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Sample records for absolute salinity anomaly

  1. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  2. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  3. A modified algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, H.; Kawano, T.; Aoyama, M.; Wakita, M.; Nishino, S.; Ozawa, S.

    2012-04-01

    In 2010, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO) and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) adopted the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 (TEOS-10). One of the substantial changes from previous practice is the use of Absolute Salinity (g/kg) instead of Practical Salinity in TEOS-10. Since there is no sensor that can precisely measure Absolute Salinity in situ, an algorithm to estimate Absolute Salinity was provided along with TEOS-10. The algorithm exploits the correlation between the Absolute Salinity anomaly (dSA) relative to the Reference-Composition Salinity and the silicate concentration, making use of the global atlas of silicate concentrations, and the correlation coefficient is a function of latitude determined for each ocean basin (McDougall et al., Ocean Sci. Discuss., 6, 215-242, 2009). However, the dSA shows latitude dependent systematic discrepancy from dSA estimated from another model which exploits more precisely the correlation between dSA and nutrient concentrations and carbonate system parameters based on mathematical investigation (Pawlowicz et al., Ocean Sci., 7, 363-387, 2011). These two models for estimating dSA were evaluated using measured dSA with an oscillation-type density meter for the North Pacific, the Bering Sea, and the Arctic Ocean. The measured dSA agreed well with the estimates of the multi-parameter model. These results suggest that the algorithm for estimating dSA used in TEOS-10 have latitude dependent systematic biases (~0.01 g/kg), probably due to systematic biases in density data used. To minimize these systematic biases, a simple relationship between dSA and silicate concentration was determined for the global ocean, regardless of latitude dependency, by combining previously used and newly obtained density data. For the surface water of the Arctic Ocean, however, dSA is related with alkalinity by the input of

  4. Estimating Absolute Salinity (SA) in the World's Oceans Using Density and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, R. J.; Huang, F.; Millero, F. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The practical salinity (Sp), which is determined by the relationship of conductivity to the known proportions of the major components of seawater, and reference salinity (SR = (35.16504/35)*Sp), do not account for variations in physical properties such as density and enthalpy. Trace and minor components of seawater, such as nutrients or inorganic carbon and total alkalinity affect these properties and contribute to the absolute salinity (SA). This limitation has been recognized and several studies have been made to estimate the effect of these compositional changes on the conductivity-density relationship. These studies have been limited in number and geographic scope. Here, we combine the measurements of previous studies with new measurements for a total of 2,857 conductivity-density measurements covering all of the world's major oceans to derive empirical equations for the effect of silica and total alkalinity on the density and absolute salinity of the global oceans and recommend an equation applicable to most of the world oceans. The potential impact on salinity as a result of uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is also discussed.

  5. Hydrogeophysical exploration of three-dimensional salinity anomalies with the time-domain electromagnetic method (TDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gondwe, Bibi N.; Christiansen, Lars; Herckenrath, Daan; Kgotlhang, Lesego; Zimmermann, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThe time-domain electromagnetic method (TDEM) is widely used in groundwater exploration and geological mapping applications. TDEM measures subsurface electrical conductivity, which is strongly correlated with groundwater salinity. TDEM offers a cheap and non-invasive option for mapping saltwater intrusion and groundwater salinization. Traditionally, TDEM data is interpreted using one-dimensional layered-earth models of the subsurface. However, most saltwater intrusion and groundwater salinization phenomena are characterized by three-dimensional anomalies. To fully exploit the information content of TDEM data in this context, three-dimensional modeling of the TDEM response is required. We present a finite-element solution for three-dimensional forward modeling of TDEM responses from arbitrary subsurface electrical conductivity distributions. The solution is benchmarked against standard layered-earth models and previously published three-dimensional forward TDEM modeling results. Concentration outputs from a groundwater flow and salinity transport model are converted to subsurface electrical conductivity using standard petrophysical relationships. TDEM responses over the resulting subsurface electrical conductivity distribution are generated using the three-dimensional TDEM forward model. The parameters of the hydrodynamic model are constrained by matching observed and simulated TDEM responses. As an application example, a field dataset of ground-based TDEM data from an island in the Okavango Delta is presented. Evaporative salt enrichment causes a strong salinity anomaly under the island. We show that the TDEM field data cannot be interpreted in terms of standard one-dimensional layered-earth TDEM models, because of the strongly three-dimensional nature of the salinity anomaly. Three-dimensional interpretation of the field data allows for detailed and consistent mapping of this anomaly and makes better use of the information contained in the TDEM field

  6. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  7. A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang

    2016-04-07

    With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events.

  8. Model representation of salinity anomalies and the stability of the North Atlantic overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megann, A.; New, A.; Blaker, A.

    2012-04-01

    Vellinga and Wu (2004) and others have identified feedback cycles governing the decadal variability of the North Atlantic overturning circulation, in which modulation of tropical rainfall creates near-surface salinity anomalies that propagate northward to the winter convection regions, where they affect the wintertime convection through changes in surface density. Freshwater "hosing" experiments, in which 0.1 Sv of extra freshwater is added to the convection region, are described using two climate models: the UK Met Office's HadCM3; and CHIME, which is identical to HadCM3 except for the replacement of the z-coordinate ocean component of HadCM3 with the hybrid isopycnic model HYCOM. While HadCM3 shows an unambiguous weakening of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) by 5 Sv, the MOC in CHIME initially starts to decrease but returns to a value close to that in the control experiment after 40-50 years even though the hosing flux is still being applied. It will be shown that the recovery of the overturning in CHIME is mainly due to enhanced advective transport of salt from the subtropics by salinity anomalies. These are found to be substantially more coherent meridionally in CHIME than in HadCM3, consistent with the known superior ability of the isopycnic model formulation to preserve watermass properties over long distances.

  9. A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang

    2016-01-01

    With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events. PMID:27052319

  10. A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang

    2016-04-01

    With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events.

  11. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  12. Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Nivedita

    1988-12-01

    This thesis studies the structure of local and global anomalies in certain systems and examines the conditions for their cancellation. Gauge anomalies-abelian and non -albelian-antisymmetric tensor, and gravitational anomalies in simple spinor theories with background fields have been analyzed by perturbative methods and local counterterms have been constructed to cancel the anomalies wherever possible. Anomalies occurring in supersymmetric theories in (2 + 1)-dimensions have also been calculated using both perturbative and heat kernel techniques, here again counterterms have been constructed to cancel these parity violating anomalies for certain gauge field configurations. (i) For gauge theories in four dimensions which contain couplings of fermions to a non-abelian antisymmetric tensor field, the contribution of the later to anomalies in the non-abelian chiral Ward identity is computed. It is shown by explicit construction of suitable counterterms that these anomalies can all be cancelled. (ii) The gauge anomalies associated with the gravitational fields in abelian gauge theories can be completely removed provided torsion is nonzero. This is shown by constructing a counterterm associated with the gravitational Goldstone-Wilczek current which cancels the anomalous gravitational contribution to the chiral Ward identity without introducing anomalies in the Lorentz or Einstein Ward identities. (iii) Using perturbative BPHZ renormalization techniques the parity odd part of the effective action has been extracted and explicitly determined for abitrary non-abelian gauge superfields in odd dimensions and shown to be the supersymmetric Chern -Simons secondary topological invariant. (iv) Schwinger's proper time technique is generalized to supersymmetric theories in odd dimensions. The effective action for supersymmetric QED is exactly found for space-time constant superfield. The parity violating anomaly induced in the effective action can be cancelled by adding a local

  13. Seasonal anomalies of water salinity in the Gelendzhik region of the Black Sea according to shipborne monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podymov, O. I.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents results of analyzing the data on the variability of salinity in the upper layer of the coastal zone (including the seasonal thermocline) of the Black Sea during the 2010-2013 warm seasons (April-November). The data for the analysis were obtained from the regularly conducted CTD probing the by R/V Ashamba on a cross section abeam the Golubaya Bay (Gelendzhik). The relationship between salinity anomalies, coastal precipitation, and wind forcing is analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of thermal stratification to the density stratification in the seasonal thermocline is almost always greater than the contribution of salinity stratification, and the ratio of the former to the latter increases from April to November.

  14. Evolution of anomalies of salinity of surface waters of Arctic Ocean and their possible influence on climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A.; Rubchenia, A.

    2009-04-01

    flaw lead polynyas there is a reduction of average salinity of surface waters of Arctic basin. In the winter period obvious influence of waters of a river runoff on a hydrological situation of this or that sea is limited to a zone of distribution of fast ice and a narrow zone of flaw lead polynyas between fast ice and drift ice. That fresh water from the Arctic seas is transferred in the Arctic basin. There should be a certain effective mechanism to carry it. Presence of clear interrelation of salinity of surface waters and volumes of ice formed in polynyas, allows us to offer the following circuit of formation of average salinity of surface waters in the Arctic basin. The ice formed in polynya, is constantly taken out for limits of an area of flaw lead polynyas. This ice accumulates the fresh water acting with a river runoff. New ice hummocking and accumulate snow - the next source of fresh water. In the summer period ice is melting and forms surface fresh layer. In the cold period of year, presence of thick ice not allows accumulating all fresh water, and the zone of fresh water is forming. These fresh water areas could exist for months. In the reports [1] was offered a hypothesis describing formation of distant connections in climatic system. In the hypothesis offered by us about a role of polynyas in formation of distant feedback in climatic system the most important and, unfortunately, the least certain parameter is «reaching time» of climatic signal from a place of origin (in flaw lead polynya area) up to the Greenland sea and Northern Atlantic. For an estimation of reaching time» we tried to trace drift of this anomaly from polynyas to Greenland Sea. For the initial moment of anomaly genesis month of the maximal development of polynya (when ice production of it was maximal) was chosen. Core of freshwater anomaly was determined for several polynyas. Using results of our simulations, data from database with areas of polynyas, wind stress data and current speed

  15. Arctic salinity anomalies and their link to the North Atlantic during a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssais, Marie-Noelle; Herbaut, Christophe; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Rousset, Clément

    2007-05-01

    Many of the changes observed during the last two decades in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas have been linked to the concomitant abrupt decrease of the sea level pressure in the central Arctic at the end of the 1980s. The decrease was associated with a shift of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) to a positive phase, which persisted throughout the mid 1990s. The Arctic salinity distribution is expected to respond to these dramatic changes via modifications in the ocean circulation and in the fresh water storage and transport by sea ice. The present study investigates these different contributions in the context of idealized ice-ocean experiments forced by atmospheric surface wind-stress or temperature anomalies representative of a positive AO index. Wind stress anomalies representative of a positive AO index generate a decrease of the fresh water content of the upper Arctic Ocean, which is mainly concentrated in the eastern Arctic with almost no compensation from the western Arctic. Sea ice contributes to about two-third of this salinification, another third being provided by an increased supply of salt by the Atlantic inflow and increased fresh water export through the Canadian Archipelago and Fram Strait. The signature of a saltier Atlantic Current in the Norwegian Sea is not found further north in both the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches of the Atlantic inflow where instead a widespread freshening is observed. The latter is the result of import of fresh anomalies from the subpolar North Atlantic through the Iceland-Scotland Passage and enhanced advection of low salinity waters via the East Icelandic Current. The volume of ice exported through Fram Strait increases by 20% primarily due to thicker ice advected into the strait from the northern Greenland sector, the increase of ice drift velocities having comparatively less influence. The export anomaly is comparable to those observed during events of Great Salinity Anomalies and induces substantial freshening

  16. Salinity-induced stratification and the onset of hypoxia during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadomanolaki, Nina; Dijkstra, Nikki; van Helmond, Niels; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hagens, Mathilde; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    During the past ~8000 years the Baltic Sea has experienced three distinct intervals of hypoxia, of which the last one is still ongoing. These intervals are characterized by enhanced sedimentary organic matter burial and enrichment of redox-sensitive metals, such as molybdenum and iron. The first two of these intervals occurred during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), two phases with high temperatures and changed precipitation patterns. Studies focussing on the Holocene sedimentary record of the Baltic Sea aim at clarifying the causes of the initiation, evolution and termination of these hypoxic intervals, as well as their consequences. This information could help to potentially aid in finding solutions for the mitigation of present-day hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. The factors contributing to hypoxia development during the HTM and MCA are still debated. Here we present data from a core retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 in the Landsort Deep basin, the deepest basin of the Baltic Sea at 463m water depth. Sediments were analysed at a high resolution using inorganic geochemical and (mainly marine) palynological proxies. Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages and total elemental compositions provide clues on the role of salinity in enhancing stratification, ultimately causing hypoxia. During the onset of the HTM changes in salinity, as indicated by the palynology, closely follow changes in sedimentary organic carbon burial and trace metal concentrations. This suggests that stratification was an important cause of hypoxia during the HTM. In contrast, the palynology suggests that reduced stratification did not contribute to re-oxygenation during the termination of the HTM. We did not observe major changes in the palynology throughout the hypoxic interval of the MCA. Our results thus suggest that changes in salinity did not cause the onset and termination of hypoxia during the MCA.

  17. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  18. An Arctic source for the Great Salinity Anomaly - A simulation of the Arctic ice-ocean system for 1955-1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1993-01-01

    The paper employs a fully prognostic Arctic ice-ocean model to study the interannual variability of sea ice during the period 1955-1975 and to explain the large variability of the ice extent in the Greenland and Iceland seas during the late 1960s. The model is used to test the contention of Aagaard and Carmack (1989) that the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA) was a consequence of the anomalously large ice export in 1968. The high-latitude ice-ocean circulation changes due to wind field changes are explored. The ice export event of 1968 was the largest in the simulation, being about twice as large as the average and corresponding to 1600 cu km of excess fresh water. The simulations suggest that, besides the above average ice export to the Greenland Sea, there was also fresh water export to support the larger than average ice cover. The model results show the origin of the GSA to be in the Arctic, and support the view that the Arctic may play an active role in climate change.

  19. Use Of Absolute Function And Its Associates In Formation And `Redevelopment' Of Mathematical Models In Some Plant-Related Quantitative Physiology: Salinity Effects On Leaf Development Of Schefflera arboricola And Harvest Index In Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamat, Ahmad; Awang, Yahya; Mohamed, Mahmud T. M.; Wahab, Zakaria; Osman, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The roles of quantitative physiology are becoming more apparent and crucial in the era of ICT recently. As based on the rate-related variables, most of the mathematical models are in the form of `non-linear' function in describing the responses or the observed within-plant processes outcomes versus time. Even though if some responses change in a drastic manner at certain response point within a biological unit or space of a plant system, the response curve `should' be dependent on a continuous independent variable range in a specified period of determination where biologically `should not' functioned by independent variable range having `IF' statement(s). Subjected to nutrient concentration of high salinity (6.0 mS cm-1), the leaf turgidity (measured as leaf surface area) of S. arboricola which initially was described by one form of the logistic growth functions [(y = 1/(a+be-cx)] abruptly reduced as explained by a model having terms of Absolute function (ABS) containing tan-1(x) and its parameter of leaf life expectancy as affected by high salinity growing medium at a certain point of days after planting. This yielded an overall function of y = 1/(a+be-cx)-A[tan-1{(x-B)/D}+ABS(tan-1{(x-B)/D})]E, where a, b, c, A, B, D, and E are constants that most of them can be `biologically' interpreted. The constant B is the point similar to `IF statement' as normally used in other mathematical functions. Plants subjected to lower salinity status (<3.0 mS cm-1) were only having function of y = 1/(a+be-cx). In the harvest index or HI (economic yield/above ground biomass) study of 20 rice varieties grown over two planting seasons, the long flattened tails at both sides of a peak in the middle of function of y = R+B(T+ABS(B-x))e-k(T+ABS(B-x)) had indicated that those varieties maturing at 123 to 133 days after transplanting were having high HI values. In our observation, Absolute (ABS) function coupled with some terms could be used in the formation of some mathematical functions

  20. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  1. The composition of Standard Seawater and the definition of the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.; Feistel, Rainer; Wright, Daniel G.; McDougall, Trevor J.

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental determinations of the physical properties of seawater have previously been made for Atlantic surface waters, referred to as "Standard Seawater". In this paper a Reference Composition consisting of the major components of Atlantic surface seawater is determined using these earlier analytical measurements. The stoichiometry of sea salt introduced here is thus based on the most accurate prior determination of the composition, adjusted to achieve charge balance and making use of the 2005 atomic weights. Reference Seawater is defined as any seawater that has the Reference Composition and a new Reference-Composition Salinity SR is defined to provide the best available estimate of the Absolute Salinity of both Reference Seawater and the Standard Seawater that was used in the measurements of the physical properties. From a practical point of view, the value of SR can be related to the Practical Salinity S by S=(35.16504/35)gkg×S. Reference Seawater that has been "normalized" to a Practical Salinity of 35 has a Reference-Composition Salinity of exactly SR=35.16504 g kg -1. The new independent salinity variable SR is intended to be used as the concentration variable for future thermodynamic functions of seawater, as an SI-based extension of Practical Salinity, as a reference for natural seawater composition anomalies, as the currently best estimate for Absolute Salinity of IAPSO Standard Seawater, and as a theoretical model for the electrolyte mixture "seawater".

  2. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  3. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  4. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  5. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  8. Uhl's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Vecht, R J; Carmichael, D J; Gopal, R; Philip, G

    1979-01-01

    Uhl's anomaly of the heart is a rare condition. Another well-documented case is presented with a review of the published reports outlining the main clinical features and the bad overall prognosis. Right atriotomy should be avoided if closure of the atrial septal defect is attempted. Images PMID:465242

  9. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Heparinised saline or normal saline?

    PubMed

    Kannan, Anand

    2008-10-01

    Using heparinised saline as a flush to maintain the patency of arterial and central venous lines is a well-known practice. A literature search was undertaken but found no evidence to support the use of heparinised saline over normal saline. In addition, the use of heparinised saline may be associated with adverse effects. The literature search strategy utilised Ovid CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as hand-searching bibliographies of clinical and research articles from the University of Cambridge Medical Library. Keywords and phrases included 'heparin', 'normal saline', 'arterial', 'haemodynamic lines' and 'catheters'. All types of evidence from each of these resources were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across clinical practice, changesin the concept over time and emerging trends. PMID:18983067

  13. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  14. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  15. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  16. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  17. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  18. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  19. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  20. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  1. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  2. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients ... at a fraction of the cost. Saline Rinse Recipe Ingredients 1. Pickling or canning salt-containing no ...

  3. Low-salinity water off West Luzon Island in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunwei; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunzai; Su, Jilan

    2015-04-01

    Low-salinity water with two cores is found off West Luzon Island in the South China Sea (SCS) during summer. A series of salinity observations and model results show that the low-salinity water begins to appear in June, reaches its lowest salinity in September, and disappears after October. Rainfall associated with the summer monsoon impinging on the Philippine mountain ranges plays an important role in the formation of the low-salinity water, while upward Ekman pumping of high-salinity subsurface water caused by the strong winter monsoon is important for its disappearance. Variation in mixed layer depth is responsible for the formation of the two cores of the low-salinity water, while advection also contributes. The study further demonstrates that the low-salinity water has considerable interannual variability associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): during the summer of the decaying year of an El Niño, an anticyclonic wind anomaly occurs in the SCS. The anticyclonic wind anomaly is associated with a northeasterly anomaly south of 18°N, reducing precipitation and causing salting of the low-salinity water off West Luzon Island. The situation is reversed during the summer of the decaying year of a La Niña.

  4. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  5. Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.

    PubMed

    Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

    1968-10-18

    An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified.

  6. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  7. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  8. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  9. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  10. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  12. Coronary artery anomalies.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P

    2006-12-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon findings but can be of significant clinical importance in a small number of individuals. Clinical presentation depends on the specific anomaly. Most coronary artery anomalies are benign and clinically insignificant, however, some anomalies are potentially significant and can lead to heart failure and even death. Noninvasive imaging has emerged as the preferred way to image coronary anomalies. Both electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are useful for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. Recently, MDCT has also proven to be very useful in the detection and characterization of anomalous coronary arteries. This chapter will review the appearance of the most commonly encountered coronary anomalies on MDCT. PMID:17709086

  13. Familial Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenmann, A; Arad, I; Simcha, A; Schaap, T

    1976-01-01

    A family is described in which both a father and son are affected with Ebstein's anomaly, while several other family members manifest different cardiac malformations. Five additional instances of familial Ebstein's anomaly were found in the literature and compared with our family. Inspection of possible modes of inheritance in this group of families suggests that Ebstein's anomaly is probably inherited as a polygenic character with a threshold phenomenon. PMID:1018315

  14. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  15. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  16. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  17. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  18. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  19. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  20. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  1. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  2. Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

  3. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  4. Imaging of facial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Mukherji, S K

    1995-01-01

    Anomalies of the face may occur in its lower or middle segments. Anomalies of the lower face generally involve the derivatives of the branchial apparatus and therefore manifest as defects in the mandible, pinnae, external auditory canals, and portions of the middle ears. These anomalies are occasionally isolated, but most of them occur in combination with systemic syndromes. These anomalies generally do not occur with respiratory compromise. Anomalies of the midface may extend from the upper lip to the forehead, reflecting the complex embryology of this region. Most of these deformities are isolated, but some patients with facial clefts, notably the midline cleft syndrome and holoprosencephaly, have anomalies in other sites. This is important because these patients will require detailed imaging of the face and brain. Anomalies of the midface tend to involve the nose and its air-conducting passages. We prefer to divide these anomalies into those with and without respiratory obstruction. The most common anomalies that result in airway compromise include posterior choanal stenoses and atresias, bilateral cysts (mucoceles) of the distal lacrimal ducts, and stenosis of the pyriform (anterior) nasal aperture. These may be optimally evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and generally require immediate treatment to ensure adequate ventilation. Rare nasal anomalies that also result in airway obstruction are agenesis of the pharynx, agenesis of the nose, and hypoplasia of the nasal alae. Agenesis of the nasopharynx and nose are complex anomalies that require both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnosis of hypoplasia of the nasal alae is a clinical one; these anomalies do not require imaging studies. Besides facial clefts, anomalies of the nose without respiratory obstruction tend to be centered around the nasofrontal region. This is the site of the most common sincipital encephaloceles. Patients with frontonasal and nasoethmoidal encephaloceles require both

  5. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  6. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  7. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  8. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  9. SADM potentiometer anomaly investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian; Mussett, David; Cattaldo, Olivier; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    During the last 3 years Contraves Space have been developing a Low Power (1-2kW) Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) aimed at small series production. The mechanism was subjected to two test programmes in order to qualify the SADM to acceptable levels. During the two test programmes, anomalies were experienced with the Potentiometers provided by Eurofarad SA and joint investigations were undertaken to resolve why these anomalies had occurred. This paper deals with the lessons learnt from the failure investigation on the two Eurofarad (rotary) Potentiometer anomaly. The Rotary Potentiometers that were used were fully redundant; using two back to back mounted "plastic tracks". It is a pancake configuration mounted directly to the shaft of the Slip Ring Assembly at the extreme in-board end of the SADM. It has no internal bearings. The anomaly initially manifested itself as a loss of performance in terms of linearity, which was first detected during Thermal Vacuum testing. A subsequent anomaly manifested itself by the complete failure of the redundant potentiometer again during thermal vacuum testing. This paper will follow and detail the chain of events following this anomaly and identifies corrective measures to be applied to the potentiometer design and assembly process.

  10. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  11. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  12. Congenital Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gravereaux, Edwin C.; Nguyen, Louis L.; Cunningham, Leslie D.

    2004-04-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia, ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of large, symptomatic arteriovenous malformations often requires catheter-directed embolization prior to the attempt at complete surgical excision. Later recurrence, due to collateral recruitment, is frequent. Graded compression stockings and leg elevation are the mainstays of treatment for the predominantly venous congenital vascular anomalies. Most congenital central venous disorders are clinically silent. An exception is the retrocaval ureter. Retroaortic left renal vein, circumaortic venous ring, and absent, left-sided or duplicated inferior vena cava are relevant when aortic or inferior vena cava procedures are planned. The treatment of the venous disorders is directed at prevention or management of symptoms. Persistent sciatic artery, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and aberrant right subclavian artery origin are congenital anomalies that are typically symptomatic at presentation. Because they mimic more common diseases, diagnosis is frequently delayed. Delay can result in significant morbidity for the patient. Failure to make the diagnosis of persistent sciatic artery and popliteal entrapment can result in critical limb ischemia and subsequent amputation. Unrecognized aberrant right subclavian artery origin associated with aneurysmal degeneration can rupture and result in death. The treatment options for large-vessel arterial anomalies are surgical, sometimes in combination with endovascular techniques.

  13. Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

  14. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  15. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  16. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  17. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  18. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  19. Measuring soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

  20. Remote sensing of salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  1. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  2. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  3. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  4. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  5. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  6. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  7. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  8. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  9. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  10. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  11. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  12. Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  13. Salinity determination using NIRA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1985-07-01

    The determination of salinity of water by near infrared spectroscopic techniques is discussed. The concept of 'spectral shift reagents' is used and sufficiently rapid computer calculations yield the concentrations of Naci from measured absorbances at selected wavelengths. (AIP)

  14. Saline intrusion in partially mixed estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandle, D.

    2004-03-01

    Restricting interest to partially mixed estuaries, earlier studies of tidally averaged linearised theories relating to the vertical structure of salinity and velocities (accompanying saline intrusion) are extended to take account of tidal straining and associated convective overturning. The applicability of these theories is evaluated by reference to a 'single-point' numerical model in which the time-varying cycle of depth-averaged tidal current amplitude, Û, and a (temporally and vertically) constant saline gradient, S x, are specified. This model highlights the importance of convective overturning in counteracting unstable density structures introduced by tidal straining. By omitting overturning in the model, results agree closely with linearised theoretical derivations. However, incorporating overturning substantially increases tidally averaged surface-to-bed differences for both residual currents, δ u, and salinity, δ s. The vertical structure of tidal currents is a maximum, and hence the effect of tidal straining, in shallow macro-tidal estuaries. The propagation of tidal elevations and currents remains insensitive to saline intrusion in partially mixed estuaries. The applicability of the model was evaluated by simulation of recent measurements by Rippeth et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31 (2001) 2458). To explore the generality of estuarine responses, the model was run for a wide range of values of saline intrusion lengths, L, and water depths, D. Additional sensitivity analyses were made for changes in Û and bed stress coefficient, k. Response frameworks are shown for: δ u, δ s, potential energy anomaly φ, work done by bed friction and internal shear, rates and efficiency of saline mixing and ratios of relative mixing by diffusion to overturning. By equating the rate of mixing associated with vertical diffusion with river flow, Q, an expression for saline intrusion length L∝D 2/k ÛU o ( Uo river flow velocity) was derived. This formulation agrees with

  15. [First branchial cleft anomalies].

    PubMed

    Nikoghosyan, Gohar; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2008-05-12

    First branchial cleft anomalies are congenital rare lesions that can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. During the normal embryonic development the outer ear canal derives from the first branchial cleft. Abnormal development can result in production of a cyst, sinus or fistula with recurring infections. Early and correct diagnosis is necessary for the correct choice of surgical set-up in which identification and preservation of the facial nerve is an important step. A case of first branchial cleft sinus is presented with further discussion of classification, diagnostics and treatment. PMID:18489895

  16. When do anomalies begin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightman, Alan; Gingerich, Owen

    1992-02-01

    The present historical and methodological consideration of scientific anomalies notes that some of these are recognized as such, after long neglect, only after the emergence of compelling explanations for their presence in the given theory in view of an alternative conceptual framework. These cases of 'retrorecognition' are indicative not merely of a significant characteristic of the process of conceptual development and scientific discovery, but of the bases for such process in human psychology. Attention is given to the illustrative cases of the 'flatness problem' in big bang theory, the perigee-opposition problem in Ptolemaic astronomy, the continental-fit problem in geology, and the equality of inertial and gravitational mass.

  17. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  18. WF4 Anomaly Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biretta, John

    2005-07-01

    A serious anomaly has been found in images from the WF4 CCD in WFPC2. The WF4 CCD bias level appears to have become unstable, resulting in sporadic images with either low or zero bias level. The severity and frequency of the problem is rapidly increasing, and it is possible that WF4 will soon become unusable if no work-around is found. The other three CCDs {PC1, WF2, and WF3} appear to be unaffected and continue to operate properly. The impacts from "low" and "zero" bias are somewhat different, but in both cases the effects are immediately obvious. Images with low bias will tend to have horizontal {x-direction} streaks and stripes with an amplitude of ? about 0.5 DN in WF4. We believe these data should be mostly recoverable with some effort, though at a loss in the detectability of faint targets. "Zero bias" is a much more serious problem and is evidenced by images which are blank in WF4, except for showing occasional cosmic rays, bright targets, and negative pixels from dark subtraction. These images with zero bias are probably unusable for most purposes. Both the CCD gain settings of 7 and 14 are affected. The frequency of the anomaly is rapidly increasing. The first significant instances of low bias appear to have been in late 2004 when a few images were impacted. However, within the last few weeks over half the images are beginning to show the low bias problem. The more serious "zero bias" problem appears to have first occurred in Feb. 2005, but it is also increasing and now impacts 10% to 20% of WFPC2 images. At present there are still many images which appear fine and unaffected, but the situation is quickly evolving. We believe the science impact for most observers will be minimal. Targets are by default placed on either PC1 or WF3 which continue to operate properly. However, observers requiring the full field of view {survey projects, large targets, etc.} will potentially lose one-third of their imaging area. Our understanding of this anomaly is still

  19. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  20. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  1. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  2. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  3. Ebstein's anomaly in neonates.

    PubMed

    Moura, C; Guimarães, H; Areias, J C; Moreira, J

    2001-09-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease abnormality in which the tricuspid valve leaflets do not attach normally to the tricuspid valve annulus. The effective tricuspid valve orifice is displaced apically into the right ventricle (RV), near the junction of the inlet and the trabecular parts of the RV. The authors present a retrospective study of the patients with Ebstein's anomaly admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, in the period between January 1993 and March 2000. There were ten patients, representing 0.24% of total neonates and 1.99% of total congenital heart disease admitted to the institution in the same period. Fifty per cent were male and only one case had prenatal diagnosis. Holosystolic murmur (100%) from tricuspid regurgitation and cyanosis (80%) were the most frequent clinical findings. Chest X-ray was abnormal in 90% of the neonates, with a "balloon-shaped" enlarged heart. The main electrocardiographic findings were right atrial enlargement (70%) and arrhythmias (40%). Apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, to a maximum of 20 mm, and leaflets tethering to underlying RV myocardium were found in all patients. Tricuspid valve regurgitation was found in 90% (severe form in four cases). An atrial intracardiac shunt, mostly right-to-left, was also found in 50%. Digoxin was used (40%) to restore sinus rhythm. Fifty per cent of the neonates received intravenous prostaglandins. Two patients required a surgical procedure. Two patients died in the neonatal period. During the follow-up period (range 0.3-74.6 months), only one episode of supraventricular tachycardia was recorded. At present seven patients are clinically stable, three of them on medication.

  4. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  6. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  7. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  8. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Menn, M.; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.; Grosso, P.; Delauney, L.; Podeur, C.; Brault, P.; Guillerme, O.

    2011-11-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep.

  9. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  10. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  11. Surface Air Temperature - Long-Term Anomaly Series and Absolute Values (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Of all the possible domains of the Earth's surface, surface air temperature has the longest records extending back at some European locations to the late-17th century. Since that time coverage has expanded to encompass most of the world since the 1950s onwards. It is this domain that provides our long-term record of change providing the yardstick against which we define both cooler and warmer and cooling and warming periods during the last 300 years. Assembling all the recorded data is beset with an array of problems: the reasons for collecting the data during this long period have been many and varied and instruments, exposures, observation times and methods of calculating averages have regularly changed. Even today, there is not a WMO-defined method of calculating the daily and monthly average with countries allowed to use whatever method they deem appropriate. The talk will discuss the history, the problems and the methods that have been used to overcome them. As we move to more automated measurements and dynamical approaches to interpolation (Reanalyses) the talk will conclude with a number of recommendations.

  12. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  13. Congenital uterine anomalies affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reichman, David E; Laufer, Marc R

    2010-04-01

    The following review seeks to summarise the current data regarding reproductive outcomes associated with congenital uterine anomalies. Such malformations originate from adverse embryologic events ranging from agenesis to lateral and vertical fusion defects. Associated renal anomalies are common both for the symmetric and asymmetric malformations. While fertility is minimally impacted upon by müllerian anomalies in most cases, such malformations have historically been associated with poor obstetric outcomes such as recurrent miscarriage, second trimester loss, preterm delivery, malpresentation and intrauterine foetal demise (IUFD). The following review delineates the existing literature regarding such outcomes and indicates therapies, where applicable, to optimise the care of such patients.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  15. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). In this paper, Part I, the medical and prosthetic aspects are dealt with and a form of management is described for each type of anomaly. The conclusions are reached that prosthetic fitting and training should be initiated very early in life and that co-operation of the parent is essential to successful habilitation of a child with congenital limb anomalies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14154297

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  19. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  20. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  1. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  2. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  3. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  4. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  5. Upper mixed layer temperature anomalies at the North Atlantic storm-track zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, S. N.; Diansky, N. A.

    1995-10-01

    Synoptic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) were determined as a result of separation of time scales smaller than 183 days. The SSTAs were investigated using daily data of ocean weather station C (52.75°N; 35.5°W) from 1 January 1976 to 31 December 1980 (1827 days). There were 47 positive and 50 negative significant SSTAs (lifetime longer than 3 days, absolute value greater than 0.10 °C) with four main intervals of the lifetime repetitions: 1. 4-7 days (45% of all cases), 2. 9-13 days (20-25%), 3. 14-18 days (10-15%), and 4. 21-30 days (10-15%) and with a magnitude 1.5-2.0 °C. An upper layer balance model based on equations for temperature, salinity, mechanical energy (with advanced parametrization), state (density), and drift currents was used to simulate SSTA. The original method of modelling taking into account the mean observed temperature profiles proved to be very stable. The model SSTAs are in a good agreement with the observed amplitudes and phases of synoptic SSTAs during all 5 years. Surface heat flux anomalies are the main source of SSTAs. The influence of anomalous drift heat advection is about 30-50% of the SSTA, and the influence of salinity anomalies is about 10-25% and less. The influence of a large-scale ocean front was isolated only once in February-April 1978 during all 5 years. Synoptic SSTAs develop just in the upper half of the homogeneous layer at each winter. We suggest that there are two main causes of such active sublayer formation: 1. surface heat flux in the warm sectors of cyclones and 2. predominant heat transport by ocean currents from the south. All frequency functions of the ocean temperature synoptic response to heat and momentum surface fluxes are of integral character (red noise), though there is strong resonance with 20-days period of wind-driven horizontal heat advection with mixed layer temperature; there are some other peculiarities on the time scales from 5.5 to 13 days. Observed and modelled frequency functions

  6. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  7. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  8. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations.

  9. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  10. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny.

  11. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. PMID:27393920

  12. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  13. Spring climate and salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Peterson, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary almost always experiences its yearly maximum during late summer, but climate variability produces marked interannual variations. The atmospheric circulation pattern impacts the estuary primarily through variations of runoff from rainfall and snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada and, secondarily, through variations in the near-surface salinity in the coastal ocean. While winter precipitation is the primary influence upon salinity in the estuary, spring climate variations also contribute importantly to salinity fluctuations. Spring atmospheric circulation influences both the magnitude and the timing of freshwater flows, through anomalies of precipitation and temperature. To help discriminate between the effects of these two influences, the record is divided into subsets according to whether spring conditions in the region are cool and wet, warm and wet, cool and dry, or warm and dry. Warm springs promote early snowmelt-driven flows, and cool springs result in delayed flows. In addition to effects of winter and spring climate variability operating on the watershed, there are more subtle effects that are transmitted into the estuary from the coastal ocean. These influences are most pronounced in cool and dry springs with high surface salinity (SS) in the coastal ocean versus cool and wet springs with low SS in the coastal ocean. A transect of SS records at stations from the mouth to the head of the bay suggests that the coastal ocean anomaly signal is attenuated from the mouth to the interior of the estuary. In contrast, a delayed, postsummer signal caused by winter and spring runoff variations from the upstream watershed are most pronounced at the head of the estuary and attenuate toward the mouth.

  14. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  15. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  16. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  17. Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

    1989-01-01

    The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention. PMID:2819634

  18. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  19. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm yr-1. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists, including us, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  20. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δ w in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e. the same Practical Salinity (SP=7.766). The average δ w amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to one order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  1. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  2. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait overflow water anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Köllner, Manuela; Quadfasel, Detlef; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-03-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. Hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays at the Denmark Strait sill, at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik), were analyzed to quantify the variability and track anomalies in DSOW in the period 2007-2012. No long-term trends were detected in the time series, while variability on time scales from interannual to weekly was present at all moorings. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array showed coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations were only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays revealed a propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 13 days, while the correlations in salinity were low. Entrainment of warm and saline Atlantic Water and fresher water from the East Greenland Current (via the East Greenland Spill Jet) can explain the whole range of hydrographic changes in the DSOW measured downstream of the sill. Changes in the entrained water masses and in the mixing ratio can thus strongly influence the salinity variability of DSOW. Fresh anomalies found in downstream measurements of DSOW within the Deep Western Boundary Current can therefore not be attributed to Arctic climate variability in a straightforward way.

  3. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  4. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  5. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  6. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  7. geothermal salinity control system

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.C.; Zajac, E.

    1985-01-08

    Highly saline geothermal brine, such as that produced from the lower geothermal reserve of the Salton Sea geothermal field, is diluted with non-geothermal water of much lower salinity in a mixing zone proximate the high temperature end of a geothermal power plant, and preferably down in the production well just above the production zone, so as to reduce the chloride salt content of the production brine to a level that is at or below the saturated level at reinjection temperatures, thereby preventing any material chloride salt scaling at any location in the plant through reinjection. The permanent cemented-in production casing in the well is protected against the corrosive effects of the hot production brine by means of a removable production liner that is generally coextensive with the casing. Said mixing zone is provided in the lower portion of the liner, and the liner establishes an annulus between it and the casing through which said non-geothermal water flows downwardly to the mixing zone so as to exclude the production brine from contact with the casing.

  8. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  9. Boundary anomalies and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-08-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  10. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  11. Analysis of DSN software anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galorath, D. D.; Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Reifer, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    A categorized data base of software errors which were discovered during the various stages of development and operational use of the Deep Space Network DSN/Mark 3 System was developed. A study team identified several existing error classification schemes (taxonomies), prepared a detailed annotated bibliography of the error taxonomy literature, and produced a new classification scheme which was tuned to the DSN anomaly reporting system and encapsulated the work of others. Based upon the DSN/RCI error taxonomy, error data on approximately 1000 reported DSN/Mark 3 anomalies were analyzed, interpreted and classified. Next, error data are summarized and histograms were produced highlighting key tendencies.

  12. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Xavier E.

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15).

  13. Empirical tools for simulating salinity in the estuaries in Everglades National Park, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Smith, D. T.; Nickerson, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Salinity in a shallow estuary is affected by upland freshwater inputs (surface runoff, stream/canal flows, groundwater), atmospheric processes (precipitation, evaporation), marine connectivity, and wind patterns. In Everglades National Park (ENP) in South Florida, the unique Everglades ecosystem exists as an interconnected system of fresh, brackish, and salt water marshes, mangroves, and open water. For this effort a coastal aquifer conceptual model of the Everglades hydrologic system was used with traditional correlation and regression hydrologic techniques to create a series of multiple linear regression (MLR) salinity models from observed hydrologic, marine, and weather data. The 37 ENP MLR salinity models cover most of the estuarine areas of ENP and produce daily salinity simulations that are capable of estimating 65-80% of the daily variability in salinity depending upon the model. The Root Mean Squared Error is typically about 2-4 salinity units, and there is little bias in the predictions. However, the absolute error of a model prediction in the nearshore embayments and the mangrove zone of Florida Bay may be relatively large for a particular daily simulation during the seasonal transitions. Comparisons show that the models group regionally by similar independent variables and salinity regimes. The MLR salinity models have approximately the same expected range of simulation accuracy and error as higher spatial resolution salinity models.

  14. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    significant skill in extratropical systems. While continued refinement of global climate forecast systems and observations are needed to improve coastal SST anomaly prediction and extend predictions to other ecosystem relevant variables (e.g., salinity), present skill warrants close examination of forecasts for marine resource applications.

  15. A compositional anomaly at the Earth's core mantle boundary as an anchor to the relatively slowly moving surface hotspots and as source to the DUPAL anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lianxing

    2006-06-01

    Analyses of the relative motion using hotspot tracks, age progressions and plate circuits, and of the absolute motion using paleolatitude data indicate that three major long-lived surface hotspots geographically within a very low velocity province (VLVP) at the base of the Earth's mantle, Tristan, Marion and Kerguelen, exhibit small relative motions (< 9 mm/yr) in the past 80 Ma. The geochemical DUPAL anomaly maximum in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans is also shown to geographically coincide with the VLVP boundary when the past plate motions are taken into account. These observations can be explained and related by invoking a mechanism that the VLVP, a compositional anomaly at the core-mantle boundary, serves as an anchor to thermochemical mantle plumes that give rise to these three long-lived and relatively-slowly moving surface hotspots with the DUPAL signature, and as source to the DUPAL anomaly in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

  16. Salinity variability in the North Atlantic through synergetic analysis of Argo floats and satellite altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, Ilaria; Rhein, Monika; Klein, Birgit; Roessler, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Salinity distribution in the North Atlantic is affected by changes in the circulation and freshwater fluxes. Changes in salinity are introduced into the ocean's interior by vertical processes like subduction or convection, and transported along circulation pathways. At a given location and depth, salinity could vary by water mass changes due to changes in the freshwater flux, or by vertical migration of density surfaces caused either by wind-driven changes of ocean ventilation or by thermodynamic processes, like poleward migration of isopycnals as a result of surface warming. Changes in the wind driven circulation with a consequence shift of the subpolar front, that separates the fresher subpolar from the saline subtropical gyre, also have a marked influence on upper ocean salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic. Due to the lack of temporal and spatial resolution of salinity observations, salinity anomalies in the last century could only be studied by 5-year means. Thanks to the Argo program, the temporal and spatial resolution of salinity and temperature profiles since early 2000 have significantly improved, allowing to calculate even monthly means. To further improve temporal and spatial resolution of salinity, Argo profiles are combined with altimetry data and a "Transfer function", the Gravest Empirical Mode (GEM), is calculated. The GEM technique exploits the relationship between T/S profiles and dynamic height in order to parameterize salinity data as a function of dynamic height from the satellite altimetry. This technique gives the opportunity to extend the investigation of the salinity variability, with extremely high temporal (daily) and spatial (1/4°) resolution, back to 1993, the beginning of the altimetry data. This method was tested on several regions of the North Atlantic and it works particularly well for some of them, for example in the regions where the North Atlantic Current plays an important role. Within these regions salinity variability in

  17. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Raul A; Piola, Alberto R; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P Ted

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30′S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean. Key Points Satellite salinity sensors capture low-salinity detrainment events from shelves SW Atlantic low-salinity detrainments cause highest basin-scale variability In summer low-salinity detrainments cause extended low-salinity anomalies PMID:26213672

  18. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  19. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  20. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  1. Claycap anomaly detection using hyperspectral remote sensing and lidargrammetric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quijano, Maria Jose

    Clay capped waste sites are a common method to dispose of the more than 40 million tons of hazardous waste produced in the United States every year (EPA, 2003). Due to the potential threat that hazardous waste poses, it is essential to monitor closely the performance of these facilities. Development of a monitoring system that exploits spectral and topographic changes over hazardous waste sites is presented. Spectral anomaly detection is based upon the observed changes in absolute reflectance and spectral derivatives in centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) under different irrigation levels. The spectral features that provide the best separability among irrigation levels were identified using Stepwise Discriminant Analyses. The Red Edge Position was selected as a suitable discriminant variable to compare the performance of a global and a local anomaly detection algorithm using a DAIS 3715 hyperspectral image. Topographical anomaly detection is assessed by evaluating the vertical accuracy of two LIDAR datasets acquired from two different altitudes (700 m and 1,200 m AGL) over a clay-capped hazardous site at the Savannah River National Laboratory, SC using the same Optech ALTM 2050 and Cessna 337 platform. Additionally, a quantitative comparison is performed to determine the effect that decreasing platform altitude and increasing posting density have on the vertical accuracy of the LIDAR data collected.

  2. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  3. [Characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and functions in saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shao-xia; Liu, Run-jin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, widely distributing in various terrestrial ecosys- tems, are one of the important functional biotic components in soil habitats and play a vital role in improving soil evolution, maintaining soil health and sustainable productivity. Saline-alkali soil is a special habitat affecting plant growth and grain yield. Under the influence of a series of factors, such as human activities on the nature, S and N deposition, ozone, greenhouse effect, climate anomalies, and alien species invasions etc., soil salinization, biodiversity and functions of saline farmlands may be greatly affected, which could consequently influence agricultural production and the sustainable development of ecosystems. Followed by an introduction of the changing characteristics of saline soil area and the secondary salinization under the background of global changes, the present review mainly discussed the changing features of diversity and functions of AM fungi in saline habitats, summarized the factors influencing AM fungal diversity and functions, and the factors' changing characters under the global changes, in order to provide new ideas and ways in further elucidating the position, role and function of AM fungi in saline soil, and in strengthening saline farmland remediation in response to global changes.

  4. [Characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and functions in saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shao-xia; Liu, Run-jin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, widely distributing in various terrestrial ecosys- tems, are one of the important functional biotic components in soil habitats and play a vital role in improving soil evolution, maintaining soil health and sustainable productivity. Saline-alkali soil is a special habitat affecting plant growth and grain yield. Under the influence of a series of factors, such as human activities on the nature, S and N deposition, ozone, greenhouse effect, climate anomalies, and alien species invasions etc., soil salinization, biodiversity and functions of saline farmlands may be greatly affected, which could consequently influence agricultural production and the sustainable development of ecosystems. Followed by an introduction of the changing characteristics of saline soil area and the secondary salinization under the background of global changes, the present review mainly discussed the changing features of diversity and functions of AM fungi in saline habitats, summarized the factors influencing AM fungal diversity and functions, and the factors' changing characters under the global changes, in order to provide new ideas and ways in further elucidating the position, role and function of AM fungi in saline soil, and in strengthening saline farmland remediation in response to global changes. PMID:25985684

  5. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  6. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  7. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  9. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  10. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  11. An uncommon congenital anomaly of the ribs

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Zunimol, Mohamed Puthiyaveettil

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic rib is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the ribs. Here, we present the case of a 10-year-old boy with asthma who, on routine evaluation, was found to have this anomaly. PMID:27051123

  12. MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

  13. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  14. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed. PMID:9973708

  15. Loop anomalies in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2015-01-01

    We consider gauge models in the causal approach and study one-loop contributions to the chronological products and the anomalies they produce. We prove that in order greater than 4 there are no one-loop anomalies. Next we analyze one-loop anomalies in the second- and third-order of the perturbation theory. We prove that the even parity contributions (with respect to parity) do not produce anomalies; for the odd parity contributions we reobtain the well-known result.

  16. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2016-06-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  17. A sea surface salinity dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Du, Yan; Qu, Tangdong

    2016-10-01

    Based on the 10 years sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Argo, we identified a salinity dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean, termed S-IOD: a pattern of interannual SSS variability with anomalously low-salinity in the central equatorial and high-salinity in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean. The S-IOD matures in November-December, lagging the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode derived from sea surface temperature (SST) by 2 months. For the period of observations, the S-IOD persists longer than the IOD, until the following September-October. Oscillations of the two S-IOD poles are governed by different processes. Ocean advection associated with equatorial current variability dominates the SSS anomalies of the northern pole, while surface freshwater flux variability plays a key role in the SSS anomalies of the southern pole, where anomalous precipitation is sustained by preformed sea surface temperature anomalies. The S-IOD concurs with the strong IOD, reflecting an ocean-atmosphere coupling through the SST-precipitation-SSS feedback.

  18. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  19. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  20. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  1. Axial anomaly at arbitrary virtualities

    SciTech Connect

    Veretin, O.L.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-12-01

    The one-loop analytic expression for the axial-vector triangle diagram involving an anomaly is obtained for arbitrary virtualities of external momenta. The `t Hooft consistency principle is applied to the QCD sum rules for the first moment of the photon spin structure function g{sub l}{sup {gamma}}. It is shown that the contribution of the singlet axial current to the sum rules for g{sub l}{sup {gamma}} vanishes. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  3. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  4. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  5. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space {M} is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail {N}=(2,2) and {N}=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For {N}=(2,2) theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of {M} follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  6. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    DOE PAGES

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads tomore » new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.« less

  7. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  8. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  9. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  10. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  12. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  13. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  14. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  15. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  16. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  17. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may...

  18. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may...

  19. Regularization schemes and the multiplicative anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    1999-06-01

    Elizalde, Vanzo, and Zerbini have shown that the effective action of two free Euclidean scalar fields in flat space contains a `multiplicative anomaly' when ζ-function regularization is used. This is related to the Wodzicki residue. I show that there is no anomaly when using a wide range of other regularization schemes and that the anomaly can be removed by an unusual choice of renormalization scales. I define new types of anomalies and show that they have similar properties. Thus multiplicative anomalies encode no novel physics. They merely illustrate some dangerous aspects of ζ-function and Schwinger proper time regularization schemes.

  20. The effect of composition anomalies on the conductivity and density of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowicz, R. A.; Wright, D.; Millero, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    As seawater circulates through the global ocean, its relative composition undergoes small variations. This results in changes to the conductivity/salinity/density relationship, which is currently well-defined only for Standard Seawater obtained from a particular area in the North Atlantic. Although these changes have been ignored for 30 years, they are in fact the largest source of errors in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of real seawater using the equation of state (either EOS80 or the newer TEOS-10). Here we describe a theoretical model that relates seawater composition, conductivity, and density. A numerical implementation of the model can be used to predict density anomalies resulting from observed conductivities, carbonate-system parameters, and nutrient concentrations. Predictions of density anomalies made this way for a number of hydrographic sections are shown below. Calculations replicate direct observations of density anomalies in both laboratory experiments and in the open ocean. Theoretical analysis suggests that a hierarchy of salinity variables are required to fully describe the effects of anomalous seawater, but numerical experimentation shows that simple conversion factors can be used to relate them all in typical open-ocean situations. These results are incorporated into the new seawater manual (IOC, SCOR, and IAPSO, The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010: Calculation and Use of Thermodynamic Properties,UNESCO, 2010, also at www.teos-10.org) and should be useful in future attempts to understand and model global ocean circulation. Model-calculated density anomalies over several trans-oceanic sections

  1. Congenital anomalies in the baboon (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Benjamin; Owston, Michael A.; Kumar, Shyamesh; Dick, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Background A comprehensive survey of the prevalence of congenital anomalies in baboons has not been previously reported. We report the congenital anomalies observed over a 26-year period in a large captive baboon colony. Methods A computer search was performed for all baboon congenital anomalies identified at necropsy and recorded on necropsy submissions. Results We identified 198 congenital anomalies in 166 baboons from 9,972 necropsies (1.66% of total necropsies). The nervous, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems were most commonly affected. The most common organs affected were the brain, bone, heart, testicle, kidney, penis, aorta, and skeletal muscle. The most frequent congenital anomalies were blindness, seizures, and hydrocephalus. Conclusions The baboon has an overall frequency of congenital anomalies similar to humans and other nonhuman primates. Although the most frequently affected systems are similar, congenital anomalies involving the digestive system appear to be less common in the baboon. PMID:21332757

  2. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  3. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  4. ENSO and salinity changes in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta coastal lagoon system, Colombian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. A.; Viloria, E. A.; Narváez B., J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Salinity changes in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta and Pajarales Complex coastal lagoon system in northern Colombia, and their relation with local rainfall, tributaries' streamflow and ENSO, are analyzed. Being markedly low (<1321 mm yr -1), local rainfall is assumed to be insignificant for mean salinity changes. The non-linear model proposed explains the variations in salinity and tributaries' streamflow with ENSO intensity, measured as Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) anomaly. Streamflows are directly and salinity inversely correlated with SOI. Model analysis allowed to discriminate between natural and hydraulic management situations and also how the occurrence of different environmental scenarios reflected on salinity changes. The link between global climate variability and local conditions becomes clearer and worthy to be brought into account in management and decision making processes dealing with continental as well as other marine and coastal aquatic environments in the Caribbean region.

  5. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  6. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  7. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  8. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  9. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  10. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  11. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  12. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  13. Developmental anomalies of the skin.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Jane Sanders

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on the diagnosis and management of developmental anomalies of the skin that may be seen early in life. Common locations include the head, nose, preauricular area of the face, neck, and spine. Those that occur in or near the midline can be more serious because of possible intracranial connections. Radiologic imaging of the areas of involvement is often important; computed tomography (CT) scans can delineate bony defects; whereas, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) more clearly defines intracranial connections. Occult spinal dysraphism can be suspected when certain cutaneous signs are present.

  14. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  15. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  16. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant

  17. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  18. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  19. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  20. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  1. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  2. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  3. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  4. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  6. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  7. Diurnal Differences in OLR Climatologies and Anomaly Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena; Loeb, Norm

    2015-01-01

    AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) Version-6 OLR (Outgoing Long-Wave Radiation) matches CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Edition-2.8 OLR very closely on a 1x1 latitude x longitude scale, both with regard to absolute values, and also with regard to anomalies of OLR. There is a bias of 3.5 watts per meter squared, which is nearly constant both in time and space. Contiguous areas contain large positive or negative OLR difference between AIRS and CERES are where the day-night difference of OLR is large. For AIRS, the larger the diurnal cycle, the more likely that sampling twice a day is inadequate. Lower values of OLRclr (Clear Sky OLR) and LWCRF (Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing) in AIRS compared to CERES is at least in part a result of AIRS sampling over cold and cloudy cases.

  8. Recent Advances in the Physics of Hot Flow Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near planetary bow shocks that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection. HFAs are universal phenomena that have been observed near the bow shock of Earth, Venus, Mars, and Saturn. HFAs are not stable structures and they evolve with time. Statistical study shows that both ion and electron spectra can be used to classify young and mature HFAs. Classifications according to ion and electron spectra are not absolutely consistent, which might be due to different heating mechanisms and efficiency for ions and electrons. HFAs were also classified into four categories ("-+", "+-", "M", and "W") according their dynamic pressure profile. Most "W" type HFAs are mature HFAs (according to ion spectra) and most "-+" and "+-" type HFAs are young HFAs. Half of the "M" type HFAs are mature HFAs. Mature HFAs are pressure balanced while the pressure is higher inside young HFAs than that outside.

  9. The impact of gyre dynamics on the mid-depth salinity signature of the eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, K. C.; Lozier, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) is widely recognized for its role in establishing the mid-depth salinity signature of the subtropical North Atlantic. However, recent work has revealed an intermittent impact of MOW on the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin. This impact results from a temporally variable penetration of the northward flowing branch of the MOW past Porcupine Bank into the eastern subpolar basin. It has been shown that the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin, in particular the Rockall Trough, varies with the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): during persistent periods of strong winds (high NAO index), when the subpolar front moves eastward, waters in the subpolar gyre block the northward flowing MOW, preventing its entry into the subpolar gyre. Conversely, during persistent periods of weak winds (low NAO index), the front moves westward, allowing MOW to penetrate north of Porcupine Bank and into the subpolar gyre. Here, we investigate the manner in which the spatial and temporal variability in the northward penetration of the MOW and the position of the eastern limb of the subpolar front affect the mid-depth property fields not only in the subpolar gyre, but in the subtropical gyre as well. Using approximately 55 years of historical hydrographic data and output from the 1/12° FLAME model, we analyze the temporal variability of salinity along the eastern boundary and compare this variability to the position of the subpolar front in both the observational record and the FLAME model. We conclude that when the zonal position of the subpolar front moves relatively far offshore and the MOW is able to penetrate to the north, high salinity anomalies are observed at high latitudes and low salinity anomalies are observed at low latitudes. Conversely, when the frontal position shifts to the east, the MOW (and thus, the high salinity signature) is blocked, resulting in a drop in salinity anomalies at high latitudes

  10. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  11. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  12. Detection of Low Temperature Volcanogenic Thermal Anomalies with ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Baxter, S.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting volcanic eruptions is a thorny problem, as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission, geodetic, and seismic behavior. It is no surprise that increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System satellite in low earth orbit provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data (90m/pixel; 5 bands in the 8-12um region), bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereo-photogrammetric capabilities make ASTER a potentially important volcanic precursor detection tool. We are utilizing the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) to systematically examine 80,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We are creating and analyzing a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide as observed from ASTER since 2000 at 90m/pixel. Of particular interest as eruption precursors are small low contrast thermal anomalies of low apparent absolute temperature (e.g., melt-water lakes, fumaroles, geysers, grossly sub-pixel hotspots), for which the signal-to-noise ratio may be marginal (e.g., scene confusion due to clouds, water and water vapor, fumarolic emissions, variegated ground emissivity, and

  13. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  14. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  15. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  16. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  17. Vascular anomalies: differential diagnosis and mimickers.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Maria C; Weitz, Nicole; Powell, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Vascular anomalies are very common in children and encompass a wide spectrum of diseases. Many vascular anomalies can be mistaken for infantile hemangioma (IH). In addition, there is a variety of rare disorders including benign and malignant tumors that may mimic IH and other types of vascular anomalies. Understanding the clinical features, natural history, and typical clinical course of different types of vascular anomalies is essential in order to make the correct diagnosis and guide management. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis; and when the diagnosis remains in doubt, a biopsy performed by a surgical specialist with expertise may prove to be lifesaving. PMID:27607326

  18. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  19. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  20. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  1. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  2. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  3. Temperature anomaly in the volcano Popocatepetl area, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsarenko, A.; Grimalsky, V.; Yutsis, V.; Lavana Cardenas, J. C.; Chavez, O.; Sojo-Amezquita, A., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Anomaly changes in the diurnal behavior of the temperature measured in the near-surface soil (30-40 cm) in Tlamacas monitoring site, volcano Popocatepetl area, are presented. Results of statistical analysis show 2 essential changes for the temperature characteristics observed during 2007-2009 and 2013-2014 monitoring periods: 1.) Minimum and maximum of the diurnal temperature have moved approximately to the 14 LT and to midnight, 24 LT, respectively (Fig 1., c). Under the "normal" condition, the absolute minimum of daily temperature is observed during sunrise (about 7 LT) for the atmosphere measurements and with certain time lag (about 9 LT, Fig.1,b) for the measurements in soil (depending on the depth), and absolute temperature maximum is observed in time when Solar radiation is not enough to provide heating of the atmosphere (about 16 LT) or the Earth surface (about 17 LT, Fig.1,b). Dispersion of the residual temperature (24-hours running trend of the temperature substituted) is 6 times lower for the period of monitoring 2013-2014 (Fig.1, g and h) in comparison with a period 2007-2009 (Fig.1, e and f). In other words, a temperature variation between the maximum and minimum during the day became 6 times lower that it was before.

  4. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  5. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  6. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  7. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  8. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  9. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  10. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  11. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Classical anomalies for spinning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

    1998-02-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

  13. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  14. Detecting low Velocity Anomalies Combining Seismic Reflection With First Arrival Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flecha, I.; Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.

    2002-12-01

    In the present study seismic reflection techniques and high resolution seismic tomography are combined to determine location and geometry of shallow low velocity anomalies. Underground cavities (mines), water flows (formation with loose sand), etc. are geologic features characterized by slow seismic velocities and are targets of considerable social interest. Theoretical considerations (Snell's law) suggest that low velocity anomalies are undersampled and therefore badly resolved by ray tracing methods. A series of synthetics simulations have been carried out to asses the resolving power of the different methodologies. A 400mx50m two dimensional velocity model consisting of a background velocity gradient in depth from 3000 to 4000 m/s which included a rectangular low velocity anomaly (300 m/s). This anomaly was placed between 10m and 30m in depth and between 180m and 220m in length. The synthetic data calculation and the tomographic inversion have been done with absolutely independent programs. The data has been created using a 2D finite differences wave propagation acoustic algorithm. The tomographic inversion has been performed using two different software packages. The first one uses a combination of ray tracing a finite differences schemes to estimate the forward problem and an iterative conjugate gradient matrix solver to calculate the inverse. The second software package uses a modified Vidale scheme (Eikonal equation) to solve the forward problem and a LSQR to solve the inverse problem. The synthetic data were used for the inversions and for the generation of a conventional stacked section simulating a high resolution seismic reflection transect along the velocity model. The conventional stack images the diffractions caused by the velocity anomaly, which provided the location and extent of the low velocity anomaly. The inversions schemes provided estimates of the velocities, however, the tomograms and the ray tracing diagrams indicated a low resolution for

  15. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  16. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  17. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  18. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  19. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  20. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  1. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  2. Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Garcia, Andrea; Jacob, María. Marta; Jones, W. Linwood; Asher, William E.; Hejazin, Yazan; Ebrahimi, Hamideh; Rabolli, Monica

    2014-11-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been providing Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), globally over the ocean, for almost 3 years. As a member of the AQ/SAC-D Cal/Val team, the Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory has analyzed these salinity retrievals in the presence of rain and has noted the strong correlation between the spatial patterns of reduced SSS and the spatial distribution of rainfall. It was determined that this is the result of a cause and effect relationship, as opposed to SSS measurement errors. Hence, it is important to understand these SSS changes due to seawater dilution by rain and the associated near-surface salinity stratification. This paper addresses the effects of rainfall on the Aquarius (AQ) SSS retrieval using a macro-scale Rain Impact Model (RIM) in the region of high convective rain over the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone. This model, based on the superposition of a one-dimension eddy diffusion (turbulent diffusion) model, relates sea surface salinity to depth, rain accumulation and time since rainfall. For aiding in the identification of instantaneous and prior rainfall accumulations, an AQ Rain Accumulation product was developed. This product, based on the NOAA CMORPH rain data set, provides the rainfall history for 24 h prior to the observation time, which is integrated over each AQ SSS measurement cell. In this paper results of the RIM validation are presented by comparing AQ measured and RIM simulated SSS for several months of 2012. Results show the high cross correlation for these comparisons and also with the corresponding SSS anomalies relative to HYCOM.

  3. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  4. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  5. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  6. A controlled study of associated dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal patterns of association among seven types of dental anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, ectopic eruption of first molars, supernumerary teeth, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines) in an untreated orthodontic population, ages 7 to 14. The prevalence of associated tooth anomalies in seven groups of 100 subjects selected according to one primarily diagnosed dental anomaly was compared with the prevalence of the examined dental anomalies in a control group of 1,000 subjects. Significant reciprocal associations (p < 0.005) were found among five of the anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines), suggesting a common genetic origin for these conditions. Supernumerary teeth appeared to be a separate etiological entity with respect to all other examined tooth anomalies. The existence of associations between different tooth anomalies is clinically relevant, as the early diagnosis of one anomaly may indicate an increased risk for others. PMID:9622764

  7. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  8. Sources of Near Side Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Nicola C.; Hood, Lon L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector magnetometer data has been used to identify a number of nearside magnetic anomalies. Some of the features identified appear to correlate with impact ejecta, supporting a basin ejecta origin to the nearside anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  10. Fetal cardiac anomalies and genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pajkrt, Eva; Weisz, Boaz; Firth, Helen V; Chitty, Lyn S

    2004-12-30

    Cardiac anomalies may occur in isolation or can be part of a genetic syndrome. In this article, we describe some of the genetic syndromes commonly associated with cardiac anomalies where there are other sonographic features that may aid accurate prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  12. Scintigraphic demonstration of a gallbladder anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Holmes, R.A.; Witten, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are uncommon. In this paper the authors report a case of double gallbladder in which intravenous cholecystokinin analog (CCK) was used to confirm the presence of two ectopic gallbladders rather than other biliary tract anomalies or dilated hepatic ducts.

  13. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  14. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  15. Contrastive research of ionospheric precursor anomalies between Calbuco volcanic eruption on April 23 and Nepal earthquake on April 25, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Guo, Jinyun; Yue, Jianping; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhen; Lu, Deikai

    2016-05-01

    On April 23, 2015, the VEI4 (volcanic explosive index) Calbuco volcano abruptly erupted in Chile and the Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake occurred on April 25. In order to investigate the similarities and differences between total electron content (TEC) anomalies preceding these two types of geophysical activities, the TEC time series over preparation zones before the volcanic eruption and earthquake extracted from global ionosphere map were analyzed. We used sunspot numbers (SSN), Bz, Dst, and Kp indices to represent the solar-terrestrial environment and eliminate the effects of solar and geomagnetic activities on ionosphere by the sliding interquartile range method with the 27-day window. The results indicate that TEC-negative and -positive anomalies appeared in the 14th and 6th day before the eruption, respectively. The anomalies lasted about 4-6 h with a magnitude of 15-20 TECU. The TEC anomalies were also observed on the 14th and 6th day before the Nepal earthquake with a duration of 6-8 h, and the absolute magnitude of TEC anomalies was within 12-20 TECU. These findings indicate that the magnitude of TEC anomalies preceding volcanic eruption was larger, and the duration of TEC anomalies before the earthquake was longer, which may be associated with their particular physical mechanisms. The TEC anomalies before the Nepal earthquake in the Eastern hemisphere occurred in the afternoon local time, but those before the eruption were observed in the night local time. Peak regions of TEC anomalies did not coincide with the epicenters of geophysical activities, and the TEC anomalies also appeared in the magnetic conjugated region. Both the TEC anomalies in the preparation zone and conjugated region were distributed near the boundaries of equatorial anomaly zone and moved along the boundaries. In the moving process, sometimes the extent or magnitude of TEC anomalies in the conjugated region was larger than that in the preparation zone. Many more GPS stations and receivers

  16. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F. )

    1990-09-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

  17. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

    2012-03-01

    The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin.

  18. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Bridges, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  19. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  20. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  1. Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA

  2. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  3. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  4. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  5. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M'boule, Daniela; Chivall, David; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2014-04-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at different salinities. The fractionation factor, αalkenones-water, ranged between 0.853 and 0.902 for I. galbana and 0.789 and 0.822 for E. huxleyi. The results show a strong linear correlation between the fractionation factor α and salinity for E. huxleyi, in agreement with earlier studies, but also for I. galbana. Both haptophytes show the same response to changes in salinity, represented by the slopes of the α-salinity relationship (˜0.002 per salinity unit). This suggests that the same process, in both coastal as well as open ocean haptophytes, is responsible for reducing fractionation with increasing salinity. However, there is a significant difference in absolute isotope fractionation between E. huxleyi and I. galbana, i.e. E. huxleyi produces alkenones which are 90‰ more depleted in D under the same culturing conditions than I. galbana. Our data suggest that the δD of alkenones can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in paleosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments with careful consideration of species composition and other complicating factors especially in coastal regions.

  6. Stable carbon isotope discrimination: an indicator of cumulative salinity and boron stress in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Poss, J A; Grattan, S R; Suarez, D L; Grieve, C M

    2000-10-01

    Saplings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Clone 4544, irrigated with water of differing salinities (2 to 28 dS m-1) and boron concentrations (1 to 30 mg l-1), integrated the history of these stresses through the discrimination of stable isotopes of carbon in leaf and woody tissues. Carbon isotope discrimination (delta) was reduced primarily by salinity. Decreases in discrimination in response to boron stress were detected in the absence of salinity stress, but the decreases were significant only in leaf tissues with visible boron injury. Sapwood core samples indicated that salinity- and boron-induced reductions in delta increased with increasing tree age. Absolute values of delta varied with location of leaf or wood tissue, but relative effects of salinity on the relationship between delta and transpiration efficiency (W) were similar. In response to increasing salinity stress, relative decreases in delta paralleled relative decreases in biomass and both indices yielded similar salt tolerance model parameters. The strong correlations between delta, tree fresh weight, leaf area and W suggest that delta is a useful parameter for evaluating salt tolerance of eucalyptus PMID:11269964

  7. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  8. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  9. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  10. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  11. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  12. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  13. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  14. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  15. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  16. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  17. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  18. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  19. Salinization: unplumbed salt in a parched landscape.

    PubMed

    Williams, W D

    2001-01-01

    The global hydrological and salt cycles are described, as are the ways in which human activities have led to their disturbance. One effect of this disturbance is the unnatural increase in the salinity of many inland waters (secondary salinization). The geographical extent of secondary salinization is outlined, together with its effects on various types of inland waters, such as salt lakes, freshwater lakes and wetlands, and rivers and streams. The likely impact on salinization of global climate change is summarized.

  20. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  1. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  2. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p=0.22, p=0.284 respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal US shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. PMID:25196458

  3. Recent Advances in Ionospheric Anomalies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Anton; Vyacheslav, Khattatov

    2016-07-01

    The variability of the parameters of the ionosphere and ionospheric anomalies are the subject of intensive research. It is widely known and studied in the literature ionospheric disturbances caused by solar activity, the passage of the terminator, artificial heating of high-latitude ionosphere, as well as seismic events. Each of the above types of anomalies is the subject of study and analysis. Analysis of these anomalies will provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances. To solve this problem are encouraged to develop a method of modeling the ionosphere, based on the assimilation of large amounts of observational data.

  4. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  5. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  6. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  7. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup

    SciTech Connect

    von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

  8. Surface Salinity Variability in the North Atlantic During Recent Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2001-01-01

    The sea surface salinity (SSS) variability in the North Atlantic is investigated using numerical model simulations for the last 50 years based on atmospheric forcing variability from Comprehensive Atmosphere Ocean Data Set (COADS) and National Center for Environmental Prediction / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis. The largest interannual and longer term variability occurs in two regions: the Labrador Sea and the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) region. In both regions the seasonality of the surface salinity variability is prominent with the maximum standard deviation occurring in the summer/fall period. In the Labrador Sea the summer SSS anomalies far exceed those of wintertime in amplitude. The interannual SSS variability in the subpolar gyre can be attributed to two factors: excess ice melt and heat flux (i.e. deep mixing) variations. On the other hand, heat flux variability can also lead to meridional overturning changes on decadal time scales such that weak overturning is manifested in fresh surface conditions in the subpolar gyre. The overturning changes also influence the NECC region SSS variability. Moreover, the subpolar freshening events are expected to occur during the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation which is associated with a weak wintertime surface heat loss in the subpolar gyre. No excess sea ice melt or precipitation is necessary for the formation of the fresh anomalies, because with the lack of wide-spread deep mixing, the fresh water that would be expected based on climatology, would accumulate at the surface. Thus, the fresh water 'conveyor' in the Atlantic operates via the overturning circulation such that deep mixing inserts fresh water while removing heat from the water column.

  9. The influence of salinity on tropical Atlantic instability waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael J.; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) data derived from the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission are analyzed along with other satellite and in situ data to assess Aquarius' capability to detect tropical instability waves (TIWs) and eddies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and to investigate the influence that SSS has on the variability. Aquarius data show that the magnitude of SSS anomalies associated with the Atlantic TIWs is ±0.25 practical salinity unit, which is weaker than those in the Pacific by 50%. In the central equatorial Atlantic, SSS contribution to the mean meridional density gradient is similar to sea surface temperature (SST) contribution. Consequently, SSS is important to TIW-related surface density anomalies and perturbation potential energy (PPE). In this region, SSS influences surface PPE significantly through the direct effect and the indirect effect associated with SSS-SST covariability. Ignoring SSS effects would underestimate TIW-related PPE by approximately three times in the surface layer. SSS also regulates the seasonality of the TIWs. The boreal-spring peak of the PPE due to SSS leads that due to SST by about one month. Therefore, SSS not only affects the spatial structure, but the seasonal variability of the TIWs in the equatorial Atlantic. In the northeast Atlantic near the Amazon outflow and the North Brazil Current retroflection region and in the southeast Atlantic near the Congo River outflow, SSS accounts for 80-90% of the contribution to mean meridional density gradient. Not accounting for SSS effect would underestimate surface PPE in these regions by a factor of 10 and 4, respectively.

  10. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  11. NEUTRON-POOR NICKEL ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN METEORITES

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Coath, Christopher D.; Regelous, Marcel; Elliott, Tim; Russell, Sara

    2012-10-10

    We present new, mass-independent, Ni isotope data for a range of bulk chondritic meteorites. The data are reported as {epsilon}{sup 60}Ni{sub 58/61}, {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61}, and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}, or the parts per ten thousand deviations from a terrestrial reference, the NIST SRM 986 standard, of the {sup 58}Ni/{sup 61}Ni internally normalized {sup 60}Ni/{sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni/{sup 61}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni/{sup 61}Ni ratios. The chondrites show a range of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.84 in {epsilon}{sup 60}Ni{sub 58/61}, {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61}, and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61} relative to a typical sample precision of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 (2 s.e.), respectively. The carbonaceous chondrites show the largest positive anomalies, enstatite chondrites have approximately terrestrial ratios, though only EH match Earth's composition within uncertainty, and ordinary chondrites show negative anomalies. The meteorite data show a strong positive correlation between {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61} and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}, an extrapolation of which is within the error of the average of previous measurements of calcium-, aluminium-rich inclusions. Moreover, the slope of this bulk meteorite array is 3.003 {+-} 0.166 which is within the error of that expected for an anomaly solely on {sup 58}Ni. We also determined to high precision ({approx}10 ppm per AMU) the mass-dependent fractionation of two meteorite samples which span the range of {epsilon}{sup 62}Ni{sub 58/61} and {epsilon}{sup 64}Ni{sub 58/61}. These analyses show that 'absolute' ratios of {sup 58}Ni/{sup 61}Ni vary between these two samples whereas those of {sup 62}Ni/{sup 61}Ni and {sup 64}Ni/{sup 61}Ni do not. Thus, Ni isotopic differences seem most likely explained by variability in the neutron-poor {sup 58}Ni, and not correlated anomalies in the neutron-rich isotopes, {sup 62}Ni and {sup 64}Ni. This contrasts with previous inferences from mass-independent measurements of Ni and other

  12. Nitrogen isotope anomalies in primitive ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Naoji; Hashizume, Ko

    1992-07-01

    Large anomalies in nitrogen isotopic composition were found in two type-L3 ordinary chondrites. One of them is isotopically heavy, and the other is isotopically light. The carriers of anomalous nitrogen are partly soluble in HCl. Thus, the anomalies are probably due to new types of presolar grains, although they have not been identified yet. Trapped Ar-36 in these chondrites seems to be associated with this anomalous nitrogen, and may be presolar in origin. The presence of two different nitrogen isotopic anomalies suggests that the parent body of L chondrites, and also the primitive solar nebula, were not homogeneous. Nitrogen isotope anomalies seem to be useful in detecting subdivisions of chemical groups of chondrites.

  13. Negative gravity anomalies on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two kinds of negative gravity anomalies on the moon are distinguished - those which show a correspondence to lunar topography and those which appear to be unrelated to surface topography. The former appear to be due to mass deficiencies caused by the cratering process, in large part probably by ejection of material from the crater. Anomalies on the far side which do not correspond to topography are thought to have resulted from irregularities in the thickness of the lunar crust. Localized large negative anomalies adjacent to mascons are considered. Although structures on the moon having a half-wavelength of 800 km or less and large negative or positive gravity anomalies are not in isostatic equilibrium, many of these features have mass loadings of about 1000 kg/sq cm which can be statically sustained on the moon.

  14. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  15. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  16. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  17. Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

  18. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  19. Quantum anomalies in superconducting Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Hao, Lei; Wang, Baigeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically study the quantum anomalies in the superconducting Weyl metals based on the topological field theory. It is demonstrated that the Fermi arc and the surface Andreev bound state, characteristic of the superconducting Weyl metals, are the manifestations of two underlying phenomena, namely, the chiral anomaly and the paritylike anomaly, respectively. The first anomaly is inherited from the Berry curvature around the original Weyl points, while the second is the result of the superconductivity. We show that all the fascinating topological behavior of the superconducting Weyl metals, either the intranode Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov or the internode Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing state, can be satisfactorily described and predicted by our topological field theory.

  20. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  1. Relaxing Lorentz invariance in general perturbative anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Salvio, A.

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the role of Lorentz symmetry in the perturbative nongravitational anomalies for a single family of fermions. The theory is assumed to be translational-invariant, power-counting renormalizable and based on a local action, but is allowed to have general Lorentz violating operators. We study the conservation of global and gauge currents associated with general internal symmetry groups and find, by using a perturbative approach, that Lorentz symmetry does not participate in the clash of symmetries that leads to the anomalies. We first analyze the triangle graphs and prove that there are regulators for which the anomalous part of the Ward identities exactly reproduces the Lorentz-invariant case. Then we show, by means of a regulator independent argument, that the anomaly cancellation conditions derived in Lorentz-invariant theories remain necessary ingredients for anomaly freedom.

  2. Zinc Isotope Anomalies in bulk Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, P. S.; Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that Zn isotope anomalies are present in bulk primitive meteorites, consistent with the injection of material derived from a neutron-rich supernova source into the solar nebula.

  3. US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Sexton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

  4. Synergies between climate anomalies and hydrological modifications facilitate estuarine biotic invasions.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Jassby, Alan D; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    Environmental perturbation, climate change and international commerce are important drivers for biological invasions. Climate anomalies can further increase levels of habitat disturbance and act synergistically to elevate invasion risk. Herein, we use a historical data set from the upper San Francisco Estuary to provide the first empirical evidence for facilitation of invasions by climate extremes. Invasive zooplankton species did not become established in this estuary until the 1970s when increasing propagule pressure from Asia coincided with extended drought periods. Hydrological management exacerbated the effects of post-1960 droughts and reduced freshwater inflow even further, increasing drought severity and allowing unusually extreme salinity intrusions. Native zooplankton experienced unprecedented conditions of high salinity and intensified benthic grazing, and life history attributes of invasive zooplankton were advantageous enough during droughts to outcompete native species and colonise the system. Extreme climatic events can therefore act synergistically with environmental perturbation to facilitate the establishment of invasive species.

  5. Passive microwave measurements of temperature and salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental methods and results from the maritime remote sensing (MARSEN) experiments using dual frequency microwave radiometer detecting systems on board aircraft are described. The radiometers were operated at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz and flown above U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, Chesapeake Bay, around Puerto Rico, and over the German Bight. The advanced switched radiometers used were configured to be independent of gain variations and errors originating from front-end losses and determined the absolute brightness temperatures to within a few tenths Kelvin. Corrections to the observed brightness temperature of the ocean are analytically defined, including accounts made for roughness, the cosmic background radiation, and the solar radio source. The coastal flight data for salinity gradients and surface temperatures were compared with sea truth measured from ships and found to be accurate to within 1 C and 1 pph.

  6. Pentaquarks and possible anomalies at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, G.

    2016-07-01

    With the LHC Run 1 data, the LHCb experiment discovered two pentaquark states and has evidence for a number of possible anomalies in the flavour sector. The possible anomalies include indications of violations of lepton flavour universality, deviations from Standard Model predictions in several B-meson decay modes that are mediated by flavour-changing neutral currents, and further evidence for a discrepancy between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the CKM matrix element |Vub|.

  7. Interpretations of the ATLAS diboson anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tseng, Po-Yan; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the ATLAS Collaboration recorded an interesting anomaly in diboson production with excesses at the diboson invariant mass around 2 TeV in boosted jets of all the WZ, W+W-, and ZZ channels. We offer a theoretical interpretation of the anomaly using a phenomenological right-handed model with extra W‧ and Z‧ bosons. Constraints from narrow total decay widths, dijet cross sections, and W / Z + H production are taken into account. We also comment on a few other possibilities.

  8. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait Overflow Water Anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Köllner, Manuela; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-04-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. We present an analysis of observed hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays to quantify the variability and to track anomalies of DSOW: (1) at the Denmark Strait sill, (2) at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and (3) at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik). The aim of the combined arrays is to cover the overflow plume and its modifications due to its descent and mixing with ambient waters from the sill of Denmark Strait to approx. 2000 m depth in the northern Irminger Basin. Eddy variability dominates the high frequency variations in all DSOW records. Variability on time scales from interannual to weekly is present at all moorings, but no long term trends are detected in the time series. The seasonal cycle is of no importance for the properties measured at the sill, but its significance increases with downstream distance. A low pass filter (cut-off at 20 days) is applied to the time series in order to remove synoptic scale variations: single eddies are likely not traceable and probably merge with each other or fade along the descending pathway of the DSOW plume. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array show coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations are only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays reveal propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 16 days. Despite a difference of 1.5°C between the mean temperatures at both arrays, which are about 500 km away from each other, temperature anomalies can be traced along the DSOW pathway. In contrast, the correlations in salinity are low and only significant

  9. On the absolute alignment of GONG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the absolute orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., time) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.

  10. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  11. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  12. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  13. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  14. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  15. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  16. Musculotendinous anomalies in musician and nonmusician hands.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gavin; Peck, Fiona; Brain, Anne; Watson, Stewart

    2003-12-01

    Musculoskeletal abnormalities of musicians' hands and upper extremities are well-recognized and potentially career-threatening problems. Of the many types of potentiality problematic musculoskeletal disorders that could be assessed, this study focused on joint instability and musculotendinous anomalies. For this study, the hands of 92 music students were compared with the hands of 64 nonmusician control subjects. Flexor anomalies were observed much more frequently than extensor musculotendinous anomalies; clinical evidence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly was noted for 60 to 70 percent of subjects in both groups. Further analysis of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly demonstrated that the sites of pain among test-positive subjects were variable, test positivity was more frequent in the left hand and among string players, and test positivity tended to decrease from the radial side to the ulnar side of the hand. There were only two definite extensor musculotendinous anomalies (1.3 percent), and both involved a subluxating extensor mechanism affecting the little fingers. Forty-three percent of all subjects exhibited a degree of instability affecting the joints of their hands.

  17. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration.

  1. Reproductive impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Raga, F; Bauset, C; Remohi, J; Bonilla-Musoles, F; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-10-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study was undertaken in order to determine the incidence and reproductive impact of uterine malformations on women desiring to conceive during their reproductive years. A total of 3181 patients in whom the morphology of the uterus was ascertained by hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy/laparotomy during the years 1980-1995 was included in the study. The population analysed included fertile, infertile and sterile patients. The overall frequency of uterine malformations was 4.0%. Infertile patients (6.3%) had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher incidence of Müllerian anomalies, in comparison with fertile (3.8%) and sterile (2.4%) women. Septate (33.6%) and arcuate (32.8%) uteri were the most common malformations observed. Each malformation was individually analysed in fertile and infertile patients, in order to ascertain its actual reproductive impact. The performance of the unicornuate and didelphys uteri was similar with a chance of having a living child of 37-40%. The reproductive potential of the bicornuate uterus showed a live birth rate of 62.5% and the septate uterus showed a live birth rate of 62%. In all these abnormalities, early miscarriages (25-38%) and preterm deliveries (25-47%) were quite common. The arcuate uterus presented a live birth rate of 82.7%. It is concluded that uterine anomalies are relatively frequent in fertile women, and more frequent in infertile patients. Nevertheless, fertile patients with normal reproductive performance do exist, and Müllerian defects can permit an absolutely normal obstetric outcome. The reproductive performance of the unicornuate and didelphys uteri was poor, while that of the septate and bicornuate uteri was better than expected. The arcuate uterus had no impact on reproduction.

  2. Very-near surface salinity measurements during the SPURS field program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanze, Julian J.; Lagerloef, Gary; Schmitt, Raymond W.; Hodges, Benjamin A.

    2014-05-01

    strongest signature of a puddle relative to 5 m was approximately 2 psu. The temporal and spatial extend of these surface salinity anomalies is described using the aforementioned data and is compared with data from wave gliders gathered between September 2012 and September 2013.

  3. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  4. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  5. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  6. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  7. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  8. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  9. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  10. Preliminary aeromagnetic anomaly map of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Rober C.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetization in crustal rocks is the vector sum of induced in minerals by the Earth’s present main field and the remanent magnetization of minerals susceptible to magnetization (chiefly magnetite) (Blakely, 1995). The direction of remanent magnetization acquired during the rock’s history can be highly variable. Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). The magnetic anomaly map (fig. 2) provides a synoptic view of major anomalies and contributes to our understanding of the tectonic development of California. Reference fields, that approximate the Earth’s main (core) field, have been subtracted from the recorded magnetic data. The resulting map of the total magnetic anomalies exhibits anomaly patterns related to the distribution of magnetized crustal rocks at depths shallower than the Curie point isotherm (the surface within the Earth beneath which temperatures are so high that rocks lose their magnetic properties). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data obtained from aeromagnetic surveys that were made at different times, spacings and elevations, were merged by analytical continuation of each set onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Digital data in this compatible form allows application of analytical techniques (Blakley, 1995) that can be used to enhance anomaly characteristics (e.g., wavelength and trends) and provide new interpretive information.

  11. Detecting the surface salinity signature of Gulf Stream cold-core rings in Aquarius synergistic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbert, M.; Guimbard, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Thompson, L.; Portabella, M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Turiel, A.

    2015-02-01

    New sea surface salinity (SSS) observations derived from satellite remote sensing platforms provide a comprehensive view of salt exchanges across boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream. The high resolution (45 km spatial resolution and 3 day repeat subcycle) of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations allows detection (and tracking) of meander and ring structures of the Gulf Stream from SSS maps. These structures are, however, not resolved by the relatively lower resolution (100 km and 7 day repeat subcycle) of Aquarius observations. A recently developed fusion technique, based on singularity analysis, is applied in this study to reconstruct these mesoscale (from 100 km and 3 days) features in Aquarius-derived products. New quarter-degree SSS maps are obtained by fusing Aquarius data with three different geophysical templates: sea surface height (SSH) from AVISO, SSS from SMOS, and sea surface temperature (SST) from AVHRR. The proposed method exploits the theoretical correspondence among the singularity exponents of different maps of ocean-surface remotely sensed scalar fields. The analysis results over the year 2012 show that merging Aquarius with SSH data provides a series of negative salinity anomalies that better collocate with the position of the cyclonic eddies identified from sea level anomaly maps. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that this SLA derived cyclonic eddies in this area are indeed CCRs shed off the GS.

  12. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  13. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  14. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  15. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  16. Absolute Pitch in Infant Auditory Learning: Evidence for Developmental Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Griepentrog, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined 8-month-olds' use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. Results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A third experiment found that adult…

  17. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute value in the Cartesian…

  18. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute…

  19. Absolute dimensions of unevolved O type close binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Doom, C.; de Loore, C.

    1984-03-15

    A method is presented to derive the absolute dimensions of early-type detached binaries by combining the observed parameters with results of evolutionary computations. The method is used to obtain the absolute dimensions of nine close binaries. We find that most systems have an initial masss ratio near 1.

  20. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  1. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  2. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  3. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  5. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  6. Estimate of absolute geostrophic velocity from the density field in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.A.

    1981-09-20

    A pair of hydrographic sections (35/sup 0/N, 155/sup 0/W) were analyzed to compute absolute velocity by using a variation of the technique by Stommel and Schott (1977). Absolute velocity is determined from an integrated form of the potential vorticity equation by a technique suggested by Davis (1978). This study is the first application of this technique that allows a direct comparison between the uncertainty in estimating a smooth density field and the amount of imbalance in the system of model equations. Because the amount of incompatibility (imbalance) in the system of equations is far smaller than is allowed by the uncertainty in defining the smooth field, the model equation is considered adequate for this set of data. Below 400 m, the nearly constant zonal isopycnal slope indicates that potential vorticity is uniform on isopycnal surfaces. Since the method depends on resolving flow directions from the intersection of isopycnals and surfaces of constant potential vorticity, the absolute velocity is indeterminate in this region. The model equation does, however, constrain the structure of the meridional density field and requires a poleward shift in the latitude which successively deeper isopycnals reach their maximum depth. The fact that this poleward translation can be predicted over several degrees of latitude suggests potential vorticity is uniform over a substantial portion of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. This poleward translation of the density field is an aspect of subtropical density fields, in general, and occurs in conjunction with a translation in the field of geopotential anomaly. It is directly related to the curvature in the deep portion of the beta spiral.

  7. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1979-10-26

    By utilizing the vapor pressure difference between high-salinity and lowsalinity wvater, one can obtain power from the gradients of salinity. This scheme eliminates the major problems associated with conversion methods in which membranes are used. The method we tested gave higher conversion efficiencies than membrane methods. Furthermore, hardware and techniques being developed for ocean thermal energy conversion may be applied to this approach to salinity gradient energy conversion. PMID:17809370

  8. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  9. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  10. Simulating yield response of rice to salinity stress with the AquaCrop model.

    PubMed

    Mondal, M Shahjahan; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Razzaque Akanda, Md Abdur; Biswas, Sujit K; Md Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar; Zaman, Sinora; Lazar, Attila N; Clarke, Derek

    2015-06-01

    The FAO AquaCrop model has been widely applied throughout the world to simulate crop responses to deficit water applications. However, its application to saline conditions is not yet reported, though saline soils are common in coastal areas. In this study, we parameterized and tested AquaCrop to simulate rice yield under different salinity regimes. The data and information required in the model were collected through a field experiment at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur. The experiment was conducted with the BRRI Dhan28, a popular boro rice variety in Bangladesh, with five levels of saline water irrigation, three replicates for each level. In addition, field monitoring was carried out at Satkhira in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh to collect data and information based on farmers' practices and to further validate the model. The results indicated that the AquaCrop model with most of its default parameters could replicate the variation of rice yield with the variation of salinity reasonably well. The root mean square error and mean absolute error of the model yield were only 0.12 t per ha and 0.03 t per ha, respectively. The crop response versus soil salinity stress curve was found to be convex in shape with a lower threshold of 2 dS m(-1), an upper threshold of 10 dS m(-1) and a shape factor of 2.4. As the crop production system in the coastal belt of Bangladesh has become vulnerable to climate induced sea-level rise and the consequent increase in water and soil salinity, the AquaCrop would be a useful tool in assessing the potential impact of these future changes as well as other climatic parameters on rice yield in the coastal region.

  11. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  12. 0.9% saline induced hyperchloremic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    In the acute care setting, the type and amount of fluid administered has a significant impact on patient outcomes. In particular, 0.9% saline infusions are known to cause or exacerbate hyperchloremia. The studies presented evaluate possible complications from 0.9% saline infusions. These studies compared administration of 0.9% saline with lactated ringer or plasmalyte in the acute care setting. In each trial, the patients who were randomized to receive 0.9% saline infusions had a more severe acidosis from increased serum chloride levels. From the available data, chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid such as plasmalyte appears to reduce acid-base disturbances and improve patient outcomes.

  13. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  14. Crustal thickness anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean basin from gravity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Lin, Jian; Tucholke, Brian; Chen, Yongshun John

    2011-03-01

    Gravity-derived crustal thickness models were calculated for the North Atlantic Ocean between 76°N and the Chain Fracture Zone and calibrated using seismically determined crustal thickness. About 7% of the ocean crust is <4 km thick (designated as thin crust), and 58% is 4-7 km thick (normal crust); the remaining 35% is >7 km thick and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. Thin crust probably reflects reduced melt production from relatively cold or refractory mantle at scales of up to hundreds of kilometers along the spreading axis. By far the most prominent thick crust anomaly is associated with Iceland and adjacent areas, which accounts for 57% of total crustal volume in excess of 7 km. Much smaller anomalies include the Azores (8%), Cape Verde Islands (6%), Canary Islands (5%), Madeira (<4%), and New England-Great Meteor Seamount chain (2%), all of which appear to be associated with hot spots. Hot spot-related crustal thickening is largely intermittent, suggesting that melt production is episodic on time scales of tens of millions of years. Thickened crust shows both symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axis, reflecting whether melt anomalies were or were not centered on the MAR axis, respectively. Thickened crust at the Bermuda and Cape Verde rises appears to have been formed by isolated melt anomalies over periods of only ˜20-25 Myr. Crustal thickness anomalies on the African plate generally are larger than those on the North American plate; this most likely results from slower absolute plate speed of the African plate over relatively fixed hot spots.

  15. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Fuerte-Flores, Bertha Irene; Ricardez-Marcial, Edgar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the SOX2 gene and clinically characterized by severe eye malformations (anophthalmia/microphthalmia) and extraocular anomalies mainly involving brain, esophagus, and genitalia. In this work, a patient with the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and exhibiting a novel dental anomaly is described. SOX2 genotyping in this patient revealed an apparently de novo c.70del20 deletion, a commonly reported SOX2 mutation. A review of the phenotypic variation observed in patients carrying the recurrent SOX2 c.70del20 mutation is presented. Although dental anomalies are uncommonly reported in the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, we suggest that a dental examination should be performed in patients with SOX2 mutations.

  16. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  17. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  18. Martian magnetic anomalies and ionosphere escape rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Looking forward to the MAVEN mission, it seems very useful to return to Mars Express data to refresh an important problem of Martian atmosphere escape: what role the crustal magnetic field may play in this process? There are several publications on this topic with completely opposite conclusions. The last hybrid simulations show that the magnetic anomalies significantly reduce the ion loss rate during solar minimum. We are trying to use a new approach to Mars Express IMA data analysis to check how it is possible.On the base of a statistical study of the ion distributions in the Martian magnetotail we show that the characteristic accelerated ions are not associated with the magnetic anomalies but only with interplanetary magnetic field clock angle. Moreover the magnetic anomalies screen and deviate the escaping flow leading to reducing of the total loss rate. Finally the observed heavy ions escaping rate is in a fantastic agreement with simulation results.

  19. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  20. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  1. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  2. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  3. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data. PMID:26815557

  4. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  5. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  6. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  7. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L(-1)) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  8. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L−1) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na+/K+–ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  9. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  10. A rare anomaly of abductor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, J R; Mirapeix, R M; Ferreira, B

    1993-06-01

    Two cases with anomalous fascicles in abductor digiti minimi, noted in the course of dissecting 62 adult postmortem forearms, are described. Both fascicles arose from the flexor retinaculum and the antebrachial fascia; one was inserted into abductor digiti minimi and the other on the proximal phalanx of the 5th finger. The anomalous muscles crossed the ulnar nerve and in 1 case also the median nerve. In the 2nd case the palmar nerve to the 5th finger was seen to penetrate the anomalous muscle. The ontogeny, morphology and clinical significance of this anomaly are discussed in relation to previously described anomalies of the hypothenar muscles.

  11. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  12. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  13. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  14. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

  15. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  16. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof.

  17. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  18. Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C.

    2006-03-13

    The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

  19. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  20. Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita

    2011-11-01

    Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty.

  1. Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John

    2002-04-01

    The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.

  2. Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, P.A

    2004-02-04

    Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

  3. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  4. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  5. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  6. Table of hyperfine anomaly in atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, J.R.

    2013-01-15

    This table is a compilation of experimental values of magnetic hyperfine anomaly in atomic and ionic systems. The last extensive compilation was published in 1984 by Büttgenbach [S. Büttgenbach, Hyperfine Int. 20 (1984) 1] and the aim here is to make an up to date compilation. The literature search covers the period up to January 2011.

  7. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  8. A natural origin for the LHCb anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Panico, Giuliano; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    The anomalies recently found by the LHCb collaboration in B-meson decays seem to point towards the existence of new physics coupled non-universally to muons and electrons. We show that a beyond-the-Standard-Model dynamics with these features naturally arises in models with a warped extra-dimension that aim to solve the electroweak Hierarchy Problem. The attractiveness of our set-up is the fact that the dynamics responsible for generating the flavor anomalies is automatically present, being provided by the massive Kaluza-Klein excitations of the electroweak gauge bosons. The flavor anomalies can be easily reproduced by assuming that the bottom and muon fields have a sizable amount of compositeness, while the electron is almost elementary. Interestingly enough, this framework correlates the flavor anomalies to a pattern of corrections in the electroweak observables and in flavor-changing processes. In particular the deviations in the bottom and muon couplings to the Z-boson and in Δ F = 2 flavor-changing observables are predicted to be close to the present experimental bounds, and thus potentially testable in near-future experiments.

  9. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-03-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  10. Hyperspectral anomaly detection using enhanced global factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciencia, Todd J.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2016-05-01

    Dimension reduction techniques have become one popular unsupervised approach used towards detecting anomalies in hyperspectral imagery. Although demonstrating promising results in the literature on specific images, these methods can become difficult to directly interpret and often require tuning of their parameters to achieve high performance on a specific set of images. This lack of generality is also compounded by the need to remove noise and atmospheric absorption spectral bands from the image prior to detection. Without a process for this band selection and to make the methods adaptable to different image compositions, performance becomes difficult to maintain across a wider variety of images. Here, we present a framework that uses factor analysis to provide a robust band selection and more meaningful dimension reduction with which to detect anomalies in the imagery. Measurable characteristics of the image are used to create an automated decision process that allows the algorithm to adjust to a particular image, while maintaining high detection performance. The framework and its algorithms are detailed, and results are shown for forest, desert, sea, rural, urban, anomaly-sparse, and anomaly-dense imagery types from different sensors. Additionally, the method is compared to current state-of-the-art methods and is shown to be computationally efficient.

  11. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  12. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  13. Os trigonum and soleus tertius anomaly.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, J; Reynders-Frederix, P A; Stoffelen, D; Broos, P L; Fabry, G

    1993-01-01

    A case of both an os trigonum and a soleus tertius anomaly is presented in a patient with chronic posteromedial ankle pain. A resection of the os trigonum was performed, with complete relief of symptoms. The diagnosis and therapy are discussed, and the literature is reviewed.

  14. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  15. Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: evidence for developmental reorganization.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R; Griepentrog, G J

    2001-01-01

    To what extent do infants represent the absolute pitches of complex auditory stimuli? Two experiments with 8-month-old infants examined the use of absolute and relative pitch cues in a tone-sequence statistical learning task. The results suggest that, given unsegmented stimuli that do not conform to the rules of musical composition, infants are more likely to track patterns of absolute pitches than of relative pitches. A 3rd experiment tested adults with or without musical training on the same statistical learning tasks used in the infant experiments. Unlike the infants, adult listeners relied primarily on relative pitch cues. These results suggest a shift from an initial focus on absolute pitch to the eventual dominance of relative pitch, which, it is argued, is more useful for both music and speech processing.

  16. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  18. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  19. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121

  20. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  1. Short root anomaly in families and its association with other dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Apajalahti, S; Arte, S; Pirinen, S

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, we collected a family series with short root anomaly in order to analyze the inheritance pattern of the condition. Another aim was to identify in these families an association with other dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis, peg-shaped lateral incisors, supernumeraries, ectopia, and such morphological characteristics as invaginations, taurodontism, and a tendency to root resorption. Mesiodistal dimensions of the crowns of the affected teeth were measured in order to reveal any association with reduction or increase in tooth size. The apparent genetic heterogeneity of the pedigrees did not permit definitive conclusions as to the mode of inheritance. Autosomal dominant transmission of short root anomaly was seen in 3/8 families. In 2/8 families, the condition was seen in siblings but not in parents. An association with tooth agenesis and ectopic canines was noted, the prevalences of which were 46% and 33%, respectively. We stress the importance of not misdiagnosing this anomaly as resorption.

  2. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  3. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  4. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  5. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  6. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  7. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  8. Salinity induced anatomical and morphological changes in Chloris gayana Kunth roots.

    PubMed

    Céccoli, Gabriel; Ramos, Julio C; Ortega, Leandro I; Acosta, Juan M; Perreta, Mariel G

    2011-04-01

    Chloris gayana Kunth is a grass species valuable as forage which was introduced into Argentina to be used as pasture in saline soils of subtropical and warm-temperate zones, given its good adaptability to drought, salinity and mild freezing. However, its tolerance varies according to the cultivar. In tetraploid cultivars, important reductions in yield have been observed. Here, a study of the variations produced on the root and stem system by salinity at different NaCl concentrations (0, 150 and 250 mM) was performed in the Boma cultivar, with the aim of determining the anatomical and morphological alterations produced by the salt excess. Plants cultivated with the highest level of salinity showed, in the whole, significant differences in the measured variables. A diminution in absolute values of the variables and a major reduction in vascular tissue dimensions were observed, which suggests that the lack of tolerance to salt stress could be related to a deficient adaptation to absorb and transport water and nutrients from the roots. PMID:21667667

  9. Spectral anomalies in Young's double-slit interference experiment.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jixiong; Cai, Chao; Nemoto, Shojiro

    2004-10-18

    We report a phenomenon of spectral anomalies in the interference field of Young's double-slit interference experiment. The potential applications of the spectral anomalies in the information encoding and information transmission in free space are also considered.

  10. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement.

  11. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  12. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  13. Water salination: a source of energy.

    PubMed

    Norman, R S

    1974-10-25

    The thermodynamically reversible mixing of freshwater and seawater at constant temperature releases free energy. Salination power as a resource is comparable with hydroelectric power in magnitude; U.S. freshwater runoff could yield over 10(10) watts. The energy flux available for natural salination is equivalent to each river in the world ending at its mouth in a waterfall 225 meters high. An osmotic salination converter could possibly operate at 25 percent efficiency. This energy source is renewable and nonpolluting. Although its full utilization would destroy estuarine environments, it might be practical for specialized purposes.

  14. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Papas, Phil J; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC(50) values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC(50) obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC(50)). This LC(50) value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC(50). For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC(50) and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC(50) of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC(50) values. In contrast, LC(50) determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. PMID:15016457

  15. A mechanistic view of how gyre-scale heat content anomalies form in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ric; Roussenov, Vassil; Lozier, M. Susan; Smith, Doug

    2015-04-01

    North Atlantic climate variability on decadal time scales is often characterised by basin-scale changes in sea surface temperature, which are generally attributed to coherent changes in the meridional overturning circulation. However, this view is inconsistent with striking gyre-scale contrasts in ocean heat content over the basin: the subtropics are often warm when the subpolar gyre is cool, and vice versa. We explore how the gyre-scale changes in heat content are mechanistically controlled using dynamical assimilations of historical temperature and salinity data over the last 60 years. There are different dynamical mechanisms at work over the basin. The heat content anomalies are usually associated with thermocline and overturning anomalies, a warmer heat content associated with a deeper thermocline and often with a weaker meridional overturning anomaly. The tendency of the subtropical heat content is primarily controlled by heat convergence, stronger Trade winds enhancing the influx of heat from the tropics, augmented by the poorly-known air-sea heat fluxes. The tendency of the subpolar heat content does not though directly link to the air-sea heat input integrated over the gyre. Instead the tendency of the subpolar heat content is controlled by the convergence in heat transport. The heat transport into the subpolar gyre is though affected by boundary density changes induced by atmospheric forcing: density increases along the Labrador Sea appear to lead to enhanced overturning at the subtropical/subpolar interface, which then drive a warming of the subpolar gyre. Hence, the heat content anomalies for each gyre are formed via different mechanisms, connecting in a different manner to the overlying atmospheric forcing.

  16. Morning glory disc anomaly with Chiari type I malformation.

    PubMed

    Arlow, Tim; Arepalli, Sruthi; Flanders, Adam E; Shields, Carol L

    2014-04-30

    Morning glory disc anomaly is a rare optic nerve dysplasia associated with various neovascular abnormalities. Due to these associations, children with morning glory disc anomaly have brain imaging and angiography to detect other congenital defects. The authors report the case of an infant with morning glory disc anomaly and coexisting Chiari type I malformation.

  17. Ebstein's anomaly in persistent common atrioventricualr canal.

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, G; Losekoot, T G; Becker, A E

    1978-01-01

    This report documents 2 patients who presented with cyanosis early in life. In both instances the necropsy showed the simultaneous occurrence of an imcomplete type of persistent atrioventricular canal and an Ebstein's malformation of the "tricuspid" valve component. In the first patient no clinical investigations were done. In the second patient the electrocardiogram was consistent with persistent atrioventricular canal and the angiocardiogram showed the characteristic goose-neck deformity. Moreover, an abnormality of the right cardiac contour was seen, which in retrospect was correlated with the right-sided Ebstein's malformation. Ebstein's anomaly may significantly alter the clinical and haemodynamic profile of atrioventricular canal and should be considered in atypical cases. The presence of Ebstein's anomaly will complicate surgical repair of the atrioventricular canal. Images PMID:718768

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  19. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  20. Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-11-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  1. QCD flux tubes and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chi

    2013-07-01

    We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair) creation, and the chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortexlike structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it, an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and, hence, a topological charge density term naturally appears.

  2. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva without characteristic skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare but extremely disabling genetic disease of the skeletal system. This disease is characterized by progression of heterotopic ossification within skeletal muscles, ligaments and tendons. Most patients with FOP are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures such as biopsy that can cause lifelong disability. Almost all of the patients have some peculiar congenital anomalies, including short great toes, hallux valgus, short thumbs and hypoplasia of digital phalanges. These congenital defects support the diagnosis of FOP, but are not constantly observed in the totality of patients. If necessary, genetic studies can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid unnecessary traumas, surgical procedures, biopsies, intramuscular injections and vaccinations. Here, we describe a patient with FOP without characteristic congenital skeletal anomalies.

  3. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  4. Statistical significance of the gallium anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-06-15

    We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors, taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is {approx}3.0{sigma}. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at {approx}2.7{sigma} short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

  5. Associated dental anomalies in an Etruscan adolescent.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; Cecchi, J M; Pacciani, E

    1995-01-01

    Three fragments of the upper jaw of an Etruscan adolescent of the 6th century B.C. discovered at the necropolis of Cancellone 1 (Magliano in Tuscany, Grosseto, Italy) were examined. A triad of associated dental anomalies was found: congenitally missing second premolars, "peg-shaped" permanent lateral incisors, and ectopic (palatal) eruption of a permanent canine. These findings provided the opportunity to discuss etiopathogenetic aspects of the associations among different types of tooth abnormalities. PMID:7726465

  6. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE PAGES

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  7. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  8. Hessian geometry and the holomorphic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, G. L.; Mohaupt, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present a geometrical framework which incorporates higher derivative corrections to the action of N = 2 vector multiplets in terms of an enlarged scalar manifold which includes a complex deformation parameter. This enlarged space carries a deformed version of special Kähler geometry which we characterise. The holomorphic anomaly equation arises in this framework from the integrability condition for the existence of a Hesse potential.

  9. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  10. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  11. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  12. Structure and transport anomalies in soft colloids.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A; Narayanan, Suresh

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins.

  13. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  14. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

  15. Deflected anomaly mediation and neutralino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarini, Alessandro; Fucito, Francesco; Lionetto, Andrea

    2007-01-15

    This is a study of the phenomenology of the neutralino dark matter in the so called deflected anomaly mediation scenario. This scheme is obtained from the minimal anomaly-mediated scenario by introducing a gauge-mediated sector with N{sub f} messenger fields. Unlike the former scheme the latter has no tachyons. We find that the neutralino is still the LSP in a wide region of the parameter space: it is essentially a pure bino in the scenario with N{sub f}=1 while it can also be a pure Higgsino for N{sub f}>1. This is very different from the naive anomaly-mediated scenario which predicts a wino like neutralino. Moreover we do not find any tachyonic scalars in this scheme. After computing the relic density (considering all the possible coannihilations) we find that there are regions in the parameter space with values compatible with the latest WMAP results with no need to consider moduli fields that decay in the early universe.

  16. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  17. Revisiting Gravitational Anomalies and a Potential Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, P. A.

    2009-03-01

    Gravitational anomalies require investigation and resolution to understand the space environment if man is to travel beyond trans-lunar or trans-Mars region. This paper will provide a framework for further and more detailed evaluations. These anomalies include, a slight change in the sun's gravitational attraction observed by two Pioneer probes based upon trajectory deviations detected after being in flight for over a decade and, several events where other long-range spacecraft undergoing flybys of the Earth experience increases in velocity that could not be predicted by Newtonian gravitation. Moreover, the assumption of dark energy and dark matter supposedly explain some astronomical observations to include expansion of the cosmos on a scale of the order of galaxies, galaxy clusters and other celestial bodies at considerable distances from the Earth. If, however, gravitational waves exist, then gravity should obey a wavelike partial differential equation implying that gravity is a function of both spatial and temporal dimensions. If true, then gravity may grow or decay as a function of time in contrast to Newtonian gravitation, which has propulsion implications that may also provide a partial explanation to some of these anomalies.

  18. Weyl anomaly and initial singularity crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel

    2016-04-01

    We consider the role of quantum effects, mainly, Weyl anomaly in modifying Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model singular behavior at early times. Weyl anomaly corrections to FLRW models have been considered in the past, here we reconsider this model and show the following: The singularity of this model is weak according to Tipler and Krolak, therefore, the spacetime might admit a geodesic extension. Weyl anomaly corrections change the nature of the initial singularity from a big bang singularity to a sudden singularity. The two branches of solutions consistent with the semiclassical treatment form a disconnected manifold. Joining these two parts at the singularity provides us with a C1 extension to nonspacelike geodesics and leaves the spacetime geodesically complete. Using Gauss-Codazzi equations one can derive generalized junction conditions for this higher-derivative gravity. The extended spacetime obeys Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and the junction conditions. The junction does not generate Dirac delta functions in matter sources which keeps the equation of state unchanged.

  19. Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A

    2015-03-25

    We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals.

  20. Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals.

  1. Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A

    2015-03-25

    We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals. PMID:25712419

  2. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations.

  3. Anomalies Thermosteric and Halosteric Contributions to Sea Level Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, C. E.; Polito, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level anomaly (SLA) is an important indicator of changes in the Earth's climate system because the oceans have great heat storage capacity. The sea level variation is due to combination of thermosteric and halosteric effects. These two effects play significant roles in the annual cycle of the SLA and maintain the thermohaline circulation. Previous studies only considered the thermosteric effect. The main goal of this study was to determine the regions of the global ocean where the variability induced by halosteric effect is equal or higher than that induced by thermosteric effect. We used temperature and salinity data from World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) with spatial resolution of 1°x1° during the period of 1955 to 2012 to calculate the coefficient of thermal expansion (α), haline contraction (β) and to estimate their contributions to the SLA variation in the global ocean. Our results showed that the thermosteric effect is dominant in the tropical and subtropical regions due to high insolation throughout the year. However, in polar regions, North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans the halosteric effect was the main contributor to SLA variation. In polar regions, the effect occurs because of the lack in temperature variation and the fact that in this region the precipitation rate exceeds evaporation increasing the freshwater input. In the others, the mechanism is still unknown. The linear trend of thermosteric and halosteric components for 1955-2012 is 0.35mm/yr and 0.07mm/yr, respectively. This results shows that halosteric effect should be considered in the heat storage estimation from satellite data, in situ data and numerical modelling contrasting the previous approaches to SLA.

  4. On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

    2011-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering. PMID:21877785

  5. On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

    2011-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering.

  6. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  7. Processing and Analysis of Near-Seafloor Magnetic Anomalies around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    acquired by DSS Nautile on isolated and uneven tracks are cut and projected on linear segments. Synthetic anomalies are computed under the conditions of the experiment, assuming a unit magnetization. Observed and computed anomalies are compared on sliding windows, resulting in an estimate of the absolute magnetization of the seafloor. The data sets collected at 2-20 m (by DSS Nautile) and 70 m (by AUV Aster-X) jointly constrain the geological interpretation.

  8. Evidence of a thermal anomaly in the eastern gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Patriat, P.; Maia, M.; Gente, P.; Burov, E.; Toh, H.

    2003-04-01

    The data set of the Encens-Sheba and Aden New Century cruises allows to evidence a thermal anomaly into the young oceanic crust of the eastern Gulf of Aden, between the Alula-Fartak and Socotra transform faults. Thanks to bathymetric and gravity data, the oceanic domain of the Encens-Sheba area is divided in two distinct areas trending NE-SW perpendicular to the Sheba ridge. (1) The Eastern area is characterised by a shorter wavelength variation of the axial segmentation with spreading segments ranging in length from 30 to 40 km, and by a thin crust particularly on the northern and southern ends of its flanks. (2) The Western zone associated with a long axial segment greater than 120 km is characterised by a thick crust and/or a hot mantle. This abnormal activity for a slow spreading ridge is emphasised by bathymetric highs with volcanic edifices of 5-10 km in diameter, by an electric conductivity body (2D electric section), and by a negative anomaly of the MBA. These different methods support the presence of a recent thermal anomaly which is shallow and centred in the southern flank of the Sheba ridge. Surface anomaly track obtains using absolute motion of afro-arabia plates, reveals that this thermal anomaly should be relatively recent (<5 Ma). In this specific context, the thermomechanical processes of the plume head-lithosphere interaction have been modelised by using the numerical code Parovoz. The lava flows and the magmatic intrusions are induced by the thermal and density anomaly which generates a topographic elevation in turn producing an extension above the plumes. The experiments predict that the first surface elevation occurs in less than 0.2 Ma after plume initiation at 400 km depth, before the plume spreading at the base of the lithosphere. Regarding the Afar hot-spot, this upheaval is centred on the Afar triangle, associated with the outflow of lava flows and with the outcrop of the basement. A wider 1500 km diameter circle could be proposed to

  9. Relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and ENSO events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhire, I.; Ahmed, F.; Abutaleb, K.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims primarily at investigating the relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and El Niño-South Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) events. The study is useful for early warning of negative effects associated with extreme rainfall anomalies across the country. It covers the period 1935-1992, using long and short rains data from 28 weather stations in Rwanda and ENSO events resourced from Glantz (2001). The mean standardized anomaly indices were calculated to investigate their associations with ENSO events. One-way analysis of variance was applied on the mean standardized anomaly index values per ENSO event to explore the spatial correlation of rainfall anomalies per ENSO event. A geographical information system was used to present spatially the variations in mean standardized anomaly indices per ENSO event. The results showed approximately three climatic periods, namely, dry period (1935-1960), semi-humid period (1961-1976) and wet period (1977-1992). Though positive and negative correlations were detected between extreme short rains anomalies and El Niño events, La Niña events were mostly linked to negative rainfall anomalies while El Niño events were associated with positive rainfall anomalies. The occurrence of El Niño and La Niña in the same year does not show any clear association with rainfall anomalies. However, the phenomenon was more linked with positive long rains anomalies and negative short rains anomalies. The normal years were largely linked with negative long rains anomalies and positive short rains anomalies, which is a pointer to the influence of other factors other than ENSO events. This makes projection of seasonal rainfall anomalies in the country by merely predicting ENSO events difficult.

  10. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  11. High volume normal saline alone is as effective as nebulized salbutamol-normal saline, epinephrine-normal saline, and 3% saline in mild bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, Ayse Berna; Anil, Murat; Saglam, Ayse Bircan; Cetin, Nevin; Bal, Alkan; Aksu, Nejat

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectivenesses of nebulized salbutamol, epinephrin, 3% saline, and normal saline (0.9% NaCl) in the treatment of mildly affected infants with acute bronchiolitis. We enrolled 186 children (mean age 9.5 +/- 5.3 months, range 1.5-24 months, 65.1% male) with a first episode of wheezing diagnosed as mild bronchiolitis in emergency department. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive 4 ml dose either of 1.5 mg epinephrine plus normal saline (group 1; n = 38) or 1.5 mg epinephrine plus 3% saline (group 2; n = 39) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus normal saline (group 3; n = 36) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus 3% saline (group 4; n = 36) or normal saline alone (group 5; n = 37) at 0 and 30 min. Thus, all treatment modalities included high amount of NaCl (72-240 mg). Clinical score, oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. After discharge, patients were reassessed by telephone contact at 48 hr and 6 months. The baseline characteristics were similar in all groups (P > 0.05). The outcome of patients at 120 min was found significantly better than the baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the outcome variables of the groups (P > 0.05). No adverse effects attributable to nebulized therapy were seen. In conclusion, all treatment modalities used in this study, including a total of 8 ml normal saline inhalation at 30-min interval showed clinically significant and swift improvement in mildly affected ambulatory infants with acute bronchiolitis.

  12. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  13. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  14. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  15. The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through time on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of absolute tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of absolute plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep time (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate absolute plate motions through time. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global absolute reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized absolute motion paths through deep time.

  16. The "African Anomaly" and the "Pacific Anomaly" in the Lower Mantle: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; He, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic results have consistently shown two prominent low-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle, with one beneath southern Africa and the other beneath Pacific. For convenience, we refer them here the "African anomaly" and the "Pacific anomaly". The African anomaly was constrained mostly by the SH, ScS, SHdiff, SKS, SKKS, P, Pdiff and PcP phases recorded in three PASSCAL seismic arrays in Africa: the Tanzania array (1994 - 1995), the Kaapvaal array (1997 - 1999) and the Kenya array (2001-2002). These seismic observations indicate that the African anomaly has a very-low velocity province (VLVP) at its base, extends at least 1300 km above the core-mantle boundary with its edges in the lower mantle dipping toward its center and has a P to S velocity perturbation ratio of 1:3. The VLVP exhibits an "L-shape" changing from a north-south orientation in the South Atlantic Ocean to an east-west direction in the Indian Ocean, and has rapidly varying thicknesses from 300 km to 0 km, steeply dipping edges and a linear gradient of shear velocity reduction from -2% (top) to -9% to -12% (bottom) relative to the preliminary reference Earth model. These structural and velocity features unambiguously indicate that the VLVP, and likely the whole African anomaly, is compositionally distinct. The Pacific anomaly is studied using the ScS and SH waves recorded in the F-net in Japan, the China National Digital Seismographic Network and several dense seismic arrays in the Northern China Interior Structure Project, and the PKP precursors and SKS-SPdKS phases recorded in several WWSSN stations. Our ScS-S differential travel times confirm the early tomographic results that the the base of the Pacific anomaly is broad, but suggest presence of larger shear velocity reductions. The ScS-S differential travel times show residuals as large as 10 seconds when the ScS phases sample the eastern part of the base, which would correspond to an average shear velocity reduction of -5% for a 300-km

  17. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies.

  18. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies. PMID:25965674

  19. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled. PMID:25826944

  20. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  1. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Donlon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO2 primarily through their effect on solubility with lesser effects related to saturated vapor pressure and the relationship between fugacity and partial pressure. The effects of temperature and salinity profiles in the water column and changes in the aqueous concentration act primarily through the partitioning of the carbonate system. Climatological calculations of flux require attention to variability in the upper ocean and to the limited validity of assuming "constant chemistry" in transforming measurements to climatological values. Contrary to some recent analysis, it is shown that the effect on CO2 fluxes of a cool skin on the sea surface is large and ubiquitous. An opposing effect on calculated fluxes is related to the occurrence of warm layers near the surface; this effect can be locally large but will usually coincide with periods of low exchange. A salty skin and salinity anomalies in the upper ocean also affect CO2 flux calculations, though these haline effects are generally weaker than the thermal effects.

  2. Analysis Methods of Environmental Induced Anomalies of Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years after the first evidence of in-flight electrostatic discharges on synchronous spacecraft, they are still a threat. Analysis of anomalies will be always necessary for improving design guidelines and standards. A Ground Control Center dedicated to a Space System is monitoring for the nominal configuration of the spacecraft. An alarm or warning is triggered when the spacecraft gets out of its nominal working state. How to know what happens in flight? An electrostatic discharge is never observed itself but only its permanent consequences. Telemetry data is never designed for detecting unforeseen events, it is only defined for command purpose and good-health diagnosis. Probes are exceptionally implemented on commercial spacecraft to determine the state of environment at the location of the spacecraft at the time of the anomaly. The first step is the elimination of non-environmental causes: electromagnetic interference problem, equipment failure, corona discharge inside a high-voltage powered box, or man-made spurious command. Heavy ions or micrometeoroids are environmental causes with consequences that look like electrostatic discharges, so involving charging needs detailed and exhaustive analysis. The spacecraft-charging anomaly is at the end of a long chain of causes and consequences. Some regions of space have a radiation and particle content able to build up absolute and differential potentials at the surface or inside the spacecraft up to exceeding the breakdown voltage. Charges are released that induce electromagnetic fields in coupling current and voltage transients to cables. The pulses penetrate boxes and propagate along printed circuit board tracks, reaching active devices, upsetting logical devices, saturating amplifiers, or fusing lanes inside integrated circuits. Spacecraft event understanding is the conclusion of three convergent ways of analysis: environmental data, vacuum charging tests, electromagnetic immunity tests. When there is no borne

  3. Splenic Anomalies of Shape, Size, and Location: Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Ariyurek, Macit Orhan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2013-01-01

    Spleen can have a wide range of anomalies including its shape, location, number, and size. Although most of these anomalies are congenital, there are also acquired types. Congenital anomalies affecting the shape of spleen are lobulations, notches, and clefts; the fusion and location anomalies of spleen are accessory spleen, splenopancreatic fusion, and wandering spleen; polysplenia can be associated with a syndrome. Splenosis and small spleen are acquired anomalies which are caused by trauma and sickle cell disease, respectively. These anomalies can be detected easily by using different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and also Tc-99m scintigraphy. In this pictorial essay, we review the imaging findings of these anomalies which can cause diagnostic pitfalls and be interpreted as pathologic processes. PMID:23710135

  4. Method for estimating absolute lung volumes at constant inflation pressure.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Barrow, R E

    1979-10-01

    A method has been devised for measuring functional residual capacity in the intact killed animal or absolute lung volumes in any excised lung preparation without changing the inflation pressure. This is achieved by titrating the absolute pressure of a chamber in which the preparation is compressed until a known volume of air has entered the lungs. This technique was used to estimate the volumes of five intact rabbit lungs and five rigid containers of known dimensions by means of Boyle's law. Results were found to agree to within +/- 1% with values determined by alternative methods. In the discussion the advantage of determining absolute lung volumes at almost any stage in a study of lung mechanics without the determination itself changing inflation pressure and, hence, lung volume is emphasized. PMID:511699

  5. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  6. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  7. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  8. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  9. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  10. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jatin G; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  11. What is moving in silica at 1 K? A computer study of the low-temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, J; Heuer, A

    2005-10-01

    Though the existence of two-level systems (TLS) is widely accepted to explain low-temperature anomalies in many physical observables, knowledge about their properties is very rare. For silica, which is one of the prototype glass-forming systems, we elucidate the properties of the TLS via computer simulations by applying a systematic search algorithm. We get specific information in the configuration space, i.e., about relevant energy scales, the absolute number of TLS, and electric dipole moments. Furthermore, important insight about the real-space realization of the TLS can be obtained. Comparison with experimental observations is included.

  12. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  13. Absolutely maximally entangled states, combinatorial designs, and multiunitary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Alsina, Daniel; Latorre, José I.; Riera, Arnau; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are those multipartite quantum states that carry absolute maximum entanglement in all possible bipartitions. AME states are known to play a relevant role in multipartite teleportation, in quantum secret sharing, and they provide the basis novel tensor networks related to holography. We present alternative constructions of AME states and show their link with combinatorial designs. We also analyze a key property of AME states, namely, their relation to tensors, which can be understood as unitary transformations in all of their bipartitions. We call this property multiunitarity.

  14. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  15. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  16. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  17. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  18. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  19. A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.

  20. STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and absolute intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the absolute intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. Absolute intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 times more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.