kuester, Theres; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Baugh, Kimberly; Jechow, Andreas; Hölker, Franz; Bennie, Jonathan; Elvidge, Christopher D; Gaston, Kevin J; Guanter, Luis

    2017-11-01

    A central aim of the "lighting revolution" (the transition to solid-state lighting technology) is decreased energy consumption. This could be undermined by a rebound effect of increased use in response to lowered cost of light. We use the first-ever calibrated satellite radiometer designed for night lights to show that from 2012 to 2016, Earth's artificially lit outdoor area grew by 2.2% per year, with a total radiance growth of 1.8% per year. Continuously lit areas brightened at a rate of 2.2% per year. Large differences in national growth rates were observed, with lighting remaining stable or decreasing in only a few countries. These data are not consistent with global scale energy reductions but rather indicate increased light pollution, with corresponding negative consequences for flora, fauna, and human well-being.

  4. A new simple concept for ocean colour remote sensing using parallel polarisation radiance

    PubMed Central

    He, Xianqiang; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Hao, Zengzhou

    2014-01-01

    Ocean colour remote sensing has supported research on subjects ranging from marine ecosystems to climate change for almost 35 years. However, as the framework for ocean colour remote sensing is based on the radiation intensity at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the polarisation of the radiation, which contains additional information on atmospheric and water optical properties, has largely been neglected. In this study, we propose a new simple concept to ocean colour remote sensing that uses parallel polarisation radiance (PPR) instead of the traditional radiation intensity. We use vector radiative transfer simulation and polarimetric satellite sensing data to demonstrate that using PPR has two significant advantages in that it effectively diminishes the sun glint contamination and enhances the ocean colour signal at the TOA. This concept may open new doors for ocean colour remote sensing. We suggest that the next generation of ocean colour sensors should measure PPR to enhance observational capability. PMID:24434904

  5. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  6. Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

  7. Artificially lit surface of Earth at night increasing in radiance and extent

    PubMed Central

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Kuester, Theres; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Baugh, Kimberly; Jechow, Andreas; Hölker, Franz; Bennie, Jonathan; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Guanter, Luis

    2017-01-01

    A central aim of the “lighting revolution” (the transition to solid-state lighting technology) is decreased energy consumption. This could be undermined by a rebound effect of increased use in response to lowered cost of light. We use the first-ever calibrated satellite radiometer designed for night lights to show that from 2012 to 2016, Earth’s artificially lit outdoor area grew by 2.2% per year, with a total radiance growth of 1.8% per year. Continuously lit areas brightened at a rate of 2.2% per year. Large differences in national growth rates were observed, with lighting remaining stable or decreasing in only a few countries. These data are not consistent with global scale energy reductions but rather indicate increased light pollution, with corresponding negative consequences for flora, fauna, and human well-being. PMID:29181445

  8. [Study on the characteristics of radiance calibration using nonuniformity extended source].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wei; Huang, Min; Xiangli, Bin; Tu, Xiao-Long

    2013-07-01

    Integrating sphere and diffuser are always used as extended source, and they have different effects on radiance calibration of imaging spectrometer with parameter difference. In the present paper, a mathematical model based on the theory of radiative transfer and calibration principle is founded to calculate the irradiance and calibration coefficients on CCD, taking relatively poor uniformity lights-board calibration system for example. The effects of the nonuniformity on the calibration was analyzed, which makes up the correlation of calibration coefficient matrix under ideal and unideal situation. The results show that the nonuniformity makes the viewing angle and the position of the point of intersection of the optical axis and the diffuse reflection plate have relatively large effects on calibration, while the observing distance's effect is small; under different viewing angles, a deviation value can be found that makes the calibration results closest to the desired results. So, the calibration error can be reduced by choosing appropriate deviation value.

  9. A New Normalized Difference Cloud Retrieval Technique Applied to Landsat Radiances Over the Oklahoma ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orepoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert; Marshak, Alexander; Wen, Guoyong

    1999-01-01

    We suggest a new approach to cloud retrieval, using a normalized difference of nadir reflectivities (NDNR) constructed from a non-absorbing and absorbing (with respect to liquid water) wavelength. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that this quantity has the potential of removing first order scattering effects caused by cloud side illumination and shadowing at oblique Sun angles. Application of the technique to TM (Thematic Mapper) radiance observations from Landsat-5 over the Southern Great Plains site of the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program gives very similar regional statistics and histograms, but significant differences at the pixel level. NDNR can be also combined with the inverse NIPA (Nonlocal Independent Pixel Approximation) of Marshak (1998) which is applied for the first time on overcast Landsat scene subscenes. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the NIPA-retrieved cloud fields on the parameters of the method and discuss practical issues related to the optimal choice of these parameters.

  10. Method and program product for determining a radiance field in an optical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinersman, Phillip N. (Inventor); Carder, Kendall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid method is presented by which Monte Carlo techniques are combined with iterative relaxation techniques to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation in arbitrary one-, two- or three-dimensional optical environments. The optical environments are first divided into contiguous regions, or elements, with Monte Carlo techniques then being employed to determine the optical response function of each type of element. The elements are combined, and the iterative relaxation techniques are used to determine simultaneously the radiance field on the boundary and throughout the interior of the modeled environment. This hybrid model is capable of providing estimates of the under-water light field needed to expedite inspection of ship hulls and port facilities. It is also capable of providing estimates of the subaerial light field for structured, absorbing or non-absorbing environments such as shadows of mountain ranges within and without absorption spectral bands such as water vapor or CO.sub.2 bands.

  11. BOREAS Level-3b Landsat TM Imagery: At-sensor Radiances in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the level-3b Landsat TM data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as FPAR and LAI. Although very similar in content to the level-3a Landsat TM products, the level-3b images were created to provide users with a directly usable at-sensor radiance image. Geographically, the level-3b images cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. Temporally, the images cover the period of 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jul-1996. The images are available in binary, image format files.

  12. BOREAS Level-4b AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Nickerson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Feng-Ting; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-11) and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4b data are gridded, 10-day composites of at-sensor radiance values produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10- day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  13. BOREAS Level 3-b AVHRR-LAC Imagery: Scaled At-sensor Radiance in LGSOWG Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Data acquired from the AVHRR instrument on the NOAA-9, -11, -12, and -14 satellites were processed and archived for the BOREAS region by the MRSC and BORIS. The data were acquired by CCRS and were provided for use by BOREAS researchers. A few winter acquisitions are available, but the archive contains primarily growing season imagery. These gridded, at-sensor radiance image data cover the period of 30-Jan-1994 to 18-Sep-1996. Geographically, the data cover the entire 1,000-km x 1,000-km BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  14. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  15. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER Radiance Images From the NASA C-130

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, M.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    These Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-20 data are a subset of images collected by the Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) instrument over tower sites in the BOREAS study areas during the intensive field campaigns (IFCs) in 1994. The POLDER images presented here from the NASA ARC C-130 aircraft are made available for illustration purposes only. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The POLDER radiance images are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particulate matter in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. K.; Strong, A. E.; Baker, E. T.

    1980-01-01

    Spectral analysis of water color and concurrent measurements of the relative concentration of various particulate and dissolved constituents within a broad range of water types are necessary to quantify ocean color observations and successfully relate them to various biological and physical processes that can be monitored by remote sensing. Some of the results of a Nimbus-G prelaunch cruise in connection with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) experiment, which was carried out in the Gulf of Mexico in October 1977, are presented and discussed. Based upon a small but diverse sample of near-surface measurements, it appears possible to estimate total suspended particulate matter (SPM) to useful accuracies by forming ratios of the spectral radiances measured at wavelengths falling near the centers of certain CZCS bands, viz., 440 nm:550 nm and 440 nm:520 nm. Furthermore, the analysis suggests a very high degree of covariation between SPM and phytoplankton pigments except for certain well-defined special cases.

  17. SIMBIOS Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance Calibration and Validation: Sensor Response, Atmospheric Corrections, Stray Light and Sun Glint. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, James L.

    2001-01-01

    This Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) contract supports acquisition of match up radiometric and bio-optical data for validation of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and other ocean color satellites, and evaluation of uncertainty budgets and protocols for in situ measurements of normalized water leaving radiances.

  18. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the Antarctic Plateau: Low Radiance, Low Humidity, and Thin Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project has been to use specialized measurements collected at the Antarctic Plateau to provide validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances and some AIRS Level 2 products. As proposed, efforts conducted at the University of Wisconsin are focused on providing technical information, data, and software in support of the validation studies.

  19. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  20. Spectral radiance estimates of leaf area and leaf phytomass of small grains and native vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aase, J. K.; Brown, B. S.; Millard, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Similarities and/or dissimilarities in radiance characteristics were studied among barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena fatua L.), spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and short-grass prairie vegetation. The site was a Williams loam soil (fine-loamy mixed, Typic Argiborolls) near Sidney, Montana. Radiances were measured with a truck-mounted radiometer. The radiometer was equipped with four wavelength bands: 0.45 to 0.52, 0.52 to 0.60, 0.63 to 0.69, and 0.76 to 0.90 micron. Airborne scanner measurements were made at an altitude of 600 m four times during the season under clear sky conditions. The airborne scanner was equipped with the same four bands as the truck-mounted radiometer plus the following: 1.00 to 1.30, 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35, and 10.4 to 12.5 microns. Comparisons using individual wave bands, the near IR/red, (0.76 to 0.90 micron)/(0.63 to 0.69 micron) ratio and the normalized difference vegetation index, ND = (IR - red)/(IR + red), showed that only during limited times during the growing season were some of the small grains distinguishable from one another and from native rangeland vegetation. There was a common relation for all small grains between leaf area index and green leaf phytomass and between leaf area index or green leaf phytomass and the IR/red ratio.

  1. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  2. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  3. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  5. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  7. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  8. Measurement of absolute lung volumes by imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Clausen, J

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the techniques available for estimating total lung capacities from standard chest radiographs in children and infants as well as adults are reviewed. These techniques include manual measurements using ellipsoid and planimetry techniques as well as computerized systems. Techniques are also available for making radiographic lung volume measurements from portable chest radiographs. There are inadequate data in the literature to support recommending one specific technique over another. Though measurements of lung volumes by radiographic, plethysmographic, gas dilution or washout techniques result in remarkably similar mean results when groups of normal subjects are tested, in patients with disease, the results of these different basic measurement techniques can differ significantly. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance techniques can also be used to measure absolute lung volumes and offer the theoretical advantages that the results in individual subjects are less affected by variances of thoracic shape than are measurements made using conventional chest radiographs.

  9. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  10. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim M; Sengupta, Manajit; Dooraghi, Michael R

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developedmore » the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.« less

  11. The Austrian absolute gravity base net: 27 years of spatial and temporal acquisition of gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard

    2014-05-01

    Since 1987 the BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) has been operating the absolute gravimeters JILAg-6 and FG5 which are used for basic measurements to determine or review fundamental gravity stations in Austria and abroad. Overall more than 70 absolute gravity stations were installed in Austria and neighbouring countries and some of them have been regularly monitored. A few stations are part of international projects like ECGN (European Combined Geodetic network) and UNIGRACE (Unification of Gravity System in Central and Eastern Europe). As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Thus the BEV maintains the national standard for gravimetry in Austria, which is validated and confirmed by international comparisons. Since 1989 the Austrian absolute gravimeters participated seven times in the ICAG's (International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters) at the BIPM in Paris and Luxemburg and as well participated three times at the ECAG (European Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters) in Luxemburg. The results of these ICAG's and especially the performance of the Austrian absolute gravimeter are reported in this presentation. We also present some examples and interpretation of long time monitoring stations of absolute gravity in several Austrian locations. Some stations are located in large cities like Vienna and Graz and some others are situated in mountainous regions. Mountain stations are at the Conrad Observatory where a SG (Superconducting Gravimeter) is permanently monitoring and in Obergurgl (Tyrolia) at an elevation of approx. 2000 m which is very strong influenced from the glacier retreat.

  12. Absolute Calibration of the AXAF Telescope Effective Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Cohen, L.; Edgar, R.; Evans, I.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; McDermott, W. C.; McKinnon, P.; Murray, S.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The prelaunch calibration of AXAF encompasses many aspects of the telescope. In principle, all that is needed is the complete point response function. This is, however, a function of energy, off-axis angle of the source, and operating mode of the facility. No single measurement would yield the entire result. Also, any calibration made prior to launch will be affected by changes in conditions after launch, such as the change from one g to zero g. The reflectivity of the mirror and perhaps even the detectors can change as well, for example by addition or removal of small amounts of material deposited on their surfaces. In this paper, we give a broad view of the issues in performing such a calibration, and discuss how they are being addressed in prelaunch preparation of AXAF. As our title indicates, we concentrate here on the total throughput of the observatory. This can be thought of as the integral of the point response function, i.e. the encircled energy, out ot the largest practical solid angle for an observation. Since there is no standard x-ray source in the sky whose flux is known to the -1% accuracy we are trying to achieve, we must do this calibration on the ground. we also must provide a means for monitoring any possible changes in this calibration from pre-launch until on-orbit operation can transfer the calibration to a celestial x-ray source whose emission is stable. In this paper, we analyze the elements of the absolute throughput calibration, which we call Effective Area. We review the requirements for calibrations of components or subsystems of the AXAF facility, including mirror, detectors, and gratings. We show how it is necessary to calibrate this ground-based detection system at standard man-made x-ray sources, such as electron storage rings. We present the status of all these calibrations, with indications of the measurements remaining to be done, even though the measurements on the AXAF flight optics and detectors will have been completed by the

  13. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  14. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  15. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  18. Modeling absolute plate and plume motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, G. P.; Wessel, P.; Conrad, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic evidence for plume drift has made modeling of absolute plate motions challenging, especially since direct observations of plume drift are lacking. Predictions of plume drift arising from mantle convection models and broadly satisfying observed paleolatitudes have so far provided the only framework for deriving absolute plate motions over moving hotspots. However, uncertainties in mantle rheology, temperature, and initial conditions make such models nonunique. Using simulated and real data, we will show that age progressions along Pacific hotspot trails provide strong constraints on plume motions for all major trails, and furthermore that it is possible to derive models for relative plume drift from these data alone. Relative plume drift depends on the inter-hotspot distances derived from age progressions but lacks a fixed reference point and orientation. By incorporating paleolatitude histories for the Hawaii and Louisville chains we add further constraints on allowable plume motions, yet one unknown parameter remains: a longitude shift that applies equally to all plumes. To obtain a solution we could restrict either the Hawaii or Louisville plume to have latitudinal motion only, thus satisfying paleolatitude constraints. Yet, restricting one plume to latitudinal motion while all others move freely is not realistic. Consequently, it is only possible to resolve the motion of hotspots relative to an overall and unknown longitudinal shift as a function of time. Our plate motions are therefore dependent on the same shift via an unknown rotation about the north pole. Yet, as plume drifts are consequences of mantle convection, our results place strong constraints on the pattern of convection. Other considerations, such as imposed limits on plate speed, plume speed, proximity to LLSVP edges, model smoothness, or relative plate motions via ridge-spotting may add further constraints that allow a unique model of Pacific absolute plate and plume motions to be

  19. Corsica: A Multi-Mission Absolute Calibration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefond, P.; Exertier, P.; Laurain, O.; Guinle, T.; Femenias, P.

    2013-09-01

    In collaboration with the CNES and NASA oceanographic projects (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason), the OCA (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur) developed a verification site in Corsica since 1996, operational since 1998. CALibration/VALidation embraces a wide variety of activities, ranging from the interpretation of information from internal-calibration modes of the sensors to validation of the fully corrected estimates of the reflector heights using in situ data. Now, Corsica is, like the Harvest platform (NASA side) [14], an operating calibration site able to support a continuous monitoring with a high level of accuracy: a 'point calibration' which yields instantaneous bias estimates with a 10-day repeatability of 30 mm (standard deviation) and mean errors of 4 mm (standard error). For a 35-day repeatability (ERS, Envisat), due to a smaller time series, the standard error is about the double ( 7 mm).In this paper, we will present updated results of the absolute Sea Surface Height (SSH) biases for TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-2 and Envisat.

  20. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  1. Driven tracer with absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Instances of negative mobility, where a system responds to a perturbation in a way opposite to naive expectation, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in numerous nonequilibrium systems. In this work we show that absolute negative mobility (ANM), whereby current is produced in a direction opposite to the drive, can occur around equilibrium states. This is demonstrated with a simple one-dimensional lattice model with a driven tracer. We derive analytical predictions in the linear response regime and elucidate the mechanism leading to ANM by studying the high-density limit. We also study numerically a model of hard Brownian disks in a narrow planar channel, for which the lattice model can be viewed as a toy model. We find that the model exhibits negative differential mobility (NDM), but no ANM.

  2. Measurement of absolute gamma emission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithrarachchi, Chandana S.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    2003-06-01

    The energies and emission probabilities (intensities) of gamma-rays emitted in radioactive decays of particular nuclides are the most important characteristics by which to quantify mixtures of radionuclides. Often, quantification is limited by uncertainties in measured intensities. A technique was developed to reduce these uncertainties. The method involves obtaining a pure sample of a nuclide using radiochemical techniques, and using appropriate fractions for beta and gamma measurements. The beta emission rates were measured using a liquid scintillation counter, and the gamma emission rates were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Results were combined to obtain absolute gamma emission probabilities. All sources of uncertainties greater than 0.1% were examined. The method was tested with 38Cl and 88Rb.

  3. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  4. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  6. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  7. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  8. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  9. Absolute Bioavailability of Osimertinib in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Bramley, Alex; English, Stephen; Collier, Jo

    2018-04-23

    Osimertinib is a third-generation, central nervous system-active, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. This phase 1, open-label study (NCT02491944) investigated absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral and intravenous (IV) osimertinib. Ten healthy subjects (21-61 years) received a single oral 80-mg dose concomitantly with a 100 μg (containing 1 μCi) IV microtracer dose of [ 14 C]osimertinib. Oral and IV PK were determined simultaneously for osimertinib and its active metabolites, AZ5104 and AZ7550. High-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to characterize IV dose PK. Geometric mean absolute oral bioavailability of osimertinib was 69.8% (90% confidence interval, 66.7, 72.9). Oral osimertinib was slowly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration [t max ] 7.0 hours). Following t max , plasma concentrations fell in an apparent monophasic manner. IV clearance and volume of distribution were 16.8 L/h and 1285 L, respectively. Arithmetic mean elimination half-life estimates were 59.7, 52.6, and 72.6 hours for osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550, respectively (oral dosing), and 54.9, 68.4, and 99.7 hours for [ 14 C]osimertinib, [ 14 C]AZ5104, and [ 14 C]AZ7550, respectively (IV dosing). Oral osimertinib was well absorbed. Simultaneous IV and oral PK analysis proved useful for complete understanding of osimertinib PK and showed that the first-pass effect was minimal for osimertinib. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXI - Absolute energy distribution of stars in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Code, A. D.; Fairchild, E. T.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute energy distribution in the ultraviolet is given for the stars alpha Vir, eta UMa, and alpha Leo. The calibration is based on absolute heterochromatic photometry between 2920 and 1370 A carried out with an Aerobee sounding rocket. The fundamental radiation standard is the synchrotron radiation from 240-MeV electrons in a certain synchrotron storage ring. On the basis of the sounding-rocket calibration, the preliminary OAO-2 spectrometer calibration has been revised; the fluxes for the three program stars are tabulated in energy per second per square centimeter per unit wavelength interval.

  11. Acquisition and analysis of coastal ground-truth data for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery. [surface radiance data for Santa Monica Bay and Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikouchine, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Radiance profiles drawn along cruise tracks have been examined for use in correlating digital radiance levels with ground truth data. Preliminary examination results are encouraging. Adding weighted levels from the 4 MSS bands appears to enhance specular surface reflections while rendering sensor noise white. Comparing each band signature to the added specular signature ought to enhance non-specular effects caused by ocean turbidity. Preliminary examination of radiance profiles and ground truth turbidity measurements revealed substantial correlation.

  12. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  13. Joint aerosol and water-leaving radiance retrieval from Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Dubovik, O.; Zhai, P.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) [1] has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. In step-and-stare operation mode, AirMSPI typically acquires observations of a target area at 9 view angles between ±67° off the nadir. Its spectral channels are centered at 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, and 865* nm, where the asterisk denotes the polarimetric bands. In order to retrieve information from the AirMSPI observations, we developed a efficient and flexible retrieval code that can jointly retrieve aerosol and water leaving radiance simultaneously. The forward model employs a coupled Markov Chain (MC) [2] and adding/doubling [3] radiative transfer method which is fully linearized and integrated with a multi-patch retrieval algorithm to obtain aerosol and water leaving radiance/Chl-a information. Various constraints are imposed to improve convergence and retrieval stability. We tested the aerosol and water leaving radiance retrievals using the AirMSPI radiance and polarization measurements by comparing to the retrieved aerosol concentration, size distribution, water-leaving radiance, and chlorophyll concentration to the values reported by the USC SeaPRISM AERONET-OC site off the coast of Southern California. In addition, the MC-based retrievals of aerosol properties were compared with GRASP ([4-5]) retrievals for selected cases. The MC-based retrieval approach was then used to systematically explore the benefits of AirMSPI's ultraviolet and polarimetric channels, the use of multiple view angles, and constraints provided by inclusion of bio-optical models of the water-leaving radiance. References [1]. D. J. Diner, et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1717 (2013). [2]. F. Xu et al. Opt. Lett. 36, 2083 (2011). [3]. J. E. Hansen and L.D. Travis. Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527 (1974). [4]. O. Dubovik et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 975 (2011). [5]. O. Dubovik et al. SPIE: Newsroom, DOI:10.1117/2.1201408.005558 (2014).

  14. Progress Toward Achieving an IR Radiance Record for Decadal Climate Trending: Fundamental Questions, Challenges, and Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.; Taylor, J. K.; Martin, G.; Gero, P. J.; Adler, D.; Pettersen, C.; Mulligan, M.; Thielman, D.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared radiance spectra can be measured with very high accuracy (0.1 K 3-sigma brightness temperature at scene brightness temperature) and contain a high degree of information about the state of the Earth's climate, including temperature, water vapor, and trace gas profiles, lapse rates, plus cloud and surface properties. How best to make use of existing EOS-AIRS and Suomi NPP/JPSS-CrIS/IASI observations and how to move toward more extensive future observations is a fundamental question that the climate community and world's space agencies need to address. A major step toward achieving climate quality observations was realized through the successes of the operational sounders IASI-A & B on MetOp and the CrIS on Suomi NPP. Both instrument types are expected to continue as part of the Joint Polar Satellite system through at least 2040 (with upgrades to IASI and hopefully to CrIS as well). IASI covers the 0930 time slot and CrIS the 1330 slot for operational weather forecasting applications. This represents a major step toward the unbiased sampling needed for accurate climate trending products. However, there is still a hole at the 0530 dawn/dusk time slot that needs to be filled. The new Chinese hyperspectral sounder, HIRAS, is expected to fulfill this need when FY3E is launched in 2018. In addition to improved sampling, the system of operational Fourier transform sounding instruments offer other measurement accuracy advantages over earlier instruments. This talk will review some of these, including review of CrIS accuracy estimates, discussion of several specific error sources, and the fundamental ability of these instruments to produce well-defined, stable, and largely instrument independent Instrument Line Shape (ILS) functions. In this context, we will address EOS to Suomi NPP spectral radiance continuity issues. Finally, optimizing this system still requires an on-orbit 0.1 K 3-sigma calibration reference that is not susceptible to long-term drifts and that

  15. A carbon dioxide radiance model of the earth planet using the conical earth sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Tu, Zhijun; Yuan, Jun; He, Ting; Wei, Yi

    2013-10-01

    Climate Modeling results show that about 50% of the Earth's outgoing radiation and 75% of the atmospheric outgoing radiation are contained in the far infrared. Generally the earth is considered as a 220~230 K blackbody, and the peak breadth of the Earth's outgoing radiation is around the wavelength of 10 micron. The atmospheric outgoing radiation are contained with five spectral intervals: the water vapor band from 6.33 to 6.85 microns, the ozone band from 8.9 to 10.1microns, the atmospheric window from 10.75 to 11.75 microns, the carbon dioxide band from 14 to 16 microns, and finally the rotational water vapor band from 21 to 125 microns. The properties of the carbon dioxide band is stable than other bands which has been chosen for the work Spectrum of the earth sensors. But the radiation energy of carbon dioxide band is variety and it is a function of latitude, season and weather conditions. Usually the luminance of the Earth's radiation (14 to 16 μm) is from 3 to 7 W/m2Sr. Earth sensor is an important instrument of the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS), and it is sensitive to the curve of the earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation profile to determine the roll and pitch angles of satellite which are relative to nadir vector. Most earth sensors use profile data gathered form Project Scanner taken in August and December 1966. The earth sensor referred in this paper is the conical scanning earth sensor which is mainly used in the LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. A method to determine the luminance of earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation (carbon dioxide) using the earth sensor is discussed in this paper. When the conical scanning sensor scan form the space to the earth, a pulse is produced and the pulse breadth is scale with the infrared radiation luminance. Then the infrared radiation luminance can be calculated. A carbon dioxide radiance model of the earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation is obtained according the luminance data about with

  16. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-12-15

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperaturemore » states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  17. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, correspondingmore » to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  18. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  19. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  20. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    PubMed

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  2. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  3. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  4. Feasibility of quasi-random band model in evaluating atmospheric radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Mirakhur, N.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the quasi-random band model in evaluating upwelling atmospheric radiation is investigated. The spectral transmittance and total band adsorptance are evaluated for selected molecular bands by using the line by line model, quasi-random band model, exponential sum fit method, and empirical correlations, and these are compared with the available experimental results. The atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance were calculated by using the line by line and quasi random band models and were compared with the results of an existing program called LOWTRAN. The results obtained by the exponential sum fit and empirical relations were not in good agreement with experimental results and their use cannot be justified for atmospheric studies. The line by line model was found to be the best model for atmospheric applications, but it is not practical because of high computational costs. The results of the quasi random band model compare well with the line by line and experimental results. The use of the quasi random band model is recommended for evaluation of the atmospheric radiation.

  5. A Case Study of Using a Multilayered Thermodynamical Snow Model for Radiance Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toure, Ally M.; Goita, Kalifa; Royer, Alain; Kim, Edward J.; Durand, Michael; Margulis, Steven A.; Lu, Huizhong

    2011-01-01

    A microwave radiance assimilation (RA) scheme for the retrieval of snow physical state variables requires a snowpack physical model (SM) coupled to a radiative transfer model. In order to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) at horizontal polarization (h-pol), an SM capable of resolving melt-refreeze crusts is required. To date, it has not been shown whether an RA scheme is tractable with the large number of state variables present in such an SM or whether melt-refreeze crust densities can be estimated. In this paper, an RA scheme is presented using the CROCUS SM which is capable of resolving melt-refreeze crusts. We assimilated both vertical (v) and horizontal (h) Tbs at 18.7 and 36.5 GHz. We found that assimilating Tb at both h-pol and vertical polarization (v-pol) into CROCUS dramatically improved snow depth estimates, with a bias of 1.4 cm compared to-7.3 cm reported by previous studies. Assimilation of both h-pol and v-pol led to more accurate results than assimilation of v-pol alone. The snow water equivalent (SWE) bias of the RA scheme was 0.4 cm, while the bias of the SWE estimated by an empirical retrieval algorithm was -2.9 cm. Characterization of melt-refreeze crusts via an RA scheme is demonstrated here for the first time; the RA scheme correctly identified the location of melt-refreeze crusts observed in situ.

  6. Radiance, polarization, and ellipticity of the radiation in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitzfelder, S. J.; Plass, G. N.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The complete radiation field including polarization is calculated for a model of the real atmosphere by the matrix operator method. The radiance, direction and amount of polarization, and ellipticity are obtained at the top and bottom of the atmosphere for three values of the surface albedo (0; 0.15 0.90) and five solar zenith angles. Scattering and absorption by molecules (including ozone) and by aerosols are taken into account together with the variation of the number density of these substances with height. All results are calculated for both a normal aerosol number and a distribution which is one-third of the normal amount at all heights. The calculated values show general qualitative agreement with the available experimental measurements. The position of the neutral points of the polarization in the principal plane is a sensitive indicator of the characteristics of the aerosol particles in the atmosphere, since it depends on the sign and value of the single scattered polarization for scattering angles around 20 deg and 160 deg for transmitted and reflected photons respectively.

  7. Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. I - Radiance, polarization, and neutral points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Hitzfelder, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix operator method was used to calculate the polarization of radiation scattered on layers of various optical thicknesses, with results compared for Rayleigh scattering and for scattering from a continental haze. In both cases, there are neutral points arising from the zeros of the polarization of single scattered photons at scattering angles of zero and 180 degrees. The angular position of these Rayleigh-like neutral points (RNP) in the sky shows appreciable variation with the optical thickness of the scattering layer for a Rayleigh phase matrix, but only a small variation for haze L phase matrix. Another type of neutral point exists for non-Rayleigh phase functions that is associated with the zeros of the polarization for single scattering which occurs between the end points of the curve. A comparison of radiances calculated from the complete theory of radiative transfer using Stokes vectors with those obtained from the scalar theory shows that differences of the order of 23% may be obtained for Rayleigh scattering, while the largest difference found for a haze L phase function was of the order of 0.1%.

  8. Measurement of evapotranspiration with combined reflective and thermal infrared radiance observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Allen S.

    1993-01-01

    The broad goal of the research summarized in this report was 'To facilitate the evaluation of regional evapotranspiration (ET) through the combined use of solar reflective and thermal infrared radiance observations.' The specific objectives stated by Goward and Hope (1986) were to: (1) investigate the nature of the relationship between surface temperature (T(sub S)) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and develop an understanding of this relationship in terms of energy exchange processes, particularly latent flux heat (LE); (2) develop procedures to estimate large area LE using combined T(sub S) and NDVI observations obtained from AVHRR data; and (3) determine whether measurements derived from satellite observations relate directly to measurements made at the surface or from aircraft platforms. Both empirical and modeling studies were used to develop an understanding of the T(sub S)-NDVI relationship. Most of the modeling was based on the Tergra model as originally proposed by Goward. This model, and modified versions developed in this project, simulates the flows of water and energy in the soil-plant-atmosphere system using meteorological, soil and vegetation inputs. Model outputs are the diurnal course of soil moisture, T(sub S), LE and the other individual components of the surface energy balance.

  9. Retrievals of methane from IASI radiance spectra and comparisons with ground-based FTIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzenmacher, T.; Kumps, N.; de Mazière, M.; Kruglanski, M.; Senten, C.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vigouroux, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), launched on 19 October 2006, is a Fourier transform spectrometer onboard METOP-1, observing the radiance of the Earth's surface and atmosphere in nadir mode. The spectral range covers the 645 to 2760 cm-1 region with a resolution of 0.35 to 0.5 cm-1. A line-by-line spectral simulation and inversion code, ASIMUT, has been developed for the retrieval of chemical species from infrared spectra. The code includes an analytical calculation of the Jacobians for use in the inversion part of the algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method. In 2007 we conducted a measurement campaign at St Denis, Île de la Réunion where we performed ground-based solar absorption observations with a infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. ASIMUT has been used to retrieve methane from the ground-based and collocated satellite measurements. For the latter we selected pixels that are situated over the sea. In this presentation we will show the retrieval strategies, the resulting methane column time series above St Denis and the comparisons of the satellite data with the ground-based data sets. Vertical profile information in these data sets will also be discussed.

  10. Attitude angle effects on Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer radiances and geophysical parameter retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, Daniel S.; Han, Daesoo

    1989-01-01

    The attitude of the Nimbus-7 spacecraft has varied significantly over its lifetime. A summary of the orbital and long-term behavior of the attitude angles and the effects of attitude variations on Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures is presented. One of the principal effects of these variations is to change the incident angle at which the SMMR views the Earth's surface. The brightness temperatures depend upon the incident angle sensitivities of both the ocean surface emissivity and the atmospheric path length. Ocean surface emissivity is quite sensitive to incident angle variation near the SMMR incident angle, which is about 50 degrees. This sensitivity was estimated theoretically for a smooth ocean surface and no atmosphere. A 1-degree increase in the angle of incidence produces a 2.9 C increase in the retrieved sea surface temperature and a 5.7 m/sec decrease in retrieved sea surface wind speed. An incident angle correction is applied to the SMMR radiances before using them in the geophysical parameter retrieval algorithms. The corrected retrieval data is compared with data obtained without applying the correction.

  11. High infrared radiance glass-ceramics obtained from fly ash and titanium slag.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuming; Liang, Kaiming

    2007-11-01

    A new glass-ceramic was synthesized by crystal growth from a homogenous glass obtained by melting a mixture of fly ash collected from a power plant in Hebei province of China, titanium slag collected from a titanium factory in Sichuan province of China, and MgCO(3) as an additive. According to the measurement results of differential thermal analysis, a thermal treatment of nucleating at 850 degrees C for 2h and crystallizing at 985 degrees C for 1.5h was used to obtain the crystallized glass. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements showed that the main crystalline phase of this material was iron-ion substituted cordierite, (Mg,Fe)(2)Al(4)Si(5)O(18), which is homogeneously dispersed within the parent glass matrix. The infrared radiance and thermal expansion coefficient of this material have been examined, and the results demonstrate that this glass-ceramic material has potential for application in a wide range of infrared heating and drying materials.

  12. Comparison of CERES Cloud Properties Derived from Aqua and Terra MODIS Data and TRMM VIRS Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chen, Y.; Heck, P. W.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is obtaining Earth radiation budget measurements of unprecedented accuracy as a result of improved instruments and an analysis system that combines simultaneous, high-resolution cloud property retrievals with the broadband radiance data. The cloud properties are derived from three different satellite imagers: the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites. A single set of consistent algorithms using the 0.65, 1.6 or 2.1, 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0-æm channels are applied to all three imagers. The cloud properties include, cloud coverage, height, thickness, temperature, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid or ice water path. Because each satellite is in a different orbit, the results provide information on the diurnal cycle of cloud properties. Initial intercalibrations show excellent consistency between the three images except for some differences of ~ 1K between the 3.7-æm channel on Terra and those on VIRS and Aqua. The derived cloud properties are consistent with the known diurnal characteristics of clouds in different areas. These datasets should be valuable for exploring the role of clouds in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle.

  13. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product

    NASA Technical Repo