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Sample records for absolute risk reductions

  1. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  2. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decision-making. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem from the danger that patients will misunderstand the information or have irrational responses to it. Any initiative in this area should take such factors into account and should consider carefully how to apply the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and beneficence. PMID:18421509

  3. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  4. A methodological survey of the analysis, reporting and interpretation of Absolute Risk ReductiOn in systematic revieWs (ARROW): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians, providers and guideline panels use absolute effects to weigh the advantages and downsides of treatment alternatives. Relative measures have the potential to mislead readers. However, little is known about the reporting of absolute measures in systematic reviews. The objectives of our study are to determine the proportion of systematic reviews that report absolute measures of effect for the most important outcomes, and ascertain how they are analyzed, reported and interpreted. Methods/design We will conduct a methodological survey of systematic reviews published in 2010. We will conduct a 1:1 stratified random sampling of Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane systematic reviews. We will calculate the proportion of systematic reviews reporting at least one absolute estimate of effect for the most patient-important outcome for the comparison of interest. We will conduct multivariable logistic regression analyses with the reporting of an absolute estimate of effect as the dependent variable and pre-specified study characteristics as the independent variables. For systematic reviews reporting an absolute estimate of effect, we will document the methods used for the analysis, reporting and interpretation of the absolute estimate. Discussion Our methodological survey will inform current practices regarding reporting of absolute estimates in systematic reviews. Our findings may influence recommendations on reporting, conduct and interpretation of absolute estimates. Our results are likely to be of interest to systematic review authors, funding agencies, clinicians, guideline developers and journal editors. PMID:24330779

  5. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data.

    PubMed

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2014-04-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  6. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  7. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... and foot hygiene maintained. For arm lymphedema, good hand hygiene and softening the cuticles with proper cuticle moisturizer ... For people at-risk for arm lymphedema, good hand hygiene and softening the cuticles with proper cuticle moisturizer ...

  8. Pulmonary emboli risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Epley, D

    2000-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a major cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. Significant morbidity is a characteristic of this phenomenon and its common antecedent, deep venous thrombosis. Research has shown that pulmonary embolism is rarely a consequence of superficial venous thrombosis. Because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are often nonspecific and not readily apparent, prevention is the goal of patient care. Nurses play a critical role in the prevention process. The recognition of persons at risk, the assessment of these patients for early signs and symptoms, and the institution of prophylactic measures to minimize the effect of any existing factors or to deter their development are essential components of nursing care. The administration of anticoagulation therapy, with the concomitant monitoring of its effectiveness, and the education of persons regarding precautions associated with the indicated medications and relevant lifestyle modifications are also fundamental aspects of care. This article provides a review of risk factors associated with pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, particularly prolonged immobility and surgery involving the abdomen or lower extremities, as well as a review of the respective etiologies, most notably those encompassing Vichow's triad. In addition, current modalities to diagnose, treat, and prevent these allied disorders are discussed, as well as the associated nursing management. PMID:11249288

  9. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors. PMID:26012643

  10. 75 FR 76345 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...The Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 requires the development and implementation of railroad safety risk reduction programs. Risk reduction is a comprehensive, system-oriented approach to safety that determines an operation's level of risk by identifying and analyzing applicable hazards and develops plans to mitigate that risk. Each Risk Reduction Program (RRP) is statutorily required to be......

  11. Software for Probabilistic Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry; Madsen, Soren; Chapin, Elaine; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    A computer program implements a methodology, denoted probabilistic risk reduction, that is intended to aid in planning the development of complex software and/or hardware systems. This methodology integrates two complementary prior methodologies: (1) that of probabilistic risk assessment and (2) a risk-based planning methodology, implemented in a prior computer program known as Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP), in which multiple requirements and the beneficial effects of risk-mitigation actions are taken into account. The present methodology and the software are able to accommodate both process knowledge (notably of the efficacy of development practices) and product knowledge (notably of the logical structure of a system, the development of which one seeks to plan). Estimates of the costs and benefits of a planned development can be derived. Functional and non-functional aspects of software can be taken into account, and trades made among them. It becomes possible to optimize the planning process in the sense that it becomes possible to select the best suite of process steps and design choices to maximize the expectation of success while remaining within budget.

  12. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  13. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore. PMID:27410133

  14. 76 FR 40320 - Risk Reduction Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... requested public comment on a potential risk reduction rulemaking. See 75 FR 76345-76351, Dec. 8, 2010. A... plans to mitigate that risk. Each RRP is statutorily required to be supported by a risk analysis and a.... See 49 CFR 1.49(oo); 74 FR 26981 (June 5, 2009); see also 49 U.S.C. 103(g). Each railroad subject...

  15. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are prevalent among the US population, often occurring in persons who are overweight or obese, or who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Meta-analysis indicates that elevated TG levels may be a significant independent risk factor for coronary heart dise...

  16. Absolute and Comparative Cancer Risk Perceptions Among Smokers in Two Cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge about health effects of smoking motivates quit attempts and sustained abstinence among smokers and also predicts greater acceptance of tobacco control efforts such as cigarette taxes and public smoking bans. We examined whether smokers in China, the world’s largest consumer of cigarettes, recognized their heightened personal risk of cancer relative to nonsmokers. Methods: A sample of Chinese people (N = 2,517; 555 current smokers) from 2 cities (Beijing and Hefei) estimated their personal risk of developing cancer, both in absolute terms (overall likelihood) and in comparative terms (relative to similarly aged people). Results: Controlling for demographics, smokers judged themselves to be at significantly lower risk of cancer than did nonsmokers on the comparative measure. No significant difference emerged between smokers and nonsmokers in absolute estimates. Conclusions: Smokers in China did not recognize their heightened personal risk of cancer, possibly reflecting ineffective warning labels on cigarette packs, a positive affective climate associated with smoking in China, and beliefs that downplay personal vulnerability among smokers (e.g., I don’t smoke enough to increase my cancer risk; I smoke high-quality cigarettes that won’t cause cancer). PMID:24668289

  17. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  18. Comparative assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk characterization from non-laboratory-based risk assessment in South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All rigorous primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend absolute CVD risk scores to identify high- and low-risk patients, but laboratory testing can be impractical in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the ranking performance of a simple, non-laboratory-based risk score to laboratory-based scores in various South African populations. Methods We calculated and compared 10-year CVD (or coronary heart disease (CHD)) risk for 14,772 adults from thirteen cross-sectional South African populations (data collected from 1987 to 2009). Risk characterization performance for the non-laboratory-based score was assessed by comparing rankings of risk with six laboratory-based scores (three versions of Framingham risk, SCORE for high- and low-risk countries, and CUORE) using Spearman rank correlation and percent of population equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk. Total 10-year non-laboratory-based risk of CVD death was also calculated for a representative cross-section from the 1998 South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS, n = 9,379) to estimate the national burden of CVD mortality risk. Results Spearman correlation coefficients for the non-laboratory-based score with the laboratory-based scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.986. Using conventional thresholds for CVD risk (10% to 20% 10-year CVD risk), 90% to 92% of men and 94% to 97% of women were equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk using the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (2008) CVD risk score. These results were robust across the six risk scores evaluated and the thirteen cross-sectional datasets, with few exceptions (lower agreement between the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (1991) CHD risk scores). Approximately 18% of adults in the DHS population were characterized as ‘high CVD risk’ (10-year CVD death risk >20%) using the non-laboratory-based score. Conclusions We found a high level of

  19. Realized volatility and absolute return volatility: a comparison indicating market risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zeyu; Qiao, Zhi; Takaishi, Tetsuya; Stanley, H Eugene; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    Measuring volatility in financial markets is a primary challenge in the theory and practice of risk management and is essential when developing investment strategies. Although the vast literature on the topic describes many different models, two nonparametric measurements have emerged and received wide use over the past decade: realized volatility and absolute return volatility. The former is strongly favored in the financial sector and the latter by econophysicists. We examine the memory and clustering features of these two methods and find that both enable strong predictions. We compare the two in detail and find that although realized volatility has a better short-term effect that allows predictions of near-future market behavior, absolute return volatility is easier to calculate and, as a risk indicator, has approximately the same sensitivity as realized volatility. Our detailed empirical analysis yields valuable guidelines for both researchers and market participants because it provides a significantly clearer comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods. PMID:25054439

  20. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms. PMID:23995492

  1. Failure detection system risk reduction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert B. (Inventor); Huang, Zhaofeng (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process includes determining a probability of a failure mode of a system being analyzed reaching a failure limit as a function of time to failure limit, determining a probability of a mitigation of the failure mode as a function of a time to failure limit, and quantifying a risk reduction based on the probability of the failure mode reaching the failure limit and the probability of the mitigation.

  2. Integrating social capacity into risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.

  3. External Validation of the Garvan Nomograms for Predicting Absolute Fracture Risk: The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Luai A.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Bjørnerem, Åshild; Joakimsen, Ragnar M.; Jørgensen, Lone; Størmer, Jan; Bliuc, Dana; Center, Jacqueline R.; Eisman, John A.; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Emaus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Absolute risk estimation is a preferred approach for assessing fracture risk and treatment decision making. This study aimed to evaluate and validate the predictive performance of the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator in a Norwegian cohort. Methods The analysis included 1637 women and 1355 aged 60+ years from the Tromsø study. All incident fragility fractures between 2001 and 2009 were registered. The predicted probabilities of non-vertebral osteoporotic and hip fractures were determined using models with and without BMD. The discrimination and calibration of the models were assessed. Reclassification analysis was used to compare the models performance. Results The incidence of osteoporotic and hip fracture was 31.5 and 8.6 per 1000 population in women, respectively; in men the corresponding incidence was 12.2 and 5.1. The predicted 5-year and 10-year probability of fractures was consistently higher in the fracture group than the non-fracture group for all models. The 10-year predicted probabilities of hip fracture in those with fracture was 2.8 (women) to 3.1 times (men) higher than those without fracture. There was a close agreement between predicted and observed risk in both sexes and up to the fifth quintile. Among those in the highest quintile of risk, the models over-estimated the risk of fracture. Models with BMD performed better than models with body weight in correct classification of risk in individuals with and without fracture. The overall net decrease in reclassification of the model with weight compared to the model with BMD was 10.6% (p = 0.008) in women and 17.2% (p = 0.001) in men for osteoporotic fractures, and 13.3% (p = 0.07) in women and 17.5% (p = 0.09) in men for hip fracture. Conclusions The Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator is valid and clinically useful in identifying individuals at high risk of fracture. The models with BMD performed better than those with body weight in fracture risk prediction. PMID:25255221

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  5. Asteroid Airbursts: Risk Assessment and Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbursts are events in which small (meters to tens-of-meters in diameter) asteroids deposit most of their energy in the atmosphere with a total energy greater than small nuclear explosions (>0.1 kilotons of TNT). The airburst risk is higher than previous assessments for two reasons. First, they are more frequent than previously thought. The Tunguska-class (~40 meters) population estimate has doubled, and Chelyabinsk-class (~20 meters) has increased by a factor of 2.6. Second, asteroid airbursts are significantly more damaging than previously assumed. In most cases, they more efficiently couple energy to the surface than nuclear explosions of the same yield. Past Near-Earth Object (NEO) risk assessments concluded that the largest asteroids (> 1 km) dominated the hazard. Large NEOs represent only a tiny fraction of the population but the potential for global catastrophe means that the contribution from low-probability, high-consequence events is large. Nearly 90% of these objects, none of which is on a collision course, have been catalogued. This has reduced their assessed near-term statistical risk by more than an order of magnitude because completion is highest for the largest and most dangerous. The relative risk from small objects would therefore be increasing even if their absolute assessed risk were not. Uncertainty in the number of small NEOs remains large and can only be reduced by expanded surveys. One strategy would be to count small NEOs making close passes in statistically significant numbers. For example, there are about 25 times as many objects of a given size that pass within the distance of geosynchronous orbit than collide with the earth, and 2000 times as many pass within a lunar distance (accounting for gravitational focusing). An asteroid the size of the Chelyabinsk impactor (~20 m) could potentially be observed within geosynchronous orbit every two years and within lunar orbit nearly once a week. A Tunguska-sized asteroid (~40 m) passes within a

  6. The Influence of Absolute and Comparative Risk Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening and the Mediating Role of Cancer Worry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the interrelationships between cancer risk perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions), cancer worry, and cervical cancer screening. Using a nationally representative survey data set (N = 2,304) from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey Circle 1, we found that although neither absolute risk perceptions nor comparative risk perceptions exerted a direct impact on women's compliance with the cervical cancer screening recommendation (i.e., that women ages 21 to 65 obtain Pap smear every 3 years; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012 ), both types of risk perceptions had an indirect effect on cervical cancer screening through the mediation of cancer worry. These results suggest a primal role of affect in health decision making. Implications of the findings for cancer risk communication are discussed. PMID:26312444

  7. A model for predicting individuals' absolute risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: Moving toward tailored screening and prevention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-06-15

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by rapidly increasing incidence and poor prognosis, stressing the need for preventive and early detection strategies. We used data from a nationwide population-based case-control study, which included 189 incident cases of EAC and 820 age- and sex-matched control participants, from 1995 through 1997 in Sweden. We developed risk prediction models based on unconditional logistic regression. Candidate predictors included established and readily identifiable risk factors for EAC. The performance of model was assessed by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with cross-validation. The final model could explain 94% of all case patients with EAC (94% population attributable risk) and included terms for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, duration of living with a partner, previous diagnoses of esophagitis and diaphragmatic hernia and previous surgery for esophagitis, diaphragmatic hernia or severe reflux or gastric or duodenal ulcer. The AUC was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and slightly lower after cross-validation. A simpler model, based only on reflux symptoms or use of antireflux medication, BMI and tobacco smoking could explain 91% of the case patients with EAC and had an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.85). These EAC prediction models showed good discriminative accuracy, but need to be validated in other populations. These models have the potential for future use in identifying individuals with high absolute risk of EAC in the population, who may be considered for endoscopic screening and targeted prevention. PMID:26756848

  8. Sapphire statistical characterization and risk reduction program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Donald R.; Cayse, Robert; Black, David R.; Goodrich, Steven M.; Lagerloef, K. Peter D.; Harris, Daniel C.; McCullum, Dale; Platus, Daniel H.; Patty, Charles E., Jr.; Polvani, Robert S.

    2001-09-01

    The Sapphire Statistical Characterization and Risk Reduction Program tested 1400 4-point flexure bars with different crystal orientations at different temperatures to establish a mechanical strength database for engineering design. Sapphire coupons were selected to represent surfaces on two different missile windows and a missile dome. Sapphire was obtained from the same suppliers used for the windows or dome and, as much as possible, coupons were fabricated in the same manner as the corresponding part of the window or dome. For one missile window, sapphire from one fabricator was 50% stronger than sapphire made to the same specifications from the same blanks by another fabricator. In laser thermal shock tests, sapphire performed better than predicted from flexure tests. Of several nondestructive methods evaluated for their ability to identify mechanically weak specimens, only x-ray topography was correlated with strength for a limited set of specimens.

  9. Quality assurance and risk reduction guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mody, D R; Davey, D D; Branca, M; Raab, S S; Schenck, U G; Stanley, M W; Wright, R G; Arbyn, M; Beccati, D; Bishop, J W; Collaço, L M; Cramer, S F; Fitzgerald, P; Heinrich, J; Jhala, N C; Montanari, G; Kapila, K; Naryshkin, S; Suprun, H Z

    2000-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a major cause of death in women worldwide. The major problem facing most women is the unavailability of screening Pap tests in poor and underdeveloped countries. While rates of cancer deaths have decreased 60-80% in developed countries since the Pap test became available, the accuracy of Paps was challenged recently. In order to instill public confidence and promote optimal patient care, measures to improve the quality of the entire screening process should be undertaken. Continuous quality improvement processes are more appropriate than traditional quality assurance monitors. Although no standards can be defined that are applicable to all laboratory settings and nations, this document provides current views on universal quality procedures and risk reduction. Procedure/policy manuals, workload assessment, hierarchic/peer review, discrepancy analysis, rescreening studies and cytohistologic correlation are examples of universally applicable quality tools. The variability in practices in different parts of the world is also discussed. PMID:10934940

  10. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  11. Relation between regional myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb and perfusion: absolute reduction of cation uptake in ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, A.P.; Allan, R.M.; L'Abbate, A.; Horlock, P.; Camici, P.; Clark, J.; O'Brien, H.A.; Grant, P.M.

    1982-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken using /sup 82/Rb and position tomography to examine the relation between myocardial perfusion and cation uptake during acute ischemia. /sup 82/Rb was repeatedly eluted from a /sup 82/Sr-/sup 82/Rb generator. In six dogs emission tomograms were used to measure the delivered arterial and myocardial concentrations at rest and after coronary stenosis, stress and ischemia. There was a poor overall relation between regional myocardial uptake and flow measured by microspheres and a large individual variability. Extraction of /sup 82/Rb was inversely related to flow. Significant regional reduction of cation uptake was detected in the tomograms when regional flow decreased by more than 35 percent. This reduction was significantly greater when ischemia was present. A small but significantly greater when ischemia was present. A small but significant decrease (33.0 +/- 9.1 percent, mean +/- standard deviation) in the myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb was detected only when flow was increased by more than 120 percent in relation to a control area after administration of dypiridamole. The technique using /sup 82/Rb and tomography was applied in five volunteers and five patients with angina pectoris and coronary artery disease. Myocardial tomograms recorded at rest and after exercise in the volunteers showed homogeneous uptake of cation in reproducible and repeatable scans. In contrast, the patients with coronary artery disease showed an absolute mean decrease of 36 +/- 14 percent in regional myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb after exercise. These abnormalities persisted in serial tomograms for more than 20 minutes after the symptoms and electrocardiographic signs of ischemia.

  12. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  13. Forging process design for risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  14. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization

  15. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  16. Risk Reduction and Resource Pooling on a Cooperation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Cynthia J.; Cherek, Don R.; Lane, Scott D.; Tcheremissine, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated choice in adult humans on a simulated cooperation task to evaluate a risk-reduction account of sharing based on the energy-budget rule. The energy-budget rule is an optimal foraging model that predicts risk-averse choices when net energy gains exceed energy requirements (positive energy budget) and risk-prone choices…

  17. Risk Reduction Education: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamorey, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Teens with disabilities need information about risk topics such as addiction, abuse, sex, and delinquency to make healthy choices as they participate in mainstream society. This article presents questionnaire-based information provided by special educators in secondary schools about their efforts, limitations, and needs in providing risk reduction…

  18. Building Capacity for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Bryner, V.

    2013-05-01

    Disaster risk is acutely high in many emerging economies due to a combination of geophysical hazards and social and ecological vulnerabilities. The risk associated with natural hazards can be a critical component of a nation's wealth, hence knowledge of these hazards will affect foreign investment in these emergent economies. On the hazard side of the risk profile, geophysicists research the frequency and magnitude of the extant hazards. These geophysicists, both local and foreign, have a responsibility to communicate these risks in the public sphere - whether they are through the mass media, or in personal conversations. Because of this implicit responsibility, it is incumbent upon geophysicists to understand the overall risk, not just the hazards. When it comes to communicating these risks, local scientists are often more effective because they speak the language, understand the social context, and are often connected to various modes of communication unavailable to foreign researchers. Investment in multidisciplinary undergraduate education is critical, as is training of established local scientists in understanding the complexities of risk assessment as well as communicating these risks effectively to broad audiences. Onagawa, Japan. 2011.

  19. Long-term Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 or Worse Following Human Papillomavirus Infection: Role of Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type–specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types. Methods A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time. Results For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative

  20. Risk Reduction on X-33/RLV Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Risk management has received considerable attention in the X-33 and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program due to aggressive schedules, limited funding. and planned private investment to develop the commercial VentureStar vehicle. As an X-33 and RLV team member and main propulsion supplier, Boeing Rocketdyn Propulsion and Power has addressed risk through a methodical application of systems engineering in identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks. The methods employed involve rigorous risk mitigation planning early in development, continuous risk monitoring and assessment during the course of development, and the systematic verification of compliance with technical requirements prior to delivery. In addition, an engine system reliability analysis was conducted to reduce risk. In July 1996, NASA selected Lockheed Martin's "Skunk Works" (LMSW) as the lead contractor for the X-33 and RLV program. The X-33 vehicle is a half-scale pathfinder for the full-scale RLV. The LMSW RLV design is a lifting body shaped vehicle employing linear aerospike engine provided propulsion. The initial X-33 flight is planned for the summer of 2000, and the initial VentureStar flight is planned for between 2005 and 2007.

  1. Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luethge, Denise J.

    2004-01-01

    The study abroad program (SAP) meets the criteria of a risky purchase, namely of being non-tangible, possessing hidden qualities, being expensive and cannot being able to be tested prior to purchase. In fact, SAPs may score highly on a number of risk components, especially financial risk (expensive), psychological risk (anxiety), physical risk…

  2. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  3. Toward Risk Reduction for Mobile Service Composition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Li, Ying; Zhou, Honggeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Cao, Xiongfei; Kataev, Mikhail Yu; Li, Ling

    2016-08-01

    The advances in mobile technologies enable us to consume or even provide services through powerful mobile devices anytime and anywhere. Services running on mobile devices within limited range can be composed to coordinate together through wireless communication technologies and perform complex tasks. However, the mobility of users and devices in mobile environment imposes high risk on the execution of the tasks. This paper targets reducing this risk by constructing a dependable service composition after considering the mobility of both service requesters and providers. It first proposes a risk model and clarifies the risk of mobile service composition; and then proposes a service composition approach by modifying the simulated annealing algorithm. Our objective is to form a service composition by selecting mobile services under the mobility model and to ensure the service composition have the best quality of service and the lowest risk. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can yield near-optimal solutions and has a nearly linear complexity with respect to a problem size. PMID:26168456

  4. Statin combination therapy and cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Tomassini, Joanne E; Foody, JoAnne M; Tershakovec, Andrew M

    2016-05-01

    In numerous clinical trials, lowering LDL-C with statin therapy has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in primary and secondary prevention settings. Guidelines recommend statins for first-line therapy in cholesterol-lowering management of patients with CVD risk. Despite increased statin monotherapy use over the last decade, a number of patients with high CVD risk do not achieve optimal LDL-C lowering. Guidelines recommend consideration of statin combination therapy with nonstatin agents for these patients. However, combination therapy approaches have been hampered by neutral findings. Recently, ezetimibe added to simvastatin therapy reduced cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients, more than simvastatin alone. This article provides an overview of various agents in combination with statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes. Other lipid-lowering agents in development, including PCSK9 and CETP inhibitors in development, are also described. PMID:27079178

  5. Expertise and policy-making in disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walch, Colin

    2015-08-01

    The third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction ended with an agreement lacking ambition. The conference showed that better communication between the scientific community and decision-makers is needed to develop informed frameworks.

  6. Engineering risk reduction in satellite programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, E. S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Methods developed in planning and executing system safety engineering programs for Lockheed satellite integration contracts are presented. These procedures establish the applicable safety design criteria, document design compliance and assess the residual risks where non-compliant design is proposed, and provide for hazard analysis of system level test, handling and launch preparations. Operations hazard analysis identifies product protection and product liability hazards prior to the preparation of operational procedures and provides safety requirements for inclusion in them. The method developed for documenting all residual hazards for the attention of program management assures an acceptable minimum level of risk prior to program deployment. The results are significant for persons responsible for managing or engineering the deployment and production of complex high cost equipment under current product liability law and cost/time constraints, have a responsibility to minimize the possibility of an accident, and should have documentation to provide a defense in a product liability suit.

  7. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk factor improvement achieved. Additionally, on an eligible subset of these patients, we asked physicians to actively refer to population management programs those patients they determined could benefit from nurse or health coach interventions, advising us as to which components of their treatment plan they wished us to address. The 6-month intervention period exhibited a 10-fold improvement in the trend rate of risk factor management success when compared to the prior 6-month period for the same patients. A net of 96 distinct risk factor improvements were achieved by the 546 patients during the intervention period, whereas 9 net risk factor improvements occurred in the comparison period. This difference in improvement trends was statistically significant at P < 0.01. Of the 546 study participants, a subset of 187 members was eligible for participation in OptumHealth care management programs. Physicians identified 80 of these 187 eligible members as appropriate targets for program intervention. Representing ourselves as “calling on behalf” of the physician practices, we established contact with 50 referred members; 43 members (86%) actively enrolled in our programs. This enrollment rate is 2 to 3 times the rate of enrollment through our standard program outreach methods. We conclude that physician-directed population management with aligned incentives offers promise as a method of achieving important health and wellness goals. (Population Health Management 2010

  8. Engaging physicians in risk factor reduction.

    PubMed

    Springrose, James V; Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A; Schmidt, Eric J

    2010-10-01

    OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk factor improvement achieved. Additionally, on an eligible subset of these patients, we asked physicians to actively refer to population management programs those patients they determined could benefit from nurse or health coach interventions, advising us as to which components of their treatment plan they wished us to address. The 6-month intervention period exhibited a 10-fold improvement in the trend rate of risk factor management success when compared to the prior 6-month period for the same patients. A net of 96 distinct risk factor improvements were achieved by the 546 patients during the intervention period, whereas 9 net risk factor improvements occurred in the comparison period. This difference in improvement trends was statistically significant at P < 0.01. Of the 546 study participants, a subset of 187 members was eligible for participation in OptumHealth care management programs. Physicians identified 80 of these 187 eligible members as appropriate targets for program intervention. Representing ourselves as "calling on behalf" of the physician practices, we established contact with 50 referred members; 43 members (86%) actively enrolled in our programs. This enrollment rate is 2 to 3 times the rate of enrollment through our standard program outreach methods. We conclude that physician-directed population management with aligned incentives offers promise as a method of achieving important health and wellness goals. PMID:20879906

  9. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  10. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  11. 76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... progress and development of a CDC Security National Strategy to reduce risks associated with the transport... Activities (CG-544) Web site at http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg544/cdc.asp or the Federal Docket...

  12. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously. PMID:24891130

  13. Probabilistic Assessment of Asteroid Impacts: Observations and Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Stanford Engineering Risk Research Group has developed a method for assessing the risks associated with asteroid impacts with the Earth. The model is intended to inform policy and decision makers who are charged with allocating limited resources to planetary defense missions. Our model and method have been used to perform baseline assessments of risk and compare options for mitigation. We extend that analysis to examine the risk reductions associated with observation missions that have been active over the last decade. We present the basic model, summarize our past work, describe our current results and findings, and examine the role of observations in reducing risks.

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  15. Possible association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia—the absolute risk is very low

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Vidal, Xavier; Ballarín, Elena; Ibáñez, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine whether topical ocular chloramphenicol increases the risk of aplastic anaemia and to estimate the magnitude of this risk, if any. Methods Population-based prospective case-control surveillance of aplastic anaemia in a community of 4.2 million inhabitants from 1980 to 1995 (67.2 million person-years) plus case-population estimate of the risk, based on sales figures of ocular chloramphenicol in the study area during the study period. Results One hundred and forty-five patients with aplastic anaemia and 1,226 controls were included in the analysis. Three cases (2.1%) and 5 controls (0.4%) had been exposed to ocular chloramphenicol during the relevant etiological period. The adjusted odds ratio was 3.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.84–16.90). Two cases had also been exposed to other known causes of aplastic anaemia. The incidence of aplastic anaemia among users of ocular chloramphenicol was 0.36 cases per million weeks of treatment. The incidence among non users was 0.04 cases per million weeks. Conclusions An association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia cannot be excluded. However, the risk is less than one per million treatment courses. PMID:9723830

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Risk Reduction After Lifestyle Education in the Small Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jorie C.; Lewis, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Investigations suggest that worksite health promotions in large companies decrease employer health costs and the risk for chronic disease. However, evidence of the success of such programs in small organizations is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a worksite health promotion program improves health risk and is cost-effective for a small employer. Methods Intervention (n = 29) and comparison (n = 31) participants from a 172-employee organization underwent health screening of risk factors for coronary heart disease at baseline (fall 2006) and at 12 months (fall 2007). The intervention group attended lifestyle education videoconferences and reported physical activity. We used the Framingham Risk Score to calculate risk of coronary heart disease. To calculate cost-effectiveness, we used direct employer costs of the program divided by either the relative reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or the absolute change in coronary heart disease risk. Results At 12 months, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and number of metabolic syndrome markers were significantly higher in the comparison group than in the intervention group. Total cholesterol was significantly lower at 12 months than at baseline in the intervention group. Waist circumference and number of metabolic syndrome markers increased significantly from baseline in the comparison group. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention was $10.17 per percentage-point reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and $454.23 per point reduction in coronary heart disease risk. Conclusion This study demonstrated the cost-effectiveness in a small organization of a worksite health promotion that improved low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease risk in participating employees. PMID:22575081

  17. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

  18. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  19. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  20. Bridging the Translation Gap: From Dementia Risk Assessment to Advice on Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Anstey, Kaarin J.; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Hosking, Diane E.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia risk reduction is a global health and fiscal priority given the current lack of effective treatments and the projected increased number of dementia cases due to population ageing. There are often gaps among academic research, clinical practice, and public policy. We present information on the evidence for dementia risk reduction and evaluate the progress required to formulate this evidence into clinical practice guidelines. This narrative review provides capsule summaries of current evidence for 25 risk and protective factors associated with AD and dementia according to domains including biomarkers, demographic, lifestyle, medical, and environment. We identify the factors for which evidence is strong and thereby especially useful for risk assessment with the goal of personalising recommendations for risk reduction. We also note gaps in knowledge, and discuss how the field may progress towards clinical practice guidelines for dementia risk reduction. PMID:26380232

  1. An absolutely calibrated survey of polarized emission from the northern sky at 1.4 GHz. Observations and data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-03-01

    A new polarization survey of the northern sky at 1.41 GHz is presented. The observations were carried out using the 25.6 m telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Canada, with an angular resolution of 36 arcmin. The data are corrected for ground radiation to obtain Stokes U and Q maps on a well-established intensity scale tied to absolute determinations of zero levels, containing emission structures of large angular extent, with an rms noise of 12 mK. Survey observations were carried out by drift scanning the sky between -29° and +90° declination. The fully sampled drift scans, observed in steps of 0.25° to ˜ 2.5° in declination, result in a northern sky coverage of 41.7% of full Nyquist sampling. The survey surpasses by a factor of 200 the coverage, and by a factor of 5 the sensitivity, of the Leiden/Dwingeloo polarization survey that was until now the most complete large-scale survey. The temperature scale is tied to the Effelsberg scale. Absolute zero-temperature levels are taken from the Leiden/Dwingeloo survey after rescaling those data by the factor of 0.94. The paper describes the observations, data processing, and calibration steps. The data are publicly available at http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/konti/26msurvey or http://www.drao.nrc.ca/26msurvey.

  2. Risk reduction projects in Russia, Ukraine, and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Guppy, J.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Reisman, A.W. ); Spencer, B.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) in the area of nuclear power safety has been undertaken in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for implementing the nuclear safety portion of this assistance. One aspect of this work is to provide near-term improvement to the safety of VVER and RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity has been designated as near-term risk reduction (NTRR). This accident risk reduction effort is being conducted by utilizing teams of experts.

  3. The efficacy of serostatus disclosure for HIV Transmission risk reduction.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ann A; Reed, Sandra J; Serovich, Julianne A

    2015-02-01

    Interventions to assist HIV+ persons in disclosing their serostatus to sexual partners can play an important role in curbing rates of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Based on the methods of Pinkerton and Galletly (AIDS Behav 11:698-705, 2007), we develop a mathematical probability model for evaluating effectiveness of serostatus disclosure in reducing the risk of HIV transmission and extend the model to examine the impact of serosorting. In baseline data from 164 HIV+ MSM participating in a randomized controlled trial of a disclosure intervention, disclosure is associated with a 45.0 % reduction in the risk of HIV transmission. Accounting for serosorting, a 61.2 % reduction in risk due to disclosure was observed in serodisconcordant couples. The reduction in risk for seroconcordant couples was 38.4 %. Evidence provided supports the value of serostatus disclosure as a risk reduction strategy in HIV+ MSM. Interventions to increase serostatus disclosure and that address serosorting behaviors are needed. PMID:25164375

  4. The Global Earthquake Model and Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced, reliable and transparent tools and data to assess earthquake risk are inaccessible to most, especially in less developed regions of the world while few, if any, globally accepted standards currently allow a meaningful comparison of risk between places. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a collaborative effort that aims to provide models, datasets and state-of-the-art tools for transparent assessment of earthquake hazard and risk. As part of this goal, GEM and its global network of collaborators have developed the OpenQuake engine (an open-source software for hazard and risk calculations), the OpenQuake platform (a web-based portal making GEM's resources and datasets freely available to all potential users), and a suite of tools to support modelers and other experts in the development of hazard, exposure and vulnerability models. These resources are being used extensively across the world in hazard and risk assessment, from individual practitioners to local and national institutions, and in regional projects to inform disaster risk reduction. Practical examples for how GEM is bridging the gap between science and disaster risk reduction are: - Several countries including Switzerland, Turkey, Italy, Ecuador, Papua-New Guinea and Taiwan (with more to follow) are computing national seismic hazard using the OpenQuake-engine. In some cases these results are used for the definition of actions in building codes. - Technical support, tools and data for the development of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk models for regional projects in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. - Going beyond physical risk, GEM's scorecard approach evaluates local resilience by bringing together neighborhood/community leaders and the risk reduction community as a basis for designing risk reduction programs at various levels of geography. Actual case studies are Lalitpur in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal and Quito/Ecuador. In agreement with GEM's collaborative approach, all

  5. Measuring the value of mortality risk reductions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-07-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30-39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey's compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  6. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  7. Measuring the Value of Mortality Risk Reductions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-01-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  8. Systematic Risk Reduction: Chances and Risks of Geological Storage of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F. R.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    A profound risk assessment should be the basis of any underground activity such as the geological storage of CO2. The risks and benefits should be weighted, whereas the risks need to be systematically reduced. Even after some decades of geological storage of CO2 (as part of a carbon capture and storage CCS), only a few projects are based on an independent risk assessment. In some cases, a risk assessment was performed after the start of storage operation. Chances: - Are there alternatives to CCS with lower risk? - Is a significant CO2 reduction possible without CCS? - If we accept that CO2 emissions are responsible for climate change having a severe economical impact, we need to substantially reduce CO2 emissions. As long as economic growth is directly related to CO2 emissions, we need to decouple the two. - CCS is one of the few options - may be a necessity, if the energy market is not only dependent on demand. Risks: Beside the risk not to develop and implement CCS, the following risks need to be addressed, ideally in a multi independent risk assessment. - Personal Interests - Acceptance - Political interests - Company interests - HSE (Health Safety Environment) - Risk for Climate and ETS - Operational Risks If a multi independent risk assessment is performed and the risks are addressed in a proper way, a significant and systematic risk reduction can be achieved. Some examples will be given, based on real case studies, such as CO2SINK at Ketzin.

  9. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  10. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  11. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  12. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  13. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  14. Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Mundorf, William R.

    2003-03-06

    A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, was developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs.

  15. Absolute quantification of the pretreatment PML-RARA transcript defines the relapse risk in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Albano, Francesco; Zagaria, Antonella; Anelli, Luisa; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Tota, Giuseppina; Brunetti, Claudia; Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Impera, Luciana; Minervini, Angela; Cellamare, Angelo; Orsini, Paola; Cumbo, Cosimo; Casieri, Paola; Specchia, Giorgina

    2015-05-30

    In this study we performed absolute quantification of the PML-RARA transcript by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) in 76 newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases to verify the prognostic impact of the PML-RARA initial molecular burden. ddPCR analysis revealed that the amount of PML-RARA transcript at diagnosis in the group of patients who relapsed was higher than in that with continuous complete remission (CCR) (272 vs 89.2 PML-RARA copies/ng, p = 0.0004, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis detected the optimal PML-RARA concentration threshold as 209.6 PML-RARA/ng (AUC 0.78; p < 0.0001) for discriminating between outcomes (CCR versus relapse). Among the 67 APL cases who achieved complete remission after the induction treatment, those with >209.6 PML-RARA/ng had a worse relapse-free survival (p = 0.0006). At 5-year follow-up, patients with >209.6 PML-RARA/ng had a cumulative incidence of relapse of 50.3% whereas 7.5% of the patients with suffered a relapse (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified the amount of PML-RARA before induction treatment as the sole independent prognostic factor for APL relapse.Our results show that the pretreatment PML-RARA molecular burden could therefore be used to improve risk stratification in order to develop more individualized treatment regimens for high-risk APL cases. PMID:25944686

  16. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Bell, K.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Toward risk reduction: predicting the future burden of occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Sally; Rushton, Lesley

    2011-05-01

    Interventions to reduce cancers related to certain occupations should be evidence-based. The authors have developed a method for forecasting the future burden of occupational cancer to inform strategies for risk reduction. They project risk exposure periods, accounting for cancer latencies of up to 50 years, forward in time to estimate attributable fractions for a series of forecast target years given past and projected exposure trends and under targeted reduction scenarios. Adjustment factors for changes in exposed numbers and levels are applied in estimation intervals within the risk-exposure periods. The authors illustrate the methods by using a range of scenarios for reducing lung cancer due to occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. Attributable fractions for lung cancer due to respirable crystalline silica could be potentially reduced from 2.07% in 2010 to nearly 0% by 2060, depending on the timing and success of interventions. Focusing on achieving compliance with current exposure standards in small industries can be more effective than setting standards at a lower level. The method can be used to highlight high-risk carcinogens, industries, and occupations. It is adaptable for other countries and other exposure situations in the general environment and can be extended to include socioeconomic impact assessment. PMID:21447477

  18. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. PMID:24325238

  19. Walking vs running for hypertension, cholesterol, & diabetes risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Background To test whether equivalent energy expenditure by moderate-intensity (e.g., walking) and vigorous-intensity exercise (e.g., running) provides equivalent health benefits. Methods and Results We used the National Runners’ (n=33,060) and Walkers’ (n=15,945) Health Study cohorts to examine the effect of differences in exercise mode and thereby exercise intensity on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Baseline expenditure (METhr/d) was compared to self-reported, physician-diagnosed incident hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and CHD during 6.2 years follow-up. Running significantly decreased the risks for incident hypertension by 4.2% (P<10-7), hypercholesterolemia by 4.3% (P<10-14), diabetes by 12.1% (P<10-5), and CHD by 4.5% per METh/d run (P=0.05). The corresponding reductions for walking were 7.2% (P<10-6), 7.0% (P<10-8), 12.3% (P<10-4), and 9.3% (P=0.01). Relative to <1.8 METh/d, the risk reductions for 1.8 to 3.6, 3.6 to 5.4, 5.4 to 7.2, and ≥ 7.2 METh/d were: 1) 10.1%, 17.7%, 25.1% and 34.9% from running and 14.0%, 23.8%, 21.8% and 38.3% from walking for hypercholesterolemia; 2) 19.7%, 19.4%, 26.8% and 39.8% from running and 14.7%, 19.1%, 23.6% and 13.3% from walking for hypertension; 3) 43.5%, 44.1%, 47.7% and 68.2% from running and 34.1%, 44.2%, and 23.6% from walking for diabetes (too few cases for diabetes for walking >5.4 METh/d). The risk reductions were not significantly greater for running than walking for diabetes (P=0.94) or CHD (P=0.26), and only marginally greater for walking than running for hypertension (P=0.06) and hypercholesterolemia (P=0.04). Conclusion Equivalent energy expenditures by moderate (walking) and vigorous (running) exercise produced similar risk reductions for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and CHD, but there is limited statistical power to evaluate CHD conclusively. PMID:23559628

  20. Valuing Reductions in Fatal Illness Risks: Implications of Recent Research.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K

    2016-08-01

    The value of mortality risk reductions, conventionally expressed as the value per statistical life, is an important determinant of the net benefits of many government policies. US regulators currently rely primarily on studies of fatal injuries, raising questions about whether different values might be appropriate for risks associated with fatal illnesses. Our review suggests that, despite the substantial expansion of the research base in recent years, few US studies of illness-related risks meet criteria for quality, and those that do yield similar values to studies of injury-related risks. Given this result, combining the findings of these few studies with the findings of the more robust literature on injury-related risks appears to provide a reasonable range of estimates for application in regulatory analysis. Our review yields estimates ranging from about $4.2 million to $13.7 million with a mid-point of $9.0 million (2013 dollars). Although the studies we identify differ from those that underlie the values currently used by Federal agencies, the resulting estimates are remarkably similar, suggesting that there is substantial consensus emerging on the values applicable to the general US population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26132383

  1. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    PubMed

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund. PMID:26177351

  2. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation

    PubMed Central

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund. PMID:26177351

  3. High post-treatment absolute monocyte count predicted hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HCV patients who failed peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Chun-Che; Huang, Pi-Teh; Wen, Chen-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Salient studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory response and cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that peripheral absolute monocyte counts (AMC) could impart an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients after a failed peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) combination therapy. A total of 723 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with PR, of which 183 (25.3 %) patients did not achieve a sustained virological response (non-SVR). Post-treatment AMC values were measured at 6 months after end of PR treatment. Fifteen (2.8 %) of 540 patients with an SVR developed HCC during a median follow-up period of 41.4 months, and 14 (7.7 %) of 183 non-SVR patients developed HCC during a median follow-up of 36.8 months (log rank test for SVR vs. non-SVR, P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that post-treatment AFP level (HR 1.070; 95 % CI = 1.024-1.119, P = 0.003) and post-treatment aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥0.5 (HR 4.401; 95 % CI = 1.463-13.233, P = 0.008) were independent variables associated with HCC development for SVR patients. For non-SVR patients, diabetes (HR 5.750; 95 % CI = 1.387-23.841, P = 0.016), post treatment AMC ≥370 mm(-3) (HR 5.805; 95 % CI = 1.268-26.573, P = 0.023), and post-treatment APRI ≥1.5 (HR 10.905; 95 % CI = 2.493-47.697, P = 0.002) were independent risks associated with HCC. In conclusion, post-treatment AMC has a role in prognostication of HCC development in HCV-infected patients who failed to achieve an SVR after PR combination therapy. PMID:26662957

  4. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Nontoxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for nontoxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of nontoxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of nontoxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of nontoxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that nontoxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  5. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Non-Toxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  6. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction. PMID:23116213

  7. Use of additive dentistry decreases risk by minimizing reduction.

    PubMed

    Palmer, K Michael

    2012-05-01

    This case required enhancement of esthetics and reduction of long-term risk of pathologic tooth wear and decay, as well as minimizing erosion caused by innate and environmental influences. The author weighed patient expectations, diet, treatment of teeth, and age to create a treatment plan that would conserve tooth structure while accomplishing the goals of the case. The patient's dentition was restored utilizing intact enamel, adhesive dentistry, and etchable ceramic materials that require less than 1 mm of occlusal reduction without a significant loss of strength. In this case, opening the vertical dimension of occlusion--which was done to increase the height of both the maxillary and mandibular arches, in keeping with the patient's esthetic desires--eliminated the need to remove excessive amounts of healthy tooth structure and facilitated treatment of the occlusal dysfunction. PMID:22616217

  8. Proactive Approach to Lymphedema Risk Reduction: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Cartwright, Francis; Qiu, Zeyuan; Goldberg, Judith D.; Kim, June; Scagliola, Joan; Kleinman, Robin; Haber, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in cancer treatments continue to reduce the incidence of lymphedema. Yet, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term post-operative challenges as a result of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program, a patient-centered education and behavioral program focusing on self-care strategies to enhance lymphedema risk reduction by promoting lymph flow and optimize body mass index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with repeated-measures was used. The study outcomes included lymph volume changes by infra-red perometer and body mass index by a bioimpedance device at pre-surgery baseline, 2-4 weeks after surgery, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. A total of 140 patients were recruited and participated in The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program; 134 patients completed the study with 4% attrition rate. Results Fifty-eight percent patients had axillary node dissection and 42% had sentinel lymph node biopsy. The majority (97%) of patients maintained and improved their preoperative limb volume and body mass index at the study endpoint of 12 months following cancer surgery. Cumulatively, 2 patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy and 2 patients with the axillary lymph node dissection had measurable lymphedema (>10% limb volume change). At 12-month follow-up, among the 4 patients with measurable lymphedema, 2 patients' limb volume returned to pre-operative level without compression therapy but by maintaining The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow exercises to promote daily lymph flow. Conclusions This educational and behavioral program is effective to enhance lymphedema risk reduction. The study provided initial evidence for emerging change in lymphedema care from treatment-focus to proactive risk reduction. PMID:24809302

  9. Cardiovascular risk reduction in hypertension: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers. Where are we up to?

    PubMed

    Sindone, A; Erlich, J; Lee, C; Newman, H; Suranyi, M; Roger, S D

    2016-03-01

    Previously, management of hypertension has concentrated on lowering elevated blood pressure. However, the target has shifted to reducing absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk. It is estimated that two in three Australian adults have three or more CV risk factors at the same time. Moderate reductions in several risk factors can, therefore, be more effective than major reductions in one. When managing hypertension, therapy should be focused on medications with the strongest evidence for CV event reduction, substituting alternatives only when a primary choice is not appropriate. Hypertension management guidelines categorise angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) interchangeably as first-line treatments in uncomplicated hypertension. These medications have different mechanisms of action and quite different evidence bases. They are not interchangeable and their prescription should be based on clinical evidence. Despite this, currently ARB prescriptions are increasing at a higher rate than those for ACEI and other antihypertensive classes. Evidence that ACEI therapy prevents CV events and death, in patients with coronary artery disease or multiple CV risk factors, emerged from the European trial on reduction of cardiac events with perindopril in stable coronary artery disease (EUROPA) and Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trials respectively. The consistent benefit has been demonstrated in meta-analyses. The clinical trial data for ARB are less consistent, particularly regarding CV outcomes and mortality benefit. The evidence supports the use of ACEI (Class 1a) compared with ARB despite current prescribing trends. PMID:26968600

  10. New agency to promote natural hazards risk reduction worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Max

    The World Agency of Planetary Monitoring and Earthquake Risk Reduction (WAPMERR) came into existence as a non-profit organization on May 5, 2001, in Geneva, Switzerland, where its offices are now located. The objectives of the agency will be to reduce the impact of natural and technological disasters on human life and health, as well as property.During a three-day meeting, 60 delegates from 26 countries discussed the initiative presented to them by the founding committee, which was headed by Alexey Nicolayev of Russia's Academy of Sciences. The delegates signed WAPMERR's charter, which they had formulated and adopted as founding members.

  11. JWST pathfinder telescope risk reduction cryo test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noël, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  12. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  13. HIV prevention among psychiatric inpatients: a pilot risk reduction study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, I; Cournos, F; Empfield, M; Agosin, B; Floyd, P

    1992-01-01

    An HIV prevention program was piloted on an acute inpatient admission ward. Patients who volunteered to participate had significantly higher rates of histories of substance use than non-participants, suggesting that patients participated based on rational concerns about past HIV risk behavior. The program consisted of 75 minute sessions once a week for seven weeks and was co-led by an HIV counselor and the ward's social worker. Each session focused on a specific topic and included a short presentation of informational material, viewing of an educational videotape, a discussion, and role play and other educational games. In spite of a wide range in functioning among the participants, discussion was lively and participation was good. The pilot program demonstrates that chronic mentally ill patients can engage in, and benefit from, risk reduction programs and that frank and explicit discussion of sexual issues is well tolerated. Recommendations for improvement in the program are discussed. PMID:1488461

  14. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-05-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care.

  15. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  16. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  17. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. E.

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of general systems theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the "state of the system". The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm.

  18. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. E.

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of General Systems Theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the ''state of the system''. The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm. Sagitta in lapidem numquam figitur, interdum resiliens percutit dirigentem. ("An arrow never lodges in a stone: often it recoils upon its sender.") St. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407), Archbishop of Constantinople.

  19. Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Reamer, David; Agage, Daniel; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability “as is” in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P < 0.05). Additionally, all of our video modules met our a priori criteria for feasibility: ≤20% of data were missing due to participant noncompliance and ≤20% were missing due to technical failure. We concluded that video-based mHIVRR education delivered via smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24159383

  20. Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Reamer, David; Agage, Daniel; Preston, Kenzie L

    2013-01-01

    We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability "as is" in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P < 0.05). Additionally, all of our video modules met our a priori criteria for feasibility: ≤20% of data were missing due to participant noncompliance and ≤20% were missing due to technical failure. We concluded that video-based mHIVRR education delivered via smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24159383

  1. [Tobacco cadmium health risk assessment and reduction techniques: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen-liang; Ma, Yi-bing; Li, Ju-mei; Wei, Dong-pu; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco is one of the cadmium accumulation and tolerance plants. Decreasing cadmium content of tobacco contributes to environmental safety and human health. Three aspects on tobacco cadmium research were reviewed in this paper, i.e. uptake and distribution of cadmium in tobacco, and health risk assessment of cadmium in tobacco and reduction measures. The current situations and existing challenges in the research field were discussed. The cadmium tolerance mechanisms of tobacco were reviewed, the factors on cadmium uptake were analyzed, and the general distribution of cadmium in tobacco was summarized. From the point of health risk assessment, the lack of cadmium limits in tobacco was identified, the recommended formula to calculate cadmium limits of tobacco based on atmosphere cadmium limits and digestion cadmium limits was provided and the cadmium limits of tobacco were estimated using each formula, and suggestions on cadmium limits in tobacco were presented. At last, we put forward several effective reduction measures to lower cadmium level in tobacco leaves. PMID:26259474

  2. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  3. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  4. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC).

    PubMed

    Lewis, James

    2012-01-01

    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes-and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters-tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which "vulnerability drivers" emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability. PMID:22919564

  5. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James

    2012-01-01

    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes—and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters—tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which “vulnerability drivers” emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability. PMID:22919564

  6. Risk reduction for DDT toxicity and carcinogenesis through dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Jaga, K; Duvvi, H

    2001-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are an environmental hazard due to their persistent nature and potential health effects. DDT and 1,1,dichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) are lipid-soluble pesticides which accumulate in fatty tissues and are, therefore, more present in fat-containing foods such as meat, fish, milk, cheese and oil than in fruit, vegetables and grain. Scientists have for some time been concerned about the human exposure to DDT and the potential risk of breast cancer due to its oestrogenic activity. The introduction of foods containing chemopreventive agents in the diet could inhibit the oestrogenic effects of DDT and the risk of developing cancer. Phytooestrogens are weak oestrogens found in certain plants such as soybean. They compete with DDT for oestrogen receptors and inhibit the oestrogenic effect of DDT on cultured human breast (MCF) cells. Curcumin, a spice widely used in Indian dishes, has anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. It also inhibits the oestrogenic effects of DDT and is synergistic with phytooestrogens. Indole-3-carbinol, a compound naturally found in cruciferous vegetables, stimulates oestrogen metabolism towards 2-hydroxyoestrone which reduces the oestrogenic response in MCF cells and the risk of breast cancer. Since DDT is lipid soluble and accumulates in adipose tissue it could have a role in lipid metabolism. Would a low fat diet reduce DDT bioaccumulation? A reduction in calories can decrease oestrogen levels and possibly reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary modification with the introduction of soy products, curcumin, cruciferous vegetables and low fat could be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing cancer and possibly the effects of DDT. PMID:11467202

  7. A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

  8. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

    2005-03-01

    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  9. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  10. Application of two versions of the WHO/international society of hypertension absolute cardiovascular risk assessment tools in a rural Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    Fatema, Kaniz; Zwar, Nicholas Arnold; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Bayzidur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk burden in a remote rural Bangladeshi population using the ‘With’ and ‘Without’ Cholesterol versions of the WHO/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) CVD risk assessment chart (particularly suitable for low and middle-income countries due to less reliance on laboratory testing) and to evaluate the agreement between the two approaches. Design Cross-sectional study using data from a large prospective cohort of the North Bengal Non-Communicable Disease Programme (NB-NCDP) of Bangladesh. Setting General rural population from Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Participants 563 individuals who were categorised as having ‘no CVDs’ on screening by a questionnaire-based survey using the ‘WHO CVD-Risk Management Package’ developed in 2002. Main outcome measures Absolute CVD risk burden assessed using two versions of the WHO/ISH risk assessment charts for the South-East Asian Region-D. Results 10-year risk (moderate, high and very high) positivity was present among 21.5% and 20.2% of participants, respectively, using with and without cholesterol versions of the tool. The overall concordance rate for the two versions was 89.5% and they did not differ significantly in estimating the proportion of overall participants having higher levels of CVD. The projected drug requirement, however, showed a significant overestimation in the proportion of participants at both the threshold levels (p<0.002) on using ‘without’ as compared to ‘with’ cholesterol versions. Conclusions About one-fifth of the adult population in Bangladesh, even in a remote rural area, seem to be at risk of developing CVDs (25% of them at high risk and 25% at very high risk) within 10 years with males and females being almost equally vulnerable. PMID:26463220

  11. Global Human Settlement Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, M.; Ehrlich, D.; Ferri, S.; Florczyk, A.; Freire, S.; Haag, F.; Halkia, M.; Julea, A. M.; Kemper, T.; Soille, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is supported by the European Commission, Joint Research Center (JRC) in the frame of his institutional research activities. Scope of GHSL is developing, testing and applying the technologies and analysis methods integrated in the JRC Global Human Settlement analysis platform for applications in support to global disaster risk reduction initiatives (DRR) and regional analysis in the frame of the European Cohesion policy. GHSL analysis platform uses geo-spatial data, primarily remotely sensed and population. GHSL also cooperates with the Group on Earth Observation on SB-04-Global Urban Observation and Information, and various international partners andWorld Bank and United Nations agencies. Some preliminary results integrating global human settlement information extracted from Landsat data records of the last 40 years and population data are presented.

  12. Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M.; Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G.; Duemmer, C.L.

    1997-06-25

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.

  13. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  14. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O.

    2013-07-01

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  15. Capability for Integrated Systems Risk-Reduction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is working to increase the likelihoods of human health and performance success during long-duration missions, and subsequent crew long-term health. To achieve these goals, there is a need to develop an integrated understanding of how the complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. This understanding will allow HRP to provide cross-disciplinary spaceflight countermeasures while minimizing resources such as mass, power, and volume. This understanding will also allow development of tools to assess the state of and enhance the resilience of individual crewmembers, teams, and the integrated mission system. We will discuss a set of risk-reduction questions that has been identified to guide the systems approach necessary to meet these needs. In addition, a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space, called the Contributing Factor Map (CFM), is being applied as the backbone for incorporating information addressing these questions from sources throughout HRP. Using the common language of the CFM, information from sources such as the Human System Risk Board summaries, Integrated Research Plan, and HRP-funded publications has been combined and visualized in ways that allow insight into cross-disciplinary interconnections in a systematic, standardized fashion. We will show examples of these visualizations. We will also discuss applications of the resulting analysis capability that can inform science portfolio decisions, such as areas in which cross-disciplinary solicitations or countermeasure development will potentially be fruitful.

  16. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes. In 2006, a total of 1,072 participants from 30 participating sites completed baseline questionnaires measuring demographics and sociobehavioral factors. They also underwent a medical examination at baseline and were reassessed annually after baseline. A Provider Annual Questionnaire was administered to staff members of each grantee site at the end of each year to assess site characteristics. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the relationships between participant and site characteristics and retention 1 year after baseline. Results: Among enrolled participants, 792 (74%) completed their first annual assessment. Participants who completed the first annual assessment tended to be older and had, at baseline, higher body mass index and higher level of physical activity. Site characteristics associated with retention included average age of staff, proportion of female staff members, and percentage of staff members having completed graduate or professional school. Implications: Understanding successful retention must reach beyond individual characteristics of participants to include features of the settings that house the interventions. PMID:21565816

  17. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  18. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  19. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  20. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  1. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  2. The shifting locus of risk-reduction: the critical role of HIV infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Indyk, Debbie; Golub, Sarit A

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the shifting locus of control over risk-reduction and examines its implications for the care and support of HIV-positive individuals. We begin by presenting a brief history of the continuum of HIV related risk, illustrating the ways in which advances in risk-assessment and intervention have led to this important shift. Second, we discuss the current state of risk assessment and intervention as it relates to three factors: (a) the point along the continuum of risk at which risk assessment and intervention occurs; (b) the locus of control over risk reduction; and (c) the distinction between primary and secondary risk reduction efforts. Finally, we discuss the meaning of HIV risk and the role of HIV-positive individuals in the new geometry of care that integrates treatment and prevention. How is HIV-risk defined and understood? Who is of risk to whom? Who is responsible for reducing risk?. PMID:16687378

  3. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David; Fang, Chen-Ling; Tsai, Bi-Kun; Lan, Li-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. PMID:23066394

  4. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, R. F.; Lederman, M.; Tai, P.; Wong, J. K. M.

    2002-11-01

    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  5. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VIII: Risk, Risk Reduction, Risk Management, and Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Loretti, Alessandro; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-06-01

    There is a cascade of risks associated with a hazard evolving into a disaster that consists of the risk that: (1) a hazard will produce an event; (2) an event will cause structural damage; (3) structural damage will create functional damages and needs; (4) needs will create an emergency (require use of the local response capacity); and (5) the needs will overwhelm the local response capacity and result in a disaster (ie, the need for outside assistance). Each step along the continuum/cascade can be characterized by its probability of occurrence and the probability of possible consequences of its occurrence, and each risk is dependent upon the preceding occurrence in the progression from a hazard to a disaster. Risk-reduction measures are interventions (actions) that can be implemented to: (1) decrease the risk that a hazard will manifest as an event; (2) decrease the amounts of structural and functional damages that will result from the event; and/or (3) increase the ability to cope with the damage and respond to the needs that result from an event. Capacity building increases the level of resilience by augmenting the absorbing and/or buffering and/or response capacities of a community-at-risk. Risks for some hazards vary by the context in which they exist and by the Societal System(s) involved. Birnbaum ML , Loretti A , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part VIII: risk, risk reduction, risk management, and capacity building. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):300-308. PMID:27025980

  6. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.; Maggio, F.

    2008-07-08

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  7. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  8. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  9. The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie, (Edited By); Jones, Lucile

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey (CGS), the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  10. Time-to-Compromise Model for Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

    2005-09-01

    We propose a new model for estimating the time to compromise a system component that is visible to an attacker. The model provides an estimate of the expected value of the time-to-compromise as a function of known and visible vulnerabilities, and attacker skill level. The time-to-compromise random process model is a composite of three subprocesses associated with attacker actions aimed at the exploitation of vulnerabilities. In a case study, the model was used to aid in a risk reduction estimate between a baseline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and the baseline system enhanced through a specific set of control system security remedial actions. For our case study, the total number of system vulnerabilities was reduced by 86% but the dominant attack path was through a component where the number of vulnerabilities was reduced by only 42% and the time-to-compromise of that component was increased by only 13% to 30% depending on attacker skill level.

  11. Cardiovascular risk reduction: an interdisciplinary approach to research training.

    PubMed

    Levine, D M; Green, L W

    1981-01-01

    The major health problems confronting most countries require interdisciplinary approaches to the provision of service, teaching, and investigation. Past research indicates difficulty in role relations between various types of health professionals and the importance of the interaction of selection, educational processes and work experiences in affecting long-term professional behaviour in collaborative directions. This paper applies these concepts to the analysis of the first five years of experience in a pre- and post-doctoral research training programme at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions concerned with educational and behavioural approaches to cardiovascular risk reduction. Concepts or processes specifically incorporated into the programme to increase the likelihood of graduates conducting their subsequent career activities from an interdisciplinary approach are described and analyzed. These include appropriate recruitment and selection; early interdisciplinary learning experiences; reinforcing socialization and professionalization processes; active faculty role model team approaches; and reinforcing research experiences. To date the programme has provided training to 14 post-doctoral and 16 predoctoral fellows. Analysis of the effect of the programme on the cardiovascular fellows in regard to their performance, interdisciplinary approach, subsequent career patterns and performance, as well as on other students not supported by the programme, and upon faculty, recommends this format for research training in health education and behavioural sciences. PMID:7293487

  12. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  13. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  14. LISA Technology Development and Risk Reduction at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA project to design, build and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector based on a laser interferometer. LISA relies on several technologies that are either new to spaceflight or must perform at levels not previously demonstrated in a spaceflight environment. The ESA-led LISA Pathfinder mission is the main effort to demonstrate LISA technology. NASA also supports complementary ground-based technology development and risk reduction activities. This presentation will report the status of NASA work on micronewton thrusters, the telescope, the optical pointing subsystem and mission formulation. More details on some of these topics will be given in posters. Other talks and posters will describe NASA-supported work on the laser subsystem, the phasemeter, and aspects of the interferometry. Two flight-qualified clusters of four colloid micronewton thrusters, each capable of thrust Levels between 5 and 30 microNewton with a resolution less than 0.l microNewton and a thrust noise less than 0.1 microNewton/vHz (0.001 to 4 Hz), have been integrated onto the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The complementary ground-based development focuses on lifetime demonstration. Laboratory verification of failure models and accelerated life tests are just getting started. LISA needs a 40 cm diameter, afocal telescope for beam expansion/reduction that maintains an optical pathlength stability of approximately 1 pm/vHz in an extremely stable thermal environment. A mechanical prototype of a silicon carbide primary-secondary structure has been fabricated for stability testing. Two optical assemblies must point at different distant spacecraft with nanoradian accuracy over approximately 1 degree annual variation in the angle between the distant spacecraft. A candidate piezo-inchworm actuator is being tested in a suitable testbed. In addition to technology development, NASA has carried out several studies in support of the

  15. SLI Complex Curvature Friction Stir Weld Risk Reduction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Paula J.; Schneider, Jules; Jones, Chip; Lawless, Kirby; Russell, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative Program (SLI) in conjunction with the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) will demonstrate the ability to produce large-scale complex curvature hardware using the self-reacting friction stir welding process. This multi-phased risk reduction program includes friction stir welding process development and manufacture of a 22-ft diameter quarter dome using a conventional tooling approach; it culminates in a 27.5-ft diameter quarter dome demonstration performed on a 5-axis Universal Weld System. The design, fabrication, and installation of the Universal Weld System is made possible through a collaboration between the State of Louisiana, NASA, and the University of New Orleans. The Universal Weld System, manufactured by MTS Systems Corporation, will be installed at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana, and will be capable of manufacturing domes up to 30 ft in diameter. All welding will be accomplished using the Adaptable Adjustable Pin Tool (AdAPT) weld head and controller manufactured by MTS. Weld parameters will be developed for an aluminum alloy in gauges ranging from 0.320 to 0.400 in. thick. Weld quality will be verified through radiography, mechanical property testing at ambient and LN2 temperatures, and metallurgical analysis. The AdAPT weld head will then be mounted on a 22-ft diameter dome tool, which will be modified to include a welding track and drive system for moving the AdAPT weld head along the weld joint. This tool will then be used to manufacture a 22-ft diameter dome of an aluminum alloy, with 0.320-in. constant thickness joints, consisting of three individual gore panels. Finally, the 27.5-ft diameter quarter dome will be welded on the Universal Weld System. The quarter dome will consist of three individual gore panels with weld lands tapering from 0.320 to 0.360 in. in thickness. With the demonstration of these welds, the ability to manufacture large diameter domes using the friction stir

  16. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  17. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2001-05-17

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external programs such as Web applications. A new concept was developed and tested in well log

  18. Reducing exposure to environmental toxicants before birth: moving from risk perception to risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Grason, Holly A; Misra, Dawn P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we considered approaches to reducing maternal exposure to hazardous environmental toxicants, focusing on risk communication to pregnant women and providers, but also considering identification of environmental toxicants in the community and reduction of environmental toxicants. We addressed the following questions: (1) What do pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health? and (2) What policy strategies are needed (should be considered) to move forward in risk reduction in this area? We reviewed the literature on knowledge of pregnant women and providers regarding these issues. While there is limited research on what pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health, there is evidence of reproductive and perinatal toxicity. This article describes a wide range of policy strategies that could be implemented to address environmental toxicants in the context of perinatal health. Effective leadership in this area will likely require collaboration of both environmental health and maternal and child health leaders and organizations. PMID:19753941

  19. Modifiable Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction and Early Detection Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John J., Jr.; Larose-Pierre, Margareth; Emanuel, Frank; Adams, Angela Denise; Dagne, Getachew A.; Pressey, Shannon Alexis; Odedina, Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the personal factors related to modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction and detection behaviors among black men. Methods: Three thousand four hundred thirty (3430) black men were surveyed and structural equation modeling employed to test study hypotheses. Results: Modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction behavior was found…

  20. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to low BMD. The extension of a

  1. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  2. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program, addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race, or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a mu...

  3. Risk identification and reduction in integrated product teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    This brief report summarizes research and planning conducted during Summer 1993 for MSFC on the subjects of risk identification, assessment, and management. Research findings are presented, citing useful references. The major output of this work, the AXAF-S Project Risk Management Plan is outlined.

  4. Risk Reduction and Training using Simulation Based Tools - 12180

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Irin P.

    2012-07-01

    Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition

  5. [New perspectives in cardiovascular risk reduction: focus on HDL].

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Stefania; Della Ratta, Giuseppe Luca; Vitagliano, Alice; Cirillo, Annapaola; Lardino, Elisabetta; Formisano, Tiziana; Fabiani, Irma; Pellegrino, Angela Maria; Riello, Pietro; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly contributing to hospitalizations and health care costs. Dyslipidemias represent one of the major cardiovascular risk factor and its management, throughout life-style modifications and pharmacological interventions, has shown to reduce cardiac events. The risk of adverse cardiovascular events is related not only to elevated LDL blood levels, but also to decreased HDL concentrations, that exhibit protective effects in the development of atherosclerotic process. Aim of this review is to summarize current evidences about defensing effects of such lipoproteins and to show the most recent pharmacological strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk through the increase of their circulating levels. PMID:23923587

  6. Risk Reduction for Use of Complex Devices in Space Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey, Christian; Friendlich, Mark; Petrick, Dave; LaBel, Kenneth; Stansberry, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We present guidel!nes to reduce risk to an acceptable level when using complex devices in space applications. Application to Virtex 4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on Express Logistic Carrier (ELC) project is presented.

  7. Aquarius Instrument Science Calibration During the Risk Reduction Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    This final report presents the results of work performed under NASA Grant NAG512726 during the period 15 January 2003 through 30 June 2004. An analysis was performed of a possible vicarious calibration method for use by Aquarius to monitor and stabilize the absolute and relative calibration of its microwave radiometer. Stationary statistical properties of the brightness temperature (T(sub B)) measured by a low Earth orbiting radiometer operating at 1.4135 GHz are considered as a means of validating its absolute calibration. The global minimum, maximum, and average T(sub B) are considered, together with a vicarious cold reference method that detects the presence of a sharp lower bound on naturally occurring values for T(sub B). Of particular interest is the reliability with which these statistics can be extracted from a realistic distribution of T(sub B) measurements that would be observed by a typical sensor. Simulations of measurements are performed that include the effects of instrument noise and variable environmental factors such as the global water vapor and ocean surface temperature, salinity and wind distributions. Global minima can vary widely due to instrument noise and are not a reliable calibration reference. Global maxima are strongly influenced by several environmental factors as well as instrument noise and are even less stationary. Global averages are largely insensitive to instrument noise and, in most cases, to environmental conditions as well. The global average T(sub B) varies at only the 0.1 K RMS level except in cases of anomalously high winds, when it can increase considerably more. The vicarious cold reference is similarly insensitive to instrument effects and most environmental factors. It is not significantly affected by high wind conditions. The stability of the vicarious reference is, however, found to be somewhat sensitive (at the several tenths of Kelvins level) to variations in the background cold space brightness, T(sub c). The global

  8. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  9. Bioastronautics Roadmap: A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap is the framework used to identify and assess the risks to crews exposed to the hazardous environments of space. It guides the implementation of research strategies to prevent or reduce those risks. Although the BCPR identifies steps that must be taken to reduce the risks to health and performance that are associated with human space flight, the BCPR is not a "critical path" analysis in the strict engineering sense. The BCPR will evolve to accommodate new information and technology development and will enable NASA to conduct a formal critical path analysis in the future. As a management tool, the BCPR provides information for making informed decisions about research priorities and resource allocation. The outcome-driven nature of the BCPR makes it amenable for assessing the focus, progress and success of the Bioastronautics research and technology program. The BCPR is also a tool for communicating program priorities and progress to the research community and NASA management.

  10. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools. PMID:17017363

  11. Osteoporosis: Implications for Risk Reduction in the College Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Maryann; St. Pierre, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines risk factors for osteoporosis that are especially relevant to the college health setting, focusing on bone development, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking and alcohol use, steroid use and high protein diets, and physical inactivity and excessive exercise. Also presents intervention strategies for college health…

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing Our Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Donald C.; Winston, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Continued and expanded efforts to educate people as to what factors contribute to coronary heart disease will help to decrease its occurrence. Risk factors include: cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, obesity, heredity, psychological influences, and the taking of oral contraceptives or alcohol. (CJ)

  13. Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Sung, Andrew

    2000-10-24

    This project developed an Artificial Intelligence system that drew up on a wide variety of information in providing realistic estimates of risk. ''Fuzzy logic,'' a system of integrating large amounts of inexact, incomplete information with modern computational methods derived usable conclusions, were demonstrated as a cost-effective computational technology in many industrial applications.

  14. Home care workers: injury prevention through risk factor reduction.

    PubMed

    Jarrell, R B

    1997-01-01

    Home health care professionals work in a nonstandard and unpredictable environment for which few controls are available. The professional must cope with a residence's existing access, cleanliness, facilities, and other occupants (including pets), among other factors, and these vary between homes. This chapter suggests interventions that can reduce risks to employees, patients, and family members. PMID:9353822

  15. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    PubMed Central

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention program for teens on probation. Participants (N=54) were 13–17 year-old arrested males and females remanded to a detention alternative setting. Youth participated in a uniquely tailored HIV prevention intervention and completed a baseline and 3-month follow up assessment of their HIV and substance use knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. At 3-month follow up, teens reported less alcohol use, more positive attitudes toward peers with HIV, greater ability to resist temptation to use substances, and for males, improved HIV prevention self-efficacy and peer norms supporting prevention. Teens were also more likely to seek HIV counseling and males were more likely to get tested for HIV. Effect sizes revealed moderate change in sexual behavior. Findings support PHAT Life as a promising intervention to reduce HIV-risk among youth in juvenile justice. PMID:26097376

  16. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  17. ACTINIC MASK INSPECTION AT THE ALS: RISK REDUCTION ACTIVITIES FOR 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Levesque, R; Ayers, J; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Barale, P

    2004-01-05

    This document reports on risk reduction activities performed at the VNL during CY2003 as a part of the Lith-343 actinic inspection project funded by International SEMATECH. The risk reduction activities described in this document comprise deliverable items 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.1.5 and 3.1.6 of Amendment 6 to the VNL EUV mask blank technology transfer contract.

  18. Brief Communication: Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction - success or warning sign for Paris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Thieken, A.; Mechler, R.; Aerts, J.

    2015-06-01

    In March 2015, a new international blueprint for disaster risk reduction (DRR) has been adopted in Sendai, Japan, at the end of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR, 14-18 March 2015). We review and discuss the agreed commitments and targets, as well as the negotiation leading to the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR) and discuss briefly its implication for the later UN-led negotiations on sustainable development goals and climate change.

  19. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  20. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  1. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  2. Adolescent substance use and unplanned pregnancy: strategies for risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Connery, Hilary S.; Albright, Brittany B.; Rodolico, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Substance use among adolescents increases the risk of unplanned pregnancies, which then increases the risk of fetal exposure to addictive, teratogenic substances. Specific interventions are necessary to target pregnancy planning and contraception among reproductive age substance users. Screening for substance use using the CRAFFT is recommended in all health care settings treating adolescent patients. Screening for tobacco and nicotine use is also recommended along with provision of smoking cessation interventions. Using motivational interviewing style and strategies is recommended to engage adolescents in discussions related to reducing substance use, risky sexual behavior, and probability of unplanned pregnancy or late-detection pregnancy. Earlier interventions that strengthen autonomy and resourcefulness in recognizing and caring for an unplanned conception is a form of advanced directive that may well reduce fetal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and simultaneously empower girls and women in self-care. PMID:24845484

  3. Evaluation of risk factor reduction in a European City Network.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Jill L; Faskunger, Johan; Mackiewicz, Karolina

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial and growing burden of premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) globally. This paper evaluates the preventive efforts of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network during its fifth phase (2009-13), specifically for four behavioural risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity). Drawing on case studies, questionnaire responses and other materials, it notes which cities were involved, what worked and did not, the triggers for action, challenges met and lessons learnt. Few cities appeared to have taken comprehensive approaches to NCD prevention across multiple risk factors, or have combined population- and individual-level interventions. Work on healthy food and diet predominantly focused on children in educational or care settings, and few cities appeared to take a comprehensive approach to tackling obesity. Partnerships were a strong feature for all the NCD risk factor work, and were frequently extensive, being most diverse for the Healthy Diet and Food work. There were strong examples of engagement with communities, also involved in co-designing and shaping projects. Equity also featured strongly and there were multiple examples of how attention had been paid to the social determinants of health. There was evidence that cities continue to be significant innovative forces within their countries and drivers of change, and the mutual dependency of the national and local levels was highlighted. Interventions to promote physical activity have shifted focus from specific events and projects to being more integrated with other policy areas and based on intersectoral collaboration. PMID:26069321

  4. Ensuring Disaster Risk Reduction via Sustainable Wetland Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Lindborg, R.; Nyström, S.; Silengo, M.; Tumbo, M.; Koutsouris, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems around the world are increasingly being targeted as land use development 'hotspots' under growing concerns of climate variability and food security. Anthropogenic encroachment on natural wetland ecosystems can have direct consequences locally through loss of biodiversity and regionally through increased disaster risks associated with, for example, flooding. We consider two regionally-relevant wetland ecosystems in eastern Africa, namely Zambia's Lukanga Swamps and Tanzania's Kilombero Valley, experiencing varying trajectories of development under climatic variations. These regions have been targeted for inclusive, multi-stakeholder initiatives that aim at developing agricultural potential through combinations of large and small scale irrigation schemes. Through our data-driven analysis we highlight the potential for shifts in hydrologic regime of each wetland ecosystem which can have significant regional impacts on disaster risks. In the case of the Lukanga Swamps, wetlands maintain water table fluctuations that help mitigate water cycling with implications for the downstream flooding impact of annual rains. With regards to Kilombero Valley, understanding seasonal changes in hydrological processes and storages provides the cornerstone for managing future water resource impacts/feedbacks under different scenarios of land management. This work emphasizes the need to tailor strategies towards sustainable uses of wetlands that reduce disaster risks regionally while contributing to improved community health and wellbeing. It remains an open (and fundamental) question of how to best define management recommendations and activities that not only achieve climate resiliency but also are acceptable for stakeholders without compromising the balance between ecosystem service supply and biodiversity conservation.

  5. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents: Targeting Substance Use and HIV/STI-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a family-based intervention for addressing both substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in adolescents presenting for outpatient substance use treatment. The intervention combines contingency management (CM) for adolescent substance use, which is a behavioral intervention modeled on the Community Reinforcement Approach, with a sexual risk reduction protocol that mirrors aspects of the CM model. As a family-based intervention, caregivers attend every session and actively collaborate with the therapist to address their youth’s behavior problems. The treatment is criterion-based with treatment duration determined by the youth’s achievement of reduced substance use and unprotected sexual behavior goals. A case study describes the implementation of this treatment with an adolescent presenting a history of polysubstance use and unprotected sexual intercourse. Following the adolescent and caregiver’s participation in weekly sessions, the adolescent demonstrated improvements in substance use, unprotected sexual behavior, and other behavior problems. Clinical summary data from two outpatient clinics reveal similar positive outcomes for youth receiving the intervention. This paper illustrates the potential utility of an integrated treatment approach targeting substance use and unprotected sexual behavior in an adolescent population. PMID:25419101

  6. Reducing the risk of surgical site infections: does chlorhexidine gluconate provide a risk reduction benefit?

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Charles E; Bruden, Benjamin; Rucinski, Maria C; Henen, Cindy; Graham, Mary Beth; Lewis, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been available as a topical antiseptic for over 50 years, having broad clinical application throughout the health care environment. Evidence-based clinical studies have shown chlorhexidine gluconate to be a safe and effective perioperative skin-prepping agent. Renewed interest has emerged for use of the antiseptic bath/shower to reduce the microbial skin burden prior to hospital admission. Recent clinical studies have documented that multiple applications of 2% or 4% CHG using a standardized protocol results in high skin surface concentrations sufficient to inhibit/kill skin colonizing flora, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A new focus for the use of CHG in surgical patients involves irrigation of the wound prior to closure with 0.05% CHG followed by saline rinse. Recent laboratory studies suggest that, following a 1-minute exposure, 0.05% CHG produces a >5-log reduction against selective health care-associated pathogens and reduces microbial adherence to the surface of implantable biomedical devices. General, orthopedic, cardiothoracic, and obstetrical surgical studies have documented the safety of selective CHG formulations in elective surgical procedures. The following discussion will address both the evidence-based literature and preliminary findings suggesting that CHG has a broad and safe range of applications when used as an adjunctive interventional strategy for reducing the risk of postoperative surgical site infections (SSI). PMID:23622749

  7. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... to reduce the risk of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 998 acres of...

  8. Social Norms vs. Risk Reduction Approaches to 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2010-01-01

    Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…

  9. Exploring attitudes regarding smokeless tobacco products for risk reduction.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Michiel A; Rodu, Brad; Antle, Becky F; Bledsoe, Linda K; Sullivan, Dana J

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data analysis, this study focused on the attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs relating to smokeless tobacco (ST) as a reduced-risk cigarette substitute for smokers among focus groups from the general public and from the health profession. It revealed that there is a lack of awareness and understanding of ST products, which has a significant impact on overall perception of these products as acceptable substitutes. Regulatory actions regarding tobacco by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration should enhance consumers' access to accurate information about nicotine addiction and tobacco use. PMID:23805803

  10. Effectiveness of an HIV risk reduction counseling intervention for out-of-treatment drug users.

    PubMed

    Kotranski, L; Semaan, S; Collier, K; Lauby, J; Halbert, J; Feighan, K

    1998-02-01

    This study examined and compared the effectiveness of two counseling interventions designed to reduce the HIV drug and sexual risk behaviors of 684 out-of-treatment drug users recruited from South Philadelphia, PA. All study participants received a standard intervention and one half were randomly assigned to also receive the enhanced intervention. The standard intervention provided HIV risk reduction education, HIV testing with pretest and posttest counseling, and training in condom use and needle cleaning. The enhanced intervention provided additional information on STD risk reduction. Both interventions were effective in influencing behavior change between baseline and 6-month follow-up. A higher proportion of persons reduced their drug risk behaviors compared to their sexual risk behaviors. As sexual risk behaviors are more resistant to change, there is a need for tailored interventions that target out-of-treatment drug users. PMID:9505096

  11. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  12. MESSENGER's use of solar sailing for cost and risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Daniel J.; McAdams, James V.; Bedini, Peter D.; Calloway, Andrew B.; Williams, Kenneth E.; Page, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission used six planetary gravity assists in order to enable capture into orbit about Mercury. A key element of MESSENGER's successful trajectory was achieving the proper gravity assist from each planetary flyby. The criticality of the MESSENGER gravity assists levied tight accuracy requirements on the planetary-flyby targeting. Major errors could have precluded Mercury orbit insertion or required modifications to the trajectory that increased mission complexity, cost, and risk by requiring additional Mercury flybys and extending mission duration. Throughout the mission, MESSENGER modified its strategy for achieving accurate planetary flybys. By using solar sailing, the MESSENGER team was able to eliminate all of the flyby approach maneuvers without sacrificing flyby accuracy, thereby saving mission ΔV margin. The elimination of these approach maneuvers also markedly reduced mission risk, as these approach maneuvers were nominally planned during a time of heightened sensitivity to errors and precluded unique flyby science opportunities. The paradigm shift used by MESSENGER may be useful for other interplanetary missions, particularly if their trajectories require gravity assists in the inner solar system.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Risk Factors in the Prebreathe Reduction Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Wayne A.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Conkin, Johnny; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 165 exposures from four 2-hour protocols were analyzed for correlations or trends between decompression sickness (DCS) or venous gas emboli (VGE), and variables that affect risk in the subject and astronaut populations. The assumption in this global survey is that the distributions of gender, age, body mass index, etc., are equally represented in all four tested procedures. We used Student t-test for comparisons between means and chi-square test between comparisons of proportions with p<0.05 defining a significant level. The type and distribution of the 19 cases of DCS were similar to historical cases. There was no correlation of age, gender, body mass index or fitness level with greater incidence of DCS or VGE. However increased age was associated with more Grade IV VGE in males. The duration and quantity of exercise during prebreathe is inversely related to risk of DCS and VGE. The latency time for VGE was longer (103 min +/- 56 SD, n = 15) when the ergometry was done approximately 15 min into the prebreathe than when done at the start of the prebreathe (53 min +/- 31, n = 13). The order of the ergometry did not influence the overall DCS and VGE incidence. We identified variables other than those of the prebreathe procedures that influence the DCS and VGE outcome. The analysis suggests that males over 40 years have a high incidence of Grade IV VGE.

  14. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  15. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  16. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    A disaster is a failure of resilience to an event. Mitigating the risks that a hazard will progress into a destructive event, or increasing the resilience of a society-at-risk, requires careful analysis, planning, and execution. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is used to define the value (effects, costs, and outcome(s)), impacts, and benefits of interventions directed at risk reduction. A Risk-Reduction Framework, based on the DLM, details the processes involved in hazard mitigation and/or capacity-building interventions to augment the resilience of a community or to decrease the risk that a secondary event will develop. This Framework provides the structure to systematically undertake and evaluate risk-reduction interventions. It applies to all interventions aimed at hazard mitigation and/or increasing the absorbing, buffering, or response capacities of a community-at-risk for a primary or secondary event that could result in a disaster. The Framework utilizes the structure provided by the DLM and consists of 14 steps: (1) hazards and risks identification; (2) historical perspectives and predictions; (3) selection of hazard(s) to address; (4) selection of appropriate indicators; (5) identification of current resilience standards and benchmarks; (6) assessment of the current resilience status; (7) identification of resilience needs; (8) strategic planning; (9) selection of an appropriate intervention; (10) operational planning; (11) implementation; (12) assessments of outputs; (13) synthesis; and (14) feedback. Each of these steps is a transformation process that is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the role of Coordination and Control during planning, implementation of risk-reduction/capacity building interventions, and evaluation. Birnbaum ML , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP , Loretti A . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):309-325. PMID:27033777

  17. Cooled silicon nitride stationary turbine vane risk reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holowczak, John

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this program was to reduce the technical risk factors for demonstration of air cooled silicon nitride turbine vanes. The effort involved vane prototype fabrication efforts at two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers. The efficacy of the cooling system was analyzed via a thermal time/temperature flow test technique previously at UTRC. By having multiple vendors work on parts fabrication, the chance of program success increased for producing these challenging components. The majority of the effort under this contract focused on developing methods for, and producing, the complex thin walled silicon nitride vanes. Components developed under this program will undergo engine environment testing within N00014-96-2-0014.

  18. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    The loss of lives caused by landslides in Norway is smaller than in other countries due to the low population density in exposed areas. However, annual economic losses from damage to properties and infrastructures are vast. Yet nationally coordinated efforts to manage and reduce landslide and snow avalanche risk are a recent challenge, having started only in the last decade. Since 2009, this has been a task of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Ongoing work includes collection of landslide data, production of susceptibility and hazard maps, planning of mitigation measures along with monitoring and early warning systems, assistance to areal planning, providing expertise in emergencies and disseminating information to the public. These activities are realized in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), the Meteorological Institute, the Road and Railway authorities, universities and private consultant companies. As the total need for risk mitigating initiatives is by far larger than the annual budget, priority assessment is crucial. This brings about a number of ethical questions. 1. Susceptibility maps have been produced for the whole country and provide a first indication of areas with potential landslide or snow avalanche hazard, i.e. areas where special attention and expert assessments are needed before development. Areas where no potential hazard is shown can in practice be developed without further studies, which call for relatively conservative susceptibility maps. However, conservative maps are problematic as they too often increase both cost and duration of building projects beyond the reasonable. 2. Areas where hazard maps or risk mitigation initiatives will be funded are chosen by means of cost-benefits analyses which are often uncertain. How to estimate the benefits if the real probability for damage can only be judged on a very subjective level but not really calculated

  19. Sexual Risk Avoidance and Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions For Middle School Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Christine M.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Reininger, Belinda; Robin, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of two, theory-based, multi-media, middle school sexual education programs in delaying sexual initiation. Methods Three-armed, randomized controlled trial comprising fifteen urban middle schools; 1,258 predominantly African-American and Hispanic 7th grade students followed into 9th grade. Both programs included group and individualized, computer-based activities addressing psychosocial variables. The risk avoidance (RA) program met federal abstinence education guidelines; the risk reduction (RR) program emphasized abstinence and included computer-based condom skills-training. The primary outcome assessed program impact on delayed sexual initiation; secondary outcomes assessed other sexual behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Results Participants were 59.8% female, mean age 12.6 years. Relative to controls, the RR program delayed any type of sexual initiation (oral, vaginal or anal sex) in the overall sample (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54–0.77), among females (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.31–0.60) and African-Americans (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18–0.79). RR students also reduced unprotected sex at last intercourse (AOR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47–0.96), past three months’ frequency of anal sex (AOR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33–0.84) and unprotected vaginal sex (AOR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36–0.95). The RA program delayed any sexual initiation among Hispanics (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19–0.86), reduced unprotected sex at last intercourse (AOR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.93) but increased the number of recent vaginal sex partners (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01–2.82). Both programs positively impacted psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions The RR program positively impacted sexually inexperienced and experienced youth; the RA program delayed initiation among Hispanics and had mixed effects among sexually experienced youth. PMID:22325134

  20. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization. PMID:27254976

  1. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  2. Reduction of livelihood risk for river bank erosion affected villagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. Sen; Fox, D. M.; Chakrabari, S.; Bhandari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Bank erosion process of the Ganga River created a serious livelihood risk for the villagers situated on left bank of the river in Malda district of the State of West Bengal, India since last four decades. Due to the erosion of agriculture land by the river, most of the villagers having agriculture as their only means of livelihood became jobless suddenly. Presently they are living in a miserable condition. One of the main objectives of this paper is to find out an alternative means of livelihood for the victims to improve their miserable socio-economic condition. It has been found from field survey that some erosion affected villagers have started to live and practice agriculture temporarily on the riverine islands (large and stable since thirteen years) as these islands have very fertile soil. If the re-emerged land plots can again be demarcated on the newly formed islands and distributed among the landless people to practice agriculture over there, then it will be a useful alternative livelihood strategy for the victims. The demarcation of re-emerged plots can be achieved by georeferencing the cadastral maps and then overlaying the plots on the present river course. In the present study area geo-referencing process of the cadastral maps became a serious issue as the study area has been very dynamic in terms of land cover and land use. Most of the villages were lost into the river course. Thus the common permanent features, required for geo-referencing, shown in the cadastral maps (surveyed during 1954-1962) were not found in the present satellite images. The second important objective of the present study is to develop a proper methodology for geo-referencing the cadastral maps of this area. The Spatial Adjustment Transformation and Automatic Digitization tools of Arc GIS were used to prepare geo-referenced plot maps. In Projective Transformation method the geometrically corrected block maps having village boundaries were used as source file. Then the

  3. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2008-01-01

    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  4. Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the actual and potential use of social media in emergency, disaster and crisis situations. This is a field that has generated intense interest. It is characterised by a burgeoning but small and very recent literature. In the emergencies field, social media (blogs, messaging, sites such as Facebook, wikis and so on) are used in seven different ways: listening to public debate, monitoring situations, extending emergency response and management, crowd-sourcing and collaborative development, creating social cohesion, furthering causes (including charitable donation) and enhancing research. Appreciation of the positive side of social media is balanced by their potential for negative developments, such as disseminating rumours, undermining authority and promoting terrorist acts. This leads to an examination of the ethics of social media usage in crisis situations. Despite some clearly identifiable risks, for example regarding the violation of privacy, it appears that public consensus on ethics will tend to override unscrupulous attempts to subvert the media. Moreover, social media are a robust means of exposing corruption and malpractice. In synthesis, the widespread adoption and use of social media by members of the public throughout the world heralds a new age in which it is imperative that emergency managers adapt their working practices to the challenge and potential of this development. At the same time, they must heed the ethical warnings and ensure that social media are not abused or misused when crises and emergencies occur. PMID:24306994

  5. Overview of pivotal studies for prostate cancer risk reduction, past and present.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Gerald L

    2009-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), with its potentially long latency, generally late-age onset, and high prevalence, is an ideal target for risk reduction and disease prevention strategies. Treatment of the disease is currently associated with significant side effects and reduced quality of life. Encouraging results are emerging in PCa risk reduction with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs). The pivotal Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) with finasteride established the efficacy of 5-ARIs in reducing the period prevalence of PCa. Ongoing trials that will further clarify the role of 5-ARIs in preventing and treating PCa include the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) with dutasteride in PCa risk reduction; the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management (REDEEM) trial on the effect of dutasteride on disease progression in low-grade localized PCa; and the Therapeutic Assessment of Rising PSAs [prostate-specific antigens] (TARP) trial on dutasteride in asymptomatic recurrent cancer. The data from these trials might initiate a paradigm shift in the attitudes of clinicians, healthcare policymakers, and patients to the benefits of PCa risk reduction strategies and their potential effect on a patient's health and quality of life. PMID:19375625

  6. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2000-06-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. Expert systems have been developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, with favorable results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. This project will develop an Artificial Intelligence system that will draw upon a wide variety of information to provide realistic estimates of risk. ''Fuzzy logic,'' a system of integrating large amounts of inexact, incomplete information with modern computational methods to derive usable conclusions, has been demonstrated as a cost-effective computational technology in many industrial applications. During project year 1, 90% of geologic, geophysical, production and price data were assimilated for installation into the database. Logs provided geologic data consisting of formation tops of the Brushy Canyon, Lower Brushy Canyon, and Bone Springs zones of 700 wells used to construct regional cross sections. Regional structure and isopach maps were constructed using kriging to interpolate between the measured points. One of the structure derivative maps (azimuth of curvature) visually correlates with Brushy Canyon fields on the maximum change contours. Derivatives of the regional geophysical data also visually correlate with the location of the fields. The azimuth of maximum dip approximately locates fields on the maximum change contours. In a similar manner the second derivative in the x-direction of the gravity map visually correlates with the alignment of the known fields. The visual correlations strongly suggest that neural network architectures will be found to correlate regional attributes with individual well

  7. Reflections from the interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, S.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific understanding of earthquakes and their attendant hazards is vital for the development of effective earthquake risk reduction strategies. Within the global disaster reduction policy framework (the Hyogo Framework for Action, overseen by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction), the anticipated role of science and scientists is clear, with respect to risk assessment, loss estimation, space-based observation, early warning and forecasting. The importance of information sharing and cooperation, cross-disciplinary networks and developing technical and institutional capacity for effective disaster management is also highlighted. In practice, the degree to which seismological information is successfully delivered to and applied by individuals, groups or organisations working to manage or reduce the risk from earthquakes is variable. The challenge for scientists is to provide fit-for-purpose information that can be integrated simply into decision-making and risk reduction activities at all levels of governance and at different geographic scales, often by a non-technical audience (i.e. people without any seismological/earthquake engineering training). The interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction (defined here in terms of both the relationship between the science and its application, and the scientist and other risk stakeholders) is complex. This complexity is a function of a range issues that arise relating to communication, multidisciplinary working, politics, organisational practices, inter-organisational collaboration, working practices, sectoral cultures, individual and organisational values, worldviews and expectations. These factors can present significant obstacles to scientific information being incorporated into the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to present some personal reflections on the nature of the interface between the worlds of seismological research and risk reduction, and the

  8. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  9. Perceptions of Canadian vascular surgeons toward pharmacological risk reduction in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Omran, Mohammed; Lindsay, Thomas F; Major, Jennifer; Jawas, Ali; Leiter, Larry A; Verma, Subodh

    2006-09-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at a markedly higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with evidence indicating that risk-reduction pharmacotherapy can serve to attenuate cardiovascular events in these patients. Given the central role of vascular surgeons in the treatment of patients with PAD, we sought to determine their perceptions and knowledge of risk-reduction pharmacotherapy in patients with PAD. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 79 Canadian vascular surgeons who attended the 2004 annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery, the largest and most representative meeting of its kind in Canada. The recommended targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure were known to 53.8%, 40.4%, and 57.7% of vascular surgeons, respectively. The majority of vascular surgeons (65.4%) reported screening for risk factors in <50% of cases. Although 90.4% of vascular surgeons would recommend antiplatelet therapy for PAD, only 5.8% would recommend angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and 19.2% would recommend lipid-lowering therapy with statins. Eighty-four percent of Canadian vascular surgeons indicated that their self-assessment of risk reduction in PAD was average to below average, yet 90.4% of them believed that risk-reduction therapy should be recommended or initiated by vascular surgeons. Canadian vascular surgeons' perceptions toward risk reduction in PAD identify knowledge and action gaps, despite the recognition that recommending and instituting therapy is important to patient care. Given the heightened risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD, these data have important implications. PMID:16871436

  10. Evaluation of a cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program at a workplace medical clinic.

    PubMed

    Andres, Kara L; Renn, Tracy A; Gray, David A; Englund, Joanne M; Olsen, Geary W; Letourneau, Barbara K

    2013-10-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program (CVRRP) was implemented in the 3M Medical Clinic in December 2009. The goal of the CVRRP was to evaluate 3M employees at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and address any related modifiable risk factors with appropriate intervention strategies through clinic visits with a 3M nurse practitioner or physician and, if needed, a registered dietitian and/or exercise professional. Data for the first 100 participants were analyzed to initially assess the effectiveness of the program. Based on this evaluation, the 3M CVRRP and active collaboration between participants and providers in the workplace successfully reduced modifiable CVD risk factors. PMID:24053219

  11. Disaster Risk Reduction through Innovative Uses of Crowd Sourcing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J.; Greene, M.

    2010-12-01

    Crowd sourcing can be described as a method of distributed problem-solving. It takes advantage of the power of the crowd, which can in some cases be a community of experts and in other cases the collective insight of a broader range of contributors with varying degrees of domain knowledge. The term crowd sourcing was first used by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” and is a combination of the terms “crowd” and “outsourcing.” Some commonly known examples of crowd sourcing, in its broadest sense, include Wikepedia, distributed participatory design projects, and consumer websites such as Yelp and Angie’s List. The popularity and success of early large-scale crowd sourcing activities is made possible through leveraging Web 2.0 technologies that allow for mass participation from distributed individuals. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in Oakland, California recently participated in two crowd sourcing projects. One was initiated and coordinated by EERI, while in the second case EERI was invited to contribute once the crowd sourcing activity was underway. In both projects there was: 1) the determination of a problem or set of tasks that could benefit immediately from the engagement of an informed volunteer group of professionals; 2) a segmenting of the problem into discrete pieces that could be completed in a short period of time (from ten minutes to four hours); 3) a call to action, where an interested community was made aware of the project; and 4) the collection, aggregation, vetting and ultimately distribution of the results in a relatively short period of time. The first EERI crowd sourcing example was the use of practicing engineers and engineering students in California to help estimate the number of pre-1980 concrete buildings in the high seismic risk counties in the state. This building type is known to perform poorly in earthquakes, and state officials were interested in understanding

  12. Psychosocial variables and obesity-risk-reduction behaviors in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen D; Bai, Yeon

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize social-psychological theories to explain obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. A questionnaire based on the health belief model and theory of planned behavior was administered to a convenience sample of 300 Chinese Americans in the New York metropolitan area. Psychosocial variables accounted for 40.4% of the variance of obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. Self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and perceived benefits emerged as most influential variables. Forty-eight percent of the variance of behavioral intention was accounted with self-efficacy predominating. Health professionals targeting Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and perceived benefits of adopting obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. PMID:22077929

  13. Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for HIV Prevention among South African Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351

  14. A framework for assessing risk reduction due to DNAPL mass removal from low permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, R.A.; McWhorter, D.B.

    1996-08-01

    Many emerging remediation technologies are designed to remove contaminant mass from source zones at DNAPL sites in response to regulatory requirements. There is often concern in the regulated community as to whether mass removal actually reduces risk, or whether the small risk reductions achieved warrant the large costs incurred. This paper sets out a framework for quantifying the degree to which risk is reduced as mass is removed from shallow, saturated, low-permeability, dual-porosity, DNAPL source zones. Risk is defined in terms of meeting an alternate concentration level (ACL) at a compliance well in an aquifer underlying the source zone. The ACL is back-calculated from a carcinogenic health-risk characterization at a downstream water-supply well. Source-zone mass-removal efficiencies are heavily dependent on the distribution of mass between media (fractures, matrix) and phases (dissolved, sorbed, free product). Due to the uncertainties in currently-available technology performance data, the scope of the paper is limited to developing a framework for generic technologies rather than making risk-reduction calculations for specific technologies. Despite the qualitative nature of the exercise, results imply that very high mass-removal efficiencies are required to achieve significant long-term risk reduction with technology, applications of finite duration. 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. [The reduction of stroke risk, risk of myocardial infarction and death by healthy diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Droste, D W; Keipes, M

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that a healthy diet and regular physical activity improve risk factors for cerebro-cardio-vascular disease and death. However, there is less evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials that they also reduce the actual risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The only evidence from randomised controlled trials is, that a mediterranean diet with nuts and/or native olive oil considerably reduces stroke risk by 47% respectively 31%, however not the risk of myocardial infarction and death. A low-fat diet, a low-salt diet, and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids have no influence. In case of severe obesity with a BMI of > 34-38 kg/m2, weight reduction is the priority, if necessary by means of bariatric surgery. In longitudinal studies mortality (-29%), stroke (-34%), and myocardial infarction (-29%) could thus be reduced. Regular physical activity, whether endurance or more intense activity, leads to weight loss and improved vascular risk factors. An independent impact on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies (double-blinding being impossible). Nevertheless, several epidemiological meta-analyses with observation durations of 4 to 28 years using data of up to 880 000 persons, indicate that there is a 2-3 fold risk reduction of cerebro-cardio-vascular death and global mortality in people with regular physical activity versus sedentary behaviour. PMID:24437075

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public... Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.55 Are Federal agencies responsible for managing...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public... Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.55 Are Federal agencies responsible for managing...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public... Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.55 Are Federal agencies responsible for managing...

  19. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation. PMID:19188020

  20. HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category among MSM in Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Bogowicz, Paul; Moore, David; Kanters, Steve; Michelow, Warren; Robert, Wayne; Hogg, Robert; Gustafson, Réka; Gilbert, Mark

    2016-03-01

    We carried out an analysis of a serobehavioural study of men who have sex with men >19 years of age in Vancouver, Canada to examine HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category, as defined by routinely gathered clinical data. We restricted our analysis to those who self-identified as HIV-negative, completed a questionnaire, and provided a dried blood spot sample. Of 842 participants, 365 (43.3%) were categorised as lower-risk, 245 (29.1%) as medium-risk and 232 (27.6%) as higher-risk. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was low (lower 0.8%, medium 3.3%, higher 3.9%; p = 0.032). Participants differed by risk category in terms of having had an HIV test in the previous year (lower 46.5%, medium 54.6%, higher 67.0%; p < 0.001) and in their use of serosorting (lower 23.3%, medium 48.3%, higher 43.1%; p < 0.001) and only having sex with HIV-positive men if those men had low viral loads or were taking HIV medication (lower 5.1%, medium 4.8%, higher 10.9%; p = 0.021) as risk reduction strategies. These findings speak to the need to consider segmented health promotion services for men who have sex with men with differing risk profiles. Risk stratification could be used to determine who might benefit from tailored multiple health promotion interventions, including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:25736346

  1. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process. PMID:23535528

  2. Promoting the University Social Responsibility in the Capacity Development Program for Landslide Risk Reduction in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Verrier, M.; Fathani, T. F.; Andayani, B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenges efforts for landslides disaster risk reduction in Indonesia is to provide an effective program for capacity development of the community living in the vulnerable area. Limited access for appropriate information and knowledge about the geology and landslide phenomena as well as the social-security constrains are the major challenges in capacity development program in the landslide prone area. Accordingly, an action for conducting community-based research and education program with respect to landslide mitigation and disaster risk reduction at the village level was established by implementing the University Social Responsibility Program. Such program has been conducted regularly in every academic semester as a part of the formal academic program at Universitas Gadjah Mada , Indonesia. Twenty students with multi-discipline backgrounds and supported by their lectures/advisers have to be deployed at the village for two months to carry out such mission. This action is also conducted under the coordination with the local/ national Government together with the local community, and may also with the private sectors. A series of research actions such as landslide investigation and hazard-risk mapping, social mapping and development of landslide early warning system were carried out in parallel with public education and evacuation drill for community empowerment and landslide risk reduction. A Community Task Force for Disaster Risk Reduction was also established during the community empowerment program, in order to guarantee the affectivity and sustainability of the disaster risk reduction program at the village level. It is crucial that this program is not only beneficial for empowering the village community to tackle the landslide problems, but also important to support the education for sustainable development program at the disaster prone area. Indeed, this capacity development program may also be considered as one best practice for transforming

  3. RISK REDUCTION THROUGH USE OF EXTERNAL TECHNICAL REVIEWS, TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENTS AND TECHNICAL RISK RATINGS - 9174

    SciTech Connect

    Cercy, M; Steven P Schneider, S; Kurt D Gerdes, K

    2009-01-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) was established to achieve the safe and compliant disposition of legacy wastes and facilities from defense nuclear applications. A large majority of these wastes and facilities are 'one-of-a-kind' and unique to DOE. Many of the programs to treat these wastes have been 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. This has meant that many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition these wastes were not yet developed or required significant re-engineering to be adapted for DOE-EM's needs. The DOE-EM program believes strongly in reducing the technical risk of its projects and has initiated several efforts to reduce those risks: (1) Technology Readiness Assessments to reduce the risks of deployment of new technologies; (2) External Technical Reviews as one of several steps to ensure the timely resolution of engineering and technology issues; and (3) Technical Risk Ratings as a means to monitor and communicate information about technical risks. This paper will present examples of how Technology Readiness Assessments, External Technical Reviews, and Technical Risk Ratings are being used by DOE-EM to reduce technical risks.

  4. RISK REDUCTION THROUGH USE OF EXTERNAL TECHNICAL REVIEWS, TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENTS AND TECHNICAL RISK RATINGS - 9174

    SciTech Connect

    Cercy, M; Steven P Schneider, S; Kurt D Gerdes, K

    2008-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) was established to achieve the safe and compliant disposition of legacy wastes and facilities from defense nuclear applications. A large majority of these wastes and facilities are 'one-of-a-kind' and unique to DOE. Many of the programs to treat these wastes have been 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. This has meant that many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition these wastes were not yet developed or required significant re-engineering to be adapted for DOE-EM's needs. The DOE-EM program believes strongly in reducing the technical risk of its projects and has initiated several efforts to reduce those risks: (1) Technology Readiness Assessments to reduce the risks of deployment of new technologies; (2) External Technical Reviews as one of several steps to ensure the timely resolution of engineering and technology issues; and (3) Technical Risk Ratings as a means to monitor and communicate information about technical risks. This paper will present examples of how Technology Readiness Assessments, External Technical Reviews, and Technical Risk Ratings are being used by DOE-EM to reduce technical risks.

  5. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths. PMID:25196332

  6. Evaluation of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life) in Young Swedish Military Conscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…

  7. Social Psychological Dynamics of Enhanced HIV Risk Reduction among Peer Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R.; Convey, Mark; Li, Jianghong

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of interactive social psychological and relational feedback processes leading to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction behavior change among active drug users trained as Peer Health Advocates (PHAs). The model is supported by data from qualitative interviews with PHAs and members of their drug-using networks…

  8. 75 FR 32960 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 980 acres of the Wildland-Urban...

  9. 75 FR 44275 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ..., 2010, (75 FR 32960), FEMA published a notice of intent to prepare an EIS and request for comments for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA...

  10. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  11. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths. PMID:25196332

  12. Criminality among Female Drug Users Following an HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theall, Katherine P.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of this article are to determine the prevalence of criminality among a sample of female African American drug users and to examine change in criminality over time, including the correlates associated with this change. Data were collected from 336 adult women who participated in an HIV risk-reduction intervention focused on the…

  13. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns. PMID:26156568

  14. The STD and HIV Epidemics in African American Youth: Reconceptualizing Approaches to Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim S.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Cotton, Garnette

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disproportionately affect African American adolescents and young adults. Many of our current strategies and approaches have been inadequate in the promotion of risk reduction among youth and need to be reconceptualized. This article identifies issues that may guide…

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  16. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents an overview of indoor radon risk reduction in the U.S. EPA currently estimates that 15,000-20,000 Americans die each year fromradon-induced lung cancer. his estimate is based on epidemiological data which establish the link between radon and lung cancer, and su...

  18. Ready for the Storm: Education for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagawa, Fumiyo; Selby, David

    2012-01-01

    Incidences of disaster and climate change impacts are rising globally. Disaster risk reduction and climate change education are two educational responses to present and anticipated increases in the severity and frequency of hazards. They share significant complementarities and potential synergies, the latter as yet largely unexploited. Three…

  19. Perceived Drug Use Functions and Risk Reduction Practices Among High-Risk Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs has become the fastest growing drug problem in the United States, particularly among young adults. This study examines the reasons young polydrug users misuse prescription drugs, and explores how young users employ risk reduction strategies to minimize adverse consequences. The sample was recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles and New York, and comprised 45 nonmedical users of prescription drugs, aged 16 to 25. Data from a semistructured interview were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs to change mood, to facilitate activity, and to monitor the intake of other substances. Commonly employed risk reduction strategies included calculating pill timing, dosage, and access, and monitoring frequency of use, particularly when combining different substances. Most study participants often planned drug use to occur within socially acceptable parameters, such that prescription drug misuse was a normalized feature of their everyday lives. PMID:25477621

  20. Disease modification and cardiovascular risk reduction: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Hall, F C; Dalbeth, N

    2005-12-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are associated with a substantial increase in accelerated atherosclerosis, with complex interactions between traditional and disease-related risk factors. Therefore, cardiovascular risk reduction should be considered as integral to the control of disease activity in the care plans of patients with RA, SLE and, arguably any chronic inflammatory disease. Shared care structures, already established for the monitoring of DMARDs, could be adapted to communicate and monitor cardiovascular risk reduction objectives. We review the evidence for the efficacy of a range of therapeutic strategies, the majority of which impact on both disease activity and cardiovascular risk. The algorithm proposed here attempts to distil the latest advice from specialist panels at the National Cholesterol Education Program and the British Hypertension Society, as well as incorporating the existing data on SLE and RA patients. The algorithm is structured to minimize clinic time and resources necessary to stratify patients into groups for ROUTINE, SUBSTANTIAL or INTENSIVE risk management; the associated table summarizes optimal therapeutic objectives in each of these groups. The implication of this algorithm is that management of cardiovascular risk should be much more aggressive than is currently the norm in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as RA and SLE. Long-term studies of such interventions are needed to further clarify the benefits of intensive cardiovascular risk management in these patients. PMID:16076883

  1. Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.

  2. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.

  6. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level. PMID:26203395

  7. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W; Storlazzi, Curt D; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world's coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence. PMID:24825660

  8. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence. PMID:24825660

  9. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk. PMID:26011909

  10. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.  PMID:26203395

  11. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Rogers, Christopher K; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans, particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, and content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among African American women ages 18 to 25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups (n = 38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across four African American churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting, and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk-reduction interventions. Incorporating additional social context-related factors into HIV risk-reduction interventions for young African American women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  12. Using Simulated Patients to Train Physicians in Sexual Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Willis, Angela; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this preliminary study were to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using trained simulated patient instructors (N=6) as an office-based continuing medical education method and to assess the current sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus risk assessment and counseling practices of primary care…

  13. Evaluating the Risks: A Bernoulli Process Model of HIV Infection and Risk Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    A Bernoulli process model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is used to evaluate infection risks associated with various sexual behaviors (condom use, abstinence, or monogamy). Results suggest that infection is best mitigated through measures that decrease infectivity, such as condom use. (SLD)

  14. 76 FR 44301 - Information Collection; Homeowner Risk Reduction Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Climate Change Impacts AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In... Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate Change Impacts. The information will be collected from... these choices, particularly factors related to climate change impacts. This information will assist...

  15. HIV Risk Reduction With Buprenorphine-Naloxone or Methadone: Findings From A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woody, George; Bruce, Douglas; Korthuis, P. Todd; Chhatre, Sumedha; Hillhouse, Maureen; Jacobs, Petra; Sorensen, James; Saxon, Andrew J.; Metzger, David; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare HIV injecting and sex risk in patients being treated with methadone (MET) or buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP). Methods Secondary analysis from a study of liver enzyme changes in patients randomized to MET or BUP who completed 24-weeks of treatment and had 4 or more blood draws. The initial 1:1 randomization was changed to 2:1 (BUP: MET) after 18 months due to higher dropout in BUP. The Risk Behavior Survey (RBS) measured past 30-day HIV risk at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Results Among 529 patients randomized to MET, 391 (74%) were completers; among 740 randomized to BUP, 340 (46%) were completers; 700 completed the RBS. There were significant reductions in injecting risk (p< 0.0008) with no differences between groups in mean number of times reported injecting heroin, speedball, other opiates, and number of injections; or percent who shared needles, did not clean shared needles with bleach, shared cookers, or engaged in front/back loading of syringes. The percent having multiple sex partners decreased equally in both groups (p<0.03). For males on BUP the sex risk composite increased; for males on MET, the sex risk decreased resulting in significant group differences over time (p<0.03). For females, there was a significant reduction in sex risk (p<0.02) with no group differences. Conclusions Among MET and BUP patients that remained in treatment, HIV injecting risk was equally and markedly reduced, however MET retained more patients. Sex risk was equally and significantly reduced among females in both treatment conditions, but increased for males on BUP, and decreased for males on MET. PMID:24751432

  16. Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011. PMID:24885949

  17. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sexual Risk Reduction in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Audrey; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes psychosocial outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention grounded in the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). A total of 264 African American adolescent females were randomized to a single-session Project ÒRÉ HIV/STI prevention intervention or a nutrition/exercise health promotion intervention with their friendship group. At posttest, Project ÒRÉ participants scored higher on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention and protection (p < .01), knowledge of living with HIV/STI (p < .01), perceived HIV risk (p < .05), perceived STI risk (p < .01), and intentions to use condoms for vaginal sex (p < .05). Findings suggest that a brief friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for youth can impact ARRM factors that increase the ability to recognize and label risky sexual behaviors as problematic and promote commitment to changing high-risk behaviors. PMID:24039550

  18. Rapid Exposure Assessment of Nationwide River Flood for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Park, J.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Iwami, Y.; Amirul, Md.; Kondoh, A.

    2016-06-01

    considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers), and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  19. A risk-reduction approach for optimal software release time determination with the delay incurred cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan-Fu; Zhang, Jun-Guang; Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Most existing research on software release time determination assumes that parameters of the software reliability model (SRM) are deterministic and the reliability estimate is accurate. In practice, however, there exists a risk that the reliability requirement cannot be guaranteed due to the parameter uncertainties in the SRM, and such risk can be as high as 50% when the mean value is used. It is necessary for the software project managers to reduce the risk to a lower level by delaying the software release, which inevitably increases the software testing costs. In order to incorporate the managers' preferences over these two factors, a decision model based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is developed for the determination of optimal risk-reduction release time.

  20. Predicted reduction in lung cancer risk following cessation of smoking and radon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ennever, F.K. )

    1990-03-01

    Recently there has been considerable public and regulatory concern that radon, produced by the decay of naturally occurring uranium, can accumulate in homes, offices, and schools at levels that may substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. The major cause of lung cancer is smoking, and radon appears to interact multiplicatively with smoking in causing lung cancer. Thus, the most effective way to reduce the increased risk of lung cancer resulting from radon exposure is to cease smoking. In this paper, a model for the risks associated with radon exposure that was developed by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences is used to calculate the benefits, in terms of reduction in lifetime risk of lung cancer, of ceasing to smoke, ceasing radon exposure, or ceasing both. Ceasing to smoke is considerably more beneficial than ceasing radon exposure, and thus policymakers addressing the health effects of radon should place priority on encouraging individuals to stop smoking.

  1. Fire risk reduction through a community-based risk assessment: reflections from Makola Market, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oteng-Ababio, Martin; Sarpong, Akwasi Owusu

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the level of vulnerability to the hazard of fire that exists in Makola Market in Accra, Ghana, and assesses how this threat can be reduced through a community-based risk assessment. It examines the perceptions of both market-stall occupants and primary stakeholders regarding the hazard of fire, and analyses the availability of local assets (coping strategies) with which to address the challenge. Through an evaluation of past instances of fire, as well as in-depth key stakeholder interviews, field visits, and observations, the study produces a detailed hazard map of the market. It goes on to recommend that policymakers consider short-to-long-term interventions to reduce the degree of risk. By foregrounding the essence of holistic and integrated planning, the paper calls for the incorporation of disaster mitigation measures in the overall urban planning process and for the strict enforcement of relevant building and fire safety codes by responsible public agencies. PMID:25581394

  2. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  3. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  4. Behavioral HIV Risk Reduction among People Who Inject Drugs: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Blair T.; Lee, I-Ching; Harman, Jennifer J.; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate behavioral HIV-risk reduction interventions targeting people who inject drugs. We included 37 RCTs evaluating 49 independent HIV-risk reduction interventions with 10,190 participants. Compared to controls, intervention participants reduced injection-and non-injection drug use, increased drug treatment entry, increased condom use, and decreased trading sex for drugs. Interventions were more successful at reducing injection drug use when participants were non-Caucasians, when content focused equivalently on drug- and sex-related risk, and when content included interpersonal skills training specific to safer needle use. Condom use outcomes improved when two intervention facilitators were used instead of one. Injection drug use outcomes did not decay, but condom use outcomes did. Behavioral interventions do reduce risk behaviors among people who inject drugs, especially when interventions target both drug- and sexual-risk behavior, and when they include certain behavioral skills components. Implications for future interventions are presented. PMID:16919744

  5. Barriers to human immunodeficiency virus related risk reduction among male street prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Simon, P M; Morse, E V; Balson, P M; Osofsky, H J; Gaumer, H R

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred eleven male street prostitutes between the ages of 18 and 51 years were interviewed and tested for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Economic, social, and emotional barriers to the reduction of HIV-related risk behavior were examined within the context of several concepts present in the Health Belief Model (HBM). Three lifestyle factors were found to function as barriers to engaging in risk reduction behavior. Subjects who were more economically dependent on prostitution, perceived less control over the hustling encounter, and reported increased pleasure from sexual activity with their customers were more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior. Prostitutes' perception of the severity of HIV infection was not significantly associated with their risk behavior. Unexpected findings indicated that increases in perceived susceptibility to HIV and perceived benefit of condom use for HIV prevention were significantly related to increased risk-taking behavior. Practical applications of findings in the design and implementation of future HIV-related preventive health education programs are discussed. PMID:8491637

  6. User Perceptions of a Dementia Risk Reduction Website and Its Promotion of Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several modifiable health and lifestyle factors are consistently associated with dementia risk and it is estimated that significantly fewer people would develop dementia if the incidence of risk factors could be reduced. Despite this, Australians’ awareness of the health and lifestyle factors associated with dementia risk is low. Within a national community education campaign, Alzheimer’s Australia developed a dementia risk reduction website providing information about modifiable risk or protective factors for dementia. Objective This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the website content in improving knowledge and enabling adoption of recommended strategies, and to examine what additional resources consumers need. Methods Visitors to the website over a 3 month period were invited to complete an online survey, which asked them to rate their knowledge of dementia risk reduction before and after visiting the site, how important monitoring their health related behavior was to them before and after visiting the site, their current behavior related to health and lifestyle factors associated with dementia risk, their intentions to change behavior, and the usefulness of potential additional resources to help them do so. Results For this study, 123 Australian adults responded to the survey. 44.7% (55/122) were aged over 60 and 82.1% (98/119) were female. Respondents’ ratings and comments indicated they generally found the content interesting, informative, and helpful to them. Respondents’ ratings of their knowledge about the links between health and lifestyle factors and dementia risk significantly increased after visiting the website (P<.001). Their ratings of how important monitoring what they do in relation to their health and lifestyle factors were also significantly increased after visiting the website (P<.001). Average ratings for how well respondents felt they were doing at the time in relation to specific risk or protective factors were

  7. Sustainable development through a gendered lens: climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    The UN General Assembly has just adopted the post 2015 Sustainable Development Agenda articulated in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs will be furthered by the closer integration of the climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) agendas. Gender provides us a valuable portal for considering this integration. Acknowledging that gender relaters to both women and men and that men and women experience climate variability and disasters differently, in this paper the role of women in both CCA and DRR is explored, shifting the focus from women as vulnerable victims to women as critical agents for change with respect to climate change mitigation and adaptation and reduction of disaster risks. Appropriately targeted interventions can also empower women and contribute to more just and inclusive sustainable development. PMID:26943600

  8. Science and technology based earthquake risk reduction strategies: The Indian scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Brijesh; Verma, Mithila

    2013-08-01

    Science and Technology (S & T) interventions are considered to be very important in any effort related to earthquake risk reduction. Their three main components are: earthquake forecast, assessment of earthquake hazard, and education and awareness. In India, although the efforts towards earthquake forecast were initiated about two decades ago, systematic studies started recently with the launch of a National Program on Earthquake Precursors. The quantification of seismic hazard, which is imperative in the present scenario, started in India with the establishment of first seismic observatory in 1898 and since then a substantial progress has been made in this direction. A dedicated education and awareness program was initiated about 10 years ago to provide earthquake education and create awareness amongst the students and society at large. The paper highlights significant S & T efforts made in India towards reduction of risk due to future large earthquakes.

  9. A Synergy Framework for the integration of Earth Observation technologies into Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Petiteville, Ivan; Pisano, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; St Pierre, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Earth observations and space-based applications have seen a considerable advance in the last decade, and such advances should find their way in applications related to DRR, climate change and sustainable development, including in the indicators to monitor advances in these areas. The post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, as adopted by the 3rd WCDRR is a action-oriented framework for disaster risk reduction that builds on modalities of cooperation linking local, national, regional and global efforts. Earth observations from ground and space platforms and related applications will play a key role in facilitating the implementation of the HFA2 and represent a unique platform to observe and assess how risks have changed in recent years, as well as to track the reduction in the level of exposure of communities. The proposed white paper focuses mainly on Earth Observation from space but it also addresses the use of other sources of data ( airborne, marine, in-situ, socio-economic and model outputs) in combination to remote sensing data. Earth observations (EO) and Space-based technologies can play a crucial role in contributing to the generation of relevant information to support informed decision-making regarding risk and vulnerability reduction and to address the underlying factors of disaster risk. For example, long series of Earth observation data collected over more than 30 years already contribute to track changes in the environment and in particular, environmental degradation around the world. Earth observation data is key to the work of the scientific community. Whether due to inadequate land-use policies, lack of awareness or understanding regarding such degradation, or inadequate use of natural resources including water and the oceans; Earth observation technologies are now routinely employed by many Ministries of Environment and Natural Resources worldwide to monitor the extent of degradation and a basis to design and enact new environmental

  10. THE LANGUAGE OF BLACK GAY MEN’S SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIDS RISK REDUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Bellinger, George; Smith, Robert G.; Henley, Nancy; Daniels, Marlon; Tibbits, Thomas; Victorianne, Gregory D.; Osei, Olu Kwasi; Birt, Darryl K.

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate AIDS risk reduction interventions targeted at African-American gay men could be aided by an awareness of their terminology for specific sexual behaviors and types of sexual encounters. This paper explores similarities and differences between the HIV-related sexual language of Black and White gay men. While much of the vernacular is shared, differences in some terms and greater or lesser emphasis on others are apparent. PMID:25382870

  11. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  12. HIV/STI Risk-Reduction- Intervention Efficacy with South African Adolescents Over 54 Months

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Lewis, David A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Icard, Larry D.; Carty, Craig; Heeren, G. Anita; Tyler, Joanne C.; Makiwane, Monde B.; Teitelman, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little research has tested HIV/STI risk-reduction-interventions’ effects on early adolescents as they age into middle and late adolescence. This study tested whether intervention-induced reductions in unprotected intercourse during a 12-month period endured over a 54-month period and whether the intervention reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which increase risk for HIV. Method Grade-6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years), participants in a 12-month trial in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa in which nine matched-pairs of schools were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to a theory-based HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention or an attention-control intervention, were eligible, provided parental consent, and completed 42- and 54-month postintervention measures of unprotected intercourse, the primary outcome, other sexual behaviors, theoretical constructs, and, at 42- and 54-month follow-up only, biologically confirmed curable STIs (chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) and herpes-simplex virus 2. Results The HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention reduced unprotected intercourse averaged over the entire follow-up period, OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.22, 0.84], an effect not significantly reduced at 42- and 54-month follow-up compared with 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention caused positive changes on theoretical constructs averaged over the five follow-ups, though most effects weakened at long-term follow-up. Although the intervention’s main effect on STI was nonsignificant, an Intervention-Condition x Time interaction revealed it significantly reduced curable STIs at 42-month follow-up in adolescents who reported sexual experience. Conclusion These results suggest that theory-based behavioral interventions with early adolescents can have long-lived effects in the context of a generalized severe HIV epidemic. PMID:25110841

  13. Science Policy Conference Speakers Examine Megadisasters and Call for Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-07-01

    How well is the United States prepared for a megadisaster, such as a solar storm that knocks out the power grid for months, a large asteroid impact, a giant tsunami, or a rainstorm that lasts for weeks and leads to widespread flooding? Moreover, how can risk reduction efforts be made more effective? These were two topics addressed during two of the hazards sessions at the 2013 AGU Science Policy Conference on 25 and 26 June.

  14. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya

    2015-04-01

    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  15. Addressing non-communicable diseases in disaster risk reduction - an issue of equity.

    PubMed

    Gnanapragasam, Sam; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Rashbrook, Elaine; Murray, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The issues raised by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during and after disasters are a challenge to equity within local communities, as well as between countries. Individuals with NCDs are particularly vulnerable in disasters and their aftermath given health systems are disrupted. Although welcome progress has been made in taking NCDs and equity into account in the UN General Assembly ratified agreement, the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030, there is need now for a clear plan of implementation. PMID:27001076

  16. Estimation and reduction of risk to hearing: the background and a case study.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, R W

    1971-06-01

    For noise exposure varying in both level and duration, current noise criteria are inadequate but, by adapting methods presently available, an equivalent continuous level can be calculated from which the risk to hearing can be assessed. The predicted effects on hearing compare favourably with measured values. These methods are used to predict an 'acceptable' noise limit for the variable noise environment on the agricultural tractor. Methods of noise reduction for the tractor are outlined along with other approaches to hearing preservation. PMID:15676691

  17. Environment and response monitoring on tension leg platforms: Decision support, risk reduction and design data gathering

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.Y. Jr.; Leggelo, B. van; Rubin, S.; Ozakcay, L.

    1995-05-01

    The various roles which instrumentation/monitoring systems play in risk reduction, decision support, forensic engineering and enhancement of the engineering design tools are discussed. The environment and response monitoring systems on three recent Tension Leg Platforms are described. Emphasis is placed on tendon tension measuring systems. A discussion of alternate approaches to the measurement of tendon tension is offered. Suggestions for improved instrumentation are made and methods for efficiently mating performance and environment monitoring systems with the platforms` SCADA Systems are discussed.

  18. Ketamine for Treatment of Suicidal Ideation and Reduction of Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Faryal; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B

    2016-06-01

    Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist with efficacy as a rapid anti-depressant, has early evidence for action to reduce suicidal ideation. This review will explore several important questions that arise from these studies. First, how do we measure reductions in suicidal ideation that occur over minutes to hours? Second, are the reductions in suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment solely a result of its rapid anti-depressant effect? Third, is ketamine only effective in reducing suicidal ideation in patients with mood disorders? Fourth, could ketamine's action lead us to a greater understanding of the neurobiology of suicidal processes? Last, do the reductions in depression and suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment translate into decreased risk for suicidal behavior? Our review concludes that ketamine treatment can be seen as a double-edged sword, clinically to help provide treatment for acutely suicidal patients and experimentally to explore the neurobiological nature of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:27194043

  19. Estimates of Commercial Population at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events: Impact of Aggressive Cholesterol Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Kathryn; Goldberg, Sara W.; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Pyenson, Bruce S.; Kuznik, Andreas; Solomon, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To model the financial and health outcomes impact of intensive statin therapy compared with usual care in a high-risk working-age population (actively employed, commercially insured health plan members and their adult dependents). The target population consists of working-age people who are considered high-risk for cardiovascular disease events because of a history of coronary heart disease. Study Design Three-year event forecast for a sample population generated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Methods Using Framingham risk scoring system, the probability of myocardial infarction or stroke events was calculated for a representative sample population, ages 35 to 69 years, of people at high risk for cardiovascular disease, with a history of coronary heart disease. The probability of events for each individual was used to project the number of events expected to be generated for this population. Reductions in cardiovascular and stroke events reported in clinical trials with aggressive statin therapy were applied to these cohorts. We used medical claims data to model the cohorts' event costs. All results are adjusted to reflect the demographics of a typical working-age population. Results The high-risk cohort (those with coronary heart disease) comprises 4% of the 35- to 69-year-old commercially insured population but generates 22% of the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. Reduced event rates associated with intensive statin therapy yielded a $58 mean medical cost reduction per treated person per month; a typical payer cost for a 30-day supply of intensive statin therapy is approximately $57. Conclusions Aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol–lowering therapy for working-age people at high risk for cardiovascular events and with a history of heart disease appears to have a significant potential to reduce the rate of clinical events and is cost-neutral for payers. PMID:25126293

  20. Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas.

    PubMed

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Muttarak, Raya; Pothisiri, Wiraporn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation. PMID:26153891

  1. Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas

    PubMed Central

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Muttarak, Raya; Pothisiri, Wiraporn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation. PMID:26153891

  2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location - moving the discussion forward.

    PubMed

    Ball, Helen L; Volpe, Lane E

    2013-02-01

    The notion that infant sleep environments are 'good' or 'bad' and that parents who receive appropriate instruction will modify their infant-care habits has been fundamental to SIDS reduction campaigns. However infant sleep location recommendations have failed to emulate the previously successful infant sleep position campaigns that dramatically reduced infant deaths. In this paper we discuss the conflict between 'safeguarding' and 'well-being', contradictory messages, and rejected advice regarding infant sleep location. Following a summary of the relevant background literature we argue that bed-sharing is not a modifiable infant-care practice that can be influenced by risk-education and simple recommendations. We propose that differentiation between infant-care practices, parental behaviors, and cultural beliefs would assist in the development of risk-reduction interventions. Failure to recognize the importance of infant sleep location to ethnic and sub-cultural identity, has led to inappropriate and ineffective risk-reduction messages that are rejected by their target populations. Furthermore transfer of recommendations from one geographic or cultural setting to another without evaluation of variation within and between the origin and destination populations has led to inappropriate targeting of groups or behaviors. We present examples of how more detailed research and culturally-embedded interventions could reorient discussion around infant sleep location. PMID:22571891

  3. Mainstreaming risk reduction in urban planning and housing: a challenge for international aid organisations.

    PubMed

    Wamsler, Christine

    2006-06-01

    The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change. PMID:16689916

  4. Cardiac evaluation and risk reduction in patients undergoing major vascular operations.

    PubMed Central

    Potyk, D K

    1994-01-01

    Occult coronary artery disease often accompanies symptomatic peripheral vascular disease and has an important effect on survival. Most perioperative and late fatalities after peripheral vascular operations are due to cardiac causes. Noninvasive cardiac testing can identify patients at increased risk for postoperative cardiac complications, although controversy exists regarding the optimal preoperative evaluation. Risk reduction strategies for patients known to be at high risk are also controversial. Some authors advocate coronary revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty before the vascular procedure. Others believe that the combined morbidity and mortality of 2 operations exceed those of a peripheral vascular operation performed with aggressive monitoring and medical therapy. Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring after an operation has identified silent myocardial ischemia as a powerful predictor of cardiac complications. Ongoing research is likely to provide insights into the pathogenesis of postoperative cardiac complications and may lead to specific therapeutic interventions. Few prospective studies have been done in this area, and the threshold for preoperative and postoperative intervention is unknown. I review the literature and present an algorithm to guide cardiac testing and risk reduction in patients undergoing elective vascular surgical procedures. PMID:7941507

  5. Controversies Regarding Lipid Management and Statin Use for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Patients With CKD.

    PubMed

    Markossian, Talar; Burge, Nicholas; Ling, Benjamin; Schneider, Julia; Pacold, Ivan; Bansal, Vinod; Leehey, David; Stroupe, Kevin; Chang, Alex; Kramer, Holly

    2016-06-01

    Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at heightened risk for dying of cardiovascular disease. Results from randomized clinical trials of statin drugs versus placebo demonstrate that statin drugs or statin plus ezetimibe reduce the absolute risk for coronary heart disease and mortality among adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2013 clinical practice guideline for lipid management in CKD recommends that adults 50 years or older with non-dialysis-dependent CKD be treated with a statin or statin plus ezetimibe regardless of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, at least 9 guidelines published during the last 5 years address lipid management for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and not all guidelines address the utility of lipid-lowering therapy in adults with CKD. Because most patients with CKD receive most of their clinical care from non-nephrologists, differences in recommendations for lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention may negatively affect the clinical care of adults with CKD and cause confusion for both patients and providers. This review addresses the identification and management of lipid levels in patients with CKD and discusses the existing controversies regarding testing and treatment of lipid levels in the CKD population. PMID:26943983

  6. Walking and running are associated with similar reductions in cataract risk

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Habitual running has been associated with reduced risk of cataract development in one prospective study. The purpose of the current analyses is to provide further evidence of this potentially important benefit of vigorous exercise, and to test whether moderate exercise (e.g., walking) provides a significant and equivalent reduction in cataract risk as vigorous exercise (e.g. running). Methods Cox proportional hazard analyses of self-reported, physician-diagnosed incident cataracts vs. baseline energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents or METs) in 32,610 runners and 14,917 walkers during 6.2-year follow-up. Results are reported as hazard ratios (HR), percent risk reductions (100*(HR-1)), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Runners and walkers reported 733 and 1,074 incident cataracts during follow-up, respectively. When adjusted for sex, race, age, education, smoking, and intakes of meat, fruit and alcohol, lower cataract risk was significantly associated with both running (HR=0.960 per METh/d, 95%CI 0.935 to 0.986) and walking (HR=0.918 per METh/d, 95%CI: 0.881 to 0.956,), with no significant difference in the per METh/d risk reduction between running and walking, or between men and women. Compared to running or walking at or below guideline levels (≤1.8 METh/d), incident cataract risk was significantly lower for running or walking 1.8 to 3.6 (16.4% lower, 95%CI: 6.4% to 25.3%), 3.6 to 5.4 (19.0% lower, 95%CI: 5.6% to 30.4%), 5.4 to 7.2 (26.2% lower, 95%CI: 11.2% to 38.7%), 7.2 to 9.0 (34.1% lower, 95%CI: 10.0% to 51.2%), and ≥9 METh/d (41.6% lower, 95%CI: 19.8% to 57.4%). Conclusion Moderate (walking) and vigorous (running) exercise were both significantly associated with lower cataract risk, and their effects similar. Cataract risk appears to decrease linearly with increasing exercise energy expenditure through 9 METh/d. PMID:23274600

  7. Personalized Weight Management Interventions for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Viable Option for African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C; Arena, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major driving force behind racial/ethnic and gender disparities in risk. Due to a multitude of interrelating factors (i.e., personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental), African-American (AA) women are disproportionately obese and twice as likely to succumb to CVD, yet they are significantly underrepresented in behavioral weight management interventions. In this selective review we highlight components of the limited interventions shown to enhance weight loss outcomes in this population and make a case for leveraging Web-based technology and artificial intelligence techniques to deliver personalized programs aimed at obesity treatment and CVD risk reduction. Although many of the approaches discussed are generally applicable across populations burdened by disparate rates of obesity and CVD, we specifically focus on AA women due to the disproportionate impact of these non-communicable diseases and the general paucity of interventions targeted to this high-risk group. PMID:26908050

  8. Development and use of role model stories in a community level HIV risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Corby, N H; Enguídanos, S M; Kay, L S

    1996-01-01

    A theory-based HIV prevention intervention was implemented as part of a five-city AIDS Community Demonstration Project for the development and testing of a community-level intervention to reduce AIDS risk among historically underserved groups. This intervention employed written material containing stories of risk-reducing experiences of members of the priority populations, in this case, injecting drug users, their female sex partners, and female sex workers. These materials were distributed to members of these populations by their peers, volunteers from the population who were trained to deliver social reinforcement for interest in personal risk reduction and the materials. The participation of the priority populations in the development and implementation of the intervention was designed to increase the credibility of the intervention and the acceptance of the message. The techniques involved in developing role-model stories are described in this paper. PMID:8862158

  9. Reduction of earthquake risk in the united states: Bridging the gap between research and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Continuing efforts under the auspices of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program are under way to improve earthquake risk assessment and risk management in earthquake-prone regions of Alaska, California, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho, the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones in the central United States, the southeastern and northeastern United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, and Hawaii. Geologists, geophysicists, seismologists, architects, engineers, urban planners, emergency managers, health care specialists, and policymakers are having to work at the margins of their disciplines to bridge the gap between research and practice and to provide a social, technical, administrative, political, legal, and economic basis for changing public policies and professional practices in communities where the earthquake risk is unacceptable. ?? 1998 IEEE.

  10. The HIV Risk Reduction Needs of Homeless Women in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Chereji, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance use, housing instability, and transactional sex all contribute to HIV risk engagement among homeless women. Because of the increased risk of HIV among homeless women, this study sought to understand the context of sexual behaviors and condom use among homeless women and elucidate modifiable factors that can be targeted by interventions. Methods Homeless women (n = 45) participated in focus groups (n = 6) at shelters throughout Los Angeles County. Thematic analyses revealed that similar to other high-risk women, homeless women engage in sex with multiple types of partners (steady, casual, and transactional). Findings Our findings indicate that, similar to use among other high-risk women, condom use by homeless women varied by type of partner. Substance use also contributed to condom non-use. In a departure from previous research, homeless women reported overarching feelings of hopelessness. Participants spoke of hopelessness contributing to risk engagement, specifically the number of ongoing stressors experienced because of homelessness contributing to despair. Without acknowledgement of this unique quality of homelessness, women felt their risk reduction needs would never truly be understood. Conclusions Interventions involving homeless women should include self-esteem building, acknowledgment and use of inherent resilience qualities gained during homelessness, respect for current knowledge and skills, and an exploration of when women choose to trust their partners and how they make safer sex choices. PMID:23541392

  11. Where Are We With HDL Raising and Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer for Heart Disease Risk Reduction?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To review recent research in the area of high density lipoprotein (HDL) raising and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. Recent Findings: It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol is an important CHD risk factor, and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CHD risk...

  12. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Bendimerad, Patrick; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Perney, Pascal; Dematteis, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. PMID:25402563

  13. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  14. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. PMID:25682359

  15. Association between firearm ownership, firearm-related risk and risk reduction behaviours and alcohol-related risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol use and firearm ownership are risk factors for violent injury and death. To determine whether firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours, the author conducted a cross-sectional study using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for eight states in the USA from 1996 to 1997 (the most recent data available). Altogether, 15 474 respondents provided information on firearm exposure. After adjustment for demographics and state of residence, firearm owners were more likely than those with no firearms at home to have ≥5 drinks on one occasion (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.50), to drink and drive (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.39) and to have ≥60 drinks per month (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.83). Heavy alcohol use was most common among firearm owners who also engaged in behaviours such as carrying a firearm for protection against other people and keeping a firearm at home that was both loaded and not locked away. The author concludes that firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours. PMID:21670071

  16. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  17. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. PMID:25805845

  18. Sexual risk-reduction strategies among HIV-infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Thorson, Anna; Dover, Paul; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Indalo, Dorcas; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores motivational factors and barriers to sexual behaviour change among men receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Twenty in-depth interviews were undertaken with male patients enrolled at the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Africa's largest urban informal settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. All participants experienced prolonged and severe illness prior to the initiation of ART. Fear of symptom relapse was the main trigger for sexual behaviour change. Partner reduction was reported as a first option for behaviour change since this decision could be made by the individual. Condom use was perceived as more difficult as it had to be negotiated with female partners. Cultural norms regarding expectations for reproduction and marriage were not supportive of sexual risk-reduction strategies. Thus, local sociocultural contexts of HIV-infected people must be incorporated into the contextual adaptation and design of ART programmes and services as they have an over-riding influence on sexual behaviour and programme effectiveness. Also, HIV-prevention interventions need to address both personal, micro- and macro-level factors of behaviour to encourage individuals to take on sexual risk-reduction strategies. In order to achieve the anticipated preventive effect of ART, these issues are important for the donor community and policy-makers, who are the major providers of ART programme support within weak health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21347894

  19. Rifaximin treatment for reduction of risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common problem in patients with chronic liver disease and is characterized by diminished mentation and neuromuscular abnormalities. Symptoms range from subtle cognitive changes to coma and death. Gut-derived toxins such as ammonia are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of HE. Treatment strategies are directed at increased elimination or reduction of gut-derived ammonia in addition to correction of dynamic conditions that provoke bouts of HE. The standard of care for treatment of acute HE is lactulose, a nonabsorbable disaccharide that is thought to increase elimination and reduce absorption of ammonia. Although lactulose seems to work in the acute setting, the rate of recurrent HE on maintenance lactulose is high. Medications have been sought that reduce the rate of recurrent HE in patients at high risk for HE but none have been identified. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antibiotic that is thought to reduce ammonia production by eliminating ammonia-producing colonic bacteria. Many small studies have suggested that rifaximin is effective in treating acute HE and is extremely well tolerated. This led to a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial investigating the efficacy of rifaximin over a 6-month period in reducing the risk of recurrent HE in patients at baseline, but with a history of at least two bouts of acute HE in the previous 6 months prior to enrollment. Lactulose could be administered at the discretion of the investigator. A total of 299 patients were randomized to receive rifaximin or placebo; 91% of patients in each group received lactulose. Compared with placebo, patients at high risk for recurrent HE in the rifaximin group had highly statistically significant reductions in bouts of acute HE (58%) and reductions in hospitalizations related to HE (50%) over a 6-month period. The medication was well tolerated with a side-effect profile comparable to placebo. This led to the approval

  20. Rifaximin treatment for reduction of risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Flamm, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common problem in patients with chronic liver disease and is characterized by diminished mentation and neuromuscular abnormalities. Symptoms range from subtle cognitive changes to coma and death. Gut-derived toxins such as ammonia are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of HE. Treatment strategies are directed at increased elimination or reduction of gut-derived ammonia in addition to correction of dynamic conditions that provoke bouts of HE. The standard of care for treatment of acute HE is lactulose, a nonabsorbable disaccharide that is thought to increase elimination and reduce absorption of ammonia. Although lactulose seems to work in the acute setting, the rate of recurrent HE on maintenance lactulose is high. Medications have been sought that reduce the rate of recurrent HE in patients at high risk for HE but none have been identified. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antibiotic that is thought to reduce ammonia production by eliminating ammonia-producing colonic bacteria. Many small studies have suggested that rifaximin is effective in treating acute HE and is extremely well tolerated. This led to a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial investigating the efficacy of rifaximin over a 6-month period in reducing the risk of recurrent HE in patients at baseline, but with a history of at least two bouts of acute HE in the previous 6 months prior to enrollment. Lactulose could be administered at the discretion of the investigator. A total of 299 patients were randomized to receive rifaximin or placebo; 91% of patients in each group received lactulose. Compared with placebo, patients at high risk for recurrent HE in the rifaximin group had highly statistically significant reductions in bouts of acute HE (58%) and reductions in hospitalizations related to HE (50%) over a 6-month period. The medication was well tolerated with a side-effect profile comparable to placebo. This led to the approval

  1. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  2. Remote Imaging of Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Entry Heating Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    A Measure of Performance (MOP) identified with an Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program Flight Test Objective (FTO) (OFT1.091) specified an observation during reentry though external ground-based or airborne assets with thermal detection capabilities. The objective of this FTO was to be met with onboard Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI), but the MOP for external observation was intended to provide complementary quantitative data and serve as a risk reduction in the event of anomalous DFI behavior (or failure). Mr. Gavin Mendeck, the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Phase Engineer for the MPCV Program (Vehicle Integration Office/Systems & Mission Integration) requested a risk-reduction assessment from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to determine whether quantitative imagery could be obtained from remote aerial assets to support the external observation MOP. If so, then a viable path forward was to be determined, risks identified, and an observation pursued. If not, then the MOP for external observation was to be eliminated.

  3. Risk reduction treatment of psychopathy and applications to mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen C P; Olver, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic nihilism on treating psychopathy is widespread and is largely based on many outdated and poorly designed studies. Important recent advances have been made in assessing psychopathy and recidivism risks, as well as in offender rehabilitation to reduce reoffending, all of which are now well supported by a considerable literature based on credible empirical research. A 2-component model to guide risk reduction treatment of psychopathy has been proposed based on the integration of key points from the 3 bodies of literature. Treatment programs in line with the model have been in operation, and the results of early outcome evaluations are encouraging. Important advances also have been made in understanding the possible etiology of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia and history of criminality and violence, some with significant features of psychopathy. This article presents a review of recent research on risk reduction treatment of psychopathy with the additional aim to extend the research to the treatment of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia, violence, and psychopathy. PMID:25997606

  4. Nonhormonal Management of Hot Flashes for Women on Risk Reduction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sideras, Kostandinos; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Hot flashes are very common in women in menopause and can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Women on risk reduction therapy are particularly prone because treatments, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, or oophorectomy, have the potential to exacerbate these symptoms. Hormonal treatments, despite the fact that they represent the most effective therapies, are not used for the treatment of hot flashes in these women because of concerns that they may increase the risk for breast cancer. As a result, several nonhormonal therapies have been tested in randomized placebo-controlled trials and shown to be effective, such as paroxetine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, fluoxetine, citalopram, gabapentin, and pregabalin. In addition, several nonpharmacotogic therapies have been tested with various successes. An additional consideration is how some of those drugs, especially fluoxetine and paroxetine, interact with the metabolism of tamoxifen. This article discusses these issues, and provides some recommendations regarding use of nonhormonal therapies for treating hot flashes in women on risk reduction therapy, with an emphasis on pharmacogenomic considerations. PMID:20971841

  5. Risk reduction in a changing insurance climate: examples from the US and UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Coastal cities face a range of increasingly severe challenges as sea level rises, and adaptation to future flood risk will require more than structural defences. Many cities will not be able to rely solely on engineering structures for protection and will need to develop a suite of policy responses to increase their resilience to impacts of rising sea level. Insurance can be used as a risk-sharing mechanism to encourage adaptation to sea level rise, using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. We draw on flood insurance policy lessons learned from the United States and the United Kingdom to propose risk-sharing among private insurers/reinsurers, government, and policyholders to alleviate major issues of the current programs, while still maintaining a holistic approach to managing flood risk. The UK and the US are almost polar opposites in the way flood insurance is implemented. Flood insurance in the US is fully public and in the UK fully private; however, in both countries the participants feel that the established system is unsustainable. In the US, flood coverage is excluded from property policies provided by private insurers, and is only available through the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), with the federal government acting as insurer of last resort. Flood risk reduction has been part of the NFIP remit since the introduction of the program in 1968. Following massive payments for flood claims related primarily to Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, the NFIP is approximately 26 billion in debt, prompting calls to bring private insurance back into the flood insurance business. Two major Congressional modifications to the NFIP in 2012 and 2014 have pushed the contradictory goals of fully risk-based, yet affordable premiums. The private market has not been significantly involved in a risk-bearing role, but that is changing as private insurers

  6. Global and local scale flood discharge simulations in the Rhine River basin for flood risk reduction benchmarking in the Flagship Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gädeke, Anne; Gusyev, Maksym; Magome, Jun; Sugiura, Ai; Cullmann, Johannes; Takeuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2015-04-01

    The global flood risk assessment is prerequisite to set global measurable targets of post-Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) that mobilize international cooperation and national coordination towards disaster risk reduction (DRR) and requires the establishment of a uniform flood risk assessment methodology on various scales. To address these issues, the International Flood Initiative (IFI) has initiated a Flagship Project, which was launched in year 2013, to support flood risk reduction benchmarking at global, national and local levels. In the Flagship Project road map, it is planned to identify the original risk (1), to identify the reduced risk (2), and to facilitate the risk reduction actions (3). In order to achieve this goal at global, regional and local scales, international research collaboration is absolutely necessary involving domestic and international institutes, academia and research networks such as UNESCO International Centres. The joint collaboration by ICHARM and BfG was the first attempt that produced the first step (1a) results on the flood discharge estimates with inundation maps under way. As a result of this collaboration, we demonstrate the outcomes of the first step of the IFI Flagship Project to identify flood hazard in the Rhine river basin on the global and local scale. In our assessment, we utilized a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model on 20-km and 0.5-km scales with local precipitation and temperature input data between 1980 and 2004. We utilized existing 20-km BTOP model, which is applied globally, and constructed the local scale 0.5-km BTOP model for the Rhine River basin. For the BTOP model results, both calibrated 20-km and 0.5-km BTOP models had similar statistical performance and represented observed flood river discharges, epecially for 1993 and 1995 floods. From 20-km and 0.5-km BTOP simulation, the flood discharges of the selected return period were estimated using flood frequency analysis and were comparable to

  7. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Bernstein, Judith; Saitz, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574) identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574) reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505) reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65-2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.36). Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81-7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85-7.30). In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them. PMID:27570734

  8. HIV vaccine efficacy trial participation: men who have sex with men's experiences of risk reduction counselling and perceptions of risk behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Guest, G; McLellan-Lemal, E; Matia, D M; Pickard, R; Fuchs, J; McKirnan, D; Neidig, J L

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 35 men who have sex with men, enrolled in the world's first phase III HIV vaccine efficacy trial at five US sites, regarding their risk reduction counselling experiences and their perceptions of its impact on risk behaviour. Respondents ranged in age from 20 to 58 years and were predominately white (71.4%) in racial/ethnic origin. Systematic qualitative analysis revealed that a positive counselling experience meant having good rapport with clinic staff. Differences in attitudes toward counselling were related to either a personal approach of balancing an enjoyable sex life with safe sex behaviours (balancing risks) or accepting the consequences of risky sexual behaviour rather than making changes (risk homeostasis). Respondents seeking to balance risks indicated that they saw themselves engaging in safer sexual behaviour almost twice as often as in riskier behaviours. They perceived counselling and behavioural risk assessments to help increase their awareness of personal risk-taking behaviours. Conversely, those with a risk homeostasis approach reported that they had established sexual boundaries prior to trial participation that had thus far proven to be effective in avoiding HIV infection, and that they were comfortable with the level of risk taken. Thus, risk reduction counselling had little to no influence on their sexual practices. Some of these men also indicated that while they had not found the risk reduction information imparted to them by clinic staff to be novel, counselling was beneficial in reinforcing their HIV/AIDS and safe sex knowledge base. PMID:15832833

  9. Concurrent administration of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programming: outcomes for women.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Probst, Danielle R; Edwards, Katie M; Murphy, Megan; Tansill, Erin

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes the 4- and 7-month postintervention outcomes of a sexual assault risk reduction program for women, which was part of an evaluation that included a prevention program for men. Relative to the control group, participants evidenced more relational sexual assertiveness and self-protective behavior, and were more likely to indicate that they utilized active verbal and physical self-defense strategies. Whether or not women experienced subsequent victimization did not differ between groups. Relative to control group women who were victimized, program participants who were victimized between the 4- and 7-month follow-up blamed the perpetrator more and evidenced less self-blame. PMID:25845615

  10. Marketing cardiovascular disease risk reduction programs at the workplace. The Pawtucket Heart Health Program experience.

    PubMed

    Linnan, L A; Harden, E A; Bucknam, L; Carleton, R A

    1990-09-01

    The workplace offers a unique setting in which to offer CVD risk reduction programs. Marketing these programs involves at least two distinct processes. First, a corporation must agree to accept and support workplace health programming. Second, workplace programs must be effectively marketed to eligible employees, dependents, and retirees. After identifying critical barriers to the effective marketing of workplace programs, a stepwise approach used by the Pawtucket Heart Health Program to successfully overcome these obstacles is used. Using real world examples and practical tips, a discussion of implications for marketing future programs to the corporate and employee audience is shared. PMID:2397012

  11. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  12. Development of a risk reduction intervention to reduce bacterial and viral infections for injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kristina T.; Altman, Jennifer K.; Corsi, Karen F.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are widespread problems among drug injectors, requiring novel preventive intervention. As part of a NIDA-funded study, we developed an intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model, past research, injection hygiene protocols, and data collected from focus groups with 32 injectors in Denver in 2009. Qualitative responses from focus groups indicated that most participants had experienced skin abscesses and believed that bacterial infections were commonly a result of drug cut, injecting intramuscularly, and reusing needles. Access to injection supplies and experiencing withdrawal were the most frequently reported barriers to utilizing risk reduction. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:23017057

  13. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  14. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  15. SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario--Executive Summary and Introduction: Chapter A in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile M.; Miller, Kevin; Porter, Keith A.; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick I.; Bahng, Bohyun; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose C.; Brosnan, Deborah M.; Bwarie, John T.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Knight, William R.; Long, Kate; Lynett, Patrick; Mortensen, Carl E.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Real, Charles R.; Ryan, Kenneth; Suleimani, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Titov, Vasily V.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey, the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  16. An effective HIV risk-reduction protocol for drug-using female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2010-01-01

    Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who use drugs and engage in street-based sex exchange. This study examines the risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using female sex workers in Miami and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to the NIDA Standard Intervention or an innovative Sex Worker Focused (SWF) Intervention. Outcome analyses indicate that both groups benefited from participation in the intervention trial. However, the SWF Intervention was found to be more efficacious in regard to reductions in unprotected oral sex and sexual violence. PMID:20391059

  17. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rountree, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained. PMID:21170178

  18. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and

  20. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  1. A Group Intervention for HIV/STI Risk Reduction among Indian Couples

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, Ritu; Bagga, Rashmi; Jones, Deborah; Deepika, Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Sharma, Sunil; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV in India is transmitted primarily by heterosexual contact. The present study sought to test the feasibility of a group HIV/STI risk re­duction intervention among heterosexual couples in India. Methods: Focus groups and key informant interviews were used in 2008 to cul­turally tailor the intervention. Thirty sexually active and HIV/STI negative cou­ples were enrolled and assessed regarding risk behavior and sexual barrier accept­ability. Gender-concordant group sessions used cognitive behavioral strategies for HIV/STI prevention. Results: At baseline, male condom use was low (36%); no participants re­ported use of female condoms or vaginal gels. HIV knowledge was low; women had more HIV knowledge and more positive attitudes towards con­dom use than men. Post-intervention, willingness to use all barrier products (t = 10.0, P< .001) and intentions to avoid risk behavior increased (t = 5.62, P< .001). Conclusion: This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing a group interven­tion to enhance HIV/STI risk reduction among Indian couples. PMID:24688963

  2. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  3. Reduction in cancer risk by selective and nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Randall E; Beebe, Joanne; Alshafie, Galal A

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a series of epidemiologic studies to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aspirin, ibuprofen, and selective cyxlooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) against cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and lung. Composite results across all four cancer sites revealed that regular intake of 325 mg aspirin, 200 mg ibuprofen, or standard dosages of coxibs (200 mg celecoxib or 25 mg rofecoxib) produced risk reductions of 49%, 59%, and 64%, respectively. Use of coxibs for at least 2 years was associated with risk reductions of 71%, 70%, 55%, and 60% for breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer, respectively. Effects of ibuprofen were similar to selective coxibs, and slightly stronger than aspirin. These observed effects are consistent with the relative COX-2 selectivity of ibuprofen, coxibs, and aspirin. Acetaminophen, an analgesic without COX-2 activity, had no effect. Overexpression of COX-2 and increased prostaglandin biosynthesis correlates with carcinogenesis and metastasis at most anatomic sites. These results indicate that regular intake of nonselective or selective COX-2 inhibiting agents protects against the development of major forms of cancer.

  4. Health benefits of solar UV-B radiation: cancer risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, William B.

    2002-01-01

    Based on geographical distributions of various cancers in the U.S. and elsewhere, ecologic studies comparing these distributions to indices of solar radiation during the past 20 years have led to the understanding that solar UVB radiation is a risk reduction factor for breast, colon, ovarian, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Photo-initiated production of vitamin D is the mechanism that enables solar UVB to play this role. The work presented here explores the use of the USDA UVB Radiation Monitoring Program ground station values to confirm and extend the prior results, and compares these results to those obtained using UVB data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Inverse correlations between solar UVB radiation have been found for a total of 14 cancers using mortality data from the U.S. with these data sets, and are supported by additional studies using cancer mortality and dietary supply data from Europe. While vitamin D has been shown to be a risk reduction factor for several of these cancers, it is hoped that additional studies will be conducted to confirm or disprove the protective role of UVB and/or vitamin D for the remaining cancers.

  5. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, A.; Méheux, K.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2011-01-01

    It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  6. JV Task 104 - Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry Botnen

    2009-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, North Dakota. The primary technological synergies included (1) contaminant recovery using simultaneous operation of multiphase recovery and high-vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE) and (2) vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Final risk reduction steps included design and retrofit for the municipal well. The successful remediation effort resulted in the reduction of long-term health risks associated with rate-limited contaminant release within the capture zone for the municipal well and allowed for its reintegration into the water supply system. Contaminant recovery for the remediation period of September 2006 to June 2008 totaled over 12,653 lb (5,740 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent to 2022 gallons (7653 l) of product. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with multiphase extraction and SVE systems resulted in accelerated volatile organic contaminant transport from the saturated zone and increased contaminants of concern recovery. Delivery of over 7.7 million ft{sup 3} of oxygen (219.8 thousand m{sup 3}) into the contaminated aquifer would translate into in situ biodegradation of 2007 kg (4424 lb) of benzene and provide for long term stimulation of the natural attenuation process.

  7. Moderation and Mediation of an Efficacious Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963

  8. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID

  9. Disasters and risk reduction in groundwater: Zagros Mountain, Southwest Iran using geoinformatics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, M. Hasan Ayazi; Pirasteh, Saied; Pili, A. K. Arvin; Biswajeet, Prathan; Nikouravan, Bijan; Mansor, Shattri

    2010-01-01

    For more effective use of ground fresh water resources, a remote sensing and GIS has been using in many places in last decades. The Pabdeh anticline belongs to the Zagros Mountains in the southwest Iran. This area is exposed in the karst region of Iran.The digital topographic maps in scale 1:25000 within GIS environment have been studied to observe the risk reduction and changing of the water resources because of the tectonic activities which is a crucial to generate a groundwater disaster in the study area. The area has been visually and digitally interpreted to delineate DEM, drainage network, drainage basin, karst landforms, lineaments and lithology for ground water reduction and possible new locations to explore and reduce the risk reduction and disasters. Image elements are used during visual and digital interpretation. Extensive field works have been attempted using global positioning system (GPS) to collect water samples and to emphasis image interpretation. The study shows that the groundwater is controlled by geomorphology, landslides, lineament analysis, lithology and topography in the study area. The research shows that tectonics generate lineaments and landslides in the study area which play a major role for reduction in water level in places and further disasters for the environment and the life of the people living in villages. It is because changing in direction of the drainages and also dolines bring a big issue to think for a better management in the future life. This study shows the advantages of remote sensing and GIS techniques for Karst and water resources stud! y. Use of GIS technologies makes it possible to construct 3D models of river basins and adjust theoretical reserves of the deposits. The study indicates that to reduce the risk and avoid from future groundwater disaster, need to explore and detect new potential ground water locations. The system has been developed from 1:50,000 scale digital maps (which represent of Pabdeh Anticline and

  10. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n = 21) or a walking control (n = 20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight −0.8 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 3.6, p = 0.02; waist circumference −4.2 ± 4.8 vs. 0.7 ± 4.2, p < 0.01; BMI −0.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 1.6, p = 0.05). There were no between group differences in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin resistance or any other factors related to diabetes risk or psychological well-being. There were significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, anxiety, depression, negative affect and perceived stress in both the yoga intervention and walking

  11. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  12. Interdisciplinary approach for disaster risk reduction in Valtellina Valley, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Carolina; Blahut, Jan; Luna, Byron Quan; Poretti, Ilaria; Camera, Corrado; de Amicis, Mattia; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Inside the framework of the European research network Mountain Risks, an interdisciplinary research group has been working in the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (northern Italy). This area has been continuously affected by several mountain hazards such as landslides, debris flows and floods that directly affect the population, and in some cases caused several deaths and million euros of losses. An aim of the interdisciplinary work in this study area, is to integrate different scientific products of the research group, in the areas of risk assessment, management and governance, in order to generate, among others, risk reduction tools addressed to general public and stakeholders. Two types of phenomena have been particularly investigated: debris flows and floods. The scientific products range from modeling to mapping of hazard and risk, emergency planning based on real time decision support systems, surveying for the evaluation of risk perception and preparedness, among others. Outputs from medium scale hazard and risk modeling could be used for decision makers and spatial planners as well as civil protection authorities to have a general overview of the area and indentify hot spots for further detailed analysis. Subsequently, local scale analysis is necessary to define possible events and risk scenarios for emergency planning. As for the modeling of past events and new scenarios of debris flows, physical outputs were used as inputs into physical vulnerability assessment and quantitative risk analysis within dynamic runout models. On a pilot zone, the physical damage was quantified for each affected structure within the context of physical vulnerability and different empirical vulnerability curves were obtained. Prospective economic direct losses were estimated. For floods hazard assessment, different approaches and models are being tested, in order to produce flood maps for various return periods, and related to registered rainfalls

  13. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  14. Mediation of an efficacious HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Bellamy, Scarlett; Icard, Larry D; Ngwane, Zolani

    2015-10-01

    "Men, Together Making a Difference!" is an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that significantly increased self-reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse compared with a health-promotion attention-control intervention among men (N = 1181) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The present analyses were designed to identify mediators of the intervention's efficacy. The potential mediators were Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs that the intervention targeted, including several aspects of condom-use self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and knowledge. Mediation was assessed using a product-of-coefficients approach where an α path (the intervention's effect on the potential mediator) and a β path (the potential mediator's effect on the outcome of interest, adjusting for intervention) were estimated independently in a generalized estimating equations framework. Condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, technical-skill self-efficacy, and impulse-control self-efficacy were significant mediators. Although not mediators, descriptive norm and expected friends' approval of condom use predicted subsequent self-reported condom use, whereas the expected approval of sexual partner did not. The present results suggest that HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions that draw upon SCT and that address self-efficacy to negotiate condom use, to apply condoms correctly, and to exercise sufficient control when sexually aroused to use condoms may contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behavior among South African men. Future research must examine whether approaches that build normative support for condom use among men's friends are also efficacious. PMID:25969177

  15. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  16. Evaluation of WaySafe: A Disease-Risk Reduction Curriculum for Substance-Abusing Offenders.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Rowan, Grace A; Greener, Jack M; Joe, George W; Yang, Yang; Knight, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    With a focus on reducing disease risk behavior in the community, a six-session curriculum, WaySafe, was developed to increase positive decision-making skills among soon-to-be-released inmates participating in a therapeutic community substance abuse treatment program. The intervention used TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling as an approach to focus on cognitive aspects of risky sexual and drug use behaviors in an effort to improve problem recognition, commitment to change, and strategies for avoiding behavioral risks of infections. A total of 1393 inmates from eight different institutions in two states were randomly assigned to receive WaySafe or treatment as usual (TAU). Baseline and follow-up surveys measured knowledge, confidence, and motivation regarding general HIV information, risky sex and drug use, HIV testing, and risk reduction skills. WaySafe participants had significantly better scores on all measures at follow-up than did TAU participants, supporting the efficacy of WaySafe in improving knowledge, motivation, and confidence in avoiding risky behaviors. PMID:26059002

  17. Development of a personalized decision aid for breast cancer risk reduction and management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer risk reduction has the potential to decrease the incidence of the disease, yet remains underused. We report on the development a web-based tool that provides automated risk assessment and personalized decision support designed for collaborative use between patients and clinicians. Methods Under Institutional Review Board approval, we evaluated the decision tool through a patient focus group, usability testing, and provider interviews (including breast specialists, primary care physicians, genetic counselors). This included demonstrations and data collection at two scientific conferences (2009 International Shared Decision Making Conference, 2009 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium). Results Overall, the evaluations were favorable. The patient focus group evaluations and usability testing (N = 34) provided qualitative feedback about format and design; 88% of these participants found the tool useful and 94% found it easy to use. 91% of the providers (N = 23) indicated that they would use the tool in their clinical setting. Conclusion BreastHealthDecisions.org represents a new approach to breast cancer prevention care and a framework for high quality preventive healthcare. The ability to integrate risk assessment and decision support in real time will allow for informed, value-driven, and patient-centered breast cancer prevention decisions. The tool is being further evaluated in the clinical setting. PMID:24422989

  18. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  19. Risk Reduction Among HIV-Seroconcordant and -Discordant Couples: The Zambia NOW2 Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (p<0.001), and barrier use (p<0.001) increased over time in both conditions, and were influenced by gender preferences. IPV decreased (p=0.040) and positive communication increased (p<0.001) in both conditions. Individual and gender concordant group sessions achieved similar increases in sexual barrier use following the intervention. Results highlight the influence of partners as well as product acceptability as predictors of sexual barrier use among couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes. PMID:24983201

  20. Participation and cardiovascular risk reduction in a voluntary worksite nutrition and physical activity program

    PubMed Central

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Healey, Erica; Sonnenberg, Lillian; Regan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Objective In a cohort of employees participating in a worksite nutrition and physical activity program, we compared program completion and changes in cardiovascular risk factors by baseline body mass index. Methods In 2007, 774 employees enrolled in a 10 week program at a hospital in Boston, MA. Program completion and change in weight, cholesterol, and blood pressure were compared between obese (BMI≥30), overweight (BMI=25–29.9), and normal weight (BMI<25) participants. Results At baseline, 63% were obese or overweight and had higher blood pressure and cholesterol compared to normal weight participants. Program completion was 82% and did not differ by BMI. Mean weight loss was 1.9 kg at end of program (p<0.001) and 0.4 kg at 1 year (p=0.002). At end of program, participants with BMI≥30 lost 3.0% body weight vs. 2.7% for BMI=25–29.9 and 1.7% for BMI<25 (p<0.001), but weight loss at 1 year did not differ by BMI. Mean cholesterol and blood pressure were lower at end of program and 1 year (p all <0.005) but did not differ by BMI. Conclusions Worksite programs can successfully initiate cardiovascular risk reduction among employees, but more intensive interventions are needed to make significant improvements in the health of higher risk obese employees. PMID:21130804

  1. Usability Testing and Adaptation of the Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinical Decision Support Tool

    PubMed Central

    Furberg, Robert D; Bagwell, Jacqueline E; LaBresh, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is 1 of the leading causes of death, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted years of life lost worldwide. CVD prevention for children and teens is needed, as CVD risk factors and behaviors beginning in youth contribute to CVD development. In 2012, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released their “Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents” for clinicians, describing CVD risk factors they should address with patients at primary care preventative visits. However, uptake of new guidelines is slow. Clinical decision support (CDS) tools can improve guideline uptake. In this paper, we describe our process of testing and adapting a CDS tool to help clinicians evaluate patient risk, recommend behaviors to prevent development of risk, and complete complex calculations to determine appropriate interventions as recommended by the guidelines, using a user-centered design approach. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the usability of a pediatric CVD risk factor tool by clinicians. Methods The tool was tested using one-on-one in-person testing and a “think aloud” approach with 5 clinicians and by using the tool in clinical practice along with formal usability metrics with 14 pediatricians. Thematic analysis of the data from the in-person testing and clinical practice testing identified suggestions for change in 3 major areas: user experience, content refinement, and technical deployment. Descriptive statistical techniques were employed to summarize users’ overall experience with the tool. Results Data from testers showed that general reactions toward the CDS tool were positive. Clinical practice testers suggested revisions to make the application more user-friendly, especially for clinicians using the application on the iPhone, and called for refining recommendations to be more succinct and better tailored to the patient. Tester feedback was

  2. Enriching the Description of Learning Resources on Disaster Risk Reduction in the Agricultural Domain: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschocke, Thomas; Villagrán de León, Juan Carlos; Beniest, Jan

    The collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant information and knowledge about the risk of natural disasters is a critical element in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 for disaster risk reduction. Knowledge, innovation and education are needed not only to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, but also to mainstream disaster risk reduction especially in weather and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Describing learning resources about these topics with semantic metadata enhances their availability and further facilitates the search and retrieval process by using richer annotations based on ontologies. This paper reports about ongoing work concerning the creation of a domain ontology based on AGROVOC as well as the UN/ISDR and related terminology on disaster risk reduction for the description of associated learning resources in the agricultural domain.

  3. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  4. On-ground casualty risk reduction by structural design for demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Funke, Quirin; Krag, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, awareness concerning the on-ground risk posed by un-controlled re-entering space systems has increased. On average over the past decade, an object with mass above 800 kg re-enters every week from which only a few, e.g. ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS in 2011, appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations have discussed requirements to limit the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft with a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in SCARAB to serve as test-bed for D4D analyses on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented with respect to the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  5. On-Ground Casualty Risk Reduction by Structural Design for Demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin

    In recent years, awareness concerning the risk posed by un-controlled re-entering spacecraft on ground has increased. Some re-entry events such as ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations, in cooperation within the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), have established a requirements to limited the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft in a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in Scarab to serve as test-bed for D4D analysis on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented w.r.t. the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  6. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  7. Model of good practice tools for risk reduction and clinical governance.

    PubMed

    Smagghe, D; Segers, M; Spy-Anderson, P-J; Benamou, N; Eddabbeh, N

    2005-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are expected to support Healthcare Professionals in reducing medical errors, making the most relevant decisions and finding the most appropriate procedure for each patient. In particular, Knowledge Management and Decision Support Systems provide access to high quality information and to appropriate protocols. The present paper aims at comparing the approaches used in three ongoing R&D projects in order to support risk reduction and clinical governance. This comparison will lead to the presentation of a generic model of Decision Support Tools that transform shared and documented "Good Practices" into software entities that can pro-actively advice users in their daily work or when they encounter difficult situations. PMID:15923768

  8. Using employee experts to offer an interprofessional diabetes risk reduction program to fellow employees.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Thomas L; Gillespie, Nicole D; Skrabal, Maryann Z; Faulkner, Michele A; Skradski, Jessica J; Ferguson, Liz A; Pagenkemper, Joni J; Moore, Geri A; Jorgensen, Diane

    2013-03-01

    A recent increase in the incidence of diabetes and pre-diabetes is causing many employers to spend more of their healthcare benefit budgets to manage the conditions. A self-insured university in the USA has implemented an interprofessional diabetes mellitus risk reduction program using its own employee faculty and staff experts to help fellow employees manage their diabetes and pre-diabetes. The interprofessional team consists of five pharmacists, a dietitian, an exercise physiologist, a health educator and a licensed mental health practitioner. In addition, the participant's physician serves as a consultant to the program, as does a human resources healthcare benefits specialist and a wellness coordinator. The volunteer program takes place at the worksite during regular business hours and is free of charge to the employees. The faculty and staff delivering the program justify the cost of their time through an interprofessional educational model that the program will soon provide to university students. PMID:22957897

  9. Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Glenn; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-04-01

    With the UN-led celebration of the International Year of Youth from August 2010 to August 2011 there has been a renewed interest in young people and the vital role they can play in important issues, such as disaster risk reduction (DRR). This study aims to examine the potential of science clubs as a vehicle for youth participation in DRR in the Philippines. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 658 science club members from different provinces of the Philippines participated in the survey. The result of the survey is used to explain how the major barriers to youth participation in DRR can be overcome. Through science clubs, the youth can become a link between their school, home and community and can contribute to spreading knowledge about disaster prevention, preparedness and response learned inside and outside the classroom. PMID:25440993

  10. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector mission is to investigate the Moon's polar regions in search of volatiles. The government-version lander concept for the mission is composed of a braking stage and a liquid-propulsion lander stage. A propulsion trade study concluded with a solid rocket motor for the braking stage while using the 4th-stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components for the lander stage. The mechanical design of the liquid propulsion system was conducted in concert with the lander structure design. A propulsion cold-flow test article was fabricated and integrated into a lander development structure, and a series of cold flow tests were conducted to characterize the fluid transient behavior and to collect data for validating analytical models. In parallel, RS-34 PK thrusters to be used on the lander stage were hot-fire tested in vacuum conditions as part of risk reduction activities.

  11. Developing interpretable models with optimized set reduction for identifying high risk software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Basili, Victor R.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying equal testing and verification effort to all parts of a software system is not very efficient, especially when resources are limited and scheduling is tight. Therefore, one needs to be able to differentiate low/high fault frequency components so that testing/verification effort can be concentrated where needed. Such a strategy is expected to detect more faults and thus improve the resulting reliability of the overall system. This paper presents the Optimized Set Reduction approach for constructing such models, intended to fulfill specific software engineering needs. Our approach to classification is to measure the software system and build multivariate stochastic models for predicting high risk system components. We present experimental results obtained by classifying Ada components into two classes: is or is not likely to generate faults during system and acceptance test. Also, we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the error making process.

  12. Optimisation of decentralisation for effective Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through the case study of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, A.; Makarigakis, A.; Gersonius, B.

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates how to optimise decentralisation for effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) in developing states. There is currently limited literature on empirical analysis of decentralisation for DRR. This paper evaluates decentralised governance for DRR in the case study of Indonesia and provides recommendations for its optimisation. Wider implications are drawn to optimise decentralisation for DRR in developing states more generally. A framework to evaluate the institutional and policy setting was developed which necessitated the use of a gap analysis, desk study and field investigation. Key challenges to decentralised DRR include capacity gaps at lower levels, low compliance with legislation, disconnected policies, issues in communication and coordination and inadequate resourcing. DRR authorities should lead coordination and advocacy on DRR. Sustainable multistakeholder platforms and civil society organisations should fill the capacity gap at lower levels. Dedicated and regulated resources for DRR should be compulsory.

  13. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  14. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  15. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  16. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9 % for the monthly model, and 80.4 % for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$ 288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$ 156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM and MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average WTA estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model to targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  17. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.

  18. HIV Sexual Risk-Reduction Interventions for Youth: A Review and Methodological Critique of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    We review and provide a methodological critique of randomized controlled studies of HIV risk reduction interventions that measured sexual risk behavior outcomes with adolescents. Studies conducted in school, community, and health care settings were reviewed. Overall, 13 of 23 interventions (57%) were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. Methodological strengths of extant studies included an emphasis on a theoretical framework, evaluation of both group- and individualized intervention formats, use of multiple assessments of risk behavior including biological outcomes, and inclusion of efficacy and effectiveness trials. Methodological limitations included limited evaluation of theoretical mediators of risk reduction, failure to report effect sizes, and lack of sustained findings. Inconsistencies were found in data analytic procedures and reporting, including how nested designs, skewed data, and attrition were addressed. Recommendations for designing methodologically-rigorous interventions are provided. PMID:12705104

  19. Primaquine plus artemisinin combination therapy for reduction of malaria transmission: promise and risk.

    PubMed

    John, Chandy C

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of gametocyte transmission from humans to mosquitoes is a key component of malaria elimination. The study by Gonçalves and colleagues provides valuable new data on how the addition of low-dose primaquine to artemether-lumefantrine affects reduction of gametocytemia and transmission of gametocytes to mosquitoes in asymptomatically Plasmodium falciparum-infected children without G6PD deficiency, and on the degree to which low-dose primaquine affects hemoglobin levels in these children. The study sets the stage for future research required for consideration of an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT)-primaquine regimen in mass drug administration campaigns. Future studies will need to evaluate toxicity in adults and G6PD deficient persons, assess gametocyte transmission from adults, evaluate different ACT drugs with primaquine, and assess the implications of "rare" toxicities in large treatment populations, such as hemolysis requiring blood transfusion. The study highlights both the promise and the potential risk of ACT-primaquine treatment in malaria elimination campaigns.Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0581-y . PMID:27039396

  20. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M² reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M² (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered "yes" to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs' beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  1. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L.; O’Farrell, Patrick J.; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social–ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making. PMID:26082541

  2. An Overview of Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Robotic Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Story, George; Burnside, Chris; Kudlach, Al

    2010-01-01

    In support of designing robotic lunar lander concepts, the propulsion team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), with participation from industry, conducted a series of trade studies on propulsion concepts with an emphasis on light-weight, advanced technology components. The results suggest a high-pressure propulsion system may offer some benefits in weight savings and system packaging. As part of the propulsion system, a solid rocket motor was selected to provide a large impulse to reduce the spacecraft s velocity prior to the lunar descent. In parallel to this study effort, the team also began technology risk reduction testing on a high thrust-to-weight descent thruster and a high-pressure regulator. A series of hot-fire tests was completed on the descent thruster in vacuum conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in New Mexico in 2009. Preparations for a hot-fire test series on the attitude control thruster at WSTF and for pressure regulator testing are now underway. This paper will provide an overview of the concept trade study results along with insight into the risk mitigation activities conducted to date.

  3. Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia's mak nyah community.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Britton A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW. PMID:26824463

  4. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  5. Risk-Reduction Strategies to Expand Radon Care Planning with Vulnerable Groups

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. Method A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Results Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. Discussion The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. PMID:24547763

  6. Recent Status of SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory Mission: Flight Engineering Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Dekens, Frank; Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Carson, Johnathan

    2010-01-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory is a mission concept for a space-borne instrument to perform micro-arc-second narrow-angle astrometry to search 60 to 100 nearby stars for Earth-like planets, and to perform global astrometry for a broad astrophysics program. The instrument consists of two Michelson stellar interferometers and a telescope. The first interferometer chops between the target star and a set of reference stars. The second interferometer monitors the attitude of the instrument in the direction of the target star. The telescope monitors the attitude of the instrument in the other two directions. The main enabling technology development for the mission was completed during phases A & B. The project is currently implementing the developed technology onto flight-ready engineering models. These key engineering tasks will significantly reduce the implementation risks during the flight phases C & D of the mission. The main optical interferometer components, including the astrometric beam combiner, the fine steering optical mechanism, the path-length-control and modulation optical mechanisms, focal-plane camera electronics and cooling heat pipe, are currently under development. Main assemblies are built to meet flight requirements and will be subjected to flight qualification level environmental testing (random vibration and thermal cycling) and performance testing. This paper summarizes recent progress in engineering risk reduction activities.

  7. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C

    2015-06-16

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social-ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making. PMID:26082541

  8. Abstinence Funding Was Not Associated With Reductions In HIV Risk Behavior In Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan C; Lowe, Anita; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-05-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been the largest funder of abstinence and faithfulness programming in sub-Saharan Africa, with a cumulative investment of over US $1.4 billion in the period 2004-13. We examined whether PEPFAR funding for abstinence and faithfulness programs, which aimed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, was associated with a relative change in five outcomes indicative of high-risk sexual behavior: number of sexual partners in the past twelve months for men and for women, age at first sexual intercourse for men and for women, and teenage pregnancies. Using nationally representative surveys from twenty-two sub-Saharan African countries, we compared trends between people living in countries that received PEPFAR abstinence and faithfulness funding and those living in countries that did not in the period 1998-2013. We found no evidence to suggest that PEPFAR funding was associated with population-level reductions in any of the five outcomes. These results suggest that alternative funding priorities for HIV prevention may yield greater health benefits. PMID:27140992

  9. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  10. Developmentally-Appropriate Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for Adolescents: Rationale, Review of Interventions, and Recommendations for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and

  11. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  12. Ecohydrology of agroecosystems: probabilistic description of yield reduction risk under limited water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Supplemental irrigation represents one of the main strategies to mitigate the effects of climate variability and stabilize yields. Irrigated agriculture currently provides 40% of food production and its relevance is expected to further increase in the near future, in face of the projected alterations of rainfall patterns and increase in food, fiber, and biofuel demand. Because of the significant investments and water requirements involved in irrigation, strategic choices are needed to preserve productivity and profitability, while maintaining a sustainable water management - a nontrivial task given the unpredictability of the rainfall forcing. To facilitate decision making under uncertainty, a widely applicable probabilistic framework is proposed. The occurrence of rainfall events and irrigation applications are linked probabilistically to crop development during the growing season and yields at harvest. Based on these linkages, the probability density function of yields and corresponding probability density function of required irrigation volumes, as well as the probability density function of yields under the most common case of limited water availability are obtained analytically, as a function of irrigation strategy, climate, soil and crop parameters. The full probabilistic description of the frequency of occurrence of yields and water requirements is a crucial tool for decision making under uncertainty, e.g., via expected utility analysis. Furthermore, the knowledge of the probability density function of yield allows us to quantify the yield reduction hydrologic risk. Two risk indices are defined and quantified: the long-term risk index, suitable for long-term irrigation strategy assessment and investment planning, and the real-time risk index, providing a rigorous probabilistic quantification of the emergence of drought conditions during a single growing season in an agricultural setting. Our approach employs relatively few parameters and is thus easily and

  13. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  14. Developing a Text Messaging Risk Reduction Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using MSM: Research Note

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Ling, Deborah; Shoptaw, Steven; Rohde, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug “hook up.” Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM, which involved conducting focus groups, community partners’ meetings, and a pre-test intervention. These activities culminated in the development of a two-week, text-messaging intervention that delivered real-time electronic correspondence based on the behavioral change theories of Social Support Theory, Health Belief Model, and Social Cognitive Theory. The focus groups, community meetings, and pre-test were used to identify the IT communication device, the text messages that best support risk reduction and healthier behavioral choices, and logo, flyer and website development. The input and feedback from the target population and community partners were critical to the successful development of a culturally appropriate intervention. The knowledge gleaned from the formative work of this study will be vitally helpful in designing future IT studies. PMID:20657827

  15. Reduction in cardiovascular risk by sodium-bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2010-10-01

    The effects of drinking sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers (total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L) without any disease participated. The study consisted of two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as supplement to their usual diet, 1 L/day control low mineral water, followed by 1 L/day bicarbonated mineral water (48 mmol/L sodium, 35 mmol/L bicarbonate and 17 mmol/L chloride). Determinations were performed at the end of the control water period and on Weeks 4 and 8 of the bicarbonated water period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, Apo B, triacylgycerols, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)], sodium and chloride urinary excretion, and urine pH were measured. Dietary intake, body weight and BMI showed no significant variations. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after 4 weeks of bicarbonated water consumption, without significant differences between Weeks 4 and 8. After bicarbonated water consumption, significant reductions in total cholesterol (by 6.3%; P=.012), LDL cholesterol (by 10%; P=.001), total/HDL cholesterol (P=.004), LDL/HDL cholesterol (P=.001) and Apo B (P=.017) were observed. Serum triacylglycerol, Apo A-I, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP levels did not change. Serum glucose values tended to decrease during the bicarbonated water intervention (P=.056), but insulin levels did not vary. This sodium-bicarbonated mineral water improves lipid profile in moderately hypercholesterolemic young men and women and could therefore be applied in dietary interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID

  16. Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zibadi, Sherma; Rohdewald, Peter J; Park, Danna; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2008-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50%, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3% of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50% reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P <.05). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased by 3.9 pg/mL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P < .001). Mean HbA1c dropped by 0.8% in Pycnogenol-treated group (P < .05), whereas it decreased by 0.1% in control group. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 23.7 mg/dL in Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly in Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P < .001). A significant decrease in urinary albumin level was observed at week 8 compared with the control group (P < .05). However, this reduction was not significant at 12th week. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes

  17. Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

  18. Posterolaterally displaced and flexion-type supracondylar fractures are associated with a higher risk of open reduction.

    PubMed

    Novais, Eduardo N; Carry, Patrick M; Mark, Bryan J; De, Sayan; Miller, Nancy H

    2016-09-01

    To identify factors predictive of the risk of conversion from closed to open reduction. International Classification of Disease-9 codes were used to identify completely displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures that were subjected to planned closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Clinical and radiographic variables were retrospectively collected. Compared with posterior extension fractures, flexion (risk ratio: 34.1, 95% confidence interval: 8.1-143.6, P<0.0001) and posterolateral extension (risk ratio: 6.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-27.5, P=0.0221) fractures were significantly more likely to undergo conversion from closed to open reduction. The direction of displacement should be considered during the preoperative evaluation of supracondylar fractures. PMID:27035497

  19. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

  20. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  1. Reductions in Transmission Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Clients Receiving Prevention Case Management Services: Findings from a Community Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasiorowicz, Mari; Llanas, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Benotsch, Eric G.; Brondino, Michael J.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Hoxie, Neil J.; Reiser, William J.; Vergeront, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Prevention case management (PCM) for HIV-infected persons is an HIV risk reduction intervention designed to assist clients who are aware of their HIV infection and who continue to engage in risk transmission behaviors. PCM combines individual risk reduction counseling with case management to address the psychosocial factors affecting HIV…

  2. Effectiveness of a Peer-Assisted Multicomponent Behavioral Intervention in HIV Risk Reduction Among Female Entertainment Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention that combined cognitive and social influence approaches. The intervention consisted of small group sessions targeting HIV knowledge, protection motivation, behavioral skills, and social influences of risk reduction. The control was an attention-controlled HIV/STI health education and counseling. Two-group comparisons were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the intervention; risk reduction over time was analyzed to determine the sustainability of the effectiveness. The analyses revealed that the intervention was effective in reducing/increasing HIV risk/protective behaviors and the effect was sustainable. While participants in the control reported a greater reduction/increase in risk/protective behaviors 3-month post-intervention, the initial strong effect quickly faded and completely disappeared 12-month post-intervention. By contrast, the moderate initial effect of the intervention was not only sustained but actually strengthened over time. The intervention was well received by participants and holds promise for HIV risk reduction behavior change among female entertainment workers in China. PMID:26485234

  3. Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naïve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD

  4. Reduction of risk to the marine environment from oilfield chemicals - balancing environmental and technical needs

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, J.E.; Hill, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    The study argues that the regulation of offshore use of hazardous chemicals for oilfield stimulation and Completion applications is an important but not a total solution to reduce marine pollution from offshore sources. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that for a complete solution, chemical reformulation must be considered hand-in-band with improved operational practices to provide a maximum effect on overall risk reduction. The study is directed at one major service company`s approach to the whole issue of chemical management in the 1990s, based mainly on North Sea experience in cementing, drilling fluid and stimulation activities. Oilfield chemicals are incorporated into a fluid design to solve a specific technical problem in a well, such as well completion, stimulation and damage removal. While it is desirable to replace all the harmful chemicals, the practicalities of doing so are limited if the industry is to continue to produce efficiently. Other alternatives need consideration. By their very chemistry, some chemicals have primary active ingredients which may be harmful if discharged into the environment. Improving the characteristics of chemicals to marine life requires the change of previously acceptable products, such as the elimination of banned materials as well as incorporating components with reduced toxicity and greater biodegradability. The idealistic goal is the immediate replacement of all chemicals by nontoxic, biodegrade alternatives; the practical solution is replacement reformulation where possible and the improved isolation the oilwell and marine environments through improvements in continuous-mix technology along with reduction of the chemicals by better job design.

  5. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  6. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of an HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Sub-Saharan African University Students

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, G. Anita; Jemmott, John B.; Ngwane, Zolani; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study used a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an HIV risk-reduction intervention for university students in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Randomly selected second-year students were randomized to one of two interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV risk-reduction, targeting sexual-risk behaviors; health-promotion control, targeting health behaviors unrelated to sexual risks. Participants completed behavioral assessments via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing pre-intervention, 6, and 12 months post intervention, with 97.2% retained at 12-month follow-up. Averaged over the 2 follow-ups, HIV risk-reduction intervention participants reported less unprotected vaginal intercourse and more frequent condom use than control participants, with greater efficacy in non-South Africans than South Africans. Positive changes were also observed on theoretical mediators of condom use that the intervention targeted. Interventions based on social cognitive theory integrated with qualitative information from the population may reduce sexual risk behaviors among university students in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22246515

  7. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  8. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  9. Adoption of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Guidelines: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Adolfo J.; Lazorick, Suzanne; Furberg, Robert D.; Whetstone, Lauren; Hobbs, Connie; de Jesus, Janet; Salinas, Ilse G.; Bender, Randall H.; Binns, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and underlying atherosclerosis begin in childhood and are related to CVD risk factors. This study evaluates tools and strategies to enhance adoption of new CVD risk reduction guidelines for children. METHODS: Thirty-two practices, recruited and supported by 2 primary care research networks, were cluster randomized to a multifaceted controlled intervention. Practices were compared with guideline-based individual and composite measures for BMI, blood pressure (BP), and tobacco. Composite measures were constructed by summing the numerators and denominators of individual measures. Preintervention and postintervention measures were assessed by medical record review of children ages 3 to 11 years. Changes in measures (pre–post and intervention versus control) were compared. RESULTS: The intervention group BP composite improved by 29.5%, increasing from 49.7% to 79.2%, compared with the control group (49.5% to 49.6%; P < .001). Intervention group BP interpretation improved by 61.1% (from 0.2% to 61.3%), compared with the control group (0.4% to 0.6%; P < .001). The assessment of tobacco exposure or use for 5- to 11-year-olds in the intervention group improved by 30.3% (from 3.4% to 49.1%) versus the control group (0.6% to 21.4%) (P = .042). No significant change was seen in the BMI or tobacco composites measures. The overall composite of 9 measures improved by 13.4% (from 48.2% to 69.8%) for the intervention group versus the control group (47.4% to 55.2%) (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement was demonstrated in the overall composite measure, the composite measure of BP, and tobacco assessment and advice for children aged 5 to 11 years. PMID:25157013

  10. The management of urban surface water flood risks: SUDS performance in flood reduction from extreme events.

    PubMed

    Viavattene, C; Ellis, J B

    2013-01-01

    The need to improve the urban drainage network to meet recent urban growth and the redevelopment of old industrial and commercial areas provides an opportunity for managing urban surface water infrastructure in a more sustainable way. The use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) can reduce urban surface water flooding as well as the pollution impact of urban discharges on receiving waters. However, these techniques are not yet well known by many stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, or at least the evidence of their performance effectiveness may be doubted compared with more traditional engineering solutions often promoted by existing 1D/2D drainage models. The use of geographic information systems (GIS) in facilitating the inter-related risk analysis of sewer surface water overflows and urban flooding as well as in better communication with stakeholders is demonstrated in this paper. An innovative coupled 1D/2D urban sewer/overland flow model has been developed and tested in conjunction with a SUDS selection and location tool (SUDSLOC) to enable a robust management approach to surface water flood risks and to improve the resilience of the urban drainage infrastructure. The paper demonstrates the numerical and modelling basis of the integrated 1D/2D and SUDSLOC approach and the working assumptions and flexibility of the application together with some limitations and uncertainties. The role of the SUDSLOC modelling component in quantifying flow, and surcharge reduction benefits arising from the strategic selection and location of differing SUDS controls are also demonstrated for an extreme storm event scenario. PMID:23128626

  11. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  12. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  13. Geology for Global Development: Mobilising and equipping young geologists to engage in disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Geology for Global Development (GfGD) is a not-for-profit organisation working to mobilise and equip geologists to engage in all aspects of sustainable development, including disaster risk reduction (DRR). Geologists have a crucial role to play in DRR, and the recently agreed Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030. This framework aims to significantly reduce loss of lives and livelihoods due to disasters. The geology community have an understanding of the Earth, its physical structure, and the processes by which it is constantly being shaped which are of particular relevance to Priorities for Action 1 and 4 noted within the Sendai Framework. Effective engagement by geologists, however, requires many skills beyond the standard geology curriculum. Cultural understanding, cross-disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilization and participation, knowledge exchange, and an understanding of social science research tools are commonly necessary for effective research and engagement in the science-policy-practice interface. Topical and disciplinary knowledge, such as understanding social vulnerability, international policy frameworks and development theory are also rarely included in the education and professional training of a young geologist. Through the work of GfGD, we are training young geologists with these skills and the supporting knowledge required to make an effective contribution to reducing disaster risk, support civil society, empower communities and help to strengthen resilience. University chapters have been established in 14 major UK and Irish universities, coordinating extra-curricular seminars, workshops and discussion activities. Our work is currently focused on supporting young geologists, but we are increasingly a respected voice at international geoscience forums that gather a wide range of students and professionals. Wider (national and international) activities include conferences, placements and facilitating youth engagement in education

  14. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  15. When and why women might suspend PrEP use according to perceived seasons of risk: implications for PrEP-specific risk-reduction counselling.

    PubMed

    Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg; Corneli, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition for women at higher risk of infection if taken daily. Understanding when and why women would intentionally stop using an efficacious oral PrEP drug within the context of their 'normal' daily lives is essential for delivering effective PrEP risk-reduction counselling. As part of a larger study, we conducted 60 qualitative interviews with women at higher risk of HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants charted their sexual contacts over the previous six months, indicated whether they would have taken PrEP if available and discussed whether and why they would have suspended PrEP use. Nearly all participants said they would have used PrEP in the previous six months; half indicated they would have suspended PrEP use at some point. Participants' reasons for an extended break from PrEP were related to partnership dynamics (e.g., perceived low risk of a stable partner) and phases of life (e.g., trying to conceive). Life events (e.g., holidays and travel) could prompt shorter breaks in PrEP use. These circumstances may or may not correspond to actual contexts of lower risk, highlighting the importance of tailored PrEP risk-reduction counselling. PMID:27093238

  16. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2008-04-01

    Androgens play an essential role in prostatic development and function, but are also involved in prostate disease pathogenesis. The primary prostatic androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is synthesized from testosterone by 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2. Inhibition of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes therefore has potential therapeutic benefit in prostate disease. The two currently approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have demonstrated long-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Finasteride, a type-2 5ARI, has also been studied for its ability to reduce the incidence of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Treatment with dutasteride, a dual 5ARI, has been shown to result in a greater degree and consistency of DHT suppression compared with finasteride. Two large-scale studies of dutasteride are currently investigating the role of near-maximal DHT suppression in the settings of prostate cancer risk reduction and expectant management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:18471794

  17. Adolescent health promotion and risk reduction: cementing the social contract between pediatricians and the schools.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279

  18. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  19. Heart Healthy Online: An Innovative Approach to Risk Reduction in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Diane; Cook, Royer F.; Hersch, Rebekah K.; Leaf, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether a Web-based cardiovascular health promotion program was associated with changes in self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and biometric indicators in a population of working adults. METHODS Employees (n=210) were recruited and randomized into either an Internet-based or control condition. Participants completed pre-post self-report assessments on diet, exercise, smoking and mental health. Pre-post biometric screenings were also obtained on blood pressure, heart rate, weight, and hip/waist circumference. RESULTS The intervention was associated with significant improvements in dietary attitudes (p=.003, F=8.83), dietary intentions (p=.031, F=4.72), dietary self-efficacy (p=.015, F=5.97), exercise self-efficacy (p=.002, F=9.51), exercise habits (p=.016, F=5.94), and coping with stress (p=.003, F=8.85) and depression (p=.036, F=4.46). CONCLUSIONS The program showed promise for promoting cardiovascular risk reduction behaviors. These results are consistent with similar web-based interventions. PMID:24806568

  20. Guidelines for risk reduction when handling gametes from infectious patients seeking assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Sangita K; Rawlins, Richard G; Muller, Charles H; Drobnis, Erma Z

    2016-08-01

    According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discussed in the context of fertility treatment: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C or hepatitis B. Seventy-five per cent of hepatitis C or HIV positive men and women are in their reproductive years, and these couples look to assisted reproductive techniques for risk reduction in conceiving a pregnancy. In many cases, only one partner is infected. Legal and ethical questions about treatment of infectious patients aside, the question most asked by clinical embryologists and andrologists is: "What are the laboratory protocols for working with gametes and embryos from patients with infectious disease?" The serostatus of each patient is the key that informs appropriate treatments. This guidance document describes protocols for handling gametes from seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples with infectious disease. With minor modifications, infectious patients with stable disease status and undetectable or low viral load can be accommodated in the IVF laboratory. PMID:27235103

  1. Clinical potential of vorapaxar in cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Philipp; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vorapaxar (ZONTIVITY™, formerly known as SCH 530348) is a specific, orally active antagonist of the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on platelets. It inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation by binding to the ectodomain of PAR-1. After animal studies and Phase II studies showed that vorapaxar sufficiently inhibits platelet activation without significantly increasing bleeding complications, safety and efficacy of vorapaxar were assessed in two large multicenter trials in patients with coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. The Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRACER) trial investigated safety and efficacy of vorapaxar in patients with an acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. The Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 50 (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) investigated atherothrombotic events in patients with stable atherosclerosis. Results of both studies suggested that vorapaxar given in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy can reduce atherothrombotic events, but increases the risk of mild and moderate bleeding complications. This review article summarizes the main results of TRACER and TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 and suggests patient cohorts that might benefit from treatment with vorapaxar in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy. PMID:26346960

  2. The efficacy of an HIV risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Peragallo, Nilda; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-07-01

    Culturally-specific HIV risk reduction interventions for Hispanic women are needed. SEPA (Salud/Health, Educación/Education, Promoción/Promotion, y/and Autocuidado/Self-care) is a culturally-specific and theoretically-based group intervention for Hispanic women. The SEPA intervention consists of five sessions covering STI and HIV prevention; communication, condom negotiation and condom use; and violence prevention. A randomized trial tested the efficacy of SEPA with 548 adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA n = 274; delayed intervention control n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that SEPA decreased positive urine samples for Chlamydia; improved condom use, decreased substance abuse and IPV; improved communication with partner, improved HIV-related knowledge, improved intentions to use condoms, decreased barriers to condom use, and increased community prevention attitudes. Culturally-specific interventions have promise for preventing HIV for Hispanic women in the U.S. The effectiveness of SEPA should be tested in a translational community trial. PMID:21969175

  3. The Efficacy of an HIV Risk Reduction Intervention for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Nilda; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    Culturally-specific HIV risk reduction interventions for Hispanic women are needed. SEPA (Salud/Health, Educación/Education, Promoción/Promotion, y/ and Autocuidado/Self-care) is a culturally-specific and theoretically-based group intervention for Hispanic women. The SEPA intervention consists of five sessions covering STI and HIV prevention; communication, condom negotiation and condom use; and violence prevention. A randomized trial tested the efficacy of SEPA with 548 adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA n = 274; delayed intervention control n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that SEPA decreased positive urine samples for Chlamydia; improved condom use, decreased substance abuse and IPV; improved communication with partner, improved HIV-related knowledge, improved intentions to use condoms, decreased barriers to condom use, and increased community prevention attitudes. Culturally-specific interventions have promise for preventing HIV for Hispanic women in the U.S. The effectiveness of SEPA should be tested in a translational community trial. PMID:21969175

  4. University-NGO connections for earthquake and tsunami risk reduction: lessons learned in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have information that is critical to policy and public education, yet lack field staff of their own to put this into practice. NGOs have field staff as well as connections with policymakers and the community, yet lack a direct connection to the latest scientific research. Scientists face pressure to obtain grants and publish; NGOs face pressure to deliver programs to as many people as possible. Lacking institutional incentives that recognize efforts to bridge the science-practice gap, it is often out of personal convictions that scientists seek to share their results with NGOs, and NGO practitioners seek to deepen their own scientific knowledge. Such individual efforts are impactful; however, more can be achieved with institutional commitments to closer collaboration. Science communication is dialogue, not a one-way transfer of knowledge from science to practice. On the university side, listening to our NGO partners has inspired faculty, staff, and students, identified new areas of fundamental scientific research inspired by practical use, and helped prioritize and clarify the scientific information that is most useful for disaster-risk-reduction practice. On the NGO side, connections to scientists have informed the content of public education and policy advocacy programs and clarified technical information; this new understanding has been incorporated in advocacy and community engagement programs.

  5. Self-Esteem and Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex among African American Female Adolescents: Implications for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…

  6. WHAT DO ORGANIC BABY FOOD PURCHASES TELL US ABOUT PARENTAL VALUES FOR REDUCTIONS IN RISKS TO CHILDREN'S HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Willingness-to-pay estimates of the value of reductions in health risks abound in the economics literature. These estimates are used in the conduct of benefit-cost analyses to inform policy decisions regarding competing government programs and to assess the effectiveness of inte...

  7. The Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Self-Defense and Risk-Reduction Program for College Women: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Rich, Cindy L.; Orchowski, Lindsay; King, Carrie; Miller, Audrey K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program that included a physical self-defense component for college women ("N"=500). Program group women significantly increased their protective behaviors over the 6-month follow-up period compared to the waiting-list control group. However, there were no significant…

  8. Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction and Self-Defense Program: A Prospective Analysis of a Revised Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Raffle, Holly

    2008-01-01

    The current study extends the development and evaluation of an existing and previously evaluated sexual assault risk reduction program with a self-defense component for college women (N = 300). The program protocol was revised to address psychological barriers to responding assertively to risky dating situations, and a placebo-control group was…

  9. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  10. Similarities in Sexual Activity and Condom Use among Friends within Groups before and after a Risk-Reduction Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Feigelman, Susan; Baldwin, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the similarity of behaviors among group members and the effects of a risk-reduction intervention aimed at AIDS/HIV prevention with 76 groups of African-American urban adolescents (n=382 youth) studied over 18 months. Data support the usefulness of HIV prevention through groups of friends. (SLD)

  11. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  12. Intervention to train physicians in rural China on HIV/STI knowledge and risk reduction counseling: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Debin; Operario, Don; Hong, Qian; Zhang, Hongbo; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated an intervention to train physicians in rural China on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention, diagnosis, treatment options, and HIV/STI behavioral risk reduction counseling. This paper reports preliminary findings related to feasibility and acceptability of the program. Using a pre-post design, 69 physicians were recruited from rural county hospitals and participated in a 10-day group training program, followed by two months of clinical fieldwork and two additional weeks of training. Physicians completed baseline and six-month assessments. Patients' cohorts, recruited from clinic waiting areas of participating physicians, completed baseline and six-month HIV/STI risk assessments. Physicians reported increased knowledge of HIV biology and pathology, epidemiology, host immune response, opportunisitic infection and syndromic management, antiretroviral therapy, risk reduction counseling, and stigma reduction following the training. Patients reported improved knowledge of HIV, reduced HIV stigma, higher rates of HIV testing, and improved condom use at follow-up. The findings suggest that training physicians on HIV/STI-related knowledge and risk reduction counseling is a promising strategy for reducing HIV/STI epidemics in rural China. PMID:19266406

  13. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  14. Fax-In Forms as a Technology for Evaluating Community Projects: An Example of HIV Risk Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, G. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A new technology is described that permits virtually instantaneous tracking and evaluation of community-based projects. Faxes of coded forms are automatically stored in a database for up-to-date summaries and feedback for efficient outreach and program improvement. Evaluation of a human immunovirus risk reduction program is described. (SLD)

  15. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of an HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry D.; Heeren, G. Anita; Mtose, Xoliswa; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention for men in South Africa, where heterosexual exposure is the main mode of HIV transmission. Methods. Matched-pairs of neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to 1 of 2 interventions based on social cognitive theory and qualitative research: HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction, targeting condom use, or attention-matched control, targeting health issues unrelated to sexual risks. Sexually active men aged 18 to 45 years were eligible. The primary outcome was consistent condom use in the past 3 months. Results. Of 1181 participants, 1106 (93.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up. HIV and STI risk-reduction participants had higher odds of reporting consistent condom use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.71) and condom use at last vaginal intercourse (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.82) than did attention-control participants, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No differences were observed on unprotected intercourse or multiple partnerships. Findings did not differ for sex with steady as opposed to casual partners. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions specifically targeting men can contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behaviors in South Africa. PMID:24432923

  16. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  17. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  18. Development of community hazard map for landslide risk reduction at the village level in Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.

    2010-12-01

    Socio-economical loss due to landslides in Indonesia continuously increases, despite the availability of the existing landslide hazard map with the various scales. It is apparent that the existing landslide hazard map is too technical and difficult to be understood by local community living in the landslide prone are. Therefore, a simple hazard map for community-based landslide risk reduction at the village level is proposed by introducing a social engineering approach with respect to the social and geological conditions at the local sites. The mapping is conducted by observing and recording the indicators of slope movements and/ or the key parameters causing such movements such as the slope inclination, fragility of rock/ soil forming the slope, slope saturation and slope landuse conditions, in order to visually illustrate the levels of hazard and risk. Slope deformations which indicate the symptoms of slope movements can also be recorded through the appearance of cracks with typical ”horse-shoe-shape” at the slope surface, or at the structures and infrastructures; the land subsidence or the displacement of any feature at the slope surface; the bulging or deformation at the slope surface or retaining wall; the appearance of seepage or spring (the water discharge from slope surface which is mixed with the sediments or slurry) at the toe or foot slope; and the inclination of any vertical features (piles, trees, etc.) at the slope surface. Due to the simplicity of such method, the hazard mapping can be conducted by the community (which may also facilitated by an adviser), and accordingly they can distinguish the levels of landslide hazard into three different levels with several criteria such as the active slope (where the symptoms of movement can be recorded clearly and these symptoms are quite persistence), non active (no symptom of movement), and moderately active (illustrating the transition conditions from active to non active). Indeed, this method of

  19. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Disaster Risk Reduction in Urban Contexts: Perceptions and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceptions of disaster risk reduction (DRR) practitioners concerning the on-going integration of climate change adaptation (CCA) into their practices in urban contexts in Nicaragua. Understanding their perceptions is important as this will provide information on how this integration can be improved. Exploring the perceptions of practitioners in Nicaragua is important as the country has a long history of disasters, and practitioners have been developing the current DRR planning framework for more than a decade. The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews designed to collect information about practitioners’ understanding of: (a) CCA, (b) the current level of integration of CCA into DRR and urban planning, (c) the opportunities and constraints of this integration, and (d) the potential to adapt cities to climate change. The results revealed that practitioners’ perception is that the integration of CCA into their practice is at an early stage, and that they need to improve their understanding of CCA in terms of a development issue. Three main constraints on improved integration were identified: (a) a recognized lack of understanding of CCA, (b) insufficient guidance on how to integrate it, and (c) the limited opportunities to integrate it into urban planning due to a lack of instruments and capacity in this field. Three opportunities were also identified: (a) practitioners’ awareness of the need to integrate CCA into their practices, (b) the robust structure of the DRR planning framework in the country, which provides a suitable channel for facilitating integration, and (c) the fact that CCA is receiving more attention and financial and technical support from the international community. PMID:24475365

  20. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  1. Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

  2. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  3. Estimated Reduction in Cancer Risk due to PAH Exposures If Source Control Measures during the 2008 Beijing Olympics Were Sustained

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuling; Stone, Dave; Wang, Wentao; Schrlau, Jill; Tao, Shu; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provided a unique case study to investigate the effect of source control measures on the reduction in air pollution, and associated inhalation cancer risk, in a Chinese megacity. Objectives We measured 17 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estimated the lifetime excess inhalation cancer risk during different periods of the Beijing Olympic Games, to assess the effectiveness of source control measures in reducing PAH-induced inhalation cancer risks. Methods PAH concentrations were measured in samples of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) collected during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the associated inhalation cancer risks were estimated using a point-estimate approach based on relative potency factors. Results We estimated the number of lifetime excess cancer cases due to exposure to the 17 carcinogenic PAHs [12 priority pollutant PAHs and five high-molecular-weight (302 Da) PAHs (MW 302 PAHs)] to range from 6.5 to 518 per million people for the source control period concentrations and from 12.2 to 964 per million people for the nonsource control period concentrations. This would correspond to a 46% reduction in estimated inhalation cancer risk due to source control measures, if these measures were sustained over time. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were the most carcinogenic PAH species evaluated. Total excess inhalation cancer risk would be underestimated by 23% if we did not include the five MW 302 PAHs in the risk calculation. Conclusions Source control measures, such as those imposed during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, can significantly reduce the inhalation cancer risk associated with PAH exposure in Chinese megacities similar to Beijing. MW 302 PAHs are a significant contributor to the estimated overall inhalation cancer risk. PMID:21632310

  4. Efficacy of a Culturally Congruent HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Behaviorally Bisexual Black Men: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John K.; McCuller, W. Jason; Ramamurthi, Hema C.; Lee, Martin; Shapiro, Martin F.; Norris, Keith C.; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) experience high HIV rates and may not respond to interventions targeting gay-identified men. We tested the efficacy of the Men of African American Legacy Empowering Self (MAALES), a multi-session, small-group, holistically-framed intervention designed to build skills, address sociocultural issues and reduce risk behaviors in Black MSMW. Design From 2007–2011, we enrolled 437 Black MSMW into a parallel randomized control trial that compared MAALES to the control condition, a single, individualized HIV risk-reduction session. Methods Participants completed surveys at baseline, three- and six-months post intervention. We used multiple regressions to compare risk behaviors at follow-up between the intervention and control groups while adjusting for baseline risk behaviors, time between assessments, other covariates, and clustering. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to adjust for loss-to-follow-up while carrying out these regressions with the 291 (76.4%) randomized participants who completed at least one follow-up. Results Participants were largely low-income (55% reported monthly incomes <$1000); nearly half had previously tested HIV-positive. At six months follow-up, unadjusted within-group analyses demonstrated reduced risk behaviors for the MAALES but not the control group. Adjusted results indicated significant intervention-associated reductions in the numbers of total anal or vaginal sex acts (RR=0.61; 95% CI 0.49, 0.76), unprotected sex acts with females (RR=0.50; 95% CI 0.37, 0.66), and female partners (RR=0.56; 95% CI 0.44, 0.72). Near significant reductions were observed for number of male intercourse partners. Conclusions The MAALES intervention was efficacious at reducing HIV risk behaviors in Black MSMW. PMID:24180003

  5. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  6. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections for Exploration Missions: Uncertainty Reduction and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Badhwar, Gautam; Saganti, Premkumar; Schimmerling, Walter; Wilson, John; Peterson, Leif; Dicello, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss expected lifetime excess cancer risks for astronauts returning from exploration class missions. For the first time we make a quantitative assessment of uncertainties in cancer risk projections for space radiation exposures. Late effects from the high charge and energy (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays including cancer and the poorly understood risks to the central nervous system constitute the major risks. Methods used to project risk in low Earth orbit are seen as highly uncertain for projecting risks on exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating HZE ion risks. Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions represents the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify risk projection overall uncertainty. Cancer risk analysis is applied to several exploration mission scenarios. At solar minimum, the number of days in space where career risk of less than the limiting 3% excess cancer mortality can be assured at a 95% confidence level is found to be only of the order of 100 days.

  8. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-09-15

    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively. PMID:27240204

  9. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  10. A Roundtable on a National Framework for Natural Hazard Risk Reduction and Management: Developing a Research AgendaSummary Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Carl D.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Wachter, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report summarizes discussion at the Roundtable on a National Framework for Risk Reduction and Management held on November 15, 2006, at the Cosmos Club in Washington, D.C. The Roundtable was cosponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Association of American Geographers (AAG), and The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Comments made by speakers not affiliated with the USGS do not necessarily reflect the positions of the USGS.

  11. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses. PMID:21476146

  12. Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment of Air Emission Sources in AN Industrial Complex for Risk Reduction Considerations: AN Air Waste Management Methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    The purpose of this study was to develop an air waste management methodology for apportioning the health risks associated with air emission source categories that are identified in a given airshed. This was implemented by expanding the receptor model technique to assess the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation risks to an exposed population for certain element pollutants determined to be coming from specific emission sources. The concept was demonstrated using air quality data from a mid-sized industrial complex located in a rural/residential area. It was demonstrated that risks from identified, major elemental emission categories can be quantified and that a total, additive risk be determined for main source categories in the airshed. Potential risk reduction measures were targeted at main risk sources without arbitrarily reducing risk for all sources in the airshed thereby making it a cost-effective approach. Dispersion modeling was utilized from previous emission inventory data so that risk estimates for these sources could be modeled at other receptor points in the airshed. The factor analytic procedure for Source Resolution in the initial receptor modeling approach was used to show whether the ambient data fitted a Maximum-Likelihood Factor Analysis or Principal Component Analysis for identifying underlying emission sources. It was also shown how Maximum -Likelihood Factor Analysis can be a stronger source resolution procedure as opposed to Principal Component Analysis since Factor Analysis is metrically invariant. Finally, the use of the ambient air data for total particulates was used to expand the Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment concepts to augment the Bubble Policy currently used in Air Quality Management.

  13. Data poverty: A global evaluation for 2009 to 2013 - implications for sustainable development and disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M.; Gibson, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents a time series (2009-2013) analysis for a new version of the "Digital Divide" concept that developed in the 1990s. Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. The Data Poverty Index (DPI) provides an open-source means of annually evaluating global access to data and information. The DPI can be used to monitor aspects of data and information availability at global and national levels, with potential application at local (district) levels. Access to data and information is a major factor in disaster risk reduction, increased resilience to disaster and improved adaptation to climate change. In that context, the DPI could be a useful tool for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. Unlike many other indices, the DPI is underpinned by datasets that are consistently provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be downloaded without restriction or cost.

  14. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-07-01

    The uncertainty brought about by intermittent volcanic activity is fairly common at volcanoes worldwide. While better knowledge of any one volcano's behavioural characteristics has the potential to reduce this uncertainty, the subsequent reduction of risk from volcanic threats is only realised if that knowledge is pertinent to stakeholders and effectively communicated to inform good decision making. Success requires integration of methods, skills and expertise across disciplinary boundaries. This research project develops and trials a novel interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). For the first time, volcanological techniques, probabilistic decision support and social scientific methods were integrated in a single study. New data were produced that (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience; and (5) evaluated the effectiveness of a scenario planning approach, both as a method for integrating the different strands of the research and as a way of enabling on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification and management, and capacity building within their community. The paper provides empirical evidence of the value of an innovative interdisciplinary framework for reducing volcanic risk. It also provides evidence for the strength that comes from integrating social and physical sciences with the development of effective, tailored engagement and communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  15. Risk reduction of falls and fractures, reduction of back pain and safety in elderly high risk patients receiving combined therapy with alfacalcidol and alendronate: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Erich; Ringe, Johann D

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of a new combination package containing 4 or 12 self-explanatory one-week blisters, each with one tablet of 70 mg alendronate (CAS 260055-05-8) and 7 capsules of 1 microg alfacalcidol (CAS 41294-56-8) (Tevabone) on muscle power, muscle function, balance and back pain was investigated in an open, multi-centered, uncontrolled, prospective study on a cohort of elderly patients with a high risk of falls and fractures. 818 practicing physicians all over Germany recruited 2579 patients for a 3-month observational trial being treated with the above combination package. 92.4% were women [89.7% of the women had postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO)]. Their average age was 74.1 years and the mean body mass index 26.4 kg/m2. 55.4% had a history of falls. Prevalent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were documented in 62.9% and 61.4% of the patients, respectively, and a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min was documented in 65.5%. Main outcome parameters were the Chair Rising Test (CRT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), back pain and safety at onset and after 3 months. In addition an evaluation of the package design was done at the end of the study. The percentage of patients able to perform the CRT within 10 sec increased from 26.3% to 42.9% after 3 months (increase 63%, p < 0.0001), while successful performance within 10 sec of TUG increased by 54% (p < 0.0001) from 30.6% at onset to 47.1% after 3 months. The average overall improvement of CRT was 2.3 sec (p < 0.0001) and of TUG amounted to 2.4 sec (p < 0.0001). It was shown in another recently published study that a mean increase of 2.6 sec in the performance of TUG results in a 24% increased risk for non-vertebral fractures. Mean back pain measured by a 0-10 visual analogue scale decreased significantly by 41% from 5.9 to 3.5 (p < 0.0001). Throughout the study, 178 adverse events (AE) were reported in 85 of the 2579 patients (incidence: 3.3 %). Only 3 patients experienced serious AE, 2 without causal

  16. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps. PMID:24989348

  17. Preserving the Self: The Process of Decision Making About Hereditary Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Howard, A. Fuchsia; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Rodney, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) gene mutations have up to an 88% lifetime risk of breast cancer and up to a 65% lifetime risk of ovarian cancer. Strategies to address these risks include cancer screening and risk-reducing surgery (i.e., mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy). We conducted a grounded theory study with 22 BRCA1/2 mutation-carrier women to understand how women make decisions about these risk-reducing strategies. Preserving the self was the overarching decision-making process evident in the participants’ descriptions. This process was shaped by contextual conditions including the characteristics of health services, the nature of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk-reduction decisions, gendered roles, and the women’s perceived proximity to cancer. The women engaged in five decision-making styles, and these were characterized by the use of specific decision-making approaches. These findings provide theoretical insights that could inform the provision of decisional support to BRCA1/2 carriers. PMID:20980697

  18. Behavioral risk reduction in a declining HIV epidemic: injection drug users in New York City, 1990-1997.

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, C; Perlis, T; Friedman, S R; Chapman, T; Kwok, J; Rockwell, R; Paone, D; Milliken, J; Monterroso, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed trends in HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users in New York City from 1990 to 1997. METHODS: Injection drug users were recruited continuously from a large drug detoxification treatment program (N = 2588) and a research storefront located in a high-drug-use area (N = 2701). Informed consent was obtained, and a trained interviewer administered a structured interview covering sociodemographics, drug use history, HIV risk behavior, and participation in syringe exchange. RESULTS: Trends were assessed for 5 risk behaviors in the 6-month period before the interview. The 3 injection risk behaviors declined significantly over time at each site (all P < .01). When data were pooled across sites, all 5 risk behaviors declined significantly over time (all P < .01). Participation in syringe exchange programs and in HIV counseling and testing increased greatly from 1990 to 1997. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing risk reduction among injection drug users indicates a "declining phase" in the large HIV epidemic in New York City. HIV prevention programs appear to be making an important contribution to the declining phase. PMID:10897190

  19. Chronic Disease Risk Reduction with a Community-Based Lifestyle Change Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Greenlaw, Roger L; Salberg, Audrey; Englert, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether reduced health risks resulting from the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) persist through 18 months. Methods: The CHIP is a four-week health education course designed to help individuals reduce cardiovascular risk by improving nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Analyses were based on 211 CHIP enrollees,…

  20. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  1. Developing Effective Earthquake Risk Reduction Strategies: The Potential Role of Academic Institutions in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon faces the risk of powerful earthquakes with potentially devastating effects. However, the Lebanese people in general have not yet recognized this risk, as current educational programs and government officials have failed to inform them about it. This article discusses the essential role that Lebanese institutions of higher education should…

  2. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  3. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  4. Reduction in health risks and disparities with participation in an employer-sponsored health promotion program.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing awareness among employers and health care providers that health care needs to be tailored to address the diversity of the workforce. Population-based data have shown significant differences in health behaviors and health risks among different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine health risks and changes in health risks over time in an employed population at a financial services corporation. This large financial services corporation is naturally concerned about any disparities in health among employees. The study population consists of employees who participated in the organization's medical plan and also the annual health risk appraisal questionnaire in both 2009 and 2010. Significant demographic differences exist among the four ethnic groups studied: whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. At baseline, African American employees had a significantly higher average number of health risks measured by the health risk appraisal, but they also experienced the greatest improvement in health risks by time 2. There were differences in the health risk profiles of the ethnic groups, with certain risk factors being more prevalent among some ethnicities than among others. The health care costs were not significantly different among the groups studied here. It is likely that other large employers may also find health risk differences among employees belonging to various ethnicities. Future research in this field should seek to understand the reasons behind differences in health among ethnic groups and how best to address them so that all employees can achieve a high level of health and wellness. PMID:23924828

  5. Implementing Rapid HIV Testing With or Without Risk-Reduction Counseling in Drug Treatment Centers: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Mandler, Raul N.; Haynes, Louise; Tross, Susan; Kyle, Tiffany; Gallup, Dianne; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Douaihy, Antoine; Schackman, Bruce R.; Das, Moupali; Lindblad, Robert; Erickson, Sarah; Korthuis, P. Todd; Martino, Steve; Sorensen, James L.; Szapocznik, José; Walensky, Rochelle; Branson, Bernard; Colfax, Grant N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of risk reduction counseling and the role of on-site HIV testing in drug treatment. Methods. Between January and May 2009, we randomized 1281 HIV-negative (or status unknown) adults who reported no past-year HIV testing to (1) referral for off-site HIV testing, (2) HIV risk-reduction counseling with on-site rapid HIV testing, or (3) verbal information about testing only with on-site rapid HIV testing. Results. We defined 2 primary self-reported outcomes a priori: receipt of HIV test results and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse episodes at 6-month follow-up. The combined on-site rapid testing participants received more HIV test results than off-site testing referral participants (P < .001; Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio = 4.52; 97.5% confidence interval [CI] = 3.57, 5.72). At 6 months, there were no significant differences in unprotected intercourse episodes between the combined on-site testing arms and the referral arm (P = .39; incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.04; 97.5% CI = 0.95, 1.14) or the 2 on-site testing arms (P = .81; IRR = 1.03; 97.5% CI = 0.84, 1.26). Conclusions. This study demonstrated on-site rapid HIV testing’s value in drug treatment centers and found no additional benefit from HIV sexual risk-reduction counseling. PMID:22515871

  6. Analogs and the BHP Risk Reduction Strategy for Future Spaceflight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Leveton, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for future exploration missions to distant destinations (e.g., Moon, Near Earth Objects (NEO), and Mars), the NASA Human Research Program s (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) conducts and supports research to address four human health risks: Risk of Behavioral Conditions; Risk of Psychiatric Conditions; Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team; and Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Fatigue, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (HRP Science Management Plan, 2008). BHP Research, in collaboration with internal and external research investigators, as well as subject matter experts within NASA operations including flight surgeons, astronauts, and mission planners and others within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD), identifies knowledge and technology gaps within each Risk. BHP Research subsequently manages and conducts research tasks to address and close the gaps, either through risk assessment and quantification, or the development of countermeasures and monitoring technologies. The resulting deliverables, in many instances, also support current Medical Operations and/or Mission Operations for the International Space Station (ISS).

  7. Examining the Efficacy of HIV Risk-Reduction Counseling on the Sexual Risk Behaviors of a National Sample of Drug Abuse Treatment Clients: Analysis of Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Gooden, Lauren; Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret R; Malotte, C Kevin; Haynes, Louise F; Douaihy, Antoine; Chally, Jack; Mandler, Raul N; Feaster, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    HIV counseling with testing has been part of HIV prevention in the U.S. since the 1980s. Despite the long-standing history of HIV testing with prevention counseling, the CDC released HIV testing recommendations for health care settings contesting benefits of prevention counseling with testing in reducing sexual risk behaviors among HIV-negatives in 2006. Efficacy of brief HIV risk-reduction counseling (RRC) in decreasing sexual risk among subgroups of substance use treatment clients was examined using multi-site RCT data. Interaction tests between RRC and subgroups were performed; multivariable regression evaluated the relationship between RRC (with rapid testing) and sex risk. Subgroups were defined by demographics, risk type and level, attitudes/perceptions, and behavioral history. There was an effect (p < .0028) of counseling on number of sex partners among some subgroups. Certain subgroups may benefit from HIV RRC; this should be examined in studies with larger sample sizes, designed to assess the specific subgroup(s). PMID:26837631

  8. Self-Efficacy for Sexual Risk Reduction and Partner HIV Status as Correlates of Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Adolescent Girls and Women

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cherenack, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the correlates of sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adolescent girls and women in the United States. This study investigates two potential factors related to unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse (UVAI) that have yet to be thoroughly studied in this group: self-efficacy for sexual risk reduction and partner HIV status. Data was analyzed from 331 HIV-positive adolescent girls and women between 12 and 24 years old who reported vaginal and/or anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 3 months at fifteen sites across the United States. Results show that overall self-efficacy (B = −0.15, p=0.01), self-efficacy to discuss safe sex with one's partner (B = −0.14, p=0.01), and self-efficacy to refuse unsafe sex (B = −0.21, p=0.01) are related to UVAI episodes. Participants with only HIV-positive partners or with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners showed a trend towards higher percentages of UVAI episodes compared to participants with only HIV-negative partners (F(2, 319)=2.80, p=0.06). These findings point to the importance of including self-efficacy and partner HIV status in risk-reduction research and interventions developed for HIV-positive adolescent girls and young women. PMID:25856632

  9. The cardiovascular event reduction tool (CERT)--a simplified cardiac risk prediction model developed from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS).

    PubMed

    L'Italien, G; Ford, I; Norrie, J; LaPuerta, P; Ehreth, J; Jackson, J; Shepherd, J

    2000-03-15

    The clinical decision to treat hypercholesterolemia is premised on an awareness of patient risk, and cardiac risk prediction models offer a practical means of determining such risk. However, these models are based on observational cohorts where estimates of the treatment benefit are largely inferred. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS) provides an opportunity to develop a risk-benefit prediction model from the actual observed primary event reduction seen in the trial. Five-year Cox model risk estimates were derived from all WOSCOPS subjects (n = 6,595 men, aged 45 to 64 years old at baseline) using factors previously shown to be predictive of definite fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Model risk factors included age, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/ high-density lipoprotein ratio (TC/HDL), current smoking, diabetes, family history of fatal coronary heart disease, nitrate use or angina, and treatment (placebo/ 40-mg pravastatin). All risk factors were expressed as categorical variables to facilitate risk assessment. Risk estimates were incorporated into a simple, hand-held slide rule or risk tool. Risk estimates were identified for 5-year age bands (45 to 65 years), 4 categories of TC/HDL ratio (<5.5, 5.5 to <6.5, 6.5 to <7.5, > or = 7.5), 2 levels of diastolic blood pressure (<90, > or = 90 mm Hg), from 0 to 3 additional risk factors (current smoking, diabetes, family history of premature fatal coronary heart disease, nitrate use or angina), and pravastatin treatment. Five-year risk estimates ranged from 2% in very low-risk subjects to 61% in the very high-risk subjects. Risk reduction due to pravastatin treatment averaged 31%. Thus, the Cardiovascular Event Reduction Tool (CERT) is a risk prediction model derived from the WOSCOPS trial. Its use will help physicians identify patients who will benefit from cholesterol reduction. PMID:12000046

  10. Medications for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of these medications: (1) Women who have a ... health care professional about the potential benefits and harms of taking a risk- reducing medication such as ...

  11. Reading and Writing as Risk-Reduction: The School's Role in Preventing Teenage Pregnancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Schools can reduce teenage pregnancy by providing specific sex education, counseling, and health services, and by improving schooling for high risk students. Emphasizes early childhood education and alternative programs for pregnant adolescents and adolescent parents. (FMW)

  12. Interactive tools for risk reduction and efficiency improvements in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brogle, Kevin C; Lin, Cindy; Blake, Paul R

    2006-02-01

    There are many decisions and risks associated with the design and development of new pharmaceutical agents. To help improve decision-making, and reduce the associated risks--prior to synthesis, we have developed interactive web-browser tools for: (i) tracking, searching, clustering and categorizing (by reactive moieties) chemical reactants, (ii) interactively assessing risks, either synthetic--based on prior experience, absorption following oral administration--based on rules of 5, or diversity, and (iii) a complete architecture for enumerating, analyzing, submitting and plating large combinatorial or small biased libraries. We believe the implementation of this highly interactive system has given our scientists a competitive advantage by maintaining their focus on the lowest risk, highest quality molecules throughout the research process. PMID:16475971

  13. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions. PMID:24437434

  14. The Critical Path Roadmap Project: Biomedical Risk Reduction for Extended Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of space requires an understanding of the risks to which crews will be exposed during such missions, and the mitigation of those risks to the fullest extent practical. This becomes a greater imperative as we prepare for interplanetary expeditions involving long periods in weightlessness in transit to and then from the destination (a planet, such as Mars, or perhaps a point in space, such as the Lagrangian point L2), and exposure to the unique environment of the destination itself. We need to know, more definitively, what the risks are to human health, safety, and performance, and how to prevent or counteract them throughout all phases of a long duration mission. The Johnson Space Center's Space and Life Sciences Directorate and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) have implemented an effort to identify the most critical risks confronting humans on such mission and the types of research and technology efforts required to mitigate and otherwise reduce the probability and severity of those risks. This paper describes the "Critical Path Roadmap Project" to define, assess and prioritize the risks and present the results of the assessment with an emphasis on the research and technology priorities to meet the challenge of long duration human spaceflight mission.

  15. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. PMID:26093240

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  17. Risk Factors for Loss to Follow-Up among People Who Inject Drugs in a Risk Reduction Program at Karachi, Pakistan. A Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Agha, Ajmal; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Altaf, Arshad; Memon, Ashraf; Blevins, Meridith; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study. Results The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23–36). Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636) of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636). In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99, p = 0.028), clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.22, p = 0.046), having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35–4.90, p<0.001), a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14–2.46, p<0.008), and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00–2.19, p<0.049) were associated with loss to follow-up. Conclusions Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless. PMID:26840414

  18. The efficacy of a programme of landslide risk reduction in areas of unplanned housing in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Malcolm G; Holcombe, Elizabeth; Esquivel, Maricarmen; Toro, Joaquin; Ghesquiere, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Poor countries are disproportionately affected by the cost of disasters. Yet there is evidence of the benefits of seeking to mitigate the impact of a disaster, compared with the costs incurred in 'making good' after a major event has occurred. This article reviews a programme of landslide risk reduction in unplanned communities in the Eastern Caribbean. The construction of appropriate surface water management measures, based on the application of scientific and engineering principles, has been demonstrated to reduce the hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides. Adopting a community-based approach additionally delivers social and environmental benefits relating to employment generation, improvements in the environmental conditions within the community, and improvements slope management practices. The sustained implementation of the community-based projects has provided the necessary evidence-base for these practices to influence Government policy and practice, and gain recognition from regional development agencies. The strategic and incremental uptake of the community-based methodology is demonstrated to be an effective means for delivering physical landslide risk reduction measures in the most 'at risk' areas of unplanned housing. PMID:20108136

  19. Review Article: "Adaptive governance and resilience: the role of multi-stakeholder platforms in disaster risk reduction"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djalante, R.

    2012-09-01

    Disaster impacts are more frequent, deadly and costly. The social and environmental consequences are increasingly complex and intertwined. Systematic as well as innovated strategies are needed to manage the impacts. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a systematic approach to manage disaster risks while adaptive governance (AG) is suggested as an alternative approach for governing complex problems such as disasters. The author proposes that the AG can be practicalised through a mechanism of multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs), interpreted as multiplicity of organisations at different scales of governance working towards more coordinated and integrated actions in DRR. Ten MSPs are selected at the global, regional, national and local level, focussing on the Indonesian MSPs. The literature reviews and in-depth interviews with key respondents in Indonesia show that the international and regional MSPs tend to have more human, technical and financial capacity than national and local MSPs. The author finds that most MSP roles focus on the coordination amongst multitudes of organisations. Only those MSPs that are able to generate new funding have the capacity to implement direct risk reduction activities. The development of the MSP is highly influenced by the UNISDR system operating at different levels. Particularly in Indonesia, MSP are also influenced by the operations of various UN and international organisations. Finally, the paper suggests the need for more provision of technical supports to local MSPs, more linkages with established networks in DRR and broader stakeholders involvement within the MSPs.

  20. Addressing HIV knowledge, risk reduction, social support, and patient involvement using SMS: results of a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Lewis, Megan A; Bann, Carla M; Harris, Jennie L; Furberg, Robert D; Coomes, Curtis M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. Effective antiretroviral therapy has altered the HIV epidemic from being an acute disease to a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV. The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of short message service suggests its potential suitability for supporting the treatment of conditions that must be managed over an extended period. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to develop, implement, and test a tailored short message service-based intervention for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The messages focused on reducing risk-taking behaviors and enhancing HIV knowledge, social support, and patient involvement. Participants reported strong receptivity to the messages and the intervention. The authors detected a statistically significant increase in HIV knowledge and social support from baseline to follow-up. Among participants who received sexual risk reduction messages, the authors also detected a statistically significant reduction in reported risk behaviors from baseline to follow-up. Results confirm the feasibility of a tailored, short message service-based intervention designed to provide ongoing behavioral reinforcement for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Future research should include a larger sample, a control group, multiple sites, younger participants, and longer term follow-up. PMID:22548606

  1. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    This research project adopted an interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). New data were produced that: (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  2. RISK REDUCTION VIA GREENER SYNTHESIS OF NOBLE METAL NANOSTRUCTURES AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous preparation of nanoparticles using vitamins B2 and C which can function both as reducing and capping agents are described. Bulk and shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using a-D-glucose,...

  3. Randomized Comparison of Mobile and Web-Tools to Provide Dementia Risk Reduction Education: Use, Engagement and Participant Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Elodie; Hatherly, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. Objective The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Methods Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Results Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups

  4. Adequacy of human reliability data for addressing risk reduction issues at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.; O'Brien, J.N.; Spettell, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) data address a representative set of human risk issues of current concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A three-step process was used to make that assessment. First, all Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) data included in 19 PRAs were identified, collected, and stored on a computer. Second, a list of human risk ''working level issues'' of concern to NRC was compiled. Finally, the HRA/PRA data which were collected from 19 PRAs were compared to the data needs to assess the extent to which currently available PRA data are useful in addressing human risk issues of concern to NRC. Less than 1% of the data needs were determined to be addressed by currently available PRA data. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 7 refs., 13 tabs.

  5. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2016-01-01

    Summary A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n = 1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards ‘safer’ sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P < 0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P < 0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:18824625

  6. Geology for Global Development: Training young geoscientists to communicate and do effective disaster risk reduction in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geoscientists have a crucial role to play in improving disaster risk reduction and supporting communities to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Across the world millions live in severe poverty, without access to many of the basic needs that are often taken for granted - a clean water supply, a reliable food source, safe shelter and suitable infrastructure. This lack of basic needs results in communities being particularly vulnerable to devastating natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. Here we discuss two major gaps which can limit the engagement of geoscience students and recent graduates in the serious debates surrounding resilience and effective disaster risk reduction: (i) Geoscience undergraduate and postgraduate courses rarely give students the opportunity to engage with issues such as vulnerability, sustainability, knowledge exchange and cross-cultural communication. (ii) There are very few opportunities for geoscience students to gain experience in this sector through UK or overseas placements. Geology for Global Development (GfGD), established in 2011, is starting to work with UK students and recent graduates to fill these gaps. GfGD aims to inspire and engage young geoscientists, supporting them to apply their interdisciplinary knowledge and skills to generate solutions and resources which support NGOs, empower communities and help build resilience to natural hazards. This is being and will be done through: (i) active university groups hosting seminars and discussion groups; (ii) blog articles; (iii) opportunities to contribute to technical papers; (iv) workshops and conferences; and (v) UK and overseas placements. GfGD seeks to play a key role in the training and development of geoscience graduates with the necessary 'soft-skills' and opportunities to make an important contribution to improving disaster risk reduction, fighting poverty and improving people's lives.

  7. Development and testing of a risk reduction high energy laser transmitter for high spectral resolution lidar and Doppler winds lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxue; Leyva, Victor; Hovis, Floyd E.

    2007-09-01

    Spaceborne 3-dimensional winds lidar and spaceborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) for aerosol and clouds are among the high priority future space missions recommended by the recent National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Review. They are expected to provide the important three dimensional winds data and aerosol data critically needed to improve climate models and numerical weather forecasting. HSRL and winds lidar have a common requirement for high energy solid-state lasers with output wavelengths at 1064nm, 532nm and 355nm, which can be achieved with Nd:YAG lasers and 2nd and 3rd harmonic generations. For direct detection winds lidar, only the 355nm output is needed. One of the key development needs is the demonstration of laser transmitter subsystem. Top issues include power and thermal management, lifetime, high energy UV operations, damage and contamination. Raytheon and its partner, Fibertek, have designed and built a space-qualifiable high energy Nd:YAG laser transmitter with funding from Raytheon Internal Research and Development (IR&D). It is intended to serve as a risk-reduction engineering unit and a test bed for the spaceborne HRSL and direct-detection Doppler winds Lidar missions. Close to 900 mJ/pulse at1064nm and a wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% have been achieved with our risk reduction laser. It is currently being characterized and tested at Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems. In this paper, we will discuss the design, build and testing results of this risk reduction high energy laser transmitter.

  8. Immunosuppressant dose reduction and long-term rejection risk in renal transplant recipients with severe bacterial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Yang, Wu-Chang; Yang, Chih-Yu

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Due to lifelong immunosuppression, renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of infectious complications such as pneumonia. Severe pneumonia results in respiratory failure and is life-threatening. We aimed to examine the influence of immunosuppressant dose reduction on RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure. METHODS From January 2001 to January 2011, 33 of 1,146 RTRs at a single centre developed bacterial pneumonia with respiratory failure. All patients were treated using mechanical ventilation and aggressive therapies in the intensive care unit. RESULTS Average time from kidney transplantation to pneumonia with respiratory failure was 6.8 years. In-hospital mortality rate was 45.5% despite intensive care and aggressive therapies. Logistic regression analysis indicated that a high serum creatinine level at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio 1.77 per mg/dL, 95% confidence interval 1.01–3.09; p = 0.045) was a mortality determinant. Out of the 33 patients, immunosuppressive agents were reduced in 17 (51.5%). We found that although immunosuppressant dose reduction tended to improve in-hospital mortality, this was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, during a mean follow-up period of two years, none of the survivors (n = 18) developed acute rejection or allograft necrosis. CONCLUSION In RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure, higher serum creatinine levels were a mortality determinant. Although temporary immunosuppressant dose reduction might not reduce mortality, it was associated with a minimal risk of acute rejection during the two-year follow-up. Our results suggest that early immunosuppressant reduction in RTRs with severe pneumonia of indeterminate microbiology may be safe even when pathogens are bacterial in nature. PMID:25091886

  9. JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

    2007-05-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

  10. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (P<0.05). Ninety-eight percent were willing to follow advice on preventing dioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (P<0.05). After intervention, 60.4% of households undertook exposure preventive measures, significantly higher than that of the pre-intervention survey (39.6%; χ2=40.15, P<0.001). High-risk foods had quite low rates of daily consumption (from 0 to 2.5%) and were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusions This is seen as an effective intervention strategy toward reducing the risk of human exposure to dioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas. PMID:23791241

  11. Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater by disinfection processes for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Efaq, A N; Amir Hashim, M K

    2016-06-01

    Greywater is one of the most important alternative sources for irrigation in arid and semi-arid countries. However, the health risk associated with the microbial contents of these waters limits their utilization. Many techniques have been developed and used to generate a high microbiological quality of greywater. The main problem in the treatment of greywater lies in the nature of pathogenic bacteria in terms of their ability to survive during/after the treatment process. The present review focused on the health risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in greywater and the treatment technologies used for the disinfection processes. PMID:27280605

  12. Pre-Launch Risk Reduction Activities Conducted at KSC for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In the development of any large scale space-based multi-piece assembly effort, planning must include provisions for testing and verification; not only of the individual pieces but also of the pieces together. Without such testing on the ground, the risk to cost, schedule and technical performance increases substantially. This paper will review the efforts undertaken by the International Space Station (ISS), including the International Partners, during the pre-launch phase, primarily at KSC, to reduce the risks associated with the on-orbit assembly and operation of the ISS.

  13. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, Stephanie; Post, Joachim; Mück, Matthias; Zosseder, Kai; Muhari, Abdul; Anwar, Herryal Z.; Gebert, Niklas; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas on the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Depending on the location of the tsunamigenic earthquake, in many cases the time to reach a tsunami-safe area is as short as 15 or 20 minutes. To increase the chances of a successful evacuation a comprehensive and thorough planning and preparation is necessary. For this purpose, detailed knowledge on potential hazard impact and safe areas, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, deficiencies in response capabilities and evacuation routes is crucial. The major aims of this paper are (i) to assess and quantify people's response capabilities and (ii) to identify high risk areas which have a high need of action to improve the response capabilities and thus to reduce the risk. The major factor influencing people's ability to evacuate successfully is the factor time. The estimated time of arrival of a tsunami at the coast which determines the overall available time for evacuation after triggering of a tsunami can be derived by analyzing modeled tsunami scenarios for a respective area. But in most cases, this available time frame is diminished by other time components including the time until natural or technical warning signs are received and the time until reaction follows a warning (understanding a warning and decision to take appropriate action). For the time to receive a warning we assume that the early warning centre is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. Reaction time is difficult to quantify as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience play a role. Although we are aware of the great importance of this factor and the importance to minimize the reaction time, it is not considered in this paper. Quantifying the needed evacuation time is based on a GIS approach. This approach is relatively simple and enables local

  14. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, Stephanie; Post, Joachim; Mück, Matthias; Zosseder, Kai; Muhari, Abdul; Anwar, Herryal Z.; Gebert, Niklas; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas on the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Depending on the location of the tsunamigenic earthquake, in many cases the time to reach a tsunami-safe area is as short as 15 or 20 minutes. To increase the chances of a successful evacuation a comprehensive and thorough planning and preparation is necessary. For this purpose, detailed knowledge on potential hazard impact and safe areas, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, deficiencies in response capabilities and evacuation routes is crucial. The major aims of this paper are (i) to assess and quantify people's response capabilities and (ii) to identify high risk areas which have a high need of action to improve the response capabilities and thus to reduce the risk. The major factor influencing people's ability to evacuate successfully is the factor time. The estimated time of arrival of a tsunami at the coast which determines the overall available time for evacuation after triggering of a tsunami can be derived by analyzing modeled tsunami scenarios for a respective area. But in most cases, this available time frame is diminished by other time components including the time until natural or technical warning signs are received and the time until reaction follows a warning (understanding a warning and decision to take appropriate action). For the time to receive a warning we assume that the early warning centre is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. Reaction time is difficult to quantify as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience play a role. Although we are aware of the great importance of this factor and the importance to minimize the reaction time, it is not considered in this paper. Quantifying the needed evacuation time is based on a GIS approach. This approach is relatively simple and enables local

  15. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. T. R.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures. PMID:24790578

  16. Injecting drug use, sexual risk, HIV knowledge and harm reduction uptake in a large prison in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Hartawan, Anak Agung Gede; Craine, Noel; Sari, Ayu Kartika; Septarini, Ni Wayan; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix. Findings - Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV. Research limitations/implications - The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics. Practical implications - The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting. Originality/value - This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program. PMID:26933990

  17. Submaximal fitness and mortality risk reduction in coronary heart disease: a retrospective cohort study of community-based exercise rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Claire; Tsakirides, Costas; Moxon, James; Moxon, James William; Dudfield, Michael; Witte, Klaus K; Ingle, Lee; Carroll, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (sCRF) and all-cause mortality in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) cohort. Design Retrospective cohort study of participants entering CR between 26 May 1993 and 16 October 2006, followed up to 1 November 2013 (median 14 years, range 1.2–19.4 years). Setting A community-based CR exercise programme in Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK. Participants A cohort of 534 men (76%) and 136 women with a clinical diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD), aged 22–82 years, attending CR were evaluated for the association between baseline sCRF and all-cause mortality. 416 participants with an exercise test following CR (median 14 weeks) were examined for changes in sCRF and all-cause mortality. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and change in sCRF expressed in estimated metabolic equivalents (METs). Results Baseline sCRF was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality; compared to the lowest sCRF group (<5 METs for women and <6 METs for men), mortality risk was 41% lower in those with moderate sCRF (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) and 60% lower (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.64) in those with higher sCRF levels (≥7 METs women and ≥8 METs for men). Although improvement in sCRF at 14 weeks was not associated with a significant mortality risk reduction (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.06) for the whole cohort, in those with the lowest sCRF (and highest all-cause mortality) at baseline, each 1-MET improvement was associated with a 27% age-adjusted reduction in mortality risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94). Conclusions Higher baseline sCRF is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality over 14 years in adults with CHD. Improving fitness through exercise-based CR is associated with significant risk reduction for the least fit. PMID:27363816

  18. Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Midlife and Older Women: A Qualitative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. Although a healthy diet and appropriate physical activity can help reduce risk, few women are engaging in these behaviors. In this study, qualitative methods were used to better understand: knowledge and aware...

  19. Risk reduction using DDP (Defect Detection and Prevention): Software support and software applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Risk assessment and mitigation is the focus of the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) process, which has been applied to spacecraft technology assessments and planning, both hardware and software. DDP's major elements and their relevance to core requirement engineering concerns are summarized. The accompanying research demonstration illustrates DDP's tool support, and further customizations for application to software.

  20. Eliciting Affect via Immersive Virtual Reality: A Tool for Adolescent Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David H.; Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Spitalnick, Josh S.; Curtis, Virginia; Roye, Scott; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A virtual reality environment (VRE) was designed to expose participants to substance use and sexual risk-taking cues to examine the utility of VR in eliciting adolescent physiological arousal. Methods 42 adolescents (55% male) with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 1.13) participated. Physiological arousal was examined through heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and self-reported somatic arousal. A within-subject design (neutral VRE, VR party, and neutral VRE) was utilized to examine changes in arousal. Results The VR party demonstrated an increase in physiological arousal relative to a neutral VRE. Examination of individual segments of the party (e.g., orientation, substance use, and sexual risk) demonstrated that HR was significantly elevated across all segments, whereas only the orientation and sexual risk segments demonstrated significant impact on RSA. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that VREs can be used to generate physiological arousal in response to substance use and sexual risk cues. PMID:24365699

  1. School- And Home-Based Drug Prevention: Environmental, Parent, and Child Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel

    2007-01-01

    The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…

  2. The Reduction of Risk Perception: Consensus-Making versus Truth-Seeking

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, W.F.; Whitton, J.

    2006-07-01

    We concluded last year that the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy of consensus-seeking (CR) for its Citizen Advisory Boards (CAB's or Boards) promoted risk mis-perception, a lack of education, and an anti-science bias about DOE's mission to cleanup its sites. Our conclusions countered an earlier study of the CAB's funded by DOE; using only subjective data, it had concluded that consensus-seeking was an improvement in American democracy. However, our conclusion was reached by comparing decision-making at the CAB's with results in the field at the DOE sites associated with the Boards. To extend our earlier findings, we looked at recent meetings of the Board Chairs and preliminary results from the laboratory. We hypothesize that CR and the truth-seeking from majority rules (MR) reflect a tradeoff between a single world view derived from risk perceptions versus specific guidance from risk determinations. Based on both the field evidence and preliminary data from the experiment, we find that this tradeoff impacts site operations. At DOE's Hanford site, the risk perceptions of its Advisory Board (HAB) have contributed to 'gridlock'; at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS), the specific recommendations by its Board (SAB) have contributed to accelerating cleanup. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of a Web-Based Malaria Risk Reduction Game for Study Abroad Students

    PubMed Central

    Hartjes, Laurie B.; Baumann, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Compare feedback strategies in three versions of an educational game. Participants Study abroad students (N = 482) participated by playing the game and completing pre-game/post-game surveys January-March 2010. Methods This study employed an experimental design. Primary outcome measures were knowledge gain, player-satisfaction, and risk perception. Results One-third had previously traveled to a malaria-risk region and two-thirds planned to do so. Baseline malaria knowledge was low. Post-game knowledge and risk perception were significantly higher than pre-game, irrespective of past travel status. The group that automatically received explanatory feedback following game decisions scored higher for mean knowledge gain, without differences in player-satisfaction. Conclusions The challenges of designing a feedback strategy to support Web-based learning make these results highly relevant to health educators developing interactive multimedia interventions. The increasing number of students traveling to higher-risk destinations demands attention. Both malaria-naive and malaria-experienced students would benefit from this approach to travel health education. PMID:22686363

  4. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part IV: Competency-based Education and Training Guidelines to Promote Community Resiliency.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Violet; Cooper, Guy Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can be an effective tool for disaster risk reduction but gaps in education and training exist in current public health and disaster management educational competency standards.  Eleven core public health and disaster management competencies are proposed that incorporate Twitter as a tool for effective disaster risk reduction.  Greater funding is required to promote the education and training of this tool for those in professional schools and in the current public health and disaster management workforce. PMID:26203398

  5. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    SciTech Connect

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  6. On reduction of risks in UXO and mine detection using remote sensing systems and related synthetic image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    It is important to understand remote sensing systems and associated platforms in the context of autonomous or semi-autonomous designs for (robotic & mechatronics) that may be affect the motion control or stabilization aspects of the imagery, scan lines or fixed points scanned. This need can be most easily conceived as being related to the reduction of risks associated with false detection as well as the risks associated with hardware and software failure and risks associated with the actual operation of sensor and platform in dangerous environments. Thus safety is ultimately our concern when it comes to risk assessment. This paper will describe (a) remote sensing systems, (b) platforms (fixed and mobile, as well as to demonstrate (c) the value of thinking in terms of scalability as well as modularity in the design and application of new systems and (d) creation of synthetic signatures obtained for detection of targets in the aquatic environment. New systems - sensing systems as well as autonomous or semiautonomous robotic and mechatronic systems will be essential to secure domestic preparedness for humanitarian reasons as well as for demining and UXO detection. These same systems hold tremendous value, if thoughtfully designed for other applications which include environmental monitoring and surveillance.

  7. Hazagora: will you survive the next disaster? - A serious game to raise awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoux, S.; Delcamp, A.; Poppe, S.; Michellier, C.; Canters, F.; Kervyn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters are too often presented as resulting from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless populations, with people being insufficiently aware of the factors leading to disasters and of the existing strategies to mitigate their impacts. We developed a board game aimed at raising awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction strategies. The target groups are (1) secondary school students and citizens and (2) scientists and stakeholders involved in risk management activities. For the first group, the aim is to induce a better understanding of the geohazards and disasters they are confronted with in the media or in their daily lives; for the second, the objective is to generate discussion about risk management strategies. The game was tested with students in Belgium and with citizens, earth scientists, and risk managers in several African countries. Based on analysis of the most common game strategies observed, the players' reactions during the game, and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyzed the main learning outcomes conveyed by this game. The game Hazagora appears to positively enhance the players' insights into processes involved in disasters. As such, the game is an effective, fun learning tool to introduce participants to the concepts of geohazards and disasters and to generate discussion.

  8. HAZAGORA: will you survive the next disaster? - a serious game to raise awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoux, S.; Delcamp, A.; Poppe, S.; Michellier, C.; Canters, F.; Kervyn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural disasters are too often presented as resulting from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless populations, with people being insufficiently aware of the factors leading to disasters and of the existing strategies to mitigate their impacts. We developed a board game aimed at raising awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction strategies. The target groups are (1) secondary school students and citizens, and (2) scientists and stakeholders involved in risk management activities. For the first group, the aim is to induce a better understanding of geohazards and disasters they are confronted with in the media or in their daily life; for the second, the objective is to generate discussion about risk management strategies. The game was tested with students in Belgium and with citizens, earth scientists and risk managers in several African countries. Based on the game strategies analysis, the players' reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyzed the main learning outcomes conveyed by this game. The Hazagora game appears to positively enhance the players' insight in processes involved in disasters. As such, the game is an effective playful learning tool to introduce participants to the concept of geohazard and disaster and to generate discussion.

  9. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  10. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers. PMID:26489940

  11. Risk reduction methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Richard K.; Pingitore, Nelson V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss proposed Flight Operations methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC), to reduce risks associated with the operation of complex multi-instrument spacecraft in a multi-spacecraft environment. The EOC goals are to obtain 100 percent science data capture and maintain 100 percent spacecraft health, for each EOS spacecraft. Operations risks to the spacecraft and data loss due to operator command error, mission degradation due to mis-identification of an anomalous trend in component performance or mis-management of resources, and total mission loss due to improper subsystem configuration or mis-identification of an anomalous condition. This paper discusses automation of routine Flight Operations Team (FOT) responsibilities, Expert systems for real-time non-nominal condition decision support, and Telemetry analysis systems for in-depth playback data analysis and trending.

  12. Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Séférian, R.; Jones, D. O. B.; Roy, T.; Roth, R.; Barry, J.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Heinze, C.; Joos, F.; Orr, J. C.; Resplandy, L.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at evaluating the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems in response to IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Deep-sea biota is likely highly vulnerable to changes in seawater chemistry and sensitive to moderate excursions in pH. Here we show, from seven fully-coupled Earth system models, that for three out of four RCPs over 17% of the seafloor area below 500 m depth in the North Atlantic sector will experience pH reductions exceeding -0.2 units by 2100. Increased stratification in response to climate change partially alleviates the impact of ocean acidification on deep benthic environment. We report major potential consequences of pH reductions for deep-sea biodiversity hotspots, such as seamounts and canyons. By 2100 and under the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5 pH reductions exceeding -0.2, (respectively -0.3) units are projected in close to 23% (~ 15%) of North Atlantic deep-sea canyons and ~ 8% (3%) of seamounts - including seamounts proposed as sites of marine protected areas. The spatial pattern of impacts reflects the depth of the pH perturbation and does not scale linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Impacts may cause negative changes of the same magnitude or exceeding the current target of 10% of preservation of marine biomes set by the convention on biological diversity implying that ocean acidification may offset benefits from conservation/management strategies relying on the regulation of resource exploitation.

  13. Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Séférian, R.; Jones, D. O. B.; Roy, T.; Roth, R.; Barry, J.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Heinze, C.; Joos, F.; Orr, J. C.; Resplandy, L.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems in response to IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Deep-sea biota is likely highly vulnerable to changes in seawater chemistry and sensitive to moderate excursions in pH. Here we show, from seven fully coupled Earth system models, that for three out of four RCPs over 17% of the seafloor area below 500 m depth in the North Atlantic sector will experience pH reductions exceeding -0.2 units by 2100. Increased stratification in response to climate change partially alleviates the impact of ocean acidification on deep benthic environments. We report on major pH reductions over the deep North Atlantic seafloor (depth >500 m) and at important deep-sea features, such as seamounts and canyons. By 2100, and under the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5, pH reductions exceeding -0.2 (-0.3) units are projected in close to 23% (~15%) of North Atlantic deep-sea canyons and ~8% (3%) of seamounts - including seamounts proposed as sites of marine protected areas. The spatial pattern of impacts reflects the depth of the pH perturbation and does not scale linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Impacts may cause negative changes of the same magnitude or exceeding the current target of 10% of preservation of marine biomes set by the convention on biological diversity, implying that ocean acidification may offset benefits from conservation/management strategies relying on the regulation of resource exploitation.

  14. Evaluating the risk of chromium reoxidation in aquifer sediments following a reductive bioremediation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajan, C.; Nico, P. S.; Yang, L.; Han, R.; Bill, M.; Larsen, J.; Van Hise, A.; Molins, S.; Steefel, C.; Conrad, M. E.; Lim, H.; Brodie, E. L.; Beller, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Remediation of chromium contamination typically involves reducing the toxic and soluble hexavalent form, Cr(VI), to the relatively harmless and mostly immobile trivalent state, Cr(III). The objective of this study is to investigate the potential for reduced chromium precipitates to be remobilized under oxidizing conditions that are expected to be prevalent some time after the bioremediation treatment is completed. In an initial phase of the experiment, reduction under anaerobic conditions was observed for over 12 months by subjecting flow-through columns containing homogenized sediments from the Hanford 100H aquifer to different dominant electron acceptors, i.e. NO3-, Fe(III), or SO42-, in the presence of 5 μM Cr(VI) and 5 mM lactate. Cr(VI) was depleted in the effluent solutions of the nitrate-treated columns, all of which exhibited denitrification, as well as in sulfate-amended columns in which fermentative conditions became dominant (with a minor amount of sulfate reduction). In the second phase of the study, oxygenated water with 2 mM nitrate was flowed through the denitrifying and fermentative columns for several months, without addition of Cr(VI) or lactate. The results show that the chromium that precipitated in the denitrifying columns was steadily mobilized under the oxidizing conditions, although the concentration of Cr(VI) in the effluent remained low (<0.25 μM). However, measurable Cr(VI) was not detected in the effluent from the fermentative sulfate-amended column. Reducing conditions were sustained in the fermentative column despite the continuous influx of O2, as indicated by the decrease of nitrate and accumulation of nitrite, potentially due to the presence of sulfides precipitated during the initial reducing phase of the experiment. The results from this study suggest that the biogeochemical conditions present during the reductive treatment phase can substantially impact the long-term sustainability of the remediation effort.

  15. Fuel oil cleaning as a risk reduction strategy for utility units firing residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) ushered in a new era in the regulatory battle to achieve the clean air goals of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Title III of the CAAA addresses the new air toxic emissions program approach applicable to a wide range and variety of sources, including utility boilers firing residual fuel oils (RFO), while Title IX of the CAAA addresses the implementation of the pollution prevention program. Utilities which burn RFO may be interested in the concept of fuel cleaning as a means to reduce the emission of several fuel related toxics. Such a concept would clearly qualify as a pollution prevention technique. The concept of fuel cleaning has generated some interest with respect to the removal of a number of toxic and/or carcinogenic fuel bound metals. Fuel cleaning would shift the focus of the utilities from the need to employ flue gas treatment and removal technologies on large volumes of combustion exhaust gases, to fuel cleaning technologies applicable to a much smaller volume of fuel oil. The removal of fuel-bound metals prior to combustion would obviously lessen the emission of such metals and reduce the associated risk of such emissions to the surrounding population. This paper presents a very preliminary and general evaluation of the risks associated with RFO combustion for a baseline fuel case as well as a number of cases in which various metals are removed from the baseline oil. The risks are based on a conservative approach to both dispersion modeling and health risk impact assessment.

  16. Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in municipality-scale in Rio de Janeiro State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japiassú Viana, Viviane; Formiga Johnsson, Rosa Maria; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, flood disasters causing human damage, pecuniary loss and environmental damage, are mainly due to greater exposure of the population; urban densification on the riverbanks and margins, incurring vulnerability due to changes in river level and climate changes. This article presents the data and studies required in the Brazilian legal basis and analyzes the scales adopted by planners in contrast to the scales demands by the executing agencies in the context of prevention and adaptation to climate change, particularly to flood disaster reduction in municipality-scale.

  17. The Efficacy of a Programme of Landslide Risk Reduction in Areas of Unplanned Housing in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Malcolm G.; Holcombe, Elizabeth; Esquivel, Maricarmen; Toro, Joaquin; Ghesquiere, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Poor countries are disproportionately affected by the cost of disasters. Yet there is evidence of the benefits of seeking to mitigate the impact of a disaster, compared with the costs incurred in ‘making good’ after a major event has occurred. This article reviews a programme of landslide risk reduction in unplanned communities in the Eastern Caribbean. The construction of appropriate surface water management measures, based on the application of scientific and engineering principles, has been demonstrated to reduce the hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides. Adopting a community-based approach additionally delivers social and environmental benefits relating to employment generation, improvements in the environmental conditions within the community, and improvements slope management practices. The sustained implementation of the community-based projects has provided the necessary evidence-base for these practices to influence Government policy and practice, and gain recognition from regional development agencies. The strategic and incremental uptake of the community-based methodology is demonstrated to be an effective means for delivering physical landslide risk reduction measures in the most ‘at risk’ areas of unplanned housing.

  18. A CAUTIONARY TALE: RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES AMONG URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  19. Positive Choices: Outcomes of a Brief Risk Reduction Intervention for Newly HIV-diagnosed Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Abler, Laurie; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Kochman, Arlene; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; DeLorenzo, Allyson; Mayer, Gal; Watt, Melissa; Nazareth, William

    2014-01-01

    Positive Choices (PC), a brief sexual risk reduction intervention conducted with newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM), was evaluated for preliminary efficacy. Participants were enrolled if they reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the three months prior to HIV diagnosis (n=102). Three months after diagnosis, participants completed baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to receive the 3-session PC intervention or the comprehensive standard of care (C-SoC) at a community health center. Participants completed assessments at 3-(post intervention), 6-, and 9-months after baseline. Compared to C-SoC participants, PC participants significantly reduced the frequency of UAI with HIV serodiscordant (HIV negative or status unknown) partners over the 9-month follow-up period. No differences by condition were found in the frequency of UAI with all partners. The findings from this trial suggest that brief risk reduction approaches for newly-diagnosed MSM integrated into HIV care can benefit secondary HIV prevention efforts. PMID:24771017

  20. Group Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications and Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Kelley, Mary E.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Sharma, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence was measured by MEMS®; and RRB by self-report. Controlling for recruitment site and years on ART, no significant group by time effects were observed. Attendance (≥7/8 sessions) modified the effects. Higher MI attendees had better adherence at all follow-ups, a borderline significant group by time effect (p = 0.1) for % Doses Taken on Schedule, a significantly larger proportion who reported abstinence at 2 weeks, 6, and 9 months, and always used protection during sex at 6 and 9 months. Though not conclusive, the findings offer some support for using MI in a group format to promote adherence and some risk reduction behaviors when adequate attendance is maintained. PMID:21165692

  1. Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: Issues for Group Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cloete, Allanise; Strebel, Anna; Simbayi, Leickness; van Wyk, Brian; Henda, Nomvo; Nqeketo, Ayanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs) involved in work with PLWHA were interviewed. Findings revealed that AIDS-related stigma was still pervasive in local communities. This was associated with the difficulty of disclosure of their status for fear of rejection. Also notable was the role of risky behaviours such as lack of condom use and that PLWHA considered their HIV/AIDS status as secondary to daily life stressors like poverty, unemployment, and gender-based violence. These findings have implications for the adaptation or development of behavioural risk reduction interventions for PLWHA. PMID:21490904

  2. Adolescent HIV Risk Reduction in the Bahamas: Results from Two Randomized Controlled Intervention Trials Spanning Elementary School Through High School.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Li, Xiaoming; Rolle, Glenda; Brathwaite, Nanika; Marshall, Sharon; Gomez, Perez

    2016-06-01

    To address global questions regarding the timing of HIV-prevention efforts targeting youth and the possible additional benefits of parental participation, researchers from the USA and The Bahamas conducted two sequential longitudinal, randomized trials of an evidence-based intervention spanning the adolescent years. The first trial involved 1360 grade-6 students and their parents with three years of follow-up and the second 2564 grade-10 students and their parents with two years of follow-up. Through grade-12, involvement in the combined child and parent-child HIV-risk reduction interventions resulted in increased consistent condom-use, abstinence/protected sex, condom-use skills and parent-child communication about sex. Receipt of the grade-6 HIV-prevention intervention conferred lasting benefits regarding condom-use skills and self-efficacy. Youth who had not received the grade-six intervention experienced significantly greater improvement over baseline as a result of the grade-10 intervention. The HIV-risk reduction intervention delivered in either or both grade-6 and grade-10 conferred sustained benefits; receipt of both interventions appears to confer additional benefits. PMID:26499123

  3. A cautionary tale: risk reduction strategies among urban American Indian/Alaska Native men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M

    2013-02-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  4. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk reduction: supporting evidence, conflicting data and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arhant-Sudhir, Kanish; Arhant-Sudhir, Rish; Sudhir, Krishnankutty

    2011-11-01

    1. It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major cardiovascular risk factors. 2. There is evidence that dog owners are less sedentary and have lower blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, attenuated responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and improved survival following myocardial infarction compared with non-pet owners. However, conflicting data exist with regard to the association between pet ownership and each of these risk factors. 3. Numerous non-cardiovascular effects of pet ownership have been reported, largely in the psychosocial domain, but the relationship is complex and can vary with demographic and social factors. 4. A unifying hypothesis is presented, linking improved mood and emotional state to decreased central and regional autonomic activity, improved endothelial function and, thus, lower blood pressure and reduced cardiac arrhythmias. 5. Overall, ownership of domestic pets, particularly dogs, is associated with positive health benefits. PMID:21824172

  5. Scientific basis of biomarkers and benefits of functional foods for reduction of disease risk: cancer.

    PubMed

    Rafter, Joseph J

    2002-11-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in modification of the activity of the gastrointestinal tract by use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. While a myriad of healthful effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial remains that of anticancer activity. However, it must be emphasised that, to date, there is no direct experimental evidence for cancer suppression in man as a result of consumption of lactic cultures in fermented or unfermented dairy products, although there is a wealth of indirect evidence, based largely on laboratory studies. Presently, there are a large number of biomarkers available for assessing colon cancer risk in dietary intervention studies, which are validated to varying degrees. These include colonic mucosal markers, faecal water markers and immunological markers. Overwhelming evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, in vitro and clinical trial data indicates that a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease, particularly cancer. It is now clear that there are components in a plant-based diet other than traditional nutrients that can reduce cancer risk. More than a dozen classes of these biologically active plant chemicals, now known as 'phytochemicals', have been identified. Although the vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances appear to be of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically active components in animal products (such as the probiotics referred to above) that deserve attention for their potential role in cancer prevention. PMID:12495463

  6. Reduction of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in people with chronic kidney disease, but there are few evidence-based treatments for reducing cardiovascular events in these patients. The failure of novel drug candidates to delay progression to end-stage renal disease and limit or abrogate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has led to increased interest in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist-based treatment model to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Aldosterone concentrations and MR signalling are associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular injury and the incidence of sudden death, and MR blockade decreases the risk of cardiovascular events and sudden death in patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Since evidence from clinical trials shows that treatment with MR antagonists confers a morbidity and mortality advantage for patients with cardiovascular disorders, similar benefits might also accrue in patients with chronic kidney disease. Large prospective trials are urgently needed to answer this question. In this Review, I argue that despite differences in the pathophysiology and clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with and without chronic kidney disease, MR antagonists could provide cardiovascular benefit in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26429402

  7. Monitoring of Microbial Loads During Long Duration Missions as a Risk Reduction Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. C.; Mena, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been exploring space for more than 40 years. For all those years, microorganisms have accompanied both un-manned spacecraft/cargo and manned vessels. Microorganisms are everywhere on Earth, could easily adapt to new environments, and/or can rapidly mutate to survive in very harsh conditions. Their presence in spacecraft and cargo have caused a few inconveniences over the years of human spaceflight, ranging from crew health, life support systems challenges, and material degradation. The sterilization of spacecraft that will host humans in long duration mission would be a costly operation that will not provide a long-term solution to the microbial colonization of the vessels. As soon as a human is exposed to the spacecraft, microorganisms start populating the new environment during the mission. As the human presence in space increases in length, the risk from the microbial load to hardware and crew will also increase. Mitigation of this risk involves several different strategies that will include minimizing the microbial load (in numbers and diversity) and monitoring. This paper will provide a list of the risk mitigation strategies that should be implemented during ground processing, and during the mission. It will also discuss the areas that should be reviewed before an effective in-flight microbial monitoring regimen is implemented.

  8. Monitoring of Microbial Loads During Long Duration Missions as a Risk Reduction Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have been exploring space for more than 40 years. For all those years microorganisms have accompanied, first un-manned spacecraft/cargo and later manned vessels. Microorganisms are everywhere on Earth, could easily adapt to new environments and/or can rapidly mutate to survive in very harsh conditions. Their presence in spacecraft and cargo have caused a few inconveniences over the years of humans spaceflight, ranging from crew health, life support systems challenges and material degradation. The sterilization of spacecraft that will host humans in long duration mission would be a costly operation that will not provide a long-term solution to the microbial colonization of the vessels. As soon as a human is exposed to the spacecraft, during the mission, microorganisms will start to populate the new environment. As the hum an presence in space increases in length, the risk from the microbial load, to hardware and crew will also increase. Mitigation of this risk includes several different strategies that will include minimizing the microbial load (in numbers and diversity) and monitoring. This presentation will provide a list of the risk mitigation strategies that should be implemented during ground processing, and during the mission. It will also discuss the areas that should be discussed before an effective in-flight microbial monitoring regimen is implemented. Microbial monitoring technologies will also be presented.

  9. Obese Smokers as a Potential Subpopulation of Risk in Tobacco Reduction Policy.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2015-09-01

    Smoking and obesity represent the largest challenges to public health. There is an established inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and smoking, but this relationship becomes more complicated among obese smokers. Smokers with higher BMI consume more cigarettes per day and may be more nicotine-dependent than lean smokers. Rates of obesity are lower among smokers than non-smokers, indicating that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke may prevent excess weight gain in people who would otherwise become obese. Furthermore, obese smokers may be more sensitive to the weight-suppressive and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Consequently, obese smokers may respond differently to reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, a tobacco control policy being considered both in the Unites States and abroad. Here, we review the interrelationship between nicotine and obesity in the context of a potential nicotine reduction policy. We discuss the implications of nicotine-induced body weight suppression in obese smokers, as well as the possibility that obesity might increase susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence. PMID:26339212

  10. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  11. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  12. Evaluation of a School-Based Train-the-Trainer Intervention Program to Teach First Aid and Risk Reduction among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…

  13. Efficacy of Enhanced HIV Counseling for Risk Reduction during Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Heathe Luz; Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Prashini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Methods Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 733) and control arms (n = 747). Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. Results There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.71–1.44) or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.23). The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59–0.88), but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67–1.75). Discussion An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461 PMID:24824050

  14. Effect of weight reduction on cardiovascular risk factors and CD34-positive cells in circulation.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Casciari, Joseph J; Hunninghake, Ronald E; Beezley, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs) on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation. During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting. The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers. As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation. PMID:21850193

  15. Biological quality of soils containing hydrocarbons and efficacy of ecological risk reduction by bioremediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Napolitano, G.E.; Sample, B.E.

    1996-06-01

    This project provides technical support to the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF; a consortium of petroleum companies) on environmentally acceptable endpoints that may be used to help assess the ecological risk of petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in soils. The project, was designed in consultation with PERF representatives and focuses on the relationship between {open_quotes}chemically available{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biologically available{close_quotes} measurements of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soils, a discrepancy of considerable interest to the petroleum industry. Presently, clean-up standards for soils contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) constituents are based on concentrations of TPH, as measured in solvent extracts of soil samples. Interestingly, TPH includes a complex mixture of compounds which differ from one another in molecular weight and toxicity. Based on various studies with insecticides, herbicides and metals, some compounds apparently can slowly permeate into soil particles. If this situation occurs, the particle-embedded compounds may be extractable by use of organic solvents, and yet be unavailable biologically. This hypothesis serves as the central focus for our study. If this hypothesis is correct, then soil clean-up standards based on solvent-extractable TPH data may be more stringent than necessary to achieve a desired level of environmental risk. The economic significance of this possibility is considerable, because clean-up costs to achieve a low-risk status would, in most cases, be lower than those needed to achieve a standard based on present limits, which are based on measurements of {open_quotes}extractable{close_quotes} TPH.

  16. Dealing with unquantifiable uncertainties in landslide modelling for urban risk reduction in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, no probability distribution is available to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform acceptably well over a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), as well as advanced visualization tools, to assess the combination of conditions that may lead to slope failure. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates during the hurricane season, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in

  17. When Are Qualitative Testing Results Sufficient To Predict a Reduction in Illnesses in a Microbiological Food Safety Risk Assessment?

    PubMed

    Ebel, Eric D; Williams, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    Process models that include the myriad pathways that pathogen-contaminated food may traverse before consumption and the dose-response function to relate exposure to likelihood of illness may represent a "gold standard" for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Nevertheless, simplifications that rely on measuring the change in contamination occurrence of a raw food at the end of production may provide reasonable approximations of the effects measured by a process model. In this study, we parameterized three process models representing different product-pathogen pairs (i.e., chicken-Salmonella, chicken-Campylobacter, and beef-E. coli O157:H7) to compare with predictions based on qualitative testing of the raw product before consideration of mixing, partitioning, growth, attenuation, or dose-response processes. The results reveal that reductions in prevalence generated from qualitative testing of raw finished product usually underestimate the reduction in likelihood of illness for a population of consumers. Qualitative microbial testing results depend on the test's limit of detection. The negative bias is greater for limits of detection that are closer to the center of the contamination distribution and becomes less as the limit of detection is moved further into the right tail of the distribution. Nevertheless, a positive bias can result when the limit of detection refers to very high contamination levels. Changes in these high levels translate to larger consumed doses for which the slope of the dose-response function is smaller compared with the larger slope associated with smaller doses. Consequently, in these cases, a proportional reduction in prevalence of contamination results in a less than proportional reduction in probability of illness. The magnitudes of the biases are generally less for nonscalar (versus scalar) adjustments to the distribution. PMID:26219357

  18. A mechanism for the reduction in risk of decompression sickness in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    There is an apparent reduction in the incidence of decompression sickness reported by astronauts (from both the USA and the USSR) during extravehicular activity (EVA). The expected incidence, based on studies conducted under unit gravity conditions in Earth-based laboratories, is greater than that encountered during EVA. A biophysical explanation has been proposed for this difference based upon the mechanism of stress-assisted nucleation. Since the partial pressure ratio at which this gas phase forms is considerably smaller in living systems that in quiescent in vitro models, it was proposed that mechanical forces are involved. In that the lower extremities of astronautics are not gravitationally loaded in microgravity, it is possible that tissue gas micronuclei are but minimally regenerated. Most likely, gas micronuclei formed on Earth (by ambulation under 1 g conditions) would be eventually depleted. In a crossover study, 20 individuals were decompressed--from 1 ATA to 0.43 ATA for 3 hours--following either being fully ambulatory at unit gravity or following being hypokinetic and adynamic (simulated microgravity of 3-day bed rest). The subjects were monitored for gas phase formation by means of precordial Doppler monitoring. The results indicate a reduction in whole body gas phase formation in individuals who were bed rested as compared with themselves when fully ambulatory (p = 0.02). In hypokinetic individuals, the protection conferred was equivalent to an extra 175 minutes of oxygen prebreathe. These results are compatible with a hypothesis relating stress-assisted nucleation to the continual formation of tissue gas micronuclei and their gradual depletion with hypokinesia.

  19. Barrage fishponds: Reduction of pesticide concentration peaks and associated risk of adverse ecological effects in headwater streams.</