Science.gov

Sample records for absolute sea surface

  1. Airborne Sea-Surface Topography in an Absolute Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Jacobs, G.; Blaha, J.

    2003-12-01

    Highly dynamic coastal ocean processes occur at temporal and spatial scales that cannot be captured by the present generation of satellite altimeters. Space-borne gravity missions such as GRACE also provide time-varying gravity and a geoidal msl reference surface at resolution that is too coarse for many coastal applications. The Naval Research Laboratory and the Naval Oceanographic Office have been testing the application of airborne measurement techniques, gravity and altimetry, to determine sea-surface height and height anomaly at the short scales required for littoral regions. We have developed a precise local gravimetric geoid over a test region in the northern Gulf of Mexico from historical gravity data and recent airborne gravity surveys. The local geoid provides a msl reference surface with a resolution of about 10-15 km and provides a means to connect airborne, satellite and tide-gage observations in an absolute (WGS-84) framework. A series of altimetry reflights over the region with time scales of 1 day to 1 year reveal a highly dynamic environment with coherent and rapidly varying sea-surface height anomalies. AXBT data collected at the same time show apparent correlation with wave-like temperature anomalies propagating up the continental slope of the Desoto Canyon. We present animations of the temporal evolution of the surface topography and water column temperature structure down to the 800 m depth of the AXBT sensors.

  2. Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; McWilliams, James C.

    2003-11-01

    The 1992-2002 time-mean absolute sea level distribution of the global ocean is computed for the first time from observations of near-surface velocity. For this computation, we use the near-surface horizontal momentum balance. The velocity observed by drifters is used to compute the Coriolis force and the force due to acceleration of water parcels. The anomaly of horizontal pressure gradient is derived from satellite altimetry and corrects the temporal bias in drifter data distribution. NCEP reanalysis winds are used to compute the force due to Ekman currents. The mean sea level gradient force, which closes the momentum balance, is integrated for mean sea level. We find that our computation agrees, within uncertainties, with the sea level computed from the geostrophic, hydrostatic momentum balance using historical mean density, except in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. A consistent horizontally and vertically dynamically balanced, near-surface, global pressure field has now been derived from observations.

  3. Absolute Sea-level Changes Derived from Integrated Geodetic Datasets (1955-2016) in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, G.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Rising sea level has important direct impacts on coastal and island regions such as the Caribbean where the influence of sea-level rise is becoming more apparent. The Caribbean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea adjacent to the landmasses of South and Central America to the south and west, and the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles separate it from the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east. The work focus on studying the relative and absolute sea-level changes by integrating tide gauge, GPS, and satellite altimetry datasets (1955-2016) within the Caribbean Sea. Further, the two main components of absolute sea-level change, ocean mass and steric sea-level changes, are respectively studied using GRACE, temperature, and salinity datasets (1955-2016). According to the analysis conducted, the sea-level change rates have considerable temporal and spatial variations, and estimates may be subject to the techniques used and observation periods. The average absolute sea-level rise rate is 1.8±0.3 mm/year for the period from 1955 to 2015 according to the integrated tide gauge and GPS observations; the average absolute sea-level rise rate is 3.5±0.6 mm/year for the period from 1993 to 2016 according to the satellite altimetry observations. This study shows that the absolute sea-level change budget in the Caribbean Sea is closed in the periods from 1955 to 2016, in which ocean mass change dominates the absolute sea-level rise. The absolute sea-level change budget is also closed in the periods from 2004 to 2016, in which steric sea-level rise dominates the absolute sea-level rise.

  4. Validation of Mean Absolute Sea Level of the North Atlantic obtained from Drifter, Altimetry and Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximenko, Nikolai A.

    2003-01-01

    Mean absolute sea level reflects the deviation of the Ocean surface from geoid due to the ocean currents and is an important characteristic of the dynamical state of the ocean. Values of its spatial variations (order of 1 m) are generally much smaller than deviations of the geoid shape from ellipsoid (order of 100 m) that makes the derivation of the absolute mean sea level a difficult task for gravity and satellite altimetry observations. Technique used by Niiler et al. for computation of the absolute mean sea level in the Kuroshio Extension was then developed into more general method and applied by Niiler et al. (2003b) to the global Ocean. The method is based on the consideration of balance of horizontal momentum.

  5. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  6. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  7. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  8. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  9. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  10. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  11. Anomalous sea surface structures as an object of statistical topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyatskin, V. I.; Koshel, K. V.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting ideas of statistical topography, we analyze the stochastic boundary problem of emergence of anomalous high structures on the sea surface. The kinematic boundary condition on the sea surface is assumed to be a closed stochastic quasilinear equation. Applying the stochastic Liouville equation, and presuming the stochastic nature of a given hydrodynamic velocity field within the diffusion approximation, we derive an equation for a spatially single-point, simultaneous joint probability density of the surface elevation field and its gradient. An important feature of the model is that it accounts for stochastic bottom irregularities as one, but not a single, perturbation. Hence, we address the assumption of the infinitely deep ocean to obtain statistic features of the surface elevation field and the squared elevation gradient field. According to the calculations, we show that clustering in the absolute surface elevation gradient field happens with the unit probability. It results in the emergence of rare events such as anomalous high structures and deep gaps on the sea surface almost in every realization of a stochastic velocity field.

  12. Sea Surface Scanner: An advanced catamaran to study the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, O.; Mustaffa, N. I. H.; Ribas Ribas, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Sea Surface Scanner is a remote-controlled catamaran with the capability to sample the sea-surface microlayer in high resolution. The catamaran is equipped with a suite of sensors to scan the sea surface on chemical, biological and physical parameters. Parameters include UV absorption, fluorescence spectra, chlorophyll-a, photosynthetic efficiency, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and salinity. A further feature is a capability to collect remotely discrete water samples for detailed lab analysis. We present the first high-resolution (< 30 sec) data on the sea surface microlayer. We discuss the variability of biochemical properties of the sea surface and its implication on air-sea interaction.

  13. Pixel-based absolute surface metrology by three flat test with shifted and rotated maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dede; Chen, Shanyong; Xue, Shuai; Yin, Ziqiang

    2018-03-01

    In traditional three flat test, it only provides the absolute profile along one surface diameter. In this paper, an absolute testing algorithm based on shift-rotation with three flat test has been proposed to reconstruct two-dimensional surface exactly. Pitch and yaw error during shift procedure is analyzed and compensated in our method. Compared with multi-rotation method proposed before, it only needs a 90° rotation and a shift, which is easy to carry out especially in condition of large size surface. It allows pixel level spatial resolution to be achieved without interpolation or assumption to the test surface. In addition, numerical simulations and optical tests are implemented and show the high accuracy recovery capability of the proposed method.

  14. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    PubMed Central

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002–2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world’s first climate change “refugees.” We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future. PMID:21795605

  15. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  16. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu).

    PubMed

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-09

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  17. Precise orbit computation and sea surface modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakker, Karel F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Rummel, R.; Vermaat, E.; Deruijter, W. P. M.; Vandermade, J. W.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.

    1991-01-01

    The research project described below is part of a long-term program at Delft University of Technology aiming at the application of European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1) and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements for geophysical purposes. This program started in 1980 with the processing of Seasat laser range and altimeter height measurements and concentrates today on the analysis of Geosat altimeter data. The objectives of the TOPEX/POSEIDON research project are the tracking of the satellite by the Dutch mobile laser tracking system MTLRS-2, the computation of precise TOPEX/POSEIDON orbits, the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the orbit errors, the improvement of ERS-1 orbits through the information obtained from the altimeter crossover difference residuals for crossing ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON tracks, the combination of ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data into a single high-precision data set, and the application of this data set to model the sea surface. The latter application will focus on the determination of detailed regional mean sea surfaces, sea surface variability, ocean topography, and ocean currents in the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the seas around Indonesia, the West Pacific, and the oceans around South Africa.

  18. Sea surface and remotely sensed temperatures off Cape Mendocino, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, L. C.; Arvesen, J. C.; Frydenlund, D.; Myers, J. S.; Short, K.

    1985-01-01

    During September 3 to 5, 1979, a multisensor oceanographic experiment was conducted off Cape Mendocino, California. The purpose of this experiment was to validate the use of remote sensing techniques over an area along the U.S. west coast where coasted upwelling is known to be intense. Remotely sensed mutlispectral data, including thermal infrared imagery, were collected above an upwelling feature off Cape Mendocino. Data were acquired from the TIRNOS-N and NOAA-6 polar orbiting satellites, the NASA Ames Research Center's high altitude U-2 aircraft, and a U.S. Coast Guard C-130 aircraft. Supporting surface truth data over the same feature were collected aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship, OCEANOGRAPHER. Atmospheric soundings were also taken aboard the ship. The results indicate that shipboard measurements of sea surface temperatures can be reproduction within 1 C or better through remote observation of absolute infrared radiance values (whether measured aboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellite, the U-2 aircraft, or the Coast Guard aircraft) by using appropriate atmospheric corrections. Also, the patterns of sea surface temperature which were derived independently from the various remote platforms provide a consistent interpretation of the surface temperature field.

  19. Satellite monitoring of sea surface pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, G.; Telfer, D. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Image processing techniques developed are well adapted to the exploration and isolation of local areas which exhibit small temperature differences between themselves and their surroundings. In the worst case of imagery of small areal extent of sea surface having no coastal boundary in the area, there is yet no method of distinguishing unambiguously an oil spill from fog, cloud, the effect produced by shallow sediments, or the effects of naturally occuring thermal fronts. In the case of uniform slicks of liquid North Sea oil in still air, laboratory simulation experiments show that, for oil thicknesses in excess of 1 or 2 mm, there is, under equilibrium conditions, little dependence of oil surface temperature on the thickness of the oil layer. The surface temperature of oil is consistently higher than that of water, the difference being about 1 K at low values of relative humidity, but tending to increase as the relative humidity increases.

  20. Three modes of interdecadal trends in sea surface temperature and sea surface height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.

    2013-12-01

    It might be thought that sea surface height and sea surface temperature would be tightly related. We show that this is not necessarily the case on a global scale. We analysed this relationship in a suite of coupled climate models run under 1860 forcing conditions. The models are low-resolution variants of the GFDL Earth System Model, reported in Galbraith et al. (J. Clim. 2011). 1. Correlated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode corresponds to opening and closing of convective chimneys in the Southern Ocean. As the Southern Ocean destratifies, sea ice formation is suppressed during the winter and more heat is taken up during the summer. This mode of variability is highly correlated with changes in the top of the atmosphere radiative budget and weakly correlated with changes in the deep ocean circulation. 2. Uncorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode of variability is associated with interdecadal variabliity in tropical winds. Changes in the advective flux of heat to the surface ocean play a critical role in driving these changes, which also result in significant local changes in sea level. Changes sea ice over the Southern Ocean still result in changes in solar absorption, but these are now largely cancelled by changes in outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Anticorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperatures. By varying the lateral diffusion coefficient in the ocean model, we are able to enhance and suppress convection in the Southern and Northern Pacific Oceans. Increasing the lateral diffusion coefficients shifts the balance sources of deep water away from the warm salty deep water of the North Atlantic and towards cold fresh deep water from the other two regions. As a result, even though the planet as a whole warms, the deep ocean cools and sea level falls, with changes of order 30 cm over 500 years. The increase in solar absorption

  1. Modeling sea-surface temperature and its variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarachik, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the temporal scales of sea surface temperature variability. Progress in modeling sea surface temperature, and remaining obstacles to the understanding of the variability is discussed.

  2. Holocene sea surface temperature and sea ice extent in the Okhotsk and Bering Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harada, Naomi; Katsuki, Kota; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Akiko; Seki, Osamu; Addison, Jason A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Sato, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of future climate requires an understanding of the mechanisms of the Holocene climate; however, the driving forces, mechanisms, and processes of climate change in the Holocene associated with different time scales remain unclear. We investigated the drivers of Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice extent in the North Pacific Ocean, and the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, as inferred from sediment core records, by using the alkenone unsaturation index as a biomarker of SST and abundances of sea ice-related diatoms (F. cylindrus and F. oceanica) as an indicator of sea ice extent to explore controlling mechanisms in the high-latitude Pacific. Temporal changes in alkenone content suggest that alkenone production was relatively high during the middle Holocene in the Okhotsk Sea and the western North Pacific, but highest in the late Holocene in the eastern Bering Sea and the eastern North Pacific. The Holocene variations of alkenone-SSTs at sites near Kamchatka in the Northwest Pacific, as well as in the western and eastern regions of the Bering Sea, and in the eastern North Pacific track the changes of Holocene summer insolation at 50°N, but at other sites in the western North Pacific, in the southern Okhotsk Sea, and the eastern Bering Sea they do not. In addition to insolation, other atmosphere and ocean climate drivers, such as sea ice distribution and changes in the position and activity of the Aleutian Low, may have systematically influenced the timing and magnitude of warming and cooling during the Holocene within the subarctic North Pacific. Periods of high sea ice extent in both the Okhotsk and Bering Seas may correspond to some periods of frequent or strong winter–spring dust storms in the Mongolian Gobi Desert, particularly one centered at ∼4–3 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Variation in storm activity in the Mongolian Gobi Desert region may reflect changes in the strength and positions of the Aleutian Low and Siberian

  3. Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanluan; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclone rainfall rates have been projected to increase in a warmer climate. The area coverage of tropical cyclones influences their impact on human lives, yet little is known about how tropical cyclone rainfall area will change in the future. Here, using satellite data and global atmospheric model simulations, we show that tropical cyclone rainfall area is controlled primarily by its environmental sea surface temperature (SST) relative to the tropical mean SST (that is, the relative SST), while rainfall rate increases with increasing absolute SST. Our result is consistent with previous numerical simulations that indicated tight relationships between tropical cyclone size and mid-tropospheric relative humidity. Global statistics of tropical cyclone rainfall area are not expected to change markedly under a warmer climate provided that SST change is relatively uniform, implying that increases in total rainfall will be confined to similar size domains with higher rainfall rates. PMID:25761457

  4. Regional biases in absolute sea-level estimates from tide gauge data due to residual unmodeled vertical land movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matt A.; Keshin, Maxim; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Thomas, Ian D.; Milne, Glenn; Riva, Riccardo E. M.

    2012-07-01

    The only vertical land movement signal routinely corrected for when estimating absolute sea-level change from tide gauge data is that due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We compare modeled GIA uplift (ICE-5G + VM2) with vertical land movement at ˜300 GPS stations located near to a global set of tide gauges, and find regionally coherent differences of commonly ±0.5-2 mm/yr. Reference frame differences and signal due to present-day mass trends cannot reconcile these differences. We examine sensitivity to the GIA Earth model by fitting to a subset of the GPS velocities and find substantial regional sensitivity, but no single Earth model is able to reduce the disagreement in all regions. We suggest errors in ice history and neglected lateral Earth structure dominate model-data differences, and urge caution in the use of modeled GIA uplift alone when interpreting regional- and global- scale absolute (geocentric) sea level from tide gauge data.

  5. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, D.J.; Trenberth, K.E.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S. 22 refs.

  6. Pathfinder Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker-Yeboah, S.; Saha, K.; Zhang, D.; Casey, K. S.

    2016-02-01

    Global sea surface temperature (SST) fields are important in understanding ocean and climate variability. The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) develops and maintains a high resolution, long-term, climate data record (CDR) of global satellite SST. These SST values are generated at approximately 4 km resolution using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments aboard NOAA polar-orbiting satellites going back to 1981. The Pathfinder SST algorithm is based on the Non-Linear SST algorithm using the modernized NASA SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS). Coefficients for this SST product were generated using regression analyses with co-located in situ and satellite measurements. Previous versions of Pathfinder included level 3 collated (L3C) products. Pathfinder Version 5.3 includes level 2 pre-processed (L2P), level 3 Uncollated (L3C), and L3C products. Notably, the data were processed in the cloud using Amazon Web Services and are made available through all of the modern web visualization and subset services provided by the THREDDS Data Server, the Live Access Server, and the OPeNDAP Hyrax Server.In this version of Pathfinder SST, anomalous hot-spots at land-water boundaries are better identified and the dataset includes updated land masks and sea ice data over the Antarctic ice shelves. All quality levels of SST values are generated, giving the user greater flexibility and the option to apply their own cloud-masking procedures. Additional improvements include consistent cloud tree tests for NOAA-07 and NOAA-19 with respect to the other sensors, improved SSTs in sun glint areas, and netCDF file format improvements to ensure consistency with the latest Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) requirements. This quality controlled satellite SST field is a reference environmental data record utilized as a primary resource of SST for numerous regional and global marine efforts.

  7. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  8. Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Repasi, Endre

    2011-05-01

    A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for both the calculation of images of SWIR (short wave infrared) imaging sensor and for determination of total detected power of reflected laser light for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver at different atmospheric conditions. Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. The propagation model for water waves is applied for sea surface animation. To predict the view of a camera in the spectral band SWIR the sea surface radiance must be calculated. This is done by considering the emitted sea surface radiance and the reflected sky radiance, calculated by MODTRAN. Additionally, the radiances of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are modeled in the SWIR band considering an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). This BRDF model considers the statistical slope statistics of waves and accounts for slope-shadowing of waves that especially occurs at flat incident angles of the laser beam and near horizontal detection angles of reflected irradiance at rough seas. Simulation results are presented showing the variation of the detected laser power dependent on the geometric configuration of laser, sensor and wind characteristics.

  9. Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaty, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is a marginal sea in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature and ocean color in South China Sea. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on sea surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in sea surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on sea surface temperature along South China Sea were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in sea surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.

  10. Absolute Sea Level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration At Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Gavdos Team

    We present the mean sea level (MSL) monitoring aspect of the altimeter calibration fa- cility under deployment on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. The Eastern Mediter- ranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the im- portance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatological changes. Tide- gauge monitoring with GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long his- torical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites for current and fu- ture missions (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA). Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further ex- pand it to the south of the island with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the present T/P and JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. Our plans include the deployment of additional instrumentation at this site: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  11. Absolute Sea-level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration Facility at Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2002-12-01

    We introduce the recently instrumented mean sea level (MSL) monitoring facility on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. We will focus on the altimeter calibration aspect of the facility, in particular, its application to the JASON mission. The Eastern Mediterranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the importance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatologic changes. Tide-gauge monitoring with continuous GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long historical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA), and our facility is part of it. Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further expand it to the south with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the original T/P and present JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. The facility hosts in addition to the tide gauges: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers and solar spectrometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, transportable laser ranging systems, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  12. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  13. An Evaluation of Sea Surface Temperature as Measured by the Nimbus 1 High Resolution Infrared Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Lewis J.; Kennedy, James S.

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of Nimbus I HRIR data over various parts of the world indicated limited success in deriving sea surface temperatures to within 3 to 6 K of aircraft radiation measurements (8- 13 microns) and synoptic-climatological ship sea surface temperature data. The areas studied included the east, west and Gulf coasts of the United States, West Greenland, Nova Scotia, southern Japan, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. At night, thin clouds which may fill the radiometer's field of view make it difficult to interpret the absolute values of derived sea surface temperature. During the daytime, the HRIR data is unusable for oceanographic temperature analysis because the contamination by reflected solar radiation mixes with the emitted radiation. Future satellite instrumentation, consisting of a HFUR radiometer (10-11 microns) when used in conjunction with television. data, will delineate cloud free ocean areas and permit the daily derivation of sea surface temperatures from approximately 10 to 30 Percent of the world's oceanic regions.

  14. Satellite Sea-surface Salinity Retrieval Dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayler, E. J.; Ren, L.

    2016-02-01

    Comparing satellite sea-surface salinity (SSS) measurements and in situ observations reveals large-scale differences. What causes these differences? In this study, five boxes, sampling various oceanic regimes of the global ocean, provide insights on the relative performance of satellite SSS retrievals with respect to the influences of SST, precipitation and wind speed. The regions sampled are: the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), NASA's Salinity Processes of the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) area, the North Pacific subarctic region, and the southern Indian Ocean. This study examines satellite SSS data from NASA's Aquarius Mission and ESA's Soil Moisture - Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, specifically: Aquarius official Aquarius Data Processing System (ADPS) Level-2 data, experimental Aquarius Combined Active-Passive (CAP) Level-2 SSS data developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and SMOS Level-2 data.

  15. Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of sea surface temperature (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable variability. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST variability within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater variability in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Surface current observatons--Beaufort Sea, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter; Garlow, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Sediment transport via water and ice in the Beaufort Sea off northern Alaska is related to the movement of the surficial waters. As development proceeds along the north slope of alaska, a knowledge of the potential drift trajectories of water, ice, sediment and pollutants will be needed. In an attempt to better define the probable paths and rates of transport, 4200 surface drift cards were dropped during the U.S. Coast Guard WEBSEC cruise of August and September, 1972. The results of this release are the subject of this report. Because the data presented here will be used primarily by those interested in solving problems of transport, the emphasis has been placed on data presentation rather than a detailed analysis of the circulation. (Sinha-OEIS)

  17. Sea surface temperature: Observations from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, John J.; Smith, William L.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure is developed for estimating sea surface temperatures (SST) from multispectral image data acquired from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (VAS) on the geostationary GOES satellites. Theoretical regression equations for two and three infrared window channels are empirically tuned by using clear field of view satellite radiances matched with reports of SST from NOAA fixed environmental buoys from 1982. The empirical regression equations are then used to produce daily regional analyses of SST. The daily analyses are used to study the response of SST's to the passage of Hurricane Alicia (1983) and Hurricane Debbie (1982) and are also used as a first guess surface temperature in the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles over the oceanic regions. Monthly mean SST's for the western North Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific during March and July 1982 were produced for use in the NASA/JPL SST intercomparison workshop series. Workshop results showed VAS SST's have a scatter of 0.8°-1.0°C and a slight warm bias with respect to the other measurements of SST. Subsequently, a second set of VAS/ buoy matches collected during 1983 and 1984 was used to produce a set of bias corrected regression relations for VAS.

  18. Spectral sea surface reflectance of skylight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; He, Shuangyan; Shabani, Afshin; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Du, Keping

    2017-02-20

    In examining the dependence of the sea surface reflectance of skylight ρs on sky conditions, wind speed, solar zenith angle, and viewing geometry, Mobley [Appl. Opt.38, 7442 (1999).10.1364/AO.38.007442] assumed ρs is independent of wavelength. Lee et al. [Opt. Express18, 26313 (2010).10.1364/OE.18.026313] showed experimentally that ρs does vary spectrally due to the spectral difference of sky radiance coming from different directions, which was ignored in Mobley's study. We simulated ρs from 350 nm to 1000 nm by explicitly accounting for spectral variations of skylight distribution and Fresnel reflectance. Furthermore, we separated sun glint from sky glint because of significant differences in magnitude, spectrum and polarization state between direct sun light and skylight light. The results confirm that spectral variation of ρs(λ) mainly arises from the spectral distribution of skylight and would vary from slightly blueish due to normal dispersion of the refractive index of water, to neutral and then to reddish with increasing wind speeds and decreasing solar zenith angles. Polarization moderately increases sky glint by 8 - 20% at 400 nm but only by 0 - 10% at 1000 nm. Sun glint is inherently reddish and becomes significant (>10% of sky glint) when the sun is at the zenith with moderate winds or when the sea is roughened (wind speeds > 10 m s-1) with solar zenith angles < 20°. We recommend a two-step procedure by first correcting the glint due to direct sun light, which is unpolarized, followed by removing the glint due to diffused and polarized skylight. The simulated ρs(λ) as a function of wind speeds, sun angles and aerosol concentrations for currently recommended sensor-sun geometry, i.e., zenith angle = 40° and azimuthal angle relative to the sun = 45°, is available upon request.

  19. The Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, F.

    2013-12-01

    A stratus-sea fog event occurred on 3 June 2011 over the Yellow and East China Seas (as shown in figure) is investigated observationally and numerically. Emphasis is put on the influences of the sea surface temperature front (SSTF) and of the synoptic circulations on the transition of stratus to sea fog. The southerly winds from a synoptic high pressure transport water vapor from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea, while the subsidence induced by the high contributes to the formation of the temperature inversion on the top of the stratus or stratocumulus that appears mainly over the warm flank of a sea surface temperature front in the East China Sea. Forced by the SSTF, there is a secondary cell within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with a sinking branch on the cold flank and a rising one on the warm flank of the SSTF. This sinking branch, in phase with the synoptic subsidence, forces the stratus or stratocumulus to lower in the elevation getting close to the sea surface as these clouds move northward driven by the southerly winds. The cloud droplets can either reach to the sea surface directly or evaporate into water vapor that may condense again when coming close to the cold sea surface to form fog. In this later case, the stratus and fog may separate. The cooling effect of cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic heating induced by the subsidence and thus helps the transition of stratus to sea fog in the southern Yellow Sea. By smoothing the SSTF in the numerical experiment, the secondary cell weakens and the sea fog patches shrink obviously over the cold flank of the SSTF though the synoptic subsidence and moist advection still exist. A conceptual model is suggested for the transition of stratus to sea fog in the Yellow and East China Seas, which is helpful for the forecast of sea fog over these areas. The satellite visible image of the stratus-fog event. The fog appears in the Yellow Sea and the stratocumulus in the East China Sea.

  20. Satellite monitoring of sea surface pollution. [North and Irish Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, G.; Hall, T. S. (Principal Investigator); Telfer, D. J.; Wilson, L.; Fryer, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal IR data from NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission were used in a study of the feasibility of detecting oil spills in the seas around the UK. The period of observation covered the years 1978/9, in which there were no major spills in the area. A video processor capable of generating false color renderings of any satellite image from eight density levels was used in the synoptic search for spills. Other laboratory equipment, and associated analyses, were used to study the thermal behavior of oil spills on water. Oil spills may appear to be warmer or cooler that the surrounding sea, depending on numerous factors.

  1. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  2. Jason-3 Produces First Global Map of Sea Surface Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-16

    The U.S./European Jason-3 satellite has produced its first map of sea surface height, which corresponds well to data from its predecessor, Jason-2. Higher-than-normal sea levels are red; lower-than-normal sea levels are blue. El Niño is visible as the red blob in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Extending the timeline of ocean surface topography measurements begun by the Topex/Poseidon and Jason 1 and 2 satellites, Jason 3 will make highly detailed measurements of sea-level on Earth to gain insight into ocean circulation and climate change. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20532

  3. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  4. Short pulse radar used to measure sea surface wind speed and SWH. [Significant Wave Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, D. L.; Mennella, R. A.; Walsh, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A joint airborne measurement program is being pursued by NRL and NASA Wallops Flight Center to determine the extent to which wind speed and sea surface significant wave height (SWH) can be measured quantitatively and remotely with a short pulse (2 ns), wide-beam (60 deg), nadir-looking 3-cm radar. The concept involves relative power measurements only and does not need a scanning antenna, Doppler filters, or absolute power calibration. The slopes of the leading and trailing edges of the averaged received power for the pulse limited altimeter are used to infer SWH and surface wind speed. The interpretation is based on theoretical models of the effects of SWH on the leading edge shape and rms sea-surface slope on the trailing-edge shape. The models include the radar system parameters of antenna beam width and pulsewidth.

  5. An alternative to reduction of surface pressure to sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The pitfalls of the present method of reducing surface pressure to sea level are reviewed, and an alternative, adjusted pressure, P, is proposed. P is obtained from solution of a Poisson equation over a continental region, using the simplest boundary condition along the perimeter or coastline where P equals the sea level pressure. The use of P would avoid the empiricisms and disadvantages of pressure reduction to sea level, and would produce surface pressure charts which depict the true geostrophic wind at the surface.

  6. Absolute surface energy calculations of Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1): a study of ZnO and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. We used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches, for both GGA and HSE. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces. Part of the computing resources was provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project code of 4053134 at CUHK.

  7. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  8. Deep Coherent Vortices and Their Sea Surface Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ienna, Federico; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Dias, Joaquim; Peliz, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean Water eddies, known as Meddies, are an important dynamic process occurring at depths of 1000-meters in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Meddies occur as a direct result of the Mediterranean Outflow exiting through the Gibraltar Strait, and represent a prevalent mechanism that can be found extensively throughout the ocean. Moreover, Meddy cores are known to produce measurable expressions at the sea surface in the form of rotating coherent vortices, not only affecting the sea surface from beneath, but also allowing for the possibility to remotely study these deep phenomena through data gathered at the sea surface. While many past studies have focused on the properties of Meddy cores, only a handful of studies focus on the physical characteristics and behavior of the surface expressions produced. Are Meddy surface expressions different from other like vortices that dominate the physical ocean surface? What are the relationships between deep and surface mechanisms, and do any feedbacks exist? To shed light on these questions, we investigate the relationship between Meddies and their sea-surface expressions through observations using in-situ float and drifter profiles and satellite altimetry. A total of 782 Meddy cores were examined in the Northeast Atlantic using temperature and salinity data obtained by CTD and Argo during the Mecanismos de transporte e de dispersão da Água Mediterrânica no Atlântico Nordeste (MEDTRANS) project, and their corresponding sea-level expressions were geo-temporally matched in satellite altimetry data. We report several statistical properties of the sea-surface expressions of Meddies, including their mean diameter and vertical magnitude, and compare the properties of their surface features to the underlying Meddy cores. We investigate how the deep core affects the surface, and whether surface expressions may in return yield information about the underlying cores. Additionally, we examine the variability of the surface

  9. Effects of Sea-Surface Waves and Ocean Spray on Air-Sea Momentum Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Song, Jinbao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of sea-surface waves and ocean spray on the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) at different wind speeds and wave ages were investigated. An MABL model was developed that introduces a wave-induced component and spray force to the total surface stress. The theoretical model solution was determined assuming the eddy viscosity coefficient varied linearly with height above the sea surface. The wave-induced component was evaluated using a directional wave spectrum and growth rate. Spray force was described using interactions between ocean-spray droplets and wind-velocity shear. Wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients were calculated for low to high wind speeds for wind-generated sea at different wave ages to examine surface-wave and ocean-spray effects on MABL momentum distribution. The theoretical solutions were compared with model solutions neglecting wave-induced stress and/or spray stress. Surface waves strongly affected near-surface wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients at low to moderate wind speeds. Drag coefficients and near-surface wind speeds were lower for young than for old waves. At high wind speeds, ocean-spray droplets produced by wind-tearing breaking-wave crests affected the MABL strongly in comparison with surface waves, implying that wave age affects the MABL only negligibly. Low drag coefficients at high wind caused by ocean-spray production increased turbulent stress in the sea-spray generation layer, accelerating near-sea-surface wind. Comparing the analytical drag coefficient values with laboratory measurements and field observations indicated that surface waves and ocean spray significantly affect the MABL at different wind speeds and wave ages.

  10. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Chaidez, V; Dreano, D; Agusti, S; Duarte, C M; Hoteit, I

    2017-08-15

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade -1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century 1 . However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade -1 , while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade -1 , all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  11. Observation of Sea Ice Surface Thermal States Under Cloud Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Perovich, D. K.; Gow, A. J.; Kwok, R.; Barber, D. G.; Comiso, J. C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Clouds interfere with the distribution of short-wave and long-wave radiations over sea ice, and thereby strongly affect the surface energy balance in polar regions. To evaluate the overall effects of clouds on climatic feedback processes in the atmosphere-ice-ocean system, the challenge is to observe sea ice surface thermal states under both clear sky and cloudy conditions. From laboratory experiments, we show that C-band radar (transparent to clouds) backscatter is very sensitive to the surface temperature of first-year sea ice. The effect of sea ice surface temperature on the magnitude of backscatter change depends on the thermal regimes of sea ice thermodynamic states. For the temperature range above the mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H20) crystallization point (-8.2 C), C-band data show sea ice backscatter changes by 8-10 dB for incident angles from 20 to 35 deg at both horizontal and vertical polarizations. For temperatures below the mirabilite point but above the crystallization point of MgCl2.8H2O (-18.0 C), relatively strong backwater changes between 4-6 dB are observed. These backscatter changes correspond to approximately 8 C change in temperature for both cases. The backscattering mechanism is related to the temperature which determines the thermodynamic distribution of brine volume in the sea ice surface layer. The backscatter is positively correlated to temperature and the process is reversible with thermodynamic variations such as diurnal insolation effects. From two different dates in May 1993 with clear and overcast conditions determined by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), concurrent Earth Resources Satellite 1 (ERS-1) C-band ice observed with increases in backscatter over first-year sea ice, and verified by increases in in-situ sea ice surface temperatures measured at the Collaborative-Interdisciplinary Cryosphere Experiment (C-ICE) site.

  12. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  13. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Classification and Mapping for Surface Albedo Parameterization in Sea Ice Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colón, P.; Perovich, D. K.; Polashenski, C.; Simpson, W. R.; Rigor, I. G.; Woods, J. E.; Nguyen, D. T.; Neumann, G.

    2016-12-01

    A regime shift of Arctic sea ice from predominantly perennial sea ice (multi-year ice or MYI) to seasonal sea ice (first-year ice or FYI) has occurred in recent decades. This shift has profoundly altered the proportional composition of different sea ice classes and the surface albedo distribution pertaining to each sea ice class. Such changes impacts physical, chemical, and biological processes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system. The drastic changes upset the traditional geophysical representation of surface albedo of the Arctic sea ice cover in current models. A critical science issue is that these profound changes must be rigorously and systematically observed and characterized to enable a transformative re-parameterization of key model inputs, such as ice surface albedo, to ice-ocean-atmosphere climate modeling in order to obtain re-analyses that accurately reproduce Arctic changes and also to improve sea ice and weather forecast models. Addressing this challenge is a strategy identified by the National Research Council study on "Seasonal to Decadal Predictions of Arctic Sea Ice - Challenges and Strategies" to replicate the new Arctic reality. We review results of albedo characteristics associated with different sea ice classes such as FYI and MYI. Then we demonstrate the capability for sea ice classification and mapping using algorithms developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and by the U.S. National Ice Center for use with multi-sourced satellite radar data at L, C, and Ku bands. Results obtained with independent algorithms for different radar frequencies consistently identify sea ice classes and thereby cross-verify the sea ice classification methods. Moreover, field observations obtained from buoy webcams and along an extensive trek across Elson Lagoon and a sector of the Beaufort Sea during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) in March 2012 are used to validate satellite products of sea ice classes. This research enables the mapping

  15. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  16. Application of Land Surface Data Assimilation to Simulations of Sea Breeze Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackaro, Scott; Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSUNCAR MM5 V3-5 and applied at spatial resolutions of 12- and 4-km. It is recognized that even 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  17. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-04-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  18. Sensitivity of Offshore Surface Fluxes and Sea Breezes to the Spatial Distribution of Sea-Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Kelly; Sinsky, Eric; Edson, James; Whitney, Michael M.; Jia, Yan

    2018-03-01

    A series of numerical sensitivity experiments is performed to quantify the impact of sea-surface temperature (SST) distribution on offshore surface fluxes and simulated sea-breeze dynamics. The SST simulations of two mid-latitude sea-breeze events over coastal New England are performed using a spatially-uniform SST, as well as spatially-varying SST datasets of 32- and 1-km horizontal resolutions. Offshore surface heat and buoyancy fluxes vary in response to the SST distribution. Local sea-breeze circulations are relatively insensitive, with minimal differences in vertical structure and propagation speed among the experiments. The largest thermal perturbations are confined to the lowest 10% of the sea-breeze column due to the relatively high stability of the mid-Atlantic marine atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) suppressing vertical mixing, resulting in the depth of the marine layer remaining unchanged. Minimal impacts on the column-averaged virtual potential temperature and sea-breeze depth translates to small changes in sea-breeze propagation speed. This indicates that the use of datasets with a fine-scale SST may not produce more accurate sea-breeze simulations in highly stable marine ABL regimes, though may prove more beneficial in less stable sub-tropical environments.

  19. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  20. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  1. Absolute Molecular Orientation of Isopropanol at Ceria (100) Surfaces: Insight into Catalytic Selectivity from the Interfacial Structure

    DOE PAGES

    Doughty, Benjamin; Goverapet Srinivasan, Sriram; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    The initial mechanistic steps underlying heterogeneous chemical catalysis can be described in a framework where the composition, structure, and orientation of molecules adsorbed to reactive interfaces are known. However, extracting this vital information is the limiting step in most cases due in part to challenges in probing the interfacial monolayer with enough chemical specificity to characterize the surface molecular constituents. These challenges are exacerbated at complex or spatially heterogeneous interfaces where competing processes and a distribution of local environments can uniquely drive chemistry. To address these limitations, this work presents a distinctive combination of materials synthesis, surface specific optical experiments,more » and theory to probe and understand molecular structure at catalytic interfaces. Specifically, isopropanol was adsorbed to surfaces of the model CeO 2 catalyst that were synthesized with only the (100) facet exposed. Vibrational sum-frequency generation was used to probe the molecular monolayer, and with the guidance of density functional theory calculations, was used to extract the structure and absolute molecular orientation of isopropanol at the CeO 2 (100) surface. Our results show that isopropanol is readily deprotonated at the surface, and through the measured absolute molecular orientation of isopropanol, we obtain new insight into the selectivity of the (100) surface to form propylene. Our findings reveal key insight into the chemical and physical phenomena taking place at pristine interfaces thereby pointing to intuitive structural arguments to describe catalytic selectivity in more complex systems.« less

  2. Absolute Molecular Orientation of Isopropanol at Ceria (100) Surfaces: Insight into Catalytic Selectivity from the Interfacial Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Benjamin; Goverapet Srinivasan, Sriram; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    The initial mechanistic steps underlying heterogeneous chemical catalysis can be described in a framework where the composition, structure, and orientation of molecules adsorbed to reactive interfaces are known. However, extracting this vital information is the limiting step in most cases due in part to challenges in probing the interfacial monolayer with enough chemical specificity to characterize the surface molecular constituents. These challenges are exacerbated at complex or spatially heterogeneous interfaces where competing processes and a distribution of local environments can uniquely drive chemistry. To address these limitations, this work presents a distinctive combination of materials synthesis, surface specific optical experiments,more » and theory to probe and understand molecular structure at catalytic interfaces. Specifically, isopropanol was adsorbed to surfaces of the model CeO 2 catalyst that were synthesized with only the (100) facet exposed. Vibrational sum-frequency generation was used to probe the molecular monolayer, and with the guidance of density functional theory calculations, was used to extract the structure and absolute molecular orientation of isopropanol at the CeO 2 (100) surface. Our results show that isopropanol is readily deprotonated at the surface, and through the measured absolute molecular orientation of isopropanol, we obtain new insight into the selectivity of the (100) surface to form propylene. Our findings reveal key insight into the chemical and physical phenomena taking place at pristine interfaces thereby pointing to intuitive structural arguments to describe catalytic selectivity in more complex systems.« less

  3. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of GEOSAT sea surface height, SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Zlotnicki, V.; Newman, J.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly mean global distributions for 1988 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map. Distributions are included for sea surface height variation estimated from GEOSAT; surface wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA spacecrafts; and the Cartesian components of the 10m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  4. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    oceanographic processes that exchange low salinity surface and upper thermocline water of the Bay of Bengal with the salty Arabian Sea and tropical Indian Ocean ...two northern embayments of the Indian Ocean . OBJECTIVES Two northern Indian Ocean embayments, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, are so close...e.g. where do the eddies come from? 2. Investigating advective pathways, and the role of isopycnal mixing, exchanging upper ocean water between the

  5. Land- and sea-surface impacts on local coastal breezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.; Gilchrist, J.; Lodise, J.; Goldman, W.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Delaware has seen significant increases in population along the coastline in the past three decades. With this increase in population have come changes to the land surface, as forest and farmland has been converted to residential and commercial purposes, causing changes in the surface roughness, temperature, and land-atmosphere fluxes. There is also a semi-permanent upwelling center in the spring and summer outside the Delaware Bay mouth that significantly changes the structure of the sea surface temperature both inside and outside the Bay. Through a series of high resolution modeling and observational studies, we have determined that in cases of strong synoptic forcing, the impact of the land-surface on the boundary layer properties can be advected offshore, creating a false coastline and modifying the location and timing of the sea breeze circulation. In cases of weak synoptic forcing, the influence of the upwelling and the tidal circulation of the Delaware Bay waters can greatly change the location, strength, and penetration of the sea breeze. Understanding the importance of local variability in the surface-atmosphere interactions on the sea breeze can lead to improved prediction of sea breeze onset, penetration, and duration which is important for monitoring air quality and developing offshore wind power production.

  6. Improved measurements of mean sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas from synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wergeland Hansen, Morten; Johnsen, Harald; Engen, Geir; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even

    2017-04-01

    The warm and saline surface Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland ridge transports heat into the Arctic, maintaining the ice-free oceans and regulating sea-ice extent. The AW influences the region's relatively mild climate and is the northern branch of the global thermohaline overturning circulation. Heat loss in the Norwegian Sea is key for both heat transport and deep water formation. In general, the ocean currents in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean is a complex system of topographically steered barotropic and baroclinic currents of which the wind stress and its variability is a driver of major importance. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Doppler centroid shift has been demonstrated to contain geophysical information about sea surface wind, waves and current at an accuracy of 5 Hz and pixel spacing of 3.5 - 9 × 8 km2. This corresponds to a horizontal surface velocity of about 20 cm/s at 35° incidence angle. The ESA Prodex ISAR project aims to implement new and improved SAR Doppler shift processing routines to enable reprocessing of the wide swath acquisitions available from the Envisat ASAR archive (2002-2012) at higher resolution and better accuracy than previously obtained, allowing combined use with Sentinel-1 and Radarsat-2 retrievals to build timeseries of the sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas. Estimation of the geophysical Doppler shift from new SAR Doppler centroid shift retrievals will be demonstrated, addressing key issues relating to geometric (satellite orbit and attitude) and electronic (antenna mis-pointing) contributions and corrections. Geophysical Doppler shift retrievals from one month of data in January 2010 and the inverted surface velocity in the Nordic Seas are then addressed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, in particular those obtained in the ESA GlobCurrent project.

  7. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  8. Sea Surface Temperature Serving as Determining Factors for Sea Turtle Locations in the Atlantic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-11

    thme *"e let 8eitem - uc m 61e~ a & & g~Sim".~a "b~ - a " m e asmg "ed a eee ed an A em iei g ,Wand uevleme N Sg oia fl , F so"men Sen aem ~ e w db...establish a correlation between sea turtle locations in the Atlantic Ocean in relation to sea surface temperature. Currently all five species of sea turtles...knowledge currently available on this endangered species. Further research should be conducted to determine the role of wind speed to the migration

  9. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  10. High frequency acoustic propagation under variable sea surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senne, Joseph

    This dissertation examines the effects of rough sea surfaces and sub-surface bubbles on high frequency acoustic transmissions. Owing to the strong attenuation of electromagnetic waves in seawater, acoustic waves are used in the underwater realm much in the same way that electromagnetic waves are used in the atmosphere. The transmission and reception of acoustic waves in the underwater environment is important for a variety of fields including navigation, ocean observation, and real-time communications. Rough sea surfaces and sub-surface bubbles alter the acoustic signals that are received not only in the near-surface water column, but also at depth. This dissertation demonstrates that surface roughness and sub-surface bubbles notably affect acoustic transmissions with frequency ranges typical of underwater communications systems (10-50 kHz). The influence of rough surfaces on acoustic transmissions is determined by modeling forward propagation subject to sea surface dynamics that vary with time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds. A time-evolving rough sea surface model is combined with a rough surface formulation of a parabolic equation model for predicting time-varying acoustic fields. Linear surface waves are generated from surface wave spectra, and evolved in time using a Runge-Kutta integration technique. This evolving, range-dependent surface information is combined with other environmental parameters and fed into the acoustic model, giving an approximation of the time-varying acoustic field. The wide-angle parabolic equation model manages the rough sea surfaces by molding them into the boundary conditions for calculations of the near-surface acoustic field. The influence of sub-surface bubbles on acoustic transmissions is determined by modeling the population of bubbles near the surface and using those populations to approximate the effective changes in sound speed and attenuation. Both range-dependent and range-independent bubble models are

  11. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  12. Response of Antarctic sea surface temperature and sea ice to ozone depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Kostov, Y.; Marshall, J.; Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the Antarctic ozone hole extends all the way from the stratosphere through the troposphere down to the surface, with clear signatures on surface winds, and SST during summer. In this talk we discuss the impact of these changes on the ocean circulation and sea ice state. We are notably motivated by the observed cooling of the surface Southern Ocean and associated increase in Antarctic sea ice extent since the 1970s. These trends are not reproduced by CMIP5 climate models, and the underlying mechanism at work in nature and the models remain unexplained. Did the ozone hole contribute to the observed trends?Here, we review recent advances toward answering these issues using "abrupt ozone depletion" experiments. The ocean and sea ice response is rather complex, comprising two timescales: a fast ( 1-2y) cooling of the surface ocean and sea ice cover increase, followed by a slower warming trend, which, depending on models, flip the sign of the SST and sea ice responses on decadal timescale. Although the basic mechanism seems robust, comparison across climate models reveal large uncertainties in the timescales and amplitude of the response to the extent that even the sign of the ocean and sea ice response to ozone hole and recovery remains unconstrained. After briefly describing the dynamics and thermodynamics behind the two-timescale response, we will discuss the main sources of uncertainties in the modeled response, namely cloud effects and air-sea heat exchanges, surface wind stress response and ocean eddy transports. Finally, we will consider the implications of our results on the ability of coupled climate models to reproduce observed Southern Ocean changes.

  13. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  14. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  15. Sea ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell Sea and its relationship with tropical sea surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.

    2007-01-01

    Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on sea ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the sea surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and 5 in the Weddell Sea) that represent the most important temporal features that dominated sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) variability in the Weddell, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas over the 1979-2000 period. Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations data set derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm and acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) were used. Monthly means SST are provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. The first temporal pattern series obtained by PCA has its homogeneous area located at the external region of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas and Drake Passage, mostly north of 60°S. The second region is centered in 30°W and located at the southeast of the Weddell. The third area is localized east of 30°W and north of 60°S. South of the first area, the fourth PC series has its homogenous region, between 30° and 60°W. The last area is centered at 0° W and south of 60°S. Correlation charts between the five Principal Components series and SST were performed. Positive correlations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were found for the five PCs when SST series preceded SICA PC series. The sign of the correlation could relate the occurrence of an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm (cold) event with posterior positive (negative) anomalies of sea ice concentration over the Weddell Sea.

  16. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  17. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Threshold Determination for Local Instantaneous Sea Surface Height Derivation with Icebridge Data in Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Zhang, S.; Xiao, F.; Li, J.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.

    2018-05-01

    The NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission is the largest program in the Earth's polar remote sensing science observation project currently, initiated in 2009, which collects airborne remote sensing measurements to bridge the gap between NASA's ICESat and the upcoming ICESat-2 mission. This paper develop an improved method that optimizing the selection method of Digital Mapping System (DMS) image and using the optimal threshold obtained by experiments in Beaufort Sea to calculate the local instantaneous sea surface height in this area. The optimal threshold determined by comparing manual selection with the lowest (Airborne Topographic Mapper) ATM L1B elevation threshold of 2 %, 1 %, 0.5 %, 0.2 %, 0.1 % and 0.05 % in A, B, C sections, the mean of mean difference are 0.166 m, 0.124 m, 0.083 m, 0.018 m, 0.002 m and -0.034 m. Our study shows the lowest L1B data of 0.1 % is the optimal threshold. The optimal threshold and manual selections are also used to calculate the instantaneous sea surface height over images with leads, we find that improved methods has closer agreement with those from L1B manual selections. For these images without leads, the local instantaneous sea surface height estimated by using the linear equations between distance and sea surface height calculated over images with leads.

  19. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km

  20. Analyses of Sea Surface Height, Bottom Pressure and Acoustic Travel Time in the Japan/East Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    ANALYSES OF SEA SURFACE HEIGHT, BOTTOM PRESSURE AND ACOUSTIC TRAVEL TIME IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA BY YONGSHENG XU A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analyses of Sea Surface Height, Bottom Pressure and Acoustic Travel Time in the Japan/East Sea...1999 to July 2001. The PIESs recorded hourly vertical acoustic travel time and pressure, which are respectively good proxies of baroclinic and

  1. Long-terms Change of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. G.; Choi, A.

    2016-02-01

    Using the Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) the long term trend in the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) between 1950 and 2008 is investigated. Both in winter and summer SST was increased by comparable amounts, but the warming patterns and the governing processes was different. During winter warming rate was greater in the deep basin in the central part, while during summer near the southern part. In winter the net heat flux into the sea was increased and could contribute to the warming. The pattern of the heat flux, however, was different from that of the warming. The heat flux was increased over the coastal area where warming was weaker, but decreased in deeper part where warming was stronger. The northeasterly monsoon wind weakened to lower the shoreward Ekman transport and the sea surface height gradient. The cyclonic gyre that transports cold northern water to south was weakened to warm the ocean. The effect manifested more strongly southward western boundary currents, and subsequently cold advection. In summer the net surface heat flux, however, was reduced and could not contribute to the warming. Over the southern part of the ocean the weakening of the southwesterly summer monsoon reduced southeastward Ekman transport, which is antiparallel to the mean SST gradient. Firstly, southeastward cold advection is reduced to warm the surface near the southeastern boundary of the SCS. The upwelling southeast of Vietnam was also weakened to raise the SST east of Vietnam. Thus the weakening of the wind in each season was the ultimate cause of the warming, but the responses of the ocean that lead to the warming were different.

  2. Doppler Spectra of Bistatic Reverberation from the Sea Surface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-08

    GOVT ACCESSIN NO RECIPIENTS8 CATALOG NUMBER S. TtE ... wuw~tP RED DOPPLER .&PECTRA OF JISTATIC REVERBEATION( 9; t - .e:. TROM THE SEA SURFACE...National Resear-h Council, Committee Undersea Warfare 1 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1 NORDA Code 110, 200, 300, 500, 600 5 DDC, Alexandria 12

  3. Loki Patera as the Surface of a Magma Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Rathbun, J. A.; Johnson, T. V.

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the finding of Schubert et al that Io's figure is consistent with a hydrostatic shape, we explore the consequences of modeling Loki Patera as the surface of a large magma sea. This model is attractive because of its sheer simplicity and its usefulness in interpreting and predicting observations. Here, we report on that work.

  4. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  5. Skylab earth resources experiment package /EREP/ - Sea surface topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Marsh, J. G.; Mcgoogan, J. T.; Leitao, C. D.; Vincent, S.; Wells, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    The S-193 Skylab radar altimeter was operated in a round-the-world pass on Jan. 31, 1974. The main purpose of this experiment was to test and 'measure' the variation of the sea surface topography using the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geoid model as a reference. This model is based upon 430,000 satellite and 25,000 ground gravity observations. Variations of the sea surface on the order of -40 to +60 m were observed along this pass. The 'computed' and 'measured' sea surfaces have an rms agreement on the order of 7 m. This is quite satisfactory, considering that this was the first time the sea surface has been observed directly over a distance of nearly 35,000 km and compared to a computed model. The Skylab orbit for this global pass was computed using the Goddard Earth Model (GEM 6) and S-band radar tracking data, resulting in an orbital height uncertainty of better than 5 m over one orbital period.

  6. Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

    2006-04-15

    Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK.

  7. Numerical study of electromagnetic scattering from one-dimensional nonlinear fractal sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; He, Chao; William, Perrie; Kuang, Hai-Lan; Zou, Guang-Hui; Chen, Wei

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, linear fractal sea surface models have been developed for the sea surface in order to establish an electromagnetic backscattering model. Unfortunately, the sea surface is always nonlinear, particularly at high sea states. We present a nonlinear fractal sea surface model and derive an electromagnetic backscattering model. Using this model, we numerically calculate the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of a nonlinear sea surface. Comparing the averaged NRCS between linear and nonlinear fractal models, we show that the NRCS of a linear fractal sea surface underestimates the NRCS of the real sea surface, especially for sea states with high fractal dimensions, and for dominant ocean surface gravity waves that are either very short or extremely long.

  8. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    to the atmosphere. How low the SSS gets in the Bay of Bengal or how high in the Arabian Sea, depends on the oceanic exchanges between them via a...potential impact on the SST. 3 Figure 1a: Sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity ( SSS ) relationship during ASIRI 2013 cruises. The left panel...shows the hull ADCP vector, color-coded for SSS . The SST/ SSS scatter falls along a line from the warm/salty southern regions to the cool/fresher

  9. Role of Absolute Humidity in the Inactivation of Influenza Viruses on Stainless Steel Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures ▿

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James; Rudnick, Stephen; First, Melvin; Spengler, John

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus has been found to persist in the environment for hours to days, allowing for secondary transmission of influenza via inanimate objects known as fomites. We evaluated the efficacy of heat and moisture for the decontamination of surfaces for the purpose of preventing of the spread of influenza. Aqueous suspensions of influenza A virus were deposited onto stainless steel coupons, allowed to dry under ambient conditions, and exposed to temperatures of 55°C, 60°C, or 65°C and relative humidity (RH) of 25%, 50%, or 75% for up to 1 h. Quantitative virus assays were performed on the solution used to wash the viruses from these coupons, and results were compared with the solution used to wash coupons treated similarly but left under ambient conditions. Inactivation of influenza virus on surfaces increased with increasing temperature, RH, and exposure time. Reductions of greater than 5 logs of influenza virus on surfaces were achieved at temperatures of 60 and 65°C, exposure times of 30 and 60 min, and RH of 50 and 75%. Our data also suggest that absolute humidity is a better predictor of surface inactivation than RH and allows the prediction of survival using two parameters rather than three. Modest amounts of heat and adequate moisture can provide effective disinfection of surfaces while not harming surfaces, electrical systems, or mechanical components, leaving no harmful residues behind after treatment and requiring a relatively short amount of time. PMID:20435770

  10. SeaRover: An Emerging Technology for Sea Surface Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, T.; Kudela, R.; Curcio, J.; Davidson, K.; Darling, D.; Kirkwood, B.

    2005-12-01

    Introduction - SeaRover is envisioned as an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) for coastal operations. It is intended to lower the cost of existing marine survey applications while enabling new science missions. The current conceptual design is a small vehicle with hull and propulsion system optimized to eliminate cavitation and EM noise. SeaRover will make significant advances over existing platforms by providing longer duration science missions, better positioning and mission control, larger power budgets for instrumentation and significantly lower operational costs than existing vehicles. Science Enabled by SeaRover - SeaRover's unique design and autonomous capability provides several advantages compared to traditional autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) and crewed surface vessels: (1) Near surface sampling: SeaRover can sample within the top 1-2 meters. This is difficult to do with crewed vessels because of draft and perturbations from the hull. (2) Adaptive monitoring of dynamic events: SeaRover will be capable of intelligent decision making, as well as real-time remote control. This will enable highly-responsive autonomous tracking of moving phenomena (e.g., algal bloom). (3) Long term monitoring: SeaRover can be deployed for extended periods of time, allowing it to be used for longitudinal baseline studies. SeaRover will represent an advance over existing platforms in terms of: (1) Mobility: operational range from 10-1000 km, GPS accuracy, trajectory control with meter precision, and launch in hours. (2) Duration: from days up to months. (3) Payload and Power: accommodate approximately 100 kg for a 6m hull. Its surface design will allow access to wind and sun energy. (4) Communication: radio, wireless, satellite, direct data return. (5) Operational Cost: target costs are $2K/day (24 hour operation), with no onboard operator. (6) Recovery/Reusability: autonomous return to safe harbor provides sample return and on-base maintenance. Large science and power

  11. Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Curtis D

    2015-05-20

    Generation of random sea surfaces using wave variance spectra and Fourier transforms is formulated in a way that guarantees conservation of wave energy and fully resolves wave height and slope variances. Monte Carlo polarized ray tracing, which accounts for multiple scattering between light rays and wave facets, is used to compute effective Mueller matrices for reflection and transmission of air- or water-incident polarized radiance. Irradiance reflectances computed using a Rayleigh sky radiance distribution, sea surfaces generated with Cox-Munk statistics, and unpolarized ray tracing differ by 10%-18% compared with values computed using elevation- and slope-resolving surfaces and polarized ray tracing. Radiance reflectance factors, as used to estimate water-leaving radiance from measured upwelling and sky radiances, are shown to depend on sky polarization, and improved values are given.

  12. HF Surface Wave Radar Tests at the Eastern China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiong Bin; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Shi Cai; Yang, Zi Jie; Wen, Biyang; Shi, Zhen Hua; Tian, Jiansheng; Ke, Hengyu; Gao, Huotao

    2005-01-01

    The HF surface wave radar system OSMAR2000 adopts Frequency Modulated Interrupted Continuous Waveform (FMICW) and its 120m-antenna array is transmitting/receiving co-used. MUSIC and MVM are applied to obtain sea echo's direction of arrival (DOA) when extracting currents information. Verification tests of OSMAR2000 ocean surface dynamics detection against in-situ measurements had been accomplished on Oct. 23~29, 2000. Ship detection test was carried out on Dec.24, 2001. It shows that OSMAR2000 is capable of detecting 1000 tons ships with a wide beam out to 70 km. This paper introduces the radar system and the applied DOA estimation methods in the first, and then presents ship detection results and some sea state measurement results of surface currents and waves. The results indicate the validity of the developed radar system and the effectiveness of the applied signal processing methods.

  13. Sea surface determination from space: The GSFC geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Mcgoogan, J.; Marsh, J.; Lerch, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the sea surface/geoid and its relative variation were investigated and results of the altimeter experiment on Skylab to test the geoid are discussed. The spaceborne altimeter on Skylab revealed that the sea surface of the world's oceans can be measured with an accuracy in the meter range. Surface variations are discussed as they relate to those computed from satellite orbital dynamics and ground based gravity data. The GSFC geoid was constructed from about 400,000 satellite tracking data (range, range rate, angles) and about 20,000 ground gravity observations. One of the last experiments on Skylab was to measure and/or test this geoid over almost one orbit. It was found that the computed water surface deviates between 5 to 20 m from the measured one. Further outlined are the influence of orbital errors on the sea surface, and numerical examples are given based upon real tracking data. Orbital height error estimates were computed for geodetic type satellites and are found to be in the order of 0.2 to 5 meters.

  14. Microhydrodynamics of flotation processes in the sea surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatika, Marianne; Zimmerman, William B.

    2001-10-01

    The uppermost surface of the ocean forms a peculiarly important ecosystem, the sea surface microlayer (SML). Comprising the top 1-1000 μm of the ocean surface, the SML concentrates many chemical substances, particularly those that are surface active. Important economically as a nursery for fish eggs and larvae, the SML unfortunately is also especially vulnerable to pollution. Contaminants that settle out from the air, have low solubility, or attach to floatable matter tend to accumulate in the SML. Bubbles contribute prominently to the dynamics of air-sea exchanges, playing an important role in geochemical cycling of material in the upper ocean and SML. In addition to the movement of bubbles, the development of a bubble cloud interrelates with the single particle dynamics of all other bubbles and particles. In the early sixties, several in situ oceanographic techniques revealed an "unbelievably immense" number of coastal bubbles of radius 15-300 μm. The spatial and temporal variation of bubble numbers were studied; acoustical oceanographers now use bubbles as tracers to determine ocean processes near the ocean surface. Sea state and rain noises have both been definitively ascribed to the radiation from huge numbers of infant micro bubbles [The Acoustic Bubble. Academic Press, San Diego]. Our research programme aims at constructing a hydrodynamic model for particle transport processes occurring at the microscale, in multi-phase flotation suspensions. Current research addresses bubble and floc microhydrodynamics as building blocks for a microscale transport model. This paper reviews sea surface transport processes in the microlayer and the lower atmosphere, and identifies those amenable to microhydrodynamic modelling and simulation. It presents preliminary simulation results including the multi-body hydrodynamic mobility functions for the modelling of "dynamic bubble filters" and floc suspensions. Hydrodynamic interactions versus spatial anisotropy and size of

  15. Sea ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.; Burns, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sediments contributed by the Copper River in the Gulf of Alaska are carried westward along the shore as a distinct plume. Oceanic water relatively poor in suspended material appears to intrude near Montague Island, and turbid water between Middleton Island and Kayak Island is the result of Ekman between transport. An anticlockwise surface water circulation is observed in this region. Ground truth data indicate striking similarity with ERTS-1 imagery obtained on October 12, 1972. Observations of ERTS-1 imagery reveal that various characteristics and distribution of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean can be easily studied. Formation of different types of sea ice and their movement is quite discrenible. Sea ice moves parallel to the cost in near shore areas and to the northerly direction away from the coast.

  16. Remote sensing the sea surface CO2 of the Baltic Sea using the SOMLO methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have noted the high variability of the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate estimation of these mechanisms. This is particularly pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been characterized in as much detail as in the open oceans. In addition, the joint availability of in situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, we used the SOMLO (self-organizing multiple linear output; Sasse et al., 2013) methodology, which combines two existing methods (i.e. self-organizing maps and multiple linear regression) to estimate the ocean surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. These outputs give a monthly map of the Baltic Sea at a very fine spatial resolution. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in situ measurements and a root mean square error of 36 μatm. Removing any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstructed CO2 flux, so we chose to supply any missing data using statistical imputation. The pCO2 maps produced using this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data, and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in coming years, given the predicted acquisition of new data.

  17. A Numeric Study of the Dependence of the Surface Temperature of Beta-Layered Regions on Absolute Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Ebey, Peter S.; Asaki, Thomas J.; Hoffer, James K.

    2000-01-15

    Beta-layering of deuterium-tritium (D-T) ice in spherical shell geometries is numerically and analytically considered to investigate the relationship between temperature differences that arise because of inner-surface perturbations and the absolute shell thickness. The calculations use dimensions based on a proposed design of an inertial confinement fusion target for use at the National Ignition Facility. The temperature differences are calculated within D-T ice shells of varying total thicknesses, and the temperature differences calculated in three dimensions are compared both to the one-dimensional results and to the expected limits in three dimensions for long- and short-wavelength surface perturbations. The three-dimensional numeric resultsmore » agree well with both the long- and short-wavelength limits; the region of crossover from short- to long-wavelength behavior is mapped out. Temperature differences due to surface perturbations are proportional to D-T layer thickness in one-dimensional systems but not in three-dimensional spherical shells. In spherical shells, surface perturbations of long wavelength give rise to temperature perturbations that are approximately proportional to the total shell thickness, while for short-wavelength perturbations, the temperature differences are inversely related to total shell thickness. In contrast to the one-dimensional result, we find that in three dimensions there is not a general relationship between shell thickness and surface temperature differences.« less

  18. Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankignoul, C.

    1985-01-01

    Current analytical models for large-scale air-sea interactions in the middle latitudes are reviewed in terms of known sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The scales and strength of different atmospheric forcing mechanisms are discussed, along with the damping and feedback processes controlling the evolution of the SST. Difficulties with effective SST modeling are described in terms of the techniques and results of case studies, numerical simulations of mixed-layer variability and statistical modeling. The relationship between SST and diabatic heating anomalies is considered and a linear model is developed for the response of the stationary atmosphere to the air-sea feedback. The results obtained with linear wave models are compared with the linear model results. Finally, sample data are presented from experiments with general circulation models into which specific SST anomaly data for the middle latitudes were introduced.

  19. Increased Surface Wind Speeds Follow Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Vavrus, S. J.; Wang, M.; Holland, M. M.; Landrum, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice through the end of the 21st century indicate the likelihood of a strong reduction in ice area and thickness in all seasons, leading to a substantial thermodynamic influence on the overlying atmosphere. This is likely to have an effect on winds over the Arctic Basin, due to changes in atmospheric stability and/or baroclinicity. Prior research on future Arctic wind changes is limited and has focused mainly on the practical impacts on wave heights in certain seasons. Here we attempt to identify patterns and likely mechanisms responsible for surface wind changes in all seasons across the Arctic, particularly those associated with sea ice loss in the marginal ice zone. Sea level pressure, near-surface (10 m) and upper-air (850 hPa) wind speeds, and lower-level dynamic and thermodynamic variables from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project (CESM-LE) were analyzed for the periods 1971-2000 and 2071-2100 to facilitate comparison between a present-day and future climate. Mean near-surface wind speeds over the Arctic Ocean are projected to increase by late century in all seasons but especially during autumn and winter, when they strengthen by up to 50% locally. The most extreme wind speeds in the 90th percentile change even more, increasing in frequency by over 100%. The strengthened winds are closely linked to decreasing lower-tropospheric stability resulting from the loss of sea ice cover and consequent surface warming (locally over 20 ºC warmer in autumn and winter). A muted pattern of these future changes is simulated in CESM-LE historical runs from 1920-2005. The enhanced winds near the surface are mostly collocated with weaker winds above the boundary layer during autumn and winter, implying more vigorous vertical mixing and a drawdown of high-momentum air.The implications of stronger future winds include increased coastal hazards and the potential for a positive feedback with sea ice by generating higher winds and

  20. Tetrahedral cluster and pseudo molecule: New approaches to Calculate Absolute Surface Energy of Zinc Blende (111)/(-1-1-1) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Wong, Lun; Chan, Chunkai; Deng, Bei; Zhu, Junyi

    Determining accurate absolute surface energies for polar surfaces of semiconductors has been a great challenge in decades. Here, we propose pseudo-hydrogen passivation to calculate them, using density functional theory approaches. By calculating the energy contribution from pseudo-hydrogen using either a pseudo molecule method or a tetrahedral cluster method, we obtained (111)/(-1-1-1) surfaces energies of Si, GaP, GaAs, and ZnS with high self-consistency. Our findings may greatly enhance the basic understandings of different surfaces and lead to novel strategies in the crystal growth. We would like to thank Su-huai Wei for helpful discussions. Computing resources were provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project.

  1. Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Global accuracies and error characteristics of presently orbiting satellite sensors are examined. The workshops are intended to lead to a better understanding of present capabilities for sea surface temperature measurement and to improve measurement concepts for the future. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR and Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer is emphasized. Some data from the High Resolution Infrared Sounder HIRS and AVHRR are also examined. Comparisons of satellite data with ship and eXpendable BathyThermograph XBT measurement show standard deviations in the range 0.5 to 1.3 C with biases of less than 0.4 C, depending on the sensor, ocean region, and spatial/temporal averaging. The Sea Surface Temperature SST anomaly maps show good agreement in some cases, but a number of sensor related problems are identified.

  2. Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature are now possible using a variety of sensors. The present accuracies of these methods are in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 C. This makes them potentially useful for synoptic studies of ocean currents and for global monitoring of climatological anomalies. To improve confidence in the satellite data, objective evaluations of sensor accuracies are necessary, and the conditions under which these accuracies degrade need to be understood. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite was studied. Sea surface temperatures, derived from November 1979 SMMR data, were compared globally against ship measurements and climatology, using facilities of the JPL Pilot Ocean Data System. Methods for improved data analysis and plans for additional workshops to incorporate data from other sensors were discussed.

  3. Estimation of the sea surface's two-scale backscatter parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sea-surface normalized radar cross section and the friction velocity vector is determined using a parametric two-scale scattering model. The model parameters are found from a nonlinear maximum likelihood estimation. The estimation is based on aircraft scatterometer measurements and the sea-surface anemometer measurements collected during the JONSWAP '75 experiment. The estimates of the ten model parameters converge to realistic values that are in good agreement with the available oceanographic data. The rms discrepancy between the model and the cross section measurements is 0.7 db, which is the rms sum of a 0.3 db average measurement error and a 0.6 db modeling error.

  4. Simulation of Earthquake-Generated Sea-Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Chris; Leveque, Randy

    2016-11-01

    Earthquake-generated tsunamis can carry with them a powerful, destructive force. One of the most well-known, recent examples is the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake, which was responsible for the nuclear disaster in Fukushima. Tsunami simulation and forecasting, a necessary element of emergency procedure planning and execution, is typically done using the shallow-water equations. A typical initial condition is that using the Okada solution for a homogeneous, elastic half-space. This work focuses on simulating earthquake-generated sea-surface deformations that are more true to the physics of the materials involved. In particular, a water layer is added on top of the half-space that models the seabed. Sea-surface deformations are then simulated using the Clawpack hyperbolic PDE package. Results from considering the water layer both as linearly elastic and as "nearly incompressible" are compared to that of the Okada solution.

  5. Targeted Proteomics and Absolute Protein Quantification for the Construction of a Stoichiometric Host-Pathogen Surface Density Model*

    PubMed Central

    Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Kilsgård, Ola; Teleman, Johan; Happonen, Lotta; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic immune response responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Molecular modeling of host-pathogen interactions in the disease state represents a promising strategy to define molecular events of importance for the transition from superficial to invasive infectious diseases. Here we used the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as a model system to establish a mass spectrometry based workflow for the construction of a stoichiometric surface density model between the S. pyogenes surface, the surface virulence factor M-protein, and adhered human blood plasma proteins. The workflow relies on stable isotope labeled reference peptides and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of a wild-type strain and an M-protein deficient mutant strain, to generate absolutely quantified protein stoichiometry ratios between S. pyogenes and interacting plasma proteins. The stoichiometry ratios in combination with a novel targeted mass spectrometry method to measure cell numbers enabled the construction of a stoichiometric surface density model using protein structures available from the protein data bank. The model outlines the topology and density of the host-pathogen protein interaction network on the S. pyogenes bacterial surface, revealing a dense and highly organized protein interaction network. Removal of the M-protein from S. pyogenes introduces a drastic change in the network topology, validated by electron microscopy. We propose that the stoichiometric surface density model of S. pyogenes in human blood plasma represents a scalable framework that can continuously be refined with the emergence of new results. Future integration of new results will improve the understanding of protein-protein interactions and their importance for bacterial virulence. Furthermore, we anticipate that the general properties of the developed workflow will facilitate the production of stoichiometric surface density models for other types of host

  6. Targeted Proteomics and Absolute Protein Quantification for the Construction of a Stoichiometric Host-Pathogen Surface Density Model.

    PubMed

    Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Kilsgård, Ola; Teleman, Johan; Happonen, Lotta; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Sepsis is a systemic immune response responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Molecular modeling of host-pathogen interactions in the disease state represents a promising strategy to define molecular events of importance for the transition from superficial to invasive infectious diseases. Here we used the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as a model system to establish a mass spectrometry based workflow for the construction of a stoichiometric surface density model between the S. pyogenes surface, the surface virulence factor M-protein, and adhered human blood plasma proteins. The workflow relies on stable isotope labeled reference peptides and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of a wild-type strain and an M-protein deficient mutant strain, to generate absolutely quantified protein stoichiometry ratios between S. pyogenes and interacting plasma proteins. The stoichiometry ratios in combination with a novel targeted mass spectrometry method to measure cell numbers enabled the construction of a stoichiometric surface density model using protein structures available from the protein data bank. The model outlines the topology and density of the host-pathogen protein interaction network on the S. pyogenes bacterial surface, revealing a dense and highly organized protein interaction network. Removal of the M-protein from S. pyogenes introduces a drastic change in the network topology, validated by electron microscopy. We propose that the stoichiometric surface density model of S. pyogenes in human blood plasma represents a scalable framework that can continuously be refined with the emergence of new results. Future integration of new results will improve the understanding of protein-protein interactions and their importance for bacterial virulence. Furthermore, we anticipate that the general properties of the developed workflow will facilitate the production of stoichiometric surface density models for other types of host

  7. The influence of tide on sea surface temperature in the marginal sea of northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Jen; Tsai, Yun-Chan; Ho, Chung-Ru; Lo, Yao-Tsai; Kuo, Nan-Jung

    2017-10-01

    Tide gauge data provided by the University of Hawaii Sea Level Center and daily sea surface temperature (SST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product are used in this study to analyze the influence of tide on the SST in the seas of Northwestern Pacific. In the marginal region, the climatology SST is lower in the northwestern area than that in the southeastern area. In the coastal region, the SST at spring tide is higher than that at neap tide in winter, but it is lower in other seasons. In the adjacent waters of East China Sea and Yellow Sea, the SST at spring tide is higher than that at neap tide in winter and summer but it is lower in spring and autumn. In the open ocean region, the SST at spring tide is higher than that at neap tide in winter, but it is lower in other seasons. In conclusion, not only the river discharge and topography, but also tides could influence the SST variations, especially in the open ocean region.

  8. Sea Surface Signature of Tropical Cyclones Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    due to the ionosphere and troposphere, which have to be compensated for, and components due to the galactic and cosmic background radiation those...and corrections for sun glint, galactic and cosmic background radiation, and Stokes effects of the ionosphere. The accuracy of a given retrieval...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Sea surface signature of tropical cyclones using microwave remote sensing Bumjun Kil

  9. MISST: The Multi-Sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    climate change studies, fisheries management, and a wide range of other applications. Measurements are taken by several satellites carrying infrared and...TEMPERATURE PROJECT ABSTRACT. Sea surface temperature (SST) measurements are vital to global weather prediction, climate change studies, fisheries management...important variables related to the global ocean-atmosphere system. It is a key indicator of climate change , is widely applied to studies of upper

  10. Sea surface cooling in the Northern South China Sea observed using Chinese sea-wing underwater glider measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chunhua; Mao, Huabin; Yu, Jiancheng; Xie, Qiang; Wu, Jiaxue; Lian, Shumin; Liu, Qinyan

    2015-11-01

    Based on 26 days of Chinese Sea-wing underwater glider measurements and satellite microwave data, we documented cooling of the upper mixed layer of the ocean in response to changes in the wind in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) from September 19, 2014, to October 15, 2014. The Sea-wing underwater glider measured 177 profiles of temperature, salinity, and pressure within a 55 km×55 km area, and reached a depth of 1000 m at a temporal resolution of ∼4 h. The study area experienced two cooling events, Cooling I and Cooling II, according to their timing. During Cooling I, water temperature at 1-m depth (T1) decreased by ∼1.0 °C, and the corresponding satellite-derived surface winds increased locally by 4.2 m/s. During Cooling II, T1 decreased sharply by 1.7 °C within a period of 4 days; sea surface winds increased by 7 m/s and covered the entire NSCS. The corresponding mixed layer depth (MLD) deepened sharply from 30 m to 60 m during Cooling II, and remained steady during Cooling I. We estimated temperature tendencies using a ML model. High resolution Sea-wing underwater glider measurements provided an estimation of MLD migration, allowing us to obtain the temporal entrainment rate of cool sub-thermocline water. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the entrainment rate and latent heat flux were the two major components that regulated cooling of the ML, and that the Ekman advection and sensible heat flux were small.

  11. SMOS sea surface salinity maps of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Martinez, Justino; Portabella, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) is also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, has the objective measuring soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans. Although the mission was originally conceived for hydrological and oceanographic studies [1], SMOS is also making inroads in the cryospheric monitoring. SMOS carries an innovative L-band (1.4 GHz, or 21-cm wavelength), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but a more frequent one at the poles. Although the SMOS radiometer operating frequency offers almost the maximum sensitivity of the brightness temperature (TB) to sea surface salinity (SSS) variations, this is rather low, , i.e.,: 90% of ocean SSS values span a range of brightness temperatures of only 5K at L-band. This sensitivity is particularly low in cold waters. This implies that the SSS retrieval requires high radiometric performance. Since the SMOS launch, SSS Level 3 maps have been distributed by several expert laboratories including the Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC). However, since the TB sensitivity to SSS decreases with decreasing sea surface temperature (SST), large retrieval errors had been reported when retrieving salinity values at latitudes above 50⁰N. Two new processing algorithms, recently developed at BEC, have led to a considerable improvement of the SMOS data, allowing for the first time to derive SSS maps in cold waters. The first one is to empirically characterize and correct the systematic biases with six

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  14. Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake

  15. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  16. Optical monitoring of film pollution on sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Andrey; Konstantinov, Oleg; Shmirko, Konstantin

    2017-11-01

    The organic films form a brightness contrast on the sea surface. It makes possible to use cheap simple and miniature systems for video monitoring of pollution of coastal marine areas by oil products in the bunkering of ships, emergency situations at oil terminals, gas and oil pipelines, hydrocarbon production platforms on the shelf, etc.1-16 A panoramic video system with a polarization filter on the lens, located at an altitude of 90 m above sea level, can provide effective control of the water area within a radius of 7 kilometers,17-19 and modern photogrammetry technologies allow not only to register the fact of pollution and get a portrait of the offender, but also with a high Spatial and temporal resolution to estimate the dimensions and trace the dynamics of movement and transformation of the film in a geographic coordinate system. Of particular relevance is the optical method of controlling the pollution of the sea surface at the present time with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles that are already equipped with video cameras and require only a minor upgrade of their video system to enhance the contrast of images of organic films.

  17. Seasonal variability of the Red Sea, from GRACE time-variable gravity and altimeter sea surface height measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, John; Smeed, David; Leuliette, Eric; Swenson, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variability of sea surface height and mass within the Red Sea, occurs mostly through the exchange of heat with the atmosphere and wind-driven inflow and outflow of water through the strait of Bab el Mandab that opens into the Gulf of Aden to the south. The seasonal effects of precipitation and evaporation, of water exchange through the Suez Canal to the north, and of runoff from the adjacent land, are all small. The flow through the Bab el Mandab involves a net mass transfer into the Red Sea during the winter and a net transfer out during the summer. But that flow has a multi-layer pattern, so that in the summer there is actually an influx of cool water at intermediate (~100 m) depths. Thus, summer water in the southern Red Sea is warmer near the surface due to higher air temperatures, but cooler at intermediate depths (especially in the far south). Summer water in the northern Red Sea experiences warming by air-sea exchange only. The temperature profile affects the water density, which impacts the sea surface height but has no effect on vertically integrated mass. Here, we study this seasonal cycle by combining GRACE time-variable mass estimates, altimeter (Jason-1, Jason-2, and Envisat) measurements of sea surface height, and steric sea surface height contributions derived from depth-dependent, climatological values of temperature and salinity obtained from the World Ocean Atlas. We find good consistency, particularly in the northern Red Sea, between these three data types. Among the general characteristics of our results are: (1) the mass contributions to seasonal SSHT variations are much larger than the steric contributions; (2) the mass signal is largest in winter, consistent with winds pushing water into the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab el Mandab in winter, and out during the summer; and (3) the steric signal is largest in summer, consistent with summer sea surface warming.

  18. Remote sensing algorithm for sea surface CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2014-08-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have brought forth the high variability in the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes makes their accurate estimation an arduous task. This is more pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been as highly detailed as in the open oceans. In adition, the joint availability of in-situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, a combination of two existing methods (Self-Organizing-Maps and Multiple Linear regression) is used to estimate ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production and mixed layer depth. The outputs of this research have an horizontal resolution of 4 km, and cover the period from 1998 to 2011. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in-situ measurements, and a root mean square error is of 38 μatm. The removal of any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstruction of the CO2 flux, and we chose therefore to complete any missing data through statistical imputation. The CO2 maps produced by this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in the coming years, in view of the predicted acquisitions of new data.

  19. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, N.; Harlou, R.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    2015-11-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  20. Late Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea-surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Nicolas; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2016-02-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical timescale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Ma). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  1. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  2. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  3. Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific Warm Pool During TOGA COARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    The daily mean heat and momentum fluxes at the surface derived from the SSM/I and Japan's GMS radiance measurements are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of the surface energy budgets and their relationship to the sea surface temperature during the COARE intensive observing period (IOP). For the three time legs observed during the IOP, the retrieved surface fluxes compare reasonably well with those from the IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma. The characteristics of surface heat and momentum fluxes are very different between the southern and northern warm pool. In the southern warm pool, the net surface heat flux is dominated by solar radiation which is, in turn, modulated by the two Madden-Julian oscillations. The surface winds are generally weak, leading to a shallow ocean mixed layer. The solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is significant, and the change in the sea surface temperature during the IOP does not follow the net surface heat flux. In the northern warm pool, the northeasterly trade wind is strong and undergoes strong seasonal variation. The variation of the net surface heat flux is dominated by evaporation. The two westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden-Julian oscillations seem to have little effect on the net surface heat flux. The ocean mixed layer is deep, and the solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is small. As opposed to the southern warm pool, the trend of the sea surface temperature in the northern warm pool during the IOP is in agreement with the variation of the net heat flux at the surface.

  4. Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

  5. Internal gravity wave contributions to global sea surface variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.; Arbic, B. K.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.; Buijsman, M. C.; Zamudio, L.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Sharma, H.

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution (1/12th and 1/25th degree) 41-layer simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by both atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential, are used to construct global maps of sea-surface height (SSH). The HYCOM output has been separated into steric, non-steric, and total sea-surface height and the maps display variance in subtidal, tidal, and supertidal bands. Two of the global maps are of particular interest in planning for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath satellite altimeter mission; (1) a map of the nonstationary tidal signal (estimated after removing the stationary tidal signal via harmonic analysis), and (2) a map of the steric supertidal contributions, which are dominated by the internal gravity wave continuum. Both of these maps display signals of order 1 cm2, the target accuracy for the SWOT mission. Therefore, both non-stationary internal tides and non-tidal internal gravity waves are likely to be important sources of "noise" that must be accurately removed before examination of lower-frequency phenomena can take place.

  6. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  7. Ocean backscatter across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, S.V.; Li, F.K.

    1997-06-01

    Ocean backscatter was measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with the airborne NUSCAT K{sub u}-band scatterometer, across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991. Backscatter across the front between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration experimental coastal buoy A (44024) on the cold side and Discus C buoy (44023) on the warm side shows a difference of more than 5 dB for vertical polarization in many cases. This large frontal backscatter change is observed in all upwind, downwind, and crosswind directions. Themore » sea surface temperature difference measured by the buoys was about 9{degrees}C. The corresponding difference in wind speed cannot account for the large backscatter change in view of geophysical model functions depending only on neutral wind velocity such as SASS. The measured backscatter also has larger upwind-downwind and upwind-crosswind ratios compared to the model results. Furthermore, NUSCAT data reveal that upwind backscatter on the cold side was smaller than or close to crosswind backscatter on the warm side for incidence angles between 30{degrees} to 50{degrees}. This suggests that the temperature front can be detected by the scatterometer at these incidence angles for different wind directions in the cold and warm sides.« less

  8. Spherical harmonic expansion of the Levitus Sea surface topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelis, Theodossios

    1987-01-01

    Prior information for the stationary sea surface topography (SST) may be needed in altimetric solutions that intend to simultaneously improve the gravity field and determine the SST. For this purpose the oceanographically derived SST estimates are represented by a spherical harmonic expansion. The spherical harmonic coefficients are computed from a least squares adjustment of the data covering the majority of the oceanic regions of the world. Several tests are made to determine the optimum maximum degree of solution and the best configuration of the geometry of the data in order to obtain a solution that fits the data and also provides a good spectral representation of the SST.

  9. ENSO related sea surface salinity variability in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently available satellite and Argo data have shown coherent, large-scale sea surface salinity (SSS) variability in the equatorial Pacific. Based on this variability, several SSS indices of El Nino have been introduced by previous studies. Combining results from an ocean general circulation model with available satellite and in-situ observations, this study investigates the SSS variability and its associated SSS indices in the equatorial Pacific. The ocean's role and in particular the vertical entrainment of subtropical waters in this variability are discussed, which suggests that the SSS variability in the equatorial Pacific may play some active role in ENSO evolution.

  10. Sea Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a composite MODIS image showing the 'green wave' of spring in North America and sea surface temperature in the ocean, collected over an 8-day period during the first week in April 2000. On land, the darker green pixels show where the most green foliage is being produced due to photosynthetic activity. Yellows on land show where there is little or no productivity and red is a boundary zone. In the ocean, orange and yellows show warmer waters and blues show colder values. (MODIS Data Type: MODIS-PFM)

  11. Radio emission of sea surface at centimeter wavelengths and is fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseytlin, N. M.; Shutko, A. M.; Zhislin, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The eigen thermal radio emission of the sea was examined as well as the agitated surface of the sea when the reflection (scattering) is similar in nature to diffused scattering. The contribution of this emission to the total emission of the sea is practically constant in time, and the time fluctuations of the radio emissions of the sea are basically determined only by a change in the eigen emission of the sea, connected with the agitation.

  12. Seasonal sea surface and sea ice signal in the fjords of Eastern Greenland from CryoSat-2 SARin altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulaitijiang, Adili; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Cryosat-2 offers the first ever possibility to perform coastal altimetric studies using SAR-Interferometry. This enabled qualified measurements of sea surface height (SST) in the fjords in Greenland. Scoresbysund fjord on the east coast of Greenland is the largest fjord in the world which is also covered by CryoSat-2 SAR-In mask making it a good test region. Also, the tide gauge operated by DTU Space is sitting in Scoresbysund bay, which provides solid ground-based sea level variation records throughout the year. We perform an investigation into sea surface height variation since the start of the Cryosat-2 mission using SAR-In L1B data processed with baseline B processing. We have employed a new develop method for projecting all SAR-In observations in the Fjord onto a centerline up the Fjord. Hereby we can make solid estimates of the annual and (semi-) annual signal in sea level/sea ice freeboard within the Fjord. These seasonal height variations enable us to derive sea ice freeboard changes in the fjord from satellite altimetry. Derived sea level and sea-ice freeboard can be validated by comparison with the tide gauge observations for sea level and output from the Microwave Radiometer derived observations of sea ice freeboard developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute.

  13. The influence of global sea surface temperature variability on the large-scale land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike

    2015-04-01

    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual variability of is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural variability. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural variability based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea temperature contrast in interannual variability is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST variability is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level temperature variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate variability, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST variability affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.

  14. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping influence of oil on the ocean waves and its physical properties. It calculates the radiance contrast of the sea surface polluted by the oil film in relation to a clean sea surface for the SWIR spectral band. Our computer simulation combines the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open clear sea/clear sky) with an oil film at the sea surface. The basic geometry of a clean sea surface is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. Oil on the sea surface attenuates the capillary and short gravity waves modulating the wave power density spectrum of these waves. The radiance of the maritime scene is calculated in the SWIR spectral band with the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance as components. Wave hiding and shadowing, especially occurring at low viewing angles, are considered. The specular reflection of the sky radiance at the clean sea surface is modeled by an analytical statistical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the sea surface. For oil at the sea surface, a specific BRDF is used influenced by the reduced surface roughness, i.e., the modulated wave density spectrum. The radiance contrast of an oil film in relation to the clean sea surface is calculated for different viewing angles, wind speeds, and oil types characterized by their specific physical properties.

  15. Turbulent Surface Flux Measurements over Snow-Covered Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, E. L.; Fairall, C. W.; Grachev, A. A.; Guest, P. S.; Jordan, R. E.; Persson, P. G.

    2006-12-01

    Our group has used eddy correlation to make over 10,000 hours of measurements of the turbulent momentum and heat fluxes over snow-covered sea ice in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. Polar sea ice is an ideal site for studying fundamental processes for turbulent exchange over snow. Both our Arctic and Antarctic sites---in the Beaufort Gyre and deep into the Weddell Sea, respectively---were expansive, flat areas with continuous snow cover; and both were at least 300 km from any topography that might have complicated the atmospheric flow. In this presentation, we will review our measurements of the turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible and latent heat. In particular, we will describe our experiences making turbulence instruments work in the fairly harsh polar, marine boundary layer. For instance, several of our Arctic sites were remote from our main camp and ran unattended for a week at a time. Besides simply making flux measurements, we have been using the data to develop a bulk flux algorithm and to study fundamental turbulence processes in the atmospheric surface layer. The bulk flux algorithm predicts the turbulent surface fluxes from mean meteorological quantities and, thus, will find use in data analyses and models. For example, components of the algorithm are already embedded in our one- dimensional mass and energy budget model SNTHERM. Our fundamental turbulence studies have included deducing new scaling regimes in the stable boundary layer; examining the Monin-Obukhov similarity functions, especially in stable stratification; and evaluating the von Kármán constant with the largest atmospheric data set ever applied to such a study. During this presentation, we will highlight some of this work.

  16. An improved Multimodel Approach for Global Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. K.; Mehrotra, R.; Sharma, A.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of ensemble combinations for formulating improved climate forecasts has gained popularity in recent years. However, many climate models share similar physics or modeling processes, which may lead to similar (or strongly correlated) forecasts. Recent approaches for combining forecasts that take into consideration differences in model accuracy over space and time have either ignored the similarity of forecast among the models or followed a pairwise dynamic combination approach. Here we present a basis for combining model predictions, illustrating the improvements that can be achieved if procedures for factoring in inter-model dependence are utilised. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by combining sea surface temperature (SST) forecasts from five climate models over a period of 1960-2005. The variable of interest, the monthly global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) at a 50´50 latitude-longitude grid, is predicted three months in advance to demonstrate the utility of the proposed algorithm. Results indicate that the proposed approach offers consistent and significant improvements for majority of grid points compared to the case where the dependence among the models is ignored. Therefore, the proposed approach of combining multiple models by taking into account the existing interdependence, provides an attractive alternative to obtain improved climate forecast. In addition, an approach to combine seasonal forecasts from multiple climate models with varying periods of availability is also demonstrated.

  17. Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records.

    PubMed

    Hausfather, Zeke; Cowtan, Kevin; Clarke, David C; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Rohde, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency's Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07° to 0.12°C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets.

  18. Attributing extreme precipitation in the Black Sea region to sea surface warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warm and moisten the overlying atmosphere, increasing the low-level atmospheric instability, the moisture available to precipitating systems and, hence, the potential for intense convective systems. Both the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions have seen a steady increase in summertime SSTs since the early 1980s, by over 2 K in places. This raises the question of how this SST increase has affected convective precipitation extremes in the region, and through which mechanisms any effects are manifested. In particular, the Black Sea town of Krymsk suffered an unprecedented precipitation extreme in July 2012, which may have been influenced by Black Sea warming, causing over 170 deaths. To address this question, we adopt two distinct modelling approaches to event attribution and compare their relative merits. In the first, we use the traditional probabilistic event attribution approach involving global climate model ensembles representative of the present and a counterfactual past climate where regional SSTs have not increased. In the second, we use the conditional event attribution approach, taking the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme as a showcase example. Under the second approach, we carry out ensemble sensitivity experiments of the Krymsk event at convection-permitting resolution with the WRF regional model, and test the sensitivity of the event to a range of SST forcings. Both experiments show the crucial role of recent Black Sea warming in amplifying the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme. In the conditional event attribution approach, though, the explicit simulation of convective processes provides detailed insight into the physical mechanisms behind the extremeness of the event, revealing the dominant role of dynamical (i.e. static stability and vertical motions) over thermodynamical (i.e. increased atmospheric moisture) changes. Additionally, the wide range of SST states tested in the regional setup, which would be

  19. Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chente; Lin, Chiyuan; Chen, Shihchin; Shyu, Chungzen

    2000-03-01

    Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold eddies were found off northeast Taiwan and to the south of Changjiang mouth. SST anomalies at the center of these eddies were about 2-5°C. The strongest front usually occurs in May each year and its temperature gradient is about 5-6°C over a cross-shelf distance of 30 nautical miles. The Yellow Sea mixed cold water also provides a contrast from China Coastal waters shoreward of the 50 m isobath; cross-shore temperature gradient is about 6-8°C over 30 nautical miles. The Kuroshio intrudes into ECS preferably at two locations. The first is off northeast Taiwan; the subsurface water of Kuroshio is upwelled onto the shelf while the main current is deflected seaward. The second site is located at 31°N and 128°E, which is generally considered as the origin of the Tsushima Warm Current. More quantitatively, a 2-year time series of monthly SST images is examined using EOF analysis to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the northwestern portion of ECS. The first spatial EOF mode accounts for 47.4% of total spatial variance and reveals the Changjiang plume and coastal cold waters off China. The second and third EOF modes account for 16.4 and 9.6% of total variance, respectively, and their eigenvector images show the intrusion of Yellow Sea mixed cold waters and the China coastal water. The fourth EOF mode accounts for 5.4% of total variance and reveals cold eddies around Chusan Islands. The temporal variance EOF analysis is less revealing in this study area.

  20. Sea surface cooling in the Northern South China Sea observed using Chinese Sea-wing Underwater Glider measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, C.; Mao, H.; Wu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Based on 26 days of Chinese Seawing underwater Glider measurements and satellite microwave data, we documented cooling of the upper mixed layer of the ocean in response to changes in the wind in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) from September 19, 2014, to October 15, 2014. The Seawing underwater glider measured 177 profiles of temperature, salinity, and pressure within a 55 km נ55 km area, and reached a depth of 1000 m at a temporal resolution of 4 h. The study area experienced two cooling events, Cooling I and Cooling II, according to their timing. During Cooling I, water temperature at 1m depth (T1) decreased by 1.0°C, and the corresponding satellitederived surface winds increased locally by 4.2 m/s. During Cooling II, T1 decreased sharply by 1.7°C within a period of 4 days; sea surface winds increased by 7 m/s and covered the entire NSCS. The corresponding mixed layer depth (MLD) deepened sharply from 30 m to 60 m during Cooling II, and remained steady during Cooling I. We estimated temperature tendencies using a ML model. High resolution Seawing underwater glider measurements provided an estimation of MLD migration, allowing us to obtain the temporal entrainment rate of cool sub thermocline water. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the entrainment rate and latent heat flux were the two major components that regulated cooling of the ML, and that the Ekman advection and sensible heat flux were small.

  1. Global Sea Surface Temperature and Ecosystem Change Across the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenstra, T. J. T.; Bakker, V. B.; Sangiorgi, F.; Peterse, F.; Schouten, S.; Sluijs, A.

    2016-12-01

    Even though the term Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; ca. 17 to 14 Ma) has been widely used in the literature since the early 1990's, almost no early-middle Miocene sea surface temperature (SST) proxy records have been published that support climate warming across its onset. Benthic (and diagenetically altered planktic) foram δ18O records show a decrease, suggesting (deep) ocean warming and/or Antarctic ice sheet melting. However, reliable absolute SST proxy records are absent from the tropics and very scarce in temperate and polar regions. This leaves the question if the warmth of the MMCO was truly global and how its onset relates to the widely recorded positive (Monterey) carbon isotope excursion and volcanism. Finally, it remains uncertain how marine ecosystems responded to this hypothesized warming. We present organic biomarker SST proxy records (Uk'37 and TEX86) spanning the MMCO for several locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean along a pole-to-pole transect, including Ocean Drilling Program Site 959 in the eastern Tropical Atlantic, ODP Site 643 in the Norwegian Sea, ODP Site 1007 on the Great Bahama Bank and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1352 off New Zealand. Additionally, we use marine palynology (mostly dinoflagellate cysts) to assess ecosystem change at these locations. The resulting spatial reconstruction of SST change shows that Middle Miocene warming was global. Nevertheless, the records also show distinct regional variability, including relatively large warming in the Norwegian Sea and a damped signal in the southern hemisphere, suggesting pronounced changes in ocean circulation. The onset of the MMCO was marked by prominent changes in ecological and depositional setting at the studied sites, likely also related to ocean circulation changes.

  2. [Distribution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in the surface water of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2013-01-01

    The horizontal distributions and diurnal variations of particulate and dissolved dimethylsulfoxide (DMSOp, DMSOd) were studied in the surface water of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in June, 2011. The determination of DMSO was based on the DMS produced by NaBH4 reduction, which was analyzed using the purge-and-trap technique coupled with gas chromatographic separation and flame photometric detection. The concentrations of DMSOp and DMSOd ranged from 5.43 to 18.35 nmol x L(-1) and from 4.75 to 43.80 nmol x L(-1), respectively, with average values of (11.47 +/- 0.25) nmol x L(-1) and (13.42 +/- 0.58) nmol x L(-1). The results showed that no relationship was found between DMSOp and environmental factors such as chlorophyll a (Chl-a), temperature and salinity, whereas a positive correlation was observed between DMSOp/Chl-a and salinity, indicating that intracellular DMSO could act as a cryo-osmoregulator. A significant relationship was also found between DMSOd and dimethylsulfide (DMS), whereas there was no relationship between DMSOd and DMSOp or DMSOd and bacteria, implying that DMSOd in the surface water was produced mainly through the photochemical oxidation of DMS. In addition, both the DMSOp and DMSOd concentrations exhibited obvious diurnal variations with the higher values in the day time.

  3. Modelling explicit tides in the Indonesian seas: An important process for surface sea water properties.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Dwiyoga; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Gaspar, Philippe; Lyard, Florent; Reffray, Guillaume; Tranchant, Benoit

    2018-06-01

    Very intense internal tides take place in Indonesian seas. They dissipate and affect the vertical distribution of temperature and currents, which in turn influence the survival rates and transports of most planktonic organisms at the base of the whole marine ecosystem. This study uses the INDESO physical model to characterize the internal tides spatio-temporal patterns in the Indonesian Seas. The model reproduced internal tide dissipation in agreement with previous fine structure and microstructure observed in-situ in the sites of generation. The model also produced similar water mass transformation as the previous parameterization of Koch-Larrouy et al. (2007), and show good agreement with observations. The resulting cooling at the surface is 0.3°C, with maxima of 0.8°C at the location of internal tides energy, with stronger cooling in austral winter. The cycle of spring tides and neap tides modulates this impact by 0.1°C to 0.3°C. These results suggest that mixing due to internal tides might also upwell nutrients at the surface at a frequency similar to the tidal frequencies. Implications for biogeochemical modelling are important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detailed real-time infrared radiation simulation applied to the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Wu, Limin; Long, Liang; Zhang, Lisha

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the infrared radiation characteristics of sea background have been studied. First, MODTRAN4.0 was used to calculate the transmittance of mid-infrared and far-infrared, and the solar spectral irradiance, the atmospheric and sea surface radiation. Secondly, according to the JONSWAP sea spectrum model, the different sea conditions grid model based on gravity wave theory was generated. The spectral scattering of the sun and the atmospheric background radiation was studied. The total infrared radiation of the sea surface was calculated. Finally, the infrared radiation of a piece of sea surface was mapped to each pixel of the detector, and the infrared radiation is simulated. The conclusion is that solar radiance has a great influence on the infrared radiance. When the detector angle is close to the sun's height angle, there will be bright spots on the sea surface.

  5. Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Leovy, Conway B.

    1994-01-01

    Marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC)(stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) is widespread over subtropical oceans west of the continents and over midlatitude oceans during summer, the season when MSC has maximum influence on surface downward radiation and is most influenced by boundary-layer processes. Long-term datasets of cloudiness and sea surface teperature (SST) from surface observations from 1952 to 1981 are used to examine interannual variations in MSC and SST. Linear correlations of anomalies in seasonal MSC amount with seasonal SST anomalies are negative and significant in midlatitude and eastern subtropical oceans, especially during summer. Significant negative correlations between SST and nimbostratus and nonprecipitating midlevel cloudiness are also observed at midlatitudes during summer, suggesting that summer storm tracks shift from year to year following year-to-year meridional shifts in the SST gradient. Over the 30-yr period, there are significant upward trends in MSC amount over the northern midlatitude oceans and a significant downward trend off the coast of California. The highest correlations and trends occur where gradients in MSC and SST are strongest. During summer, correlations between SST and MSC anomalies peak at zero lag in midlatitudes where warm advection prevails, but SST lags MSC in subtropical regions where cold advection predominates. This difference is attributed to a tendency for anomalies in latent heat flux to compensate anomalies in surface downward radiation in warm advection regions but not in cold advection regions.

  6. The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Paul A.; Shemdin, Omar H.

    1988-01-01

    A tower-mounted optical device is used to measure the two-orthogonal components of the sea surface slope. The results indicate that an unstable stratification at the air-sea interface tends to enhance the surface roughness. The presence of a long ocean swell system steers the primary direction of shortwave propagation away from wind direction, and may increase or reduce the mean square slope of the sea surface.

  7. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  8. A Robust Mechanical Sensing System for Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Magnone, Lee J.; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Padgett, Curtis W.; Trotz, David C.; Garrett, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for autonomous navigation and intelligent control of unmanned sea surface vehicles requires a mechanically robust sensing architecture that is watertight, durable, and insensitive to vibration and shock loading. The sensing system developed here comprises four black and white cameras and a single color camera. The cameras are rigidly mounted to a camera bar that can be reconfigured to mount multiple vehicles, and act as both navigational cameras and application cameras. The cameras are housed in watertight casings to protect them and their electronics from moisture and wave splashes. Two of the black and white cameras are positioned to provide lateral vision. They are angled away from the front of the vehicle at horizontal angles to provide ideal fields of view for mapping and autonomous navigation. The other two black and white cameras are positioned at an angle into the color camera's field of view to support vehicle applications. These two cameras provide an overlap, as well as a backup to the front camera. The color camera is positioned directly in the middle of the bar, aimed straight ahead. This system is applicable to any sea-going vehicle, both on Earth and in space.

  9. Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.

    2008-01-01

    Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North Atlantic Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/Ca, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North Atlantic SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.

  10. Sea Surface Temperature Products and Research Associated with GHRSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Minnett, Peter J.; Kaplan, Alexey; Wick, Gary A.; Castro, Sandra; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Merchant, Chris; LeBorgne, Pierre; Beggs, Helen; Donlon, Craig J.

    2012-03-01

    GHRSST serves its user community through the specification of operational Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products (Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4) based on international consensus. Providers of SST data from individual satellites create and deliver GHRSST-compliant near-real time products to a global GHRSST data assembly centre and a long-term stewardship facility. The GHRSST-compliant data include error estimates and supporting data for interpretation. Groups organised within GHRSST perform research on issues relevant to applying SST for air-sea exchange, for instance the Diurnal Variability Working Group (DVWG) analyses the evolution of the skin temperature. Other GHRSST groups concentrate on improving the SST estimate (Estimation and Retrievals Working Group EARWiG) and on improving the error characterization, (Satellite SST Validation Group, ST-VAL) and on improving the methods for SST analysis (Inter-Comparison Technical Advisory Group, IC-TAG). In this presentation we cover the data products and the scientific activities associated with GHRSST which might be relevant for investigating ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  11. Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature: Workshop 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third of a series of three workshops, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to investigate the state of the art in global sea surface temperature measurements from space. Three workshops were necessary to process and analyze sufficient data from which to draw conclusions on the accuracy and reliability of the satellite measurements. In this workshop, the final two (out of a total of four) months of satellite and in situ data chosen for study were processed and evaluated. Results from the AVHRR, HIRS, SMMR, and VAS sensors, in comparison with in situ data from ships, XBTs, and buoys, confirmed satellite rms accuracies in the 0.5 to 1.0 C range, but with variable biases. These accuracies may degrade under adverse conditions for specific sensors. A variety of color maps, plots, and statistical tables are provided for detailed study of the individual sensor SST measurements.

  12. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Niño3.4SSTA time series.

  13. Indonesia sea surface temperature from TRMM Microwave Imaging (TMI) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Y.; Setiawan, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average was 27.6° C, while the maximum occurred in May 2014 with the monthly SST average temperature was 29.9 ° C.

  14. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  15. Hyperbaric biofilms on engineering surfaces formed in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Meier, Alexandra; Tsaloglou, Nefeli-Maria; Mowlem, Matthew C; Keevil, C William; Connelly, Douglas P

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling is a major problem for long-term deployment of sensors in the marine environment. This study showed that significant biofilm formation occurred on a variety of artificial materials (glass, copper, Delrin(™) and poly-methyl methacrylate [PMMA]) deployed for 10 days at a depth of 4700 m in the Cayman Trough. Biofilm surface coverage was used as an indicator of biomass. The lowest biofilm coverage was on copper and PMMA. Molecular analyses indicated that bacteria dominated the biofilms found on copper, Delrin(™) and PMMA with 75, 55 and 73% coverage, respectively. Archea (66%) were dominant on the glass surface simulating interior sensor conditions, whereas Eukarya comprised the highest percentage of microflora (75%) on the glass simulating the exterior of sensors. Analysis of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis profiles indicated that copper and Delrin(™) shared the same community diversity, which was not the case for glass and PMMA, or between PMMA and copper/Delrin(™). Sequence alignment matches belonged exclusively to uncultivable microorganisms, most of which were not further classified. One extracted sequence found on glass was associated with Cowellia sp., while another extracted from the PMMA surface was associated with a bacterium in the Alterominidaceae, both γ-proteobacteria. The results demonstrate the necessity of understanding biofilm formation in the deep sea and the potential need for mitigation strategies for any kind of long-term deployment of remote sensors in the marine environment.

  16. Detecting Global Hydrological Cycle Intensification in Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poague, J.; Stine, A.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming is expected to intensify the global hydrological cycle, but significant regional differences exist in the predicted response. The proposed zonal mean thermodynamic response is enhanced horizontal moisture transport associated with increased saturation vapor pressure, which in turn drives additional net precipitation in the tropics and at high latitudes and additional net evaporation in the subtropics. Sea surface salinity (SSS) anomalies are forced from above by changes in evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) and thus will respond to changes in the global hydrological cycle, opening the possibility of using historical SSS anomalies to diagnose the response of the hydrological cycle to warming. We estimate zonal mean SSS trends in the Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins from 1955-2015 to test whether historical changes in the global hydrological cycle are consistent with a primarily thermodynamic response. Motivated by this observation, we calculate the sensitivity of basin zonal-mean SSS anomalies to sea surface temperature (SST) forcing as a function of timescale to diagnose and estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the purely thermodynamic signal as a function of timescale. High-frequency variability in SSS anomalies is likely to be influenced by variability in atmospheric circulation, complicating the attribution of the link between basin zonal-mean SSS anomalies and global SST anomalies. We therefore estimate the basin zonal mean SSS anomaly response to the major modes of large-scale dynamic variability. We find a strong correlation between detrended zonal-mean SSS anomalies and the Pacific-North American index (R=0.71,P<0.01) in the Pacific Ocean. We interpret the relationship between zonal mean SSS anomalies and temperature in terms of the relative contribution of thermodynamic and dynamic processes.

  17. Enhancing the Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean Dynamic Topography with CryoSat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole B.; Knudsen, Per

    2014-05-01

    A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean dynamic topography (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models that includes CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. In an attempt to extrapolate across the gap above 82 degrees latitude the previously models included ICESat data, gravimetrical geoids, ocean circulation models and various combinations hereof. Unfortunately cloud cover and the short periods of operation has a negative effect on the number of ICESat sea surface observations. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the new generation of state of the art global high-resolution models that includes CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.

  18. Submesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Variability from UAV and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, S. L.; Emery, W. J.; Tandy, W., Jr.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Technological advances in spatial resolution of observations have revealed the importance of short-lived ocean processes with scales of O(1km). These submesoscale processes play an important role for the transfer of energy from the meso- to small scales and for generating significant spatial and temporal intermittency in the upper ocean, critical for the mixing of the oceanic boundary layer. Submesoscales have been observed in sea surface temperatures (SST) from satellites. Satellite SST measurements are spatial averages over the footprint of the satellite. When the variance of the SST distribution within the footprint is small, the average value is representative of the SST over the whole pixel. If the variance is large, the spatial heterogeneity is a source of uncertainty in satellite derived SSTs. Here we show evidence that the submesoscale variability in SSTs at spatial scales of 1km is responsible for the spatial variability within satellite footprints. Previous studies of the spatial variability in SST, using ship-based radiometric data suggested that variability at scales smaller than 1 km is significant and affects the uncertainty of satellite-derived skin SSTs. We examine data collected by a calibrated thermal infrared radiometer, the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST), flown on a UAV over the Arctic Ocean and compare them with coincident measurements from the MODIS spaceborne radiometer to assess the spatial variability of SST within 1 km pixels. By taking the standard deviation of all the BESST measurements within individual MODIS pixels we show that significant spatial variability exists within the footprints. The distribution of the surface variability measured by BESST shows a peak value of O(0.1K) with 95% of the pixels showing σ < 0.45K. More importantly, high-variability pixels are located at density fronts in the marginal ice zone, which are a primary source of submesoscale intermittency near the surface in the Arctic Ocean

  19. The mean sea surface height and geoid along the Geosat subtrack from Bermuda to Cape Cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.; Joyce, Terrence M.; Schubert, David M.; Caruso, Michael J.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of near-surface velocity and concurrent sea level along an ascending Geosat subtrack were used to estimate the mean sea surface height and the Earth's gravitational geoid. Velocity measurements were made on three traverses of a Geosat subtrack within 10 days, using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). A small bias in the ADCP velocity was removed by considering a mass balance for two pairs of triangles for which expendable bathythermograph measurements were also made. Because of the large curvature of the Gulf Stream, the gradient wind balance was used to estimate the cross-track component of geostrophic velocity from the ADCP vectors; this component was then integrated to obtain the sea surface height profile. The mean sea surface height was estimated as the difference between the instantaneous sea surface height from ADCP and the Geosat residual sea level, with mesoscale errors reduced by low-pass filtering. The error estimates were divided into a bias, tilt, and mesoscale residual; the bias was ignored because profiles were only determined within a constant of integration. The calculated mean sea surface height estimate agreed with an independent estimate of the mean sea surface height from Geosat, obtained by modeling the Gulf Stream as a Gaussian jet, within the expected errors in the estimates: the tilt error was 0.10 m, and the mesoscale error was 0.044 m. To minimize mesoscale errors in the estimate, the alongtrack geoid estimate was computed as the difference between the mean sea level from the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission and an estimate of the mean sea surface height, rather than as the difference between instantaneous profiles of sea level and sea surface height. In the critical region near the Gulf Stream the estimated error reduction using this method was about 0.07 m. Differences between the geoid estimate and a gravimetric geoid were not within the expected errors: the rms mesoscale difference was 0.24 m rms.

  20. Monitoring of chlorophyll-a and sea surface silicate concentrations in the south part of Cheju island in the East China sea using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Huang, Zhaojun; Fu, Dongyang; Tsou, Jin Yeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San; Lu, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Continually supplied with nutrients, phytoplankton maintains high productivity under ideal illumination and temperature conditions. Data in the south part of Cheju Island in the East China Sea (ECS), which has experienced a spring bloom since the 2000s, were acquired during a research cruise in the spring of 2007. Compared with in-situ measurements, MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements showed high stability in this area. Excluding some invalid stations data, the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the study area were examined and compared with the results in 2015. A high positive correlation between silicate and chlorophyll-a concentration was identified, and a regression relationship was proposed. MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements and sea surface temperature were utilized to determine surface silicate distribution. The silicate concentration retrieved from MODIS exhibited good agreement with in-situ measurements with R2 of 0.803, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.326 μmol/L (8.23%), and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.925 μmol/L (23.38%). The study provides a new solution to identify nutrient distributions using satellite data such as MODIS for water bodies, but the method still needs to be refined to determine the relationship of chlorophyll-a and nutrients during other seasons to monitor water quality in this and other areas.

  1. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  2. Biofilm-like properties of the sea surface and predicted effects on air-sea CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Stolle, Christian; Van Thuoc, Chu; The Thu, Pham; Mari, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Because the sea surface controls various interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, it has a profound function for marine biogeochemistry and climate regulation. The sea surface is the gateway for the exchange of climate-relevant gases, heat and particles. Thus, in order to determine how the ocean and the atmosphere interact and respond to environmental changes on a global scale, the characterization and understanding of the sea surface are essential. The uppermost part of the water column is defined as the sea-surface microlayer and experiences strong spatial and temporal dynamics, mainly due to meteorological forcing. Wave-damped areas at the sea surface are caused by the accumulation of surface-active organic material and are defined as slicks. Natural slicks are observed frequently but their biogeochemical properties are poorly understood. In the present study, we found up to 40 times more transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), the foundation of any biofilm, in slicks compared to the underlying bulk water at multiple stations in the North Pacific, South China Sea, and Baltic Sea. We found a significant lower enrichment of TEP (up to 6) in non-slick sea surfaces compared to its underlying bulk water. Moreover, slicks were characterized by a large microbial biomass, another shared feature with conventional biofilms on solid surfaces. Compared to non-slick samples (avg. pairwise similarity of 70%), the community composition of bacteria in slicks was increasingly (avg. pairwise similarity of 45%) different from bulk water communities, indicating that the TEP-matrix creates specific environments for its inhabitants. We, therefore, conclude that slicks can feature biofilm-like properties with the excessive accumulation of particles and microbes. We also assessed the potential distribution and frequency of slick-formation in coastal and oceanic regions, and their effect on air-sea CO2 exchange based on literature data. We estimate that slicks can reduce CO2

  3. Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856-1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alexey; Cane, Mark A.; Kushnir, Yochanan; Clement, Amy C.; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    1998-08-01

    Global analyses of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1856 to 1991 are produced using three statistically based methods: optimal smoothing (OS), the Kaiman filter (KF) and optimal interpolation (OI). Each of these is accompanied by estimates of the error covariance of the analyzed fields. The spatial covariance function these methods require is estimated from the available data; the timemarching model is a first-order autoregressive model again estimated from data. The data input for the analyses are monthly anomalies from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office historical sea surface temperature data set (MOHSST5) [Parker et al., 1994] of the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) [Bottomley et al., 1990]. These analyses are compared with each other, with GOSTA, and with an analysis generated by projection (P) onto a set of empirical orthogonal functions (as in Smith et al. [1996]). In theory, the quality of the analyses should rank in the order OS, KF, OI, P, and GOSTA. It is found that the first four give comparable results in the data-rich periods (1951-1991), but at times when data is sparse the first three differ significantly from P and GOSTA. At these times the latter two often have extreme and fluctuating values, prima facie evidence of error. The statistical schemes are also verified against data not used in any of the analyses (proxy records derived from corals and air temperature records from coastal and island stations). We also present evidence that the analysis error estimates are indeed indicative of the quality of the products. At most times the OS and KF products are close to the OI product, but at times of especially poor coverage their use of information from other times is advantageous. The methods appear to reconstruct the major features of the global SST field from very sparse data. Comparison with other indications of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle show that the analyses provide usable information on

  4. Low-Frequency Surface Backscattering Strengths Measured in the Critical Sea Test Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-19

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/7160--17-9702 Low-Frequency Surface Backscattering Strengths Measured in the Critical Sea ...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Low-Frequency Surface Backscattering Strengths Measured in the Critical Sea Test Experiments Roger C. Gauss1 and Joseph M...significantly- updated results from 55 broadband SUS SSS measurements in 6 Critical Sea Test (CST) experiments. Since the time of the previously

  5. Is the Aquarius sea surface salinity variability representative?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, J.; Grodsky, S.

    2016-12-01

    The leading mode of the Aquarius monthly anomalous sea surface salinity (SSS) is evaluated within the 50S-50N belt, where SSS retrieval accuracy is higher. This mode accounts for about 18% of the variance and resembles a pattern of the ENSO-induced anomalous rainfall. The leading mode of SSS variability deducted from a longer JAMSTEC analysis also accounts for about 17% of the variance and has very similar spatial pattern and almost a perfect correspondence of its temporal principal component to the SOI index. In that sense, the Aquarius SSS variability at low and middle latitudes is representative of SSS variability that may be obtained from longer records. This is explained by the fact that during the Aquarius period (2011-2015), the SOI index changed significantly from La Nina toward El Nino state, thus spanning a significant range of its characteristic variations. Multivariate EOF analysis of anomalous SSS and SST suggests that ENSO-induced shift in the tropical Pacific rainfall produces negatively correlated variability of temperature and salinity, which are expected if the anomalous surface flux (stronger rainfall coincident with less downward radiation) drives the system. But, anomalous SSS and SST are positively correlated in some areas including the northwestern Atlantic shelf (north of the Gulfstream) and the Pacific sector adjusting to the California peninsula. This positive correlation is indicative of an advection driven regime that is analyzed separately.

  6. Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, I. J.; Zavody, A. M.; O'Brien, D. M.; Cutten, D. R.; Saunders, R. W.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1989-03-01

    Reliable climate forecasting using numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere system requires accurate data sets of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind stress. Global sets of these data will be supplied by the instruments to fly on the ERS 1 satellite in 1990. One of these instruments, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), has been specifically designed to provide SST in cloud-free areas with an accuracy of 0.3 K. The expected capabilities of the ATSR can be assessed using transmission models of infrared radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The performances of several different models are compared by estimating the infrared brightness temperatures measured by the NOAA 9 AVHRR for three standard atmospheres. Of these, a computationally quick spectral band model is used to derive typical AVHRR and ATSR SST algorithms in the form of linear equations. These algorithms show that a low-noise 3.7-μm channel is required to give the best satellite-derived SST and that the design accuracy of the ATSR is likely to be achievable. The inclusion of extra water vapor information in the analysis did not improve the accuracy of multiwavelength SST algorithms, but some improvement was noted with the multiangle technique. Further modeling is required with atmospheric data that include both aerosol variations and abnormal vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature.

  7. The exploration technology and application of sea surface wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the seismic velocity structure of the shallow sediments in the Bohai Sea of China, we conduct a shear-wave velocity inversion of the surface wave dispersion data from a survey of 12 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 377 shots of a 9000 inch3 air gun. With OBS station spacing of 5 km and air gun shot spacing of 190 m, high-quality Rayleigh wave data were recorded by the OBSs within 0.4 5 km offset. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion for the fundamental mode and first overtone in the frequency band of 0.9 3.0 Hz were retrieved with the phase-shift method and inverted for the shear-wave velocity structure of the shallow sediments with a damped iterative least-square algorithm. Pseudo 2-D shear-wave velocity profiles with depth to 400 m show coherent features of relatively weak lateral velocity variation. The uncertainty in shear-wave velocity structure was also estimated based on the pseudo 2-D profiles from 6 trial inversions with different initial models, which suggest a velocity uncertainty < 30 m/s for most parts of the 2-D profiles. The layered structure with little lateral variation may be attributable to the continuous sedimentary environment in the Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Bohai Bay basin. The shear-wave velocity of 200 300 m/s in the top 100 m of the Bohai Sea floor may provide important information for offshore site response studies in earthquake engineering. Furthermore, the very low shear-wave velocity structure (200 700 m/s) down to 400 m depth could produce a significant travel time delay of 1 s in the S wave arrivals, which needs to be considered to avoid serious bias in S wave traveltime tomographic models.

  8. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: A two scale nonlinear fractal sea surface model in a one dimensional deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Zou, Guang-Hui; William, Perrie; Kuang, Hai-Lan; Chen, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Using the theory of nonlinear interactions between long and short waves, a nonlinear fractal sea surface model is presented for a one dimensional deep sea. Numerical simulation results show that spectra intensity changes at different locations (in both the wave number domain and temporal-frequency domain), and the system obeys the energy conservation principle. Finally, a method to limit the fractal parameters is also presented to ensure that the model system does not become ill-posed.

  9. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance. We suggest that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds are responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  10. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.

    2013-08-01

    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  11. Predicting the Turbulent Air-Sea Surface Fluxes, Including Spray Effects, from Weak to Strong Winds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    almost complete decoupling of the wind field from the sea surface . As a result of the weak surface stress, the flow becomes almost free from the...shore flow . In turn, wave growth and the associated surface roughness (z0) are limited. Consequently, the stability increases further in a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Predicting the Turbulent Air-Sea Surface Fluxes

  12. Aquarius: A Mission to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Pellerano, F.; Yueh, S.; Colomb, R.

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument for measuring salinity is the radiometer. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the largest potential sources of error in the retrieval. Unique features of the sensor are the large reflector (2.5 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds), polarimetric operation, and the tight thermal control. The three feeds produce three beams arranged to image in pushbroom fashion looking to the side of the orbit away from the sun to avoid sunglint. Polarimetric operation is included to assist in correcting for Faraday rotation which can be important at L-band. The tight thermal control is necessary to meet stability requirements (less than 0.12K drift over 7 days) which have been imposed to assist in meeting the science requirements for the retrieval of surface salinity (0.2 psu). The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6ad6pm (ascending at 6 pm). The objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. To accomplish this, the measurement goals are a spatial resolution of 100 km and retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis. Aquarius is being developed by NASA and is a partnership between JPL and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the spacecraft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

  13. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to

  14. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  15. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  16. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  17. An Improved DINEOF Algorithm for Filling Missing Values in Spatio-Temporal Sea Surface Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Ping, Bo; Su, Fenzhen; Meng, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an improved Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) algorithm for determination of missing values in a spatio-temporal dataset is presented. Compared with the ordinary DINEOF algorithm, the iterative reconstruction procedure until convergence based on every fixed EOF to determine the optimal EOF mode is not necessary and the convergence criterion is only reached once in the improved DINEOF algorithm. Moreover, in the ordinary DINEOF algorithm, after optimal EOF mode determination, the initial matrix with missing data will be iteratively reconstructed based on the optimal EOF mode until the reconstruction is convergent. However, the optimal EOF mode may be not the best EOF for some reconstructed matrices generated in the intermediate steps. Hence, instead of using asingle EOF to fill in the missing data, in the improved algorithm, the optimal EOFs for reconstruction are variable (because the optimal EOFs are variable, the improved algorithm is called VE-DINEOF algorithm in this study). To validate the accuracy of the VE-DINEOF algorithm, a sea surface temperature (SST) data set is reconstructed by using the DINEOF, I-DINEOF (proposed in 2015) and VE-DINEOF algorithms. Four parameters (Pearson correlation coefficient, signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and mean absolute difference) are used as a measure of reconstructed accuracy. Compared with the DINEOF and I-DINEOF algorithms, the VE-DINEOF algorithm can significantly enhance the accuracy of reconstruction and shorten the computational time.

  18. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 14 cells around the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Charles

    2004-07-01

    Monthly sea surface temperature is provided for 14 locations around the UK for a 230 year period. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Two adjustments of the forecast data sets are needed to produce confluent SST series: the 50 year overlap is used for a gross adjustment, and a statistical scaling on the forecast data ensures that annual variations in forecast data match those of historical data. These monthly SST series are available on request. The overall rise in SST over time is clear for all sites, commencing in the last quarter of the 20th century. Apart from expected trends of overall warmer mean SST with more southerly latitudes and overall cooler mean SST towards the East, more interesting statistically significant general trends include a greater decadal rate of rise from warmer starting conditions. Annual temperature variation is not affected by absolute temperature, but is markedly greater towards the East. There is no correlation of annual range of SST with latitude, or with present SST values.

  19. Analysis of variability of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Georgina; Cressie, Noel

    2016-11-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean is a key component of many global climate models and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We shall analyse SST for the period November 1981-December 2014. To study the temporal variability of the ENSO phenomenon, we have selected a subregion of the tropical Pacific Ocean, namely the Niño 3.4 region, as it is thought to be the area where SST anomalies indicate most clearly ENSO's influence on the global atmosphere. SST anomalies, obtained by subtracting the appropriate monthly averages from the data, are the focus of the majority of previous analyses of the Pacific and other oceans' SSTs. Preliminary data analysis showed that not only Niño 3.4 spatial means but also Niño 3.4 spatial variances varied with month of the year. In this article, we conduct an analysis of the raw SST data and introduce diagnostic plots (here, plots of variability vs. central tendency). These plots show strong negative dependence between the spatial standard deviation and the spatial mean. Outliers are present, so we consider robust regression to obtain intercept and slope estimates for the 12 individual months and for all-months-combined. Based on this mean-standard deviation relationship, we define a variance-stabilizing transformation. On the transformed scale, we describe the Niño 3.4 SST time series with a statistical model that is linear, heteroskedastic, and dynamical.

  20. Roseibium sediminis sp. nov., isolated from sea surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Xiaoting; Sun, Zhongcheng; Ren, Qiaomeng; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively aerobic strain, motile by a monotrichous (polar or lateral) flagellum, designated BSS09T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Bohai Sea, PR China. Growth was observed at 10-45 °C (optimum 32 °C), in the presence of 1.0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 4.0 %) and at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain BSS09T belonged to the genus Roseibium and showed the highest sequence similarity of 96.5 % to Roseibium hamelinense JCM 10544T. The significant dominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. The polar lipids comprised one phosphatidylcholine, one phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one phosphatidylglycerol, one phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified polar lipid. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content of strain BSS09T was 57.1 mol%. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain BSS09T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Roseibium, for which the name Roseibium sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSS09T (=KCTC 52373T=MCCC 1K03201T).

  1. The Effect of Ocean Currents on Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2000-01-01

    We investigate regional and global-scale correlations between observed anomalies in sea surface temperature and height. A strong agreement between the two fields is found over a broad range of latitudes for different ocean basins. Both time-longitude plots and wavenumber-frequency spectra suggest an advective forcing of SST anomalies by a first-mode baroclinic wave field on spatial scales down to 400 km and time scales as short as 1 month. Even though the magnitude of the mean background temperature gradient is determining for the effectiveness of the forcing, there is no obvious seasonality that can be detected in the amplitudes of SST anomalies. Instead, individual wave signatures in the SST can in some cases be followed over periods of two years. The phase relationship between SST and SSH anomalies is dependent upon frequency and wavenumber and displays a clear decrease of the phase lag toward higher latitudes where the two fields come into phase at low frequencies. Estimates of the damping coefficient are larger than generally obtained for a purely atmospheric feedback. From a global frequency spectrum a damping time scale of 2-3 month was found. Regionally results are very variable and range from 1 month near strong currents to 10 month at low latitudes and in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Strong agreement is found between the first global EOF modes of 10 day averaged and spatially smoothed SST and SSH grids. The accompanying time series display low frequency oscillations in both fields.

  2. Sea surface salinity fronts in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Etcheverry, L.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2016-12-01

    Marine fronts are narrow boundaries that separate water masses of different properties. These fronts are caused by various forcing and believed to be an important component of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, particularly in the tropical oceans. In this study, we use sea surface salinity (SSS) observations from Aquarius satellite to investigate the spatial structure and temporal variability of SSS fronts in the tropical Atlantic. A number of frontal features have been identified. The mean magnitude of the SSS gradient is maximum near the mouth of the Congo River (0.3-0.4 psu/100km). Relative maxima are also observed in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the Gulf of Guinea, and the mouth of the Amazon River. The pattern of the magnitude of the SSS anomaly gradient revealed that the interaction between river plumes and saltier interior water is complex and highly variable during the three-year observation period. The variability of the magnitude of the density anomaly gradient computed from Aquarius SSS and Reynolds SST is also discussed. Images of the ocean color are utilized to trace the movement of the Congo and Amazon River plumes and compare them with the magnitude of the SSS gradient. Additionally, we analyze de circulation associated with the Amazon plume with altimetry data, and the vertical structure and its changes in time through Argo profiles.

  3. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  4. Ship wakes and their manifestations on the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Stanislav; Kapustin, Ivan; Kalimulin, Rashid

    2013-04-01

    Spatial/temporal evolution of turbulence generated by surface ships and the effect of the wake on short wind waves has been studied on the Black Sea and on the Gorky Water Reservoir. Measurements of currents in ship wakes were conducted using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler deployed from a motor boat. It was obtained that the temporal/spatial evolution of the wake width could be described approximately by a 0.4-power dependence, and the wake depth remained nearly constant at its initial stage. This allowed one to consider the wake widening as a one-dimensional process. We have developed a simple one-dimensional model of ship wake evolution using a semi-empirical theory of turbulence, and the initial stage of the wake widening (when neglecting dissipation) was described by the equation of turbulent energy balance with the pulse initial condition. Mean circulating currents in the wake zone resulting in the wind wave intensification ("suloi" areas) at the boundaries of the wake were detected in experiment. The asymmetry of the "suloi" bands was observed when the wind was blowing nearly perpendicular to the wake axis. It was shown that the later stage of the wake evolution is characterized by the formation of slick bands at the edges of the wake. The slick bands is a result of the transport of surfactants to the water surface by air bubbles in the wake and their compression due to the mean circulating currents. The work was supported by RFBR (projects 12-05-31237, 11-05-00295), the Program RAN Radiophysics, and by the Russian Government (Grants No. 11.G34.31.0048 and 11.G34.31.0078).

  5. SeaWIFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 13; The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Bailey, Sean W.; Pietras, Christophe M.; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.

  6. Freshwater impacts recorded in tetraunsaturated alkenones and alkenone sea surface temperatures from the Okhotsk Sea across millennial-scale cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Naomi; Sato, Miyako; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We present records of phytoplankton-produced alkenones down a long piston core, which reveal changes of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea over the past 120 ka. Between 20 and 60 ka B.P., alkenone-derived temperatures typically increased by 6°C-8°C from periods corresponding, within a few hundred years, to stadials to those corresponding to interstadials recorded in Greenland ice cores. The abundance of C37:4 alkenone relative to total C37 alkenones (percent C37:4), a possible proxy for salinity, indicated that during most low SSS was associated with high SST. The warm freshwater events might be related to (1) a decline in the supply of saline water entering the Okhotsk Sea through the Soya Strait; (2) strengthening of the freshwater supply from the Amur River and precipitation over the Okhotsk Sea, associated mainly with increased Asian summer monsoon activity; and (3) the effect of melting sea ice. These findings increase our understanding of the close linkage between high and low latitudes in relation to climate change and the synchronicity of climate changes within a few centuries between the Pacific and the Atlantic sides of the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. The relationship between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration of phytoplanktons in the Black Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Kavak, Mehmet Tahir; Karadogan, Sabri

    2012-04-01

    Present work investigated the relationship between Chlorophyll (Chl), of phytoplankton biomass, and sea surface temperature (SST) of the Black Sea, using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. Satellite derived data could provide information on the amount of sea life present (Brown algae, called kelp, proliferate, supporting new species of sea life, including otters, fish, and various invertebrates) in a given area throughout the world. SST from AVHRR from 1993 to 2008 showed seasonal, annual and interannual variability of temperature, monthly variability Chl from SeaWiFS from 1997 to 2009 has also been investigated. Chl showed two high peaks for the year 1999 and 2008. The correlation between SST and Chl for the same time has been found to be 60%. Correlation was significant at p<0.05. The information could also be useful in connection with studies of global changes in temperature and what effect they could have on the total abundance of marine life.

  8. EM Bias-Correction for Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness Retrievals over Rough Deformed Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Gaiser, P. W.; Allard, R.; Posey, P. G.; Hebert, D. A.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The very rough ridge sea ice accounts for significant percentage of total ice areas and even larger percentage of total volume. The commonly used Radar altimeter surface detection techniques are empirical in nature and work well only over level/smooth sea ice. Rough sea ice surfaces can modify the return waveforms, resulting in significant Electromagnetic (EM) bias in the estimated surface elevations, and thus large errors in the ice thickness retrievals. To understand and quantify such sea ice surface roughness effects, a combined EM rough surface and volume scattering model was developed to simulate radar returns from the rough sea ice `layer cake' structure. A waveform matching technique was also developed to fit observed waveforms to a physically-based waveform model and subsequently correct the roughness induced EM bias in the estimated freeboard. This new EM Bias Corrected (EMBC) algorithm was able to better retrieve surface elevations and estimate the surface roughness parameter simultaneously. In situ data from multi-instrument airborne and ground campaigns were used to validate the ice thickness and surface roughness retrievals. For the surface roughness retrievals, we applied this EMBC algorithm to co-incident LiDAR/Radar measurements collected during a Cryosat-2 under-flight by the NASA IceBridge missions. Results show that not only does the waveform model fit very well to the measured radar waveform, but also the roughness parameters derived independently from the LiDAR and radar data agree very well for both level and deformed sea ice. For sea ice thickness retrievals, validation based on in-situ data from the coordinated CRREL/NRL field campaign demonstrates that the physically-based EMBC algorithm performs fundamentally better than the empirical algorithm over very rough deformed sea ice, suggesting that sea ice surface roughness effects can be modeled and corrected based solely on the radar return waveforms.

  9. Arctic Sea Salt Aerosol from Blowing Snow and Sea Ice Surfaces - a Missing Natural Source in Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Norris, S. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Nishimura, K.; Jones, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric particles in the polar regions consist mostly of sea salt aerosol (SSA). SSA plays an important role in regional climate change through influencing the surface energy balance either directly or indirectly via cloud formation. SSA irradiated by sunlight also releases very reactive halogen radicals, which control concentrations of ozone, a pollutant and greenhouse gas. However, models under-predict SSA concentrations in the Arctic during winter pointing to a missing source. It has been recently suggested that salty blowing snow above sea ice, which is evaporating, to be that source as it may produce more SSA than equivalent areas of open ocean. Participation in the 'Norwegian Young Sea Ice Cruise (N-ICE 2015)' on board the research vessel `Lance' allowed to test this hypothesis in the Arctic sea ice zone during winter. Measurements were carried out from the ship frozen into the pack ice North of 80º N during February to March 2015. Observations at ground level (0.1-2 m) and from the ship's crows nest (30 m) included number concentrations and size spectra of SSA (diameter range 0.3-10 μm) as well as snow particles (diameter range 50-500 μm). During and after blowing snow events significant SSA production was observed. In the aerosol and snow phase sulfate is fractionated with respect to sea water, which confirms sea ice surfaces and salty snow, and not the open ocean, to be the dominant source of airborne SSA. Aerosol shows depletion in bromide with respect to sea water, especially after sunrise, indicating photochemically driven release of bromine. We discuss the SSA source strength from blowing snow in light of environmental conditions (wind speed, atmospheric turbulence, temperature and snow salinity) and recommend improved model parameterisations to estimate regional aerosol production. N-ICE 2015 results are then compared to a similar study carried out previously in the Weddell Sea during the Antarctic winter.

  10. Polarimetric infrared imaging simulation of a synthetic sea surface with Mie scattering.

    PubMed

    He, Si; Wang, Xia; Xia, Runqiu; Jin, Weiqi; Liang, Jian'an

    2018-03-01

    A novel method to simulate the polarimetric infrared imaging of a synthetic sea surface with atmospheric Mie scattering effects is presented. The infrared emission, multiple reflections, and infrared polarization of the sea surface and the Mie scattering of aerosols are all included for the first time. At first, a new approach to retrieving the radiative characteristics of a wind-roughened sea surface is introduced. A two-scale method of sea surface realization and the inverse ray tracing of light transfer calculation are combined and executed simultaneously, decreasing the consumption of time and memory dramatically. Then the scattering process that the infrared light emits from the sea surface and propagates in the aerosol particles is simulated with a polarized light Monte Carlo model. Transformations of the polarization state of the light are calculated with the Mie theory. Finally, the polarimetric infrared images of the sea surface of different environmental conditions and detection parameters are generated based on the scattered light detected by the infrared imaging polarimeter. The results of simulation examples show that our polarimetric infrared imaging simulation can be applied to predict the infrared polarization characteristics of the sea surface, model the oceanic scene, and guide the detection in the oceanic environment.

  11. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface II: Electromagnetic backscattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xie; William, Perrie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He

    2016-07-01

    Sea surface current has a significant influence on electromagnetic (EM) backscattering signals and may constitute a dominant synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism. An effective EM backscattering model for a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface is presented in this paper. This model is used to simulate EM backscattering signals from the drifting sea surface. Numerical results show that ocean currents have a significant influence on EM backscattering signals from the sea surface. The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) discrepancies between the model for a coupled wave-current fractal sea surface and the model for an uncoupled fractal sea surface increase with the increase of incidence angle, as well as with increasing ocean currents. Ocean currents that are parallel to the direction of the wave can weaken the EM backscattering signal intensity, while the EM backscattering signal is intensified by ocean currents propagating oppositely to the wave direction. The model presented in this paper can be used to study the SAR imaging mechanism for a drifting sea surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, the Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service Program.

  12. Relationship between clouds and sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arking, Albert; Ziskin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of four years of earth radiation budget, cloud, and sea surface temperature data confirms that cloud parameters change dramatically when and where sea surface temperatures increase above approximately 300K. These results are based upon monthly mean values within 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg grid points over the 'warm pool' region of the western tropical Pacific. The question of whether sea surface temperatures are influenced, in turn, by the radiative effects of these clouds (Ramanathan and Collins) is less clear. Such a feedback, if it exists, is weak. The reason why clouds might have so little influence, despite large changes in their longwave and shortwave radiative effects, might be that the sea surface responds to both the longwave heating and the shortwave cooling effects of clouds, and the two effects nearly cancel. There are strong correlations between the rate of change of sea surface temperature and any of the radiation budget parameters that are highly correlated with the incident solar flux-implying that season and latitude are the critical factors determining sea surface temperatures. With the seasonal or both seasonal and latitudinal variations removed, the rate of change of sea surface temperature shows no correlation with cloud-related parameters in the western tropical Pacific.

  13. Terrestrial basking sea turtles are responding to spatio-temporal sea surface temperature patterns.

    PubMed

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Halley, John M; Marks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalists as early as Darwin observed terrestrial basking in green turtles (Chelonia mydas), but the distribution and environmental influences of this behaviour are poorly understood. Here, we examined 6 years of daily basking surveys in Hawaii and compared them with the phenology of local sea surface temperatures (SST). Data and models indicated basking peaks when SST is coolest, and we found this timeline consistent with bone stress markings. Next, we assessed the decadal SST profiles for the 11 global green turtle populations. Basking generally occurs when winter SST falls below 23°C. From 1990 to 2014, the SST for these populations warmed an average 0.04°C yr(-1) (range 0.01-0.09°C yr(-1)); roughly three times the observed global average over this period. Owing to projected future warming at basking sites, we estimated terrestrial basking in green turtles may cease globally by 2100. To predict and manage for future climate change, we encourage a more detailed understanding for how climate influences organismal biology. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Terrestrial basking sea turtles are responding to spatio-temporal sea surface temperature patterns

    PubMed Central

    Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Halley, John M.; Marks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalists as early as Darwin observed terrestrial basking in green turtles (Chelonia mydas), but the distribution and environmental influences of this behaviour are poorly understood. Here, we examined 6 years of daily basking surveys in Hawaii and compared them with the phenology of local sea surface temperatures (SST). Data and models indicated basking peaks when SST is coolest, and we found this timeline consistent with bone stress markings. Next, we assessed the decadal SST profiles for the 11 global green turtle populations. Basking generally occurs when winter SST falls below 23°C. From 1990 to 2014, the SST for these populations warmed an average 0.04°C yr−1 (range 0.01–0.09°C yr−1); roughly three times the observed global average over this period. Owing to projected future warming at basking sites, we estimated terrestrial basking in green turtles may cease globally by 2100. To predict and manage for future climate change, we encourage a more detailed understanding for how climate influences organismal biology. PMID:25589483

  15. Polarimetric Doppler spectrum of backscattered echoes from nonlinear sea surface damped by natural slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengju; Guo, Lixin

    2016-11-01

    Based on the Lombardini et al. model that can predict the hydrodynamic damping of rough sea surfaces in the presence of monomolecular slicks and the "choppy wave" model (CWM) that can describe the nonlinear interactions between ocean waves, the modeling of time-varying nonlinear sea surfaces damped by natural or organic sea slicks is presented in this paper. The polarimetric scattering model of second-order small-slope approximation (SSA-II) with tapered wave incidence is utilized for evaluating co- and cross-polarized backscattered echoes from clean and contaminated CWM nonlinear sea surfaces. The influence of natural sea slicks on Doppler shift and spectral bandwidth of radar sea echoes is investigated in detail by comparing the polarimetric Doppler spectra of contaminated sea surfaces with those of clean sea surfaces. A narrowing of Doppler spectra in the presence of oil slicks is observed for both co- and cross-polarization, which is qualitatively consistent with wave-tank measurements. Simulation results also show that the Doppler shifts in slicks can increase or decrease, depending on incidence angles and polarizations.

  16. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  17. Monitoring Sea Surface Processes Using the High Frequency Ambient Sound Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Pacific (ITCZ 10ºN, 95ºW), 3) Bering Sea coastal shelf, 4) Ionian Sea, 5) Carr Inlet, Puget Sound , Washington, and 6) Haro Strait, Washington/BC...Southern Resident Killer Whale ( Puget Sound ). In coastal and inland waterways, anthropogenic noise is often present. These signals are usually...Monitoring Sea Surface Processes Using the High Frequency Ambient Sound Field Jeffrey A. Nystuen Applied Physics Laboratory University of

  18. Data-Model Comparison of Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Foley, K.; Robinson, M. M.; Bloemers, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Piacenzian (late Pliocene) climate represents the most geologically recent interval of long-term average warmth and shares similarities with the climate projected for the end of the 21st century. As such, its fossil and sedimentary record represents a natural experiment from which we can gain insight into potential climate change impacts, enabling more informed policy decisions for mitigation and adaptation. We present the first systematic comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) between an ensemble of eight climate model simulations produced as part of PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project) and the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Project mean annual SST field. Our results highlight key regional (mid- to high latitude North Atlantic and tropics) and dynamic (upwelling) situations where there is discord between reconstructed SST and the PlioMIP simulations. These differences can lead to improved strategies for both experimental design and temporal refinement of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Scatter plot of multi-model-mean anomalies (squares) and PRISM3 data anomalies (large blue circles) by latitude. Vertical bars on data anomalies represent the variability of warm climate phase within the time-slab at each locality. Small colored circles represent individual model anomalies and show the spread of model estimates about the multi-model-mean. While not directly comparable in terms of the development of the means nor the meaning of variability, this plot provides a first order comparison of the anomalies. Encircled areas are a, PRISM low latitude sites outside of upwelling areas; b, North Atlantic coastal sequences and Mediterranean sites; c, large anomaly PRISM sites from the northern hemisphere. Numbers identify Ocean Drilling Program sites.

  19. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Surface-Atmosphere Anisotropy for Arctic Sea Ice and Tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.; Li, Jason Y.; Soulen, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of spectral reflectance for four common arctic surfaces: snow-covered sea ice, melt-season sea ice, snow-covered tundra, and tundra shortly after snowmelt were measured using an aircraft based, high angular resolution (1-degree) multispectral radiometer. Results indicate bidirectional reflectance is higher for snow-covered sea ice than melt-season sea ice at all wavelengths between 0.47 and 2.3 pm, with the difference increasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance of snow-covered tundra is higher than for snow-free tundra for measurements less than 1.64 pm, with the difference decreasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance patterns of all measured surfaces show maximum reflectance in the forward scattering direction of the principal plane, with identifiable specular reflection for the melt-season sea ice and snow-free tundra cases. The snow-free tundra had the most significant backscatter, and the melt-season sea ice the least. For sea ice, bidirectional reflectance changes due to snowmelt were more significant than differences among the different types of melt-season sea ice. Also the spectral-hemispherical (plane) albedo of each measured arctic surface was computed. Comparing measured nadir reflectance to albedo for sea ice and snow-covered tundra shows albedo underestimated 5-40%, with the largest bias at wavelengths beyond 1 pm. For snow-free tundra, nadir reflectance underestimates plane albedo by about 30-50%.

  20. In Situ Global Sea Surface Salinity and Variability from the NCEI Global Thermosalinograph Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Boyer, T.; Zhang, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the global ocean circulations. The variations of sea surface salinity are key indicators of changes in air-sea water fluxes. Using nearly 30 years of in situ measurements of sea surface salinity from thermosalinographs, we will evaluate the variations of the sea surface salinity in the global ocean. The sea surface salinity data used are from our newly-developed NCEI Global Thermosalinograph Database - NCEI-TSG. This database provides a comprehensive set of quality-controlled in-situ sea-surface salinity and temperature measurements collected from over 340 vessels during the period 1989 to the present. The NCEI-TSG is the world's most complete TSG dataset, containing all data from the different TSG data assembly centers, e.g. COAPS (SAMOS), IODE (GOSUD) and AOML, with more historical data from NCEI's archive to be added. Using this unique dataset, we will investigate the spatial variations of the global SSS and its variability. Annual and interannual variability will also be studied at selected regions.

  1. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    PubMed

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  2. Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in a doubly, two-way nested primitive equation model of the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Rixen, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Testut, C.-E.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GHER 3D primitive equation model is implemented with three different resolutions: a low resolution model (1/4^o) covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model (1/20^o) of the Liguro-Provençal basin and a high resolution model (1/60^o) simulating the fine mesoscale structures in the Ligurian Sea. Boundary conditions and the averaged fields (feedback) are exchanged between two successive nesting levels. The model of the Ligurian Sea is also coupled with the assimilation package SESAM. It allows to assimilate satellite data and in situ observations using the local adaptative SEEK (Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman) filter. Instead of evolving the error space by the numerically expensive Lyapunov equation, a simplified algebraic equation depending on the misfit between observation and model forecast is used. Starting from the 1st January 1998 the low and intermediate resolution models are spun up for 18 months. The initial conditions for the Ligurian Sea are interpolated from the intermediate resolution model. The three models are then integrated until August 1999. During this period AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature of the Ligurian Sea is assimilated. The results are validated by using CTD and XBT profiles of the SIRENA cruise from the SACLANT Center. The overall objective of this study is pre-operational. It should help to identify limitations and weaknesses of forecasting methods and to suggest improvements of existing operational models.

  3. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze immediately offshore. On the day of the case study, the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. Although a colder SST would also imply a larger land-sea temperature contrast and hence a stronger onshore wind - an effect which alone would discourage blocking - the increased static stability exerts a dominant control over whether blocking takes place. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  4. A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  5. The effect of monomolecular surface films on the microwave brightness temperature of the sea surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpers, W.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Garrett, W. D.; Huehnerfuss, H.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that monomolecular surface films of biological origin are often encountered on the ocean surface, especially in coastal regions. The thicknesses of the monomolecular films are of the order of 3 x 10 to the -9th m. Huehnerfuss et al. (1978, 1981) have shown that monomolecular surface films damp surface waves quite strongly in the centimeter to decimeter wavelength regime. Other effects caused by films are related to the reduction of the gas exchange at the air-sea interface and the decrease of the wind stress. The present investigation is concerned with experiments which reveal an unexpectedly large response of the microwave brightness temperature to a monomolecular oleyl alcohol slick at 1.43 GHz. Brightness temperature is a function of the complex dielectric constant of thy upper layer of the ocean. During six overflights over an ocean area covered with an artificial monomolecular alcohol film, a large decrease of the brightness temperature at the L-band was measured, while at the S-band almost no decrease was observed.

  6. Enhanced Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean Dynamic Topography including retracked CryoSat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, O. B.; Jain, M.; Stenseng, L.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-12-01

    A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean dynamic topography (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models combining conventional altimetry with retracked CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. For the derivation of a mean dynamic topography the ESA GOCE derived geoid model have been used to constrain the longer wavelength. We present the retracking of C2 SAR data using various retrackes and how we have been able to combine data from various retrackers under various sea ice conditions. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the newest state of the art global high-resolution models including CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude and through combination with a GOCE geoid model completes coverage all the way to the North Pole. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.

  7. Tropical sea surface temperature variability near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water temperature decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based temperature estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean temperatures were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based temperatures can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor temperature constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than temperature, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged temperatures recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic δ18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late

  8. Moderate-resolution sea surface temperature data for the Arctic Ocean Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important environmental characteristic in determining the suitability and sustainability of habitats for marine organisms. Of particular interest is the fate of the Arctic Ocean, which provides critical habitat to commercially important fish (M...

  9. Regional studies using sea surface temperature fields derived from satellite infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three examples of sea surface temperature distributions over the western Atlantic are presented. These were detected by means of data from the scanning radiometer on the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite 1 (ITOS 1) under relatively clear sky conditions.

  10. Moderate-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data for the Nearshore North Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal sea surface temperature (SST) is an important environmental characteristic defining habitat suitability for nearshore marine and estuarine organisms. The purpose of this publication is to provide access to an easy-to-use coastal SST dataset for ecologists, biogeographers...

  11. Impact of surface roughness on L-band emissivity of the sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernecki, M.; Kaleschke, L.; Hendricks, S.; Søbjærg, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2014 a joint experiment IRO2/SMOSice was carried out in the Barents Sea. R/V Lance equipped with meteorological instruments, electromagnetic sea ice thickness probe and engine monitoring instruments, was performing a series of tests in different ice conditions in order to validate the ice route optimization (IRO) system, advising on his route through pack ice. In parallel cal/val activities for sea ice thickness product obtained from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission) L-band radiometer were carried out. Apart from helicopter towing the EMbird thickness probe, Polar 5 aircraft was serving the area during the experiment with L-band radiometer EMIRAD2 and Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) as primary instruments. Sea ice Thickness algorithm using SMOS brightness temperature developed at University of Hamburg, provides daily maps of thin sea ice (up to 0.5-1 m) in polar regions with resolution of 35-50 km. So far the retrieval method was not taking into account surface roughness, assuming that sea ice is a specular surface. Roughness is a stochastic process that can be characterized by standard deviation of surface height σ and by shape of the autocorrelation function R to estimate it's vertical and horizontal scales respectively. Interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the surface of the medium are dependent on R and σ and they scales with respect to the incident wavelength. During SMOSice the radiometer was observing sea ice surface at two incidence angles 0 and 40 degrees and simultaneously the surface elevation was scanned with ALS with ground resolution of ~ 0.25 m. This configuration allowed us to calculate σ and R from power spectral densities of surface elevation profiles and quantify the effect of surface roughness on the emissivity of the sea ice. First results indicate that Gaussian autocorrelation function is suitable for deformed ice, for other ice types exponential function is the best fit.

  12. Expansion of divergent SEA domains in cell surface proteins and nucleoporin 54.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2017-03-01

    SEA (sea urchin sperm protein, enterokinase, agrin) domains, many of which possess autoproteolysis activity, have been found in a number of cell surface and secreted proteins. Despite high sequence divergence, SEA domains were also proposed to be present in dystroglycan based on a conserved autoproteolysis motif and receptor-type protein phosphatase IA-2 based on structural similarity. The presence of a SEA domain adjacent to the transmembrane segment appears to be a recurring theme in quite a number of type I transmembrane proteins on the cell surface, such as MUC1, dystroglycan, IA-2, and Notch receptors. By comparative sequence and structural analyses, we identified dystroglycan-like proteins with SEA domains in Capsaspora owczarzaki of the Filasterea group, one of the closest single-cell relatives of metazoans. We also detected novel and divergent SEA domains in a variety of cell surface proteins such as EpCAM, α/ε-sarcoglycan, PTPRR, collectrin/Tmem27, amnionless, CD34, KIAA0319, fibrocystin-like protein, and a number of cadherins. While these proteins are mostly from metazoans or their single cell relatives such as choanoflagellates and Filasterea, fibrocystin-like proteins with SEA domains were found in several other eukaryotic lineages including green algae, Alveolata, Euglenozoa, and Haptophyta, suggesting an ancient evolutionary origin. In addition, the intracellular protein Nucleoporin 54 (Nup54) acquired a divergent SEA domain in choanoflagellates and metazoans. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  13. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Verification of Geosat sea surface topography in the Gulf Stream extension with surface drifting buoys and hydrographic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, J.; KäSe, R. H.; Stammer, D.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Krauss, W.

    1990-03-01

    Altimeter data from Geosat have been analyzed in the Gulf Stream extension area. Horizontal maps of the sea surface height anomaly relative to an annual mean for various 17-day intervals were constructed using an objective mapping procedure. The mean sea level was approximated by the dynamic topography from climatological hydrographic data. Geostrophic surface velocities derived from the composite maps (mean plus anomaly) are significantly correlated with surface drifter velocities observed during an oceanographie experiment in the spring of 1987. The drifter velocities contain much energy on scales less than 100 km which are not resolved in the altimetric maps. It is shown that the composite sea surface height also agrees well with ground verification from hydrographic data along sections in a triangle between the Azores, Newfoundland, and Bermuda, except in regions of high mean gradients.

  15. Improving Streamflow Forecasts Using Predefined Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing evidence of climate variability, water resources managers in the western United States are faced with greater challenges of developing long range streamflow forecast. This is further aggravated by the increases in climate extremes such as floods and drought caused by climate variability. Over the years, climatologists have identified several modes of climatic variability and their relationship with streamflow. These climate modes have the potential of being used as predictor in models for improving the streamflow lead time. With this as the motivation, the current research focuses on increasing the streamflow lead time using predefine climate indices. A data driven model i.e. Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the statistical learning theory is used to predict annual streamflow volume 3-year in advance. The SVM model is a learning system that uses a hypothesis space of linear functions in a Kernel induced higher dimensional feature space, and is trained with a learning algorithm from the optimization theory. Annual oceanic-atmospheric indices, comprising of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO), and a new Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set of "Hondo" Region for a period of 1906-2005 are used to generate annual streamflow volumes. The SVM model is applied to three gages i.e. Cisco, Green River, and Lees Ferry in the Upper Colorado River Basin in the western United States. Based on the performance measures the model shows very good forecasts, and the forecast are in good agreement with measured streamflow volumes. Previous research has identified NAO and ENSO as main drivers for extending streamflow forecast lead-time in the UCRB. Inclusion of "Hondo Region" SST information further improve the model's forecasting ability. The overall results of this study revealed that the annual streamflow of the UCRB is significantly influenced by

  16. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, AMI surface wind velocity, TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height, and ECMWF surface wind velocity during 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Fu, L.; Knauss, W.; Pihos, G.; Brown, O.; Freilich, M.; Wentz, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1993 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (U.S.) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite; 10-m height wind speed and direction estimated from the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) on the European Space Agency (ESA) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1) satellite; sea surface height estimated from the joint U.S.-France Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON spacecraft; and 10-m height wind speed and direction produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of annual mean, monthly mean, and sampling distributions are displayed.

  17. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  18. Productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with the pelagic larval duration of damselfishes in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Lozano-Cortés, Diego; Kandler, Nora M; Salas, Eva; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    We examined the variation of pelagic larval durations (PLDs) among three damselfishes, Dascyllus aruanus, D. marginatus, and D. trimaculatus, which live under the influence of an environmental gradient in the Red Sea. PLDs were significantly correlated with latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), and primary production (CHLA; chlorophyll a concentrations). We find a consistent decrease in PLDs with increasing SST and primary production (CHLA) towards the southern Red Sea among all species. This trend is likely related to higher food availability and increased metabolic rates in that region. We suggest that food availability is a potentially stronger driver of variation in PLD than temperature, especially in highly oligotrophic regions. Additionally, variations in PLDs were particularly high among specimens of D. marginatus, suggesting a stronger response to local environmental differences for endemic species. We also report the first average PLD for this species over a broad geographic range (19.82 ± 2.92 days). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A 30-day forecast experiment with the GISS model and updated sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Atlas, R.; Kuo, E.

    1975-01-01

    The GISS model was used to compute two parallel global 30-day forecasts for the month January 1974. In one forecast, climatological January sea surface temperatures were used, while in the other observed sea temperatures were inserted and updated daily. A comparison of the two forecasts indicated no clear-cut beneficial effect of daily updating of sea surface temperatures. Despite the rapid decay of daily predictability, the model produced a 30-day mean forecast for January 1974 that was generally superior to persistence and climatology when evaluated over either the globe or the Northern Hemisphere, but not over smaller regions.

  20. Processes controlling surface, bottom and lateral melt of Arctic sea ice in a state of the art sea ice model.

    PubMed

    Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel; Petty, Alek; Schroeder, David; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-10-13

    We present a modelling study of processes controlling the summer melt of the Arctic sea ice cover. We perform a sensitivity study and focus our interest on the thermodynamics at the ice-atmosphere and ice-ocean interfaces. We use the Los Alamos community sea ice model CICE, and additionally implement and test three new parametrization schemes: (i) a prognostic mixed layer; (ii) a three equation boundary condition for the salt and heat flux at the ice-ocean interface; and (iii) a new lateral melt parametrization. Recent additions to the CICE model are also tested, including explicit melt ponds, a form drag parametrization and a halodynamic brine drainage scheme. The various sea ice parametrizations tested in this sensitivity study introduce a wide spread in the simulated sea ice characteristics. For each simulation, the total melt is decomposed into its surface, bottom and lateral melt components to assess the processes driving melt and how this varies regionally and temporally. Because this study quantifies the relative importance of several processes in driving the summer melt of sea ice, this work can serve as a guide for future research priorities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  2. Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis; St-Germain, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France. When atmosphere radiances are matched at the horizon to remove possible calibration offsets, the implementation of the BRDF in MODTRAN produces good sea surface radiance agreement, usually within 2% and at worst 4% from off-glint azimuthally averaged measurements. Simulations also compare quite favorably to glint measurements. The observed sea radiance deviations between model and measurements are not systematic, and are well within expected experimental uncertainties. This is largely attributed to proper radiative coupling between the surface and the atmosphere implemented using the DISORT multiple scattering algorithm.

  3. Deriving a sea surface climatology of CO2 fugacity in support of air-sea gas flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Donlon, C.

    2014-07-01

    Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. fCO2 is highly sensitive to temperature and the measurements are only valid for the instantaneous sea surface temperature (SST) that is measured concurrent with the in-water CO2 measurement. To create a climatology of fCO2 data suitable for calculating air-sea CO2 fluxes it is therefore desirable to calculate fCO2 valid for climate quality SST. This paper presents a method for creating such a climatology. We recomputed SOCAT's fCO2 values for their respective measurement month and year using climate quality SST data from satellite Earth observation and then extrapolated the resulting fCO2 values to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated onto a 1° × 1° grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions for 2010. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is also provided for those who prefer to use pCO2. The CO2 concentration difference between ocean and atmosphere is the thermodynamic driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux, and hence the presented fCO2 distributions can be used in air-sea gas flux calculations together with climatologies of other climate variables.

  4. Trophic dynamics of deep-sea megabenthos are mediated by surface productivity.

    PubMed

    Tecchio, Samuele; van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Navarro, Joan; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Most deep-sea benthic ecosystems are food limited and, in the majority of cases, are driven by the organic matter falling from the surface or advected downslope. Species may adapt to this scarceness by applying a wide variety of responses, such as feeding specialisation, niche width variation, and reduction in metabolic rates. The Mediterranean Sea hosts a gradient of food availability at the deep seafloor over its wide longitudinal transect. In the Mediterranean, broad regional studies on trophic habits are almost absent, and the response of deep-sea benthos to different trophic conditions is still speculative. Here, we show that both primary and secondary production processes taking place at surface layers are key drivers of deep-sea food web structuring. By employing an innovative statistical tool, we interpreted bulk-tissue δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotope ratios in benthic megafauna, and associated surface and mesopelagic components from the 3 basins of the Mediterranean Sea at 3 different depths (1200, 2000, and 3000 m). The trophic niche width and the amplitude of primary carbon sources were positively correlated with both primary and secondary surface production indicators. Moreover, mesopelagic organic matter utilization processes showed an intermediate position between surface and deep benthic components. These results shed light on the understanding of deep-sea ecosystems functioning and, at the same time, they demand further investigation.

  5. Trophic Dynamics of Deep-Sea Megabenthos Are Mediated by Surface Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Tecchio, Samuele; van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Navarro, Joan; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Most deep-sea benthic ecosystems are food limited and, in the majority of cases, are driven by the organic matter falling from the surface or advected downslope. Species may adapt to this scarceness by applying a wide variety of responses, such as feeding specialisation, niche width variation, and reduction in metabolic rates. The Mediterranean Sea hosts a gradient of food availability at the deep seafloor over its wide longitudinal transect. In the Mediterranean, broad regional studies on trophic habits are almost absent, and the response of deep-sea benthos to different trophic conditions is still speculative. Here, we show that both primary and secondary production processes taking place at surface layers are key drivers of deep-sea food web structuring. By employing an innovative statistical tool, we interpreted bulk-tissue δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios in benthic megafauna, and associated surface and mesopelagic components from the 3 basins of the Mediterranean Sea at 3 different depths (1200, 2000, and 3000 m). The trophic niche width and the amplitude of primary carbon sources were positively correlated with both primary and secondary surface production indicators. Moreover, mesopelagic organic matter utilization processes showed an intermediate position between surface and deep benthic components. These results shed light on the understanding of deep-sea ecosystems functioning and, at the same time, they demand further investigation. PMID:23691098

  6. Simulation of a polarized laser beam reflected at the sea surface: modeling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    A 3-D simulation of the polarization-dependent reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation considers polarized or unpolarized laser sources and calculates the polarization states upon reflection at the sea surface. It is suitable for the radiance calculation of the scene in different spectral wavebands (e.g. near-infrared, SWIR, etc.) not including the camera degradations. The simulation also considers a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver as well as different atmospheric conditions. In the SWIR, the detected total power of reflected laser light is compared with data collected in a field trial. Our computer simulation combines the 3-D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) with the simulation of polarized or unpolarized laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. To predict the input of a camera equipped with a linear polarizer, the polarized sea surface radiance must be calculated for the specific waveband. The s- and p-polarization states are calculated for the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance to determine the total polarized sea surface radiance of each component. The states of polarization and the radiance of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are calculated by considering the s- and p- components of the electric field of laser light with respect to the specular plane of incidence. This is done by using the formalism of their coherence matrices according to E. Wolf [1]. Additionally, an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) is considered for the reflection of laser light radiances. Validation of the simulation results is required to ensure model credibility and applicability to maritime laser applications. For validation purposes, field measurement data (images and

  7. Intense deformation field at oceanic front inferred from directional sea surface roughness observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, Nicolas; Molemaker, Jeroen; Marié, Louis; Nouguier, Frédéric; Chapron, Bertrand; Lund, Björn; Mouche, Alexis

    2017-06-01

    Fine-scale current gradients at the ocean surface can be observed by sea surface roughness. More specifically, directional surface roughness anomalies are related to the different horizontal current gradient components. This paper reports results from a dedicated experiment during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) drifter deployment. A very sharp front, 50 m wide, is detected simultaneously in drifter trajectories, sea surface temperature, and sea surface roughness. A new observational method is applied, using Sun glitter reflections during multiple airplane passes to reconstruct the multiangle roughness anomaly. This multiangle anomaly is consistent with wave-current interactions over a front, including both cross-front convergence and along-front shear with cyclonic vorticity. Qualitatively, results agree with drifters and X-band radar observations. Quantitatively, the sharpness of roughness anomaly suggests intense current gradients, 0.3 m s-1 over the 50 m wide front. This work opens new perspectives for monitoring intense oceanic fronts using drones or satellite constellations.

  8. Dependence of absolute photon flux on infrared absorbance alteration and surface roughness on photoresist polymers irradiated with vacuum ultraviolet photons emitted from HBr plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Takeuchi, Takuya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    The absolute fluxes of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from HBr plasma were analyzed and the effects of VUV photons on a photoresist polymer in ArF-excimer-laser (193 nm) lithography were quantitatively investigated on the basis of the infrared spectra attributed to the C=O region. The spectral peak intensity assigned to the methacrylic acid (MAA) in the photoresist drastically decreased owing to the loss of this monomer caused by the irradiation of VUV photons at dosages below 16 × 1016 photons/cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation showed that the removed monomer moved to the surface and generated volatile products that induced a decrease in film thickness. As a consequence, the surface became rough during the early-stage irradiation at dosages lower than 16 × 1016 photons/cm2 owing to the monomer loss of MAA with volatile product formation and subsequent cross-linking reactions.

  9. The Greenland Ice Sheet's surface mass balance in a seasonally sea ice-free Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. J.; Bamber, J. L.; Valdes, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    General circulation models predict a rapid decrease in sea ice extent with concurrent increases in near-surface air temperature and precipitation in the Arctic over the 21st century. This has led to suggestions that some Arctic land ice masses may experience an increase in accumulation due to enhanced evaporation from a seasonally sea ice-free Arctic Ocean. To investigate the impact of this phenomenon on Greenland Ice Sheet climate and surface mass balance (SMB), a regional climate model, HadRM3, was used to force an insolation-temperature melt SMB model. A set of experiments designed to investigate the role of sea ice independently from sea surface temperature (SST) forcing are described. In the warmer and wetter SI + SST simulation, Greenland experiences a 23% increase in winter SMB but 65% reduced summer SMB, resulting in a net decrease in the annual value. This study shows that sea ice decline contributes to the increased winter balance, causing 25% of the increase in winter accumulation; this is largest in eastern Greenland as the result of increased evaporation in the Greenland Sea. These results indicate that the seasonal cycle of Greenland's SMB will increase dramatically as global temperatures increase, with the largest changes in temperature and precipitation occurring in winter. This demonstrates that the accurate prediction of changes in sea ice cover is important for predicting Greenland SMB and ice sheet evolution.

  10. Biweekly Sea Surface Temperature over the South China Sea and its association with the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, B. H.

    2017-02-01

    The association of the biweekly intraseasonal (BWI) oscillation in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the South China Sea (SCS) and the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon is authenticated using version 4 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager data (SST and rain) and heat fluxes from Ocean Atmosphere Flux project data during 1998-2012. The results suggest that the SCS involves ocean-atmosphere coupling on biweekly timescales. The positive biweekly SST anomalies lead the rain anomalies over the SCS by 3 days, with a significant correlation coefficient ( r = 0.6, at 99 % significance levels) between the SST-rain anomalies. It is evident from lead/lag correlation between biweekly SST and zonal wind shear that warm ocean surface induced by wind shear may contribute to a favorable condition of the convective activity over the SCS. The present study suggests that ocean-to-atmospheric processes induced by the BWI oscillation in the SCS SST results in enhanced sea level pressure and surface shortwave radiation flux during the summer monsoon. Besides, it is observed that the SCS BWI oscillation in the changes of SST causes a feedback in the atmosphere by modifying the atmospheric instability. This suggests that the active/break biweekly cycle of the SST over the SCS is related by sea level pressure, surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability. The potential findings here indicate that the biweekly SST over the SCS play an important role in the eastward and the southward propagation of the biweekly anomalies in the Western North Pacific.

  11. Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface modeling and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Repasi, Endre

    2013-06-01

    A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for the pre-calculation of images for cameras operating in different spectral wavebands (visible, short wave infrared) for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver for different atmospheric conditions. In the visible waveband the calculated detected total power of reflected laser light from a 660nm laser source is compared with data collected in a field trial. Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser beam reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. To predict the view of a camera the sea surface radiance must be calculated for the specific waveband. Additionally, the radiances of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are modeled considering an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). Validation of simulation results is prerequisite before applying the computer simulation to maritime laser applications. For validation purposes data (images and meteorological data) were selected from field measurements, using a 660nm cw-laser diode to produce laser beam reflection at the water surface and recording images by a TV camera. The validation is done by numerical comparison of measured total laser power extracted from recorded images with the corresponding simulation results. The results of the comparison are presented for different incident (zenith/azimuth) angles of the laser beam.

  12. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  13. Control of lithosphere structure on surface deformation in the Central Barents Sea: insights from dynamical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gac, Sebastien; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2014-05-01

    The Barents Sea is located in the Northern European Arctic. The Eastern Barents Sea features one of the deepest sedimentary basins in the world whereas large parts of the Western Barents Sea is covered by a shallow sedimentary platform. Seismic tomography data (Levshin et al., 2007; Ritzmann and Faleide, 2009) show slower S-wave velocity in the upper mantle beneath the East Barents Sea compared to the West Barents Sea, indicating a steep deepening of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) in the Central Barents Sea from West to East. Additionally, the Central Barents Sea is marked by a South-North succession of regularly-spaced inverted structures (uplifted domes) such as the Fedinsky High and the Sentralbanken High. The origin of these inverted structures is under debate. The interpretation of recent seismic data in the Central Barents Sea suggests that part of the inversion is contemporaneous with the Late-Triassic-Early Jurassic westwards thrusting of Novaya Zemlya. This suggests that the origin of domes might be linked to compressional events on the eastern side of the Barents Sea. A 2D thermo-mechanical model of lithosphere shortening is used to explore the effect of LAB geometry on the surface deformation in the Central Barents Sea. The model is based on a Lagrangian finite element method (Gac et al., 2013). The model consists of a crust - mantle lithosphere characterized by non-linear temperature and pressure dependent visco-elastic-plastic rheologies. The mechanical model is coupled with a thermal model taking into account heat advection and diffusion. Sedimentation and gravity are also taken into account. Contractional boundary conditions are applied on vertical sides of the model resulting in buckling of the crust. Several models are run for different geometry of the LAB. Preliminary results are shown. 3D conceptual models are then proposed to explain the 3D distribution of inverted structures in the Central Barents Sea. REFERENCES: Gac, S

  14. The annual and interannual variabilities of precipitable water, surface wind speed, and sea surface temperature over the tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SSMR) provided simultaneous measurements of three geophysical parameters, each of which describing a certain aspect of the evolution of the 1982-1983 ENSO: the sea-surface temperature (T), precipitable water (W), and surface-wind speed (U). In this paper, values derived from the SSMR were compared with in situ measurements from ships, research buoys, and operational island stations in the tropical Pacific between January 1980 and October 1983, demonstrating the temporal and spatial coherence of the SSMR measurements. The results show that the variabilities of the surface convergence, sea surface temperature, and precipitable water are related. It was found that W anomalies were not always colocated with T anomalies, and that W anomalies were often associated with negative U anomalies, interpreted as surface convergence.

  15. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for creating regional, high-resolution, daytime and nighttime composites of sea surface temperature (SST) for use in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). The composites are based on observations from NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua and Terra. The data used typically are available nearly in real time, are applicable anywhere on the globe, and are capable of roughly representing the diurnal cycle in SST. The composites resolution is much higher than that of many other standard SST products used for operational NWP, including the low- and high-resolution Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses. The difference in resolution is key because several studies have shown that highly resolved SSTs are important for driving the air sea interactions that shape patterns of static stability, vertical and horizontal wind shear, and divergence in the planetary boundary layer. The MODIS-based composites are compared to in situ observations from buoys and other platforms operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) off the coasts of New England, the mid-Atlantic, and Florida. Mean differences, mean absolute differences, and root-mean-square differences between the composites and the NDBC observations are all within tenths of a degree of those calculated between RTG analyses and the NDBC observations. This is true whether or not one accounts for the mean offset between the skin temperatures of the MODIS dataset and the bulk temperatures of the NDBC observations and RTG analyses. Near the coast, the MODIS-based composites tend to agree more with NDBC observations than do the RTG analyses. The opposite is true away from the coast. All of these differences in point-wise comparisons among the SST datasets are small compared to the 61.08C accuracy of the NDBC SST sensors. Because skin-temperature variations from land to water so strongly affect the development and life cycle of the sea breeze, this

  16. Resonant generation of internal waves on the soft sea bed by a surface water wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng

    1995-08-01

    The nonlinear response of an initially flat sea bed to a monochromatic surface progressive wave was studied using the multiple scale perturbation method. Two opposite-traveling subliminal internal ``mud'' waves are selectively excited and form a resonant triad with the surface wave. The amplitudes of the internal waves grow on a time scale much longer than the period of the surface wave. It was found that the sea bed response is critically dependent on the density ratio of water and soil, depth of water, and depth and viscosity of the saturated soil. The result of instability analysis is in qualitative agreement with the result of a wave flume experiment.

  17. Evaporation and Solar Irradiance as Regulators of Sea Surface Temparature in Annual and Interrannual Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1994-01-01

    After numerical studies showed that global climate is sensitive to small changes in sea surface temperature (Ts), considerabel effort has been devoted to examine the role of surface fluxes in changing upper ocean heat balance and Ts, particularly in the tropical Pacific where interannual signals, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have major economic and ecological impacts.

  18. Absolute spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The absolute differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea level is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea level. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The absolute momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.

  19. Effect of the gas flow rate on the spatiotemporal distribution of Ar(1s5) absolute densities in a ns pulsed plasma jet impinging on a glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Fleury, M.; Jeanney, P.; Neveu, O.; Pasquiers, S.; Santos Sousa, J.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents spatial (axial-z and transversal-y) and temporal distributions of Ar(1s5) metastable absolute densities in an atmospheric pressure argon micro-plasma jet impinging on an ungrounded glass surface. Guided streamers are generated with a DBD device driven by pulsed positive high voltages of 6 kV in amplitude, 224 +/- 3 ns in FWHM and 20 kHz in frequency. The argon flow rate is varied between 200 and 600 sccm. The glass plate is placed at 5 mm away from the reactor’s nozzle and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse stable discharge is established after the passage of the streamers allowing the quantification of the Ar(1s5) absolute density by means of a conventional TDLAS technique coupled with emission spectroscopy and ICCD imaging. The good reproducibility of the absorption signals is demonstrated. The experiments show the strong dependence of the maximum density ({0.5-4}× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) on the gas flow rate and the axial and transversal position. At 200 sccm, high maximum densities (> 2.4× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3) are obtained in a small area close to the plasma source, while with increasing flow rate this area expands towards the glass plate. In the transversal direction, density maxima are obtained in a small zone around the propagation axis of the streamers. Finally, a noticeable increase is measured on the Ar(1s5) effective lifetime close to the glass surface by varying the flow rate from 200 to 600 sccm. In overall, the effective lifetime varies between ∼25 and ∼550 ns, depending on the gas flow rate and the values of z and y coordinates. The results obtained suggest that the present system can be implemented in various applications and particularly in what concerns the detection of weakly volatile organic compounds present in trace amounts on different surfaces.

  20. Late Quaternary surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic: Evidence from Alkenone sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ralph R.; Müller, Peter J.; Ruhland, GöTz

    1995-04-01

    Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge records of past sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from the alkenone Uk37 index are used to reconstruct the surface circulation in the east equatorial South Atlantic for the last 200,000 years. Comparison of SST estimates from surface sediments between 5° and 20°S with modern SST data suggests that the alkenone temperatures represent annual mean values of the surface mixed layer. Alkenone-derived temperatures for the warm climatic maxima of the Holocene and the penultimate interglacial are 1 to 4°C higher than latest Holocene values. All records show glacial to interglacial differences of about 3.5°C in annual mean SST, which is about 1.5°C greater than the difference estimated by CLIMAP (1981) for the eastern Angola Basin. At the Walvis Ridge, significant SST variance is observed at all of the Earth's orbital periodicities. SST records from the Angola Basin vary predominantly at 23- and 100-kyr periodicities. For the precessional cycle, SST changes at the Walvis Ridge correspond to variations of boreal summer insolation over Africa and lead ice volume changes, suggesting that the east equatorial South Atlantic is sensitive to African monsoon intensity via trade-wind zonality. Angola Basin SST records lag those from the Walvis Ridge and the equatorial Atlantic by about 3 kyr. The comparison of Angola Basin and Walvis Ridge SST records implies that the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) (currently at about 14-16°S) has remained fairly stationary between 12° and 20°S (the limits of our cores) during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The temperature contrast associated with the ABF exhibits a periodic 23-kyr variability which is coherent with changes in boreal summer insolation over Africa. These observations suggest that surface waters north of the present ABF have not directly responded to monsoon-modulated changes in the trade-wind vector, that the central field of zonally directed trades in the southern hemisphere was not

  1. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  2. Copper in the sediment and sea surface microlayer near a fallowed, open-net fish farm.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, Clyde V; Fisher, E Brian

    2012-09-01

    Sediment and sea surface microlayer samples near an open-net salmon farm in Nova Scotia, were analysed for copper. Copper is a constituent of the feed and is an active ingredient of anti-foulants. The salmon farm was placed in fallow after 15 years of production. Sampling was pursued over 27 months. Elevated copper concentrations in the sediments indicated the farm site as a source. Bubble flotation due to gas-emitting sediments from eutrophication is a likely process for accumulating copper in the sea surface microlayer at enriched concentrations. Elevated and enriched concentrations in the sea surface microlayer over distance from the farm site led, as a result of wind-drift, to an enlarged farm footprint. The levels of copper in both sediments and sea surface microlayer exceeded guidelines for protection of marine life. Over the 27 months period, copper levels persisted in the sediments and decreased gradually in the sea surface microlayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple heterogeneity parametrization for sea surface temperature and chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skákala, Jozef; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-06-01

    Using satellite maps this paper offers a complex analysis of chlorophyll & SST heterogeneity in the shelf seas around the southwest of the UK. The heterogeneity scaling follows a simple power law and is consequently parametrized by two parameters. It is shown that in most cases these two parameters vary only relatively little with time. The paper offers a detailed comparison of field heterogeneity between different regions. How much heterogeneity is in each region preserved in the annual median data is also determined. The paper explicitly demonstrates how one can use these results to calculate representative measurement area for in situ networks.

  4. Sea Ice Remote Sensing Using Surface Reflected GPS Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Maslanik, James; Zavorotny, Valery U.; Axelrad, Penina; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new research effort to extend the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) signal reflections, received by airborne instruments, to cryospheric remote sensing. Our experimental results indicate that reflected GPS signals have potential to provide information on the presence and condition of sea and freshwater ice as well as the freeze/thaw state of frozen ground. In this paper we show results from aircraft experiments over the ice pack near Barrow, Alaska indicating correlation between forward-scattered GPS returns and RADARSAT backscattered measurements.

  5. Arctic Storms and Their Influence on Surface Climate in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rinke, A.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the frequency and intensity of Arctic storms and resulting weather hazards may endanger the offshore environment, coastal community, and energy infrastructure in the Arctic as sea ice retreats. Advancing ability to identify fine-scale variations in surface climate produced by progressively stronger storm would be extremely helpful to resources management and sustainable development for coastal community. In this study, we analyzed the storms and their impacts on surface climate over the Beaufort-Chukchi seas by employing the date sets from both the hindcast simulations of the coupled Arctic regional climate model HIRHAM-NAOSIM and the recently developed Chukchi-Beaufort High-resolution Atmospheric Reanalysis (CBHAR). Based on the characteristics of spatial pattern and temporal variability of the Arctic storm activity, we categorized storms to three groups with their different origins: the East Siberia Sea, Alaska and the central Arctic Ocean. The storms originating from the central Arctic Ocean have the strongest intensity in winter with relatively less storm number. Storms traveling from Alaska to the Beaufort Sea most frequently occurred in autumn with weaker intensity. A large portion of storms originated from the East Siberia Sea region in summer. Further statistical analysis suggests that increase in surface air temperature and wind speed could be attributed to the increased frequency of storm occurrence in autumn (September to November) along the continental shelf in the Beaufort Sea.

  6. Estimating optically-thin cirrus cloud induced cold bias on infrared radiometric satellite sea surface temperature retrieval in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Jared Wayne

    Passive longwave infrared radiometric satellite-based retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) at instrument nadir are investigated for cold bias caused by unscreened optically-thin cirrus (OTC) clouds (cloud optical depth ≤ 0.3; COD). Level 2 split-window SST retrievals over tropical oceans (30° S - 30° N) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances collected aboard the NASA Aqua satellite (Aqua-MODIS) are collocated with cloud profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument, mounted on the independent NASA CALIPSO satellite. OTC are present in approximately 25% of tropical quality-assured (QA) Aqua-MODIS Level-2 data, representing over 99% of all contaminating cirrus found. This results in cold-biased SST retrievals using either split- (MODIS, AVHRR and VIIRS) or triple-window (AVHRR and VIIRS only) retrieval methods. SST retrievals are modeled based on operational algorithms using radiative transfer model simulations conducted with a hypothetical 1.5 km thick OTC cloud placed incrementally from 10.0 - 18.0 km above mean sea level for cloud optical depths (COD) between 0.0 - 0.3. Corresponding cold bias estimates for each sensor are estimated using relative Aqua-MODIS cloud contamination frequencies as a function of cloud top height and COD (assuming them consistent across each platform) integrated within each corresponding modeled cold bias matrix. Split-window relative OTC cold biases, for any single observation, range from 0.40° - 0.49° C for the three sensors, with an absolute (bulk mean) bias between 0.10° - 0.13° C. Triple-window retrievals are more resilient, ranging from 0.03° - 0.04° C relative and 0.11° - 0.16° C absolute. Cold biases are constant across the Pacific and Indian Ocean domains. Absolute bias is smaller over the Atlantic, but relative bias is larger due to different cloud properties indicating that this issue persists globally.

  7. Contribution of tropical cyclones to abnormal sea surface temperature warming in the Yellow Sea in December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyun; Choo, Sung-Ho; Moon, Jae-Hong; Chang, Pil-Hun

    2017-12-01

    Unusual sea surface temperature (SST) warming occurred over the Yellow Sea (YS) in December 2004. To identify the causes of the abnormal SST warming, we conducted an analysis on atmospheric circulation anomalies induced by tropical cyclones (TCs) and their impacts on upper ocean characteristics using multiple datasets. With the analysis of various datasets, we explored a new aspect of the relationship between TC activity and SST. The results show that there is a significant link between TC activity over the Northwest Pacific (NWP) and SST in the YS. The integrated effect of consecutive TCs activity induces a large-scale atmospheric cyclonic circulation anomaly over the NWP and consequently anomalous easterly winds over the YS and East China Sea. The mechanism of the unusually warm SST in the YS can be explained by considering TCs acting as an important source of Ekman heat transport that results in substantial intrusion of relatively warm surface water into the YS interior. Furthermore, TC-related circulation anomalies contribute to the retention of the resulting warm SST anomalies in the entire YS.

  8. Sea ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan Continental Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.; Burn, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The boundaries of land-fast ice, distribution of pack ice, and major polynya were studied in the vicinity of the Bering Strait. Movement of pack ice during 24 hours was determined by plotting the distinctly identifiable ice floes on ERTS-1 imagery obtained from two consecutive passes. Considerably large shallow area along the western Seward Peninsula just north of the Bering Strait is covered by land fast ice. This ice hinders the movement of ice formed in eastern Chukchi Sea southward through the Bering Strait. The movement of ice along the Russian coast is relatively faster. Plotting of some of the ice floes indicated movement of ice in excess of 30 km in and south of the Bering Strait between 6 and 7 March, 1973. North of the Bering Strait the movement approached 18 km. The movement of ice observed during March 6 and 7 considerably altered the distribution and extent of polynya. These features when continually plotted should be of considerable aid in navigation of ice breakers. The movement of ice will also help delineate the migration and distribution of sea mammals.

  9. Enrichment of Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase in the Sea Surface Microlayer and Its Effect on Air-Sea CO2 Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, N. I. H.; Striebel, M.; Wurl, O.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the quantification of extracellular carbonic anhydrase (eCA) concentrations in the sea surface microlayer (SML), the boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere of the Indo-West Pacific. We demonstrated that the SML is enriched with eCA by 1.5 ± 0.7 compared to the mixed underlying water. Enrichment remains up to a wind speed of 7 m s-1 (i.e., under typical oceanic conditions). As eCA catalyzes the interconversion of HCO3- and CO2, it has been hypothesized that its enrichment in the SML enhances the air-sea CO2 exchange. We detected concentrations in the range of 0.12 to 0.76 nM, which can enhance the exchange by up to 15% based on the model approach described in the literature.

  10. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  11. Microwat : a new Earth Explorer mission proposal to measure the Sea surface Temperature and the Sea Ice Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Aires, Filipe; Heygster, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface characterization from satellites is required to understand, monitor and predict the general circulation of the ocean and atmosphere. With more than 70% global cloud coverage at any time, visible and infrared satellite observations only provide limited information. The polar regions are particularly vulnerable to the climate changes and are home to complex mesoscale mechanisms that are still poorly understood. They are also under very persis- tent cloudiness. Passive microwave observations can provide surface information such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) regardless of the cloud cover, but up to now they were limited in spatial resolution. Here, we propose a passive microwave conically scanning imager, MICROWAT, in a polar orbit, for the retrieval of the SST and SIC, with a spatial resolution of 15km. It observes at 6 and 10GHz, with low-noise dual polarization receivers, and a foldable mesh antenna of 5m-diameter. Furthermore, MICROWAT will fly in tandem with MetOp-SG B to benefit from the synergy with scatterometers (SCA) and microwave imagers (MWI). MICROWAT will provide global SST estimates, twice daily, regardless of cloud cover, with an accuracy of 0.3K and a spatial resolution of 15km. The SIC will be derived with an accuracy of 3%. With its unprecedented "all weather" accurate SST and SIC at 15km, MICROWAT will provide the atmospheric and oceanic forecasting sys- tems with products compatible with their increasing spatial resolution and complexity, with impact for societal applications. It will also answer fundamental science questions related to the ocean, the atmosphere and their interactions. * Prigent, Aires, Bernardo, Orlhac, Goutoule, Roquet, & Donlon, Analysis of the potential and limitations of microwave radiometry for the retrieval of sea surface temperature: Definition

  12. Sea-surface temperature and salinity mapping from remote microwave radiometric measurements of brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans-Juergen, C. B.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were attained after correcting for the influence of extraterrestrial background radiation, atmospheric radiation and attenuation, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers, operating at 1.43 and 2.65 GHz, comprise a third-generation system using null balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from an aircraft at an altitude of 1.4 km over the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean resulted in contour maps of sea-surface temperature and salinity with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  13. The impact of sea surface currents in wave power potential modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The impact of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of wave energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, wave, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main wave characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the wave energy and the wave parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the wave models. The obtained results prove that the impact of the sea surface currents is quite significant in wave energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.

  14. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Change on Sea Surface Temperature in Monitoring Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys Using Sea Surface Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason; Burbank, Renane; Billiot, Amanda; Schultz, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses use of 4 kilometer satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) data to monitor and assess coral reef areas of the Florida Keys. There are growing concerns about the impacts of climate change on coral reef systems throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing technology is being used for monitoring coral reef areas with the goal of understanding the climatic and oceanic changes that can lead to coral bleaching events. Elevated SST is a well-documented cause of coral bleaching events. Some coral monitoring studies have used 50 km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to study the relationships of sea surface temperature anomalies to bleaching events. In partnership with NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the University of South Florida's Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, this project utilized higher resolution SST data from the Terra's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR. SST data for 2000-2010 was employed to compute sea surface temperature anomalies within the study area. The 4 km SST anomaly products enabled visualization of SST levels for known coral bleaching events from 2000-2010.

  15. Phytoplankton assemblages and lipid biomarkers indicate sea-surface warming and sea-ice decline in the Ross Sea during Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Julian D.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Peterse, Francien; Barcena, Maria A.; Albertazzi, Sonia; Asioli, Alessandra; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Tateo, Fabio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e (~ 125 - 119 kyrs BP), the last interglacial period before the present, is believed to have been globally warmer (~ 2°C) than today. Studying this time interval might therefore provide insights into near future climate state given the ongoing climate change and global temperature increase. Of particular interest are the expected changes in polar ice cover. One important aspect of the cryosphere is sea-ice, which influences albedo, deep and surface water currents, and phytoplankton production, and thus affects the global climate system. To investigate whether changes in sea-ice cover occurred in the Southern Ocean close to Antarctica during Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e dinoflagellate and diatom assemblages have been analyzed in core AS05-10, drilled in the continental slope off the Drygalski basin (Ross Sea) at a water depth of 2377 m. The core was drilled within the frame of the PNRA 2009/A2.01 project, an Italian project with a multidisciplinary approach, and covers the interval from Present to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7. The core stratigraphy is based on diatom bioevents and on the climate cyclicity provided by the variations of the diatom assemblages. For this study we focused on the interval from MIS7 to MIS5. A strong reduction of sea-ice-loving diatom taxa with respect to open water-loving diatom taxa is observed during MIS5. In general the production of phytoplankton increases at the base of MIS5 and then slowly decreases. Dinoflagellate cysts, particularly heterotrophic species, are abundant during MIS5e only. The sea surface temperature reconstruction based on the TEX86L, a proxy based on lipid biomarkers produced by Thaumarcheota, shows a 4°C temperature increase from MIS6 to MIS5e. A slightly smaller temperature increase is observed at the onset of MIS7, but this stage is barren of heterotrophic dinoflagellates. All proxies together seem to indicate that the retreat of the summer sea-ice in the Ross Sea during MIS5e was

  16. Towards GPS Surface Reflection Remote Sensing of Sea Ice Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, A.; Maslanik, J. A.; Zavorotny, V. U.; Axelrad, P.; Katzberg, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the research to extend the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) signal reflections, received by airborne instruments, to cryospheric remote sensing. The characteristics of the GPS signals and equipment afford the possibility of new measurements not possible with existing radar and passive microwave systems. In particular, the GPS receiving systems are small and light-weight, and as such are particularly well suited to be deployed on small aircraft or satellite platforms with minimal impact. Our preliminary models and experimental results indicate that reflected GPS signals have potential to provide information on the presence and condition of sea and fresh-water ice as well as the freeze/thaw state of frozen ground. In this paper we show results from aircraft experiments over the ice pack near Barrow, Alaska suggesting correlation between forward scattered GPS returns and RADARSAT backscattered signals.

  17. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000 m 2 ), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  18. CALYPSO: a new HF RADAR network to monitor sea surface currents in the Malta-Sicily channel (Mediterranean sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosoli, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Drago, A.; Capodici, F.; Maltese, A.; Gauci, A.; Galea, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Buscaino, G.; Raffa, F.; Mazzola, S.; Sinatra, R.

    2016-12-01

    Located in one of the main shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Sea, and in a strategic region for oil extraction platforms, the Malta-Sicily channel is exposed to significant oil spill risks. Shipping and extraction activities constitute a major threat for marine areas of relevant ecological value in the area, and impacts of oil spills on the local ecosystems and the economic activities, including tourism and fisheries, can be dramatic. Damages would be even more devastating for the Maltese archipelago, where marine resources represent important economic assets. Additionally, North Africa coastal areas are also under threat, due to their proximity to the Malta-Sicily Channel. Prevention and mitigation measures, together with rapid-response and decision-making in case of emergency situations, are fundamental steps that help accomplishing the tasks of minimizing risks and reducing impacts to the various compartments. Thanks to state-of-art technology for the monitoring of sea-surface currents in real-time under all sea-state conditions, the CALYPSO network of High-Frequency Radars represents an essential and invaluable tool for the specific purpose. HF radars technology provide a unique tool to track surface currents in near-real time, and as such the dispersion of pollutants can be monitored and forecasted and their origin backtracked, for instance through data assimilation into ocean circulation models or through short-term data-driven statistical forecasts of ocean currents. The network is constituted of four SeaSonde systems that work in the 13.5MHz frequency band. The network is operative since August 2012 and has been extensively validated using a variety of independent platforms and devices, including current meter data and drifting buoys. The latter provided clear evidences of the reliability of the collected data as for tracking the drifting objects. Additionally, data have provided a new insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the region

  19. Dynamic sea surface topography from GEOS-3 altimetry - Determination of some dominant parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.

    1979-01-01

    The second, third and fourth degree zonal harmonics of the quasi-stationary dynamic sea surface topography can be recovered from the GEOS-3 altimetry despite the adverse levels of noise indicated by the crossover discrepancies generated from the best orbits available at the end of 1977 and the GEOS-3 altimetry. Techniques for modelling the global sea surface topography are discussed along with methods for signal recovery in the presence of significant levels of noise. The analysis also provides a means of defining the geocentricity of the system of reference used in preparing the GEOS-3 ephemeris.

  20. Eigenvalue-Based Polarimetric Model for Interpreting Sea Surface Scattering with and without Oil Slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Andrea; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, microwave sea surface scattering with and without oil slicks is investigated using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) fully-polarimetric (FP) and compact- polarimetric (CP) data. They show similar trends but subtle differences apply over sea surface that are here analyzed by a new physically-based approach. The model predicts that differences between FP and CP architectures, and among CP modes, are due to the different mapping between polarimetric observables and eigenvalues. This theoretical rationale is verified using actual FP SAR data and emulated CP SAR measurements.

  1. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G

    2014-10-01

    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A reappraisal of surface wave group velocity tomography in the Subantarctic Scotia Sea and surrounding ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuan, A.; Sugan, M.; Plasencia Linares, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    A reappraisal of surface wave tomography in the remote Scotia Sea region and surrounding ridges is presented. New group velocity dispersion curves were obtained from local and regional earthquakes recorded at permanent Antarctic stations from 2001 to 2013 and used to update the measurements reported by Vuan et al. (2000). Rayleigh and Love group velocity maps for periods ranging from 15 to 50 s were retrieved using a tomographic inversion. The group velocity anomalies are clearly associated with the major crustal and upper mantle features of the Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates. The updated dataset allows for considerable decrease of the correlation length of the crustal heterogeneities that can be resolved, especially in the west Scotia Sea, central Scotia Sea and Bransfield Basin. Surface wave tomography results were compared with CRUST 1.0 group velocity maps and revealed specific areas where more detailed information is made available by our regional study. In particular, low group velocity anomalies of the Bransfield Strait rifting and continental fragments that are detached from the Antarctic Peninsula and spreading along the South Scotia ridge are not shown by the reference CRUST 1.0 model. A comparison between the average seismic velocities beneath the west and central Scotia Sea shows that both have an oceanic-type structure; however, the crust of the central sea is thicker (12-14 km) and slower than that of the 20 Ma old western sea.

  3. Estimation of Melt Ponds over Arctic Sea Ice using MODIS Surface Reflectance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Melt ponds over Arctic sea ice is one of the main factors affecting variability of surface albedo, increasing absorption of solar radiation and further melting of snow and ice. In recent years, a large number of melt ponds have been observed during the melt season in Arctic. Moreover, some studies have suggested that late spring to mid summer melt ponds information promises to improve the prediction skill of seasonal Arctic sea ice minimum. In the study, we extract the melt pond fraction over Arctic sea ice since 2000 using three bands MODIS weekly surface reflectance data by considering the difference of spectral reflectance in ponds, ice and open water. The preliminary comparison shows our derived Arctic-wide melt ponds are in good agreement with that derived by the University of Hamburg, especially at the pond distribution. We analyze seasonal evolution, interannual variability and trend of the melt ponds, as well as the changes of onset and re-freezing. The melt pond fraction shows an asymmetrical growth and decay pattern. The observed melt ponds fraction is almost within 25% in early May and increases rapidly in June and July with a high fraction of more than 40% in the east of Greenland and Beaufort Sea. A significant increasing trend in the melt pond fraction is observed for the period of 2000-2017. The relationship between melt pond fraction and sea ice extent will be also discussed. Key Words: melt ponds, sea ice, Arctic

  4. Variability of the Labrador Sea Surface Eddy Kinetic Energy Observed by Altimeter From 1993 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    A merged along track altimeter data set is used to study the variability of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Labrador Sea from 1993 to 2012. The EKE near the west Greenland current (WGC) has strong interannual variability without long-term trend from 1993 to 2012. The propagation direction of the Irminger Rings (IRs) originating from the WGC can be inferred from the EKE derived from altimeter, and the southward propagation of the IRs varies interannually. The central Labrador Sea EKE increases significantly from 1993 to 2012. The central Labrador Sea temperature difference between the end and the beginning of the winter convections is defined as restratification index to measure the restratification strengths. The relation between the central Labrador Sea EKE and the restratification index shows that the enhanced eddy activity originating from the west of the central Labrador Sea may cool the central Labrador Sea significantly. The interannual variability of the WGC EKE is likely to be driven by the large scale Subpolar Gyre (SPG) circulation variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO also affects the central Labrador Sea EKE through its fingerprint in the local wind stress and surface heat flux. The NAO affects the WGC EKE by changing the SPG circulation strength, which will subsequently affect the WGC EKE through unknown physical processes.

  5. The Last Interglacial Labrador Sea: A Pervasive Millennial Oscillation In Surface Water Conditions Without Labrador Sea Water Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.

    A multi-proxy approach was developed to document secular to millenial changes of potential density in surface, mesopelagic, and bottom waters of the Labrador Sea, thus allowing to reconstruct situations when winter convection with intermediate or deep water formation occurred in the basin. This approach relies on dinocyst-transfer functions providing estimates of sea-surface temperature and salinity that are used to calibrate past-relationships between oxygen 18 contents in calcite and potential density gradients. The oxygen isotope compositions of epipelagic (Globigerina bul- loides), deeper-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, left coiling), and benthic (Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides wuellerstorfi) foraminifera, then allow to extrap- olate density gradients between the corresponding water layers. This approach has been tested in surface sediments in reference to modern hydrographic conditions at several sites from the NW North Atlantic, then used to reconstruct past conditions from high resolution studies of cores raised from the southern Greenland Rise (off Cape Farewell). Results indicate that the modern-like regime established during the early Holocene and full developed after 7 ka only. It is marked by weak density gradi- ents between the surface and intermediate water masses, allowing winter convection down to a lower pycnocline between intermediate and deep-water masses, thus the formation of intermediate Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Contrasting with the middle to late Holocene situation, since the last interglacial and throughout the last climatic cycle, a single and dense water mass seems to have occupied the water column below a generally low-density surface water layer, thus preventing deep convection. There- fore, the production of LSW seems to be feature specific to the present interglacial interval that could soon cease to exist, due to global warming, as suggested by recent ocean model experiments and by the fact that it never occurred during the

  6. Global boundary flattening transforms for acoustic propagation under rough sea surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oba, Roger M

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces a conformal transform of an acoustic domain under a one-dimensional, rough sea surface onto a domain with a flat top. This non-perturbative transform can include many hundreds of wavelengths of the surface variation. The resulting two-dimensional, flat-topped domain allows direct application of any existing, acoustic propagation model of the Helmholtz or wave equation using transformed sound speeds. Such a transform-model combination applies where the surface particle velocity is much slower than sound speed, such that the boundary motion can be neglected. Once the acoustic field is computed, the bijective (one-to-one and onto) mapping permits the field interpolation in terms of the original coordinates. The Bergstrom method for inverse Riemann maps determines the transform by iterated solution of an integral equation for a surface matching term. Rough sea surface forward scatter test cases provide verification of the method using a particular parabolic equation model of the Helmholtz equation.

  7. Describing River Plume Interactions in the Northern Adriatic Sea Using High Resolution Satellite Turbidity And Sea Surface Temperature Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brando, V. E.; Braga, F.; Zaggia, L.; Carniel, S.

    2016-02-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) and turbidity (T) derived from Landsat-8 (L8) imagery were used to characterize river plumes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NAS). Sea surface salinity (SSS) from an operational coupled ocean-wave model supported the interpretation of the plumes interaction with the receiving waters and among them. In this study we used L8 OLI and TIRS imagery of 19 November 2014 capturing a significant freshwater inflow into the NAS for mapping both T and SST at 30 meters resolution. Sharp fronts in T and SST delimited each single river plume. The isotherms and turbidity isolines coupling varied among the plumes due to differences in particle loads and surface temperatures in the discharged waters. Overall, there was a good agreement of the SSS, T, and SST fields at the mesoscale delineation of the major river plumes. Landsat-8 30m resolution enabled the identification of smaller plume structures and the description at small scale and sub-mesoscale of the plume dynamical regions for all plume structures, as well as their interactions in the NAS. Although this study presents data captured with a sensor having a revisiting time of 16 days, we expect that with the recent launch of ESA's Sentinel 2A and the forthcoming launch of Sentinel 2B the temporal resolution will increase reaching almost the 1-3 days revisit time normally associated with Ocean Colour Radiometry (OCR). Combined with their radiometric resolution similar to OCR missions, these developments will thus offer an opportunity to also describe the temporal evolution of plume structures at the sub-mesoscale.

  8. The Gephyrocapsa Sea Surface Paleothermometer Put To The Test: Comparison With Alkenone and Foraminifera Proxies Off NW Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.; Bollmann, J.

    In Holocene deep-sea sediments, the relative abundance of different morphotypes within the coccolithophore genus Gephyrocapsa is closely correlated with sea sur- face temperature (Bollmann, 1997). Based on this relationship, a regional temperature transfer function was established using a set of 35 Holocene sediments from the NE Atlantic, covering a temperature range from 14C to 24C. Using this approach, ab- solute annual mean sea surface temperatures for a given location can be calculated from the relative abundance of two Gephyrocapsa morphotypes, Gephyrocapsa Cold and Gephyrocapsa Equatorial, with a standard deviation of +/-1.06C. A global regres- sion model (N=110) was applied as well, which calculates absolute mean sea surface temperatures from the relative abundance of three Gephyrocapsa morphotypes, with a standard deviation of +/-1.78C. Using both calibration models, we have estimated sea surface temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum in a dispersed set of eigh- teen well-dated gravity cores off NW Africa (16-35N; 20-8W). The regional model revealed that annual mean temperatures during the LGM were 4 to 6C colder than today in the Canary Islands region, with lowest temperatures (14-15.5C) off-shore Morocco and south of the volcanic islands, likely due to intensified upwelling related to stronger trade winds. These values are consistent with estimates from the CLIMAP Project (1981) and other paleotemperature reconstructions for the same region. In con- trast, offshore Cape Blanc, our temperature estimates for the LGM are significantly warmer (Ttoday -LGM <4C) than proposed by CLIMAP (Ttoday -LGM 6-10C). Nevertheless, our results support temperature reconstructions based on alkenones that also indicate rather small temperature changes (Ttoday -LGM <3C) in this area (e.g. Zhao et al., 2000). Glacial sea surface temperature estimates derived from the global calibration are on average 1C warmer than those derived from the regional model. However, the

  9. Chemical Controls of Ozone Dry Deposition to the Sea Surface Microlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, L.; Chance, R.; Tinel, L.; Saint, A.; Sherwen, T.; Loades, D.; Evans, M. J.; Boxhall, P.; Hamilton, J.; Stolle, C.; Wurl, O.; Ribas-Ribas, M.; Pereira, R.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic dry deposition of atmospheric ozone (O3) is both the largest and most uncertain O3 depositional sink, and is widely acknowledged to be controlled largely by chemical reactions in the sea surface microlayer (SML) involving iodide (I-) and dissolved organic material (DOM). These reactions not only determine how quickly O3 can be removed from the atmosphere, but also result in emissions of trace gases including volatile organic compounds and may constitute a source of secondary organic aerosols to the marine atmosphere. Iodide concentrations at the sea surface vary by approximately an order of magnitude spatially, leading to more than fivefold variation in ozone deposition velocities (and volatile iodine fluxes). Sea-surface temperature is a reasonable predictor of [I-], however two recent parameterisations for surface I- differ by a factor of two at low latitudes. The nature and reactivity of marine DOM to O3 is almost completely unknown, although studies have suggested approximately equivalent chemical control of I- and DOM on ozone deposition. Here we present substantial new measurements of oceanic I- in both bulk seawater and the overlying SML, and show improved estimates of the global sea surface iodide distribution. We also present analyses of water-soluble DOM isolated from the SML and bulk seawater, and corresponding laboratory studies of ozone uptake to bulk and SML seawater, with the aim of characterizing the reactivity of O3 towards marine DOM.

  10. 28-ka History of Sea Surface Temperature, Primary Productivity and Planktonic Community Variability in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, A.; Marcantonio, F.; Bianchi, T.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium-series radionuclides and organic compounds, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, have been measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. Variability of the Indian Ocean monsoons and their influence on primary productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), and planktonic community structure has been investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the glacial was ~3°C lower than that measured for the Holocene. We also identify, for the first time, an interval of exceptionally low SSTs between 19-18.1 ka BP (15.3°C at 18.5 ka). During this time, the low SSTs coincide with high cumulative biomarker fluxes (CBF). We propose that intensification of winter northeast monsoon winds during the glacial period resulted in cold SSTs, deep convective mixing, and enhanced primary productivity. Following the last termination, and within the Holocene, SSTs vary by ~2°C with high CBFs occurring at times of relatively warmer SSTs. The fluxes of dinoflagellates and zooplankton relative to the total flux of organisms remain constant throughout the record. However, transitioning from the glacial to the Holocene, diatom fluxes comparatively increase relative to the total flux of organisms, while those of coccolithophorids decrease. Considering that the Indian Ocean monsoons are an important component of the global climate system, a shift in the planktonic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea may have important implications for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon.

  11. Sea surface temperature variability in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion) during the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Martrat, Belen; Schmidt, Sabine; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Kallel, Nejib

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the multidecadal-scale variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the convection region of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) over the full past 2000 yr (Common Era) using alkenone biomarkers. Our data show colder SSTs by 1.7 °C over most of the first millennium (200-800 AD) and by 1.3 °C during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1400-1850 AD) than the 20th century mean (17.9 °C). Although on average warmer, those of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (1000-1200 AD) were lower by 1 °C. We found a mean SST warming of 2 °C/100 yr over the last century in close agreement with the 0.22 and 0.26 °C/decade values calculated for the western Mediterranean Sea from in situ and satellite data, respectively. Our results also reveal strongly fluctuating SSTs characterized by cold extremes followed by abrupt warming during the LIA. We suggest that the coldest decades of the LIA were likely caused by prevailing negative EA states and associated anticyclone blocking over the North Atlantic resulting in cold continental northeasterly winds to blow over Western Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  12. Plio-Pleistocene Sea Surface Temperature Variability As Measured by Different Proxies - A Cautionary Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Woodard, S. C.; Castañeda, I. S.; deMenocal, P. B.; Peterson, L.; Rosenthal, Y.; Bochner, L.; Gorbey, D. B.; Mauriello, H.

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting interpretations from the application of different sea surface temperature (SST) proxies seeking to characterize past climate conditions of the same region have given rise to a number of controversies about key elements of Pliocene climate. Thus, a detailed look at whether or not different temperature proxies yield consistent results is warranted. Here, we examine Pliocene climate variability at the orbital scale reporting new alkenone-derived SST estimates from ODP Site 1088 (South Atlantic) and ODP Site 846 (Eastern Equatorial Pacific). Using these novel datasets and previously published records from a variety of different sites in a variety of localities, we further examine the consistency of Plio-Pleistocene SST variability and orbital signatures from faunal, Mg/Ca, and TEX86 SST records relative to Uk'37 SST records. We find that many companion SST records produce very similar mean trends and standard deviations as well as absolute temperature estimates that are generally within error of each other. Our analysis also suggests that many companion records, with a few notable exceptions, capture the same dominant Milankovitch periodicities and produce phase estimates relative to benthic oxygen isotope estimates that are within error of each other. However, marked structural differences occur between different proxy records on glacial-interglacial timescales in Uk'37 versus Mg/Ca comparisons and some Uk'37 versus TEX86 comparisons. Therefore, the temperature estimates of individual glacial-interglacial cycles may vary significantly when a specific time slice is explored. Our preliminary investigation suggests that whether or not climate records derived from different paleothermometers yield consistent results depends on the timescale being explored and the study site, which reflects key factors such as seasonality, ecology, and diagenetic regime. Additional work that explores the underlying causes of the differences observed among proxies and uses a

  13. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  14. Statistical Analysis on the Performance of Molecular Mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann Surface Area versus Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations: Bromodomains as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Binding free energy calculations that make use of alchemical pathways are becoming increasingly feasible thanks to advances in hardware and algorithms. Although relative binding free energy (RBFE) calculations are starting to find widespread use, absolute binding free energy (ABFE) calculations are still being explored mainly in academic settings due to the high computational requirements and still uncertain predictive value. However, in some drug design scenarios, RBFE calculations are not applicable and ABFE calculations could provide an alternative. Computationally cheaper end-point calculations in implicit solvent, such as molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) calculations, could too be used if one is primarily interested in a relative ranking of affinities. Here, we compare MMPBSA calculations to previously performed absolute alchemical free energy calculations in their ability to correlate with experimental binding free energies for three sets of bromodomain–inhibitor pairs. Different MMPBSA approaches have been considered, including a standard single-trajectory protocol, a protocol that includes a binding entropy estimate, and protocols that take into account the ligand hydration shell. Despite the improvements observed with the latter two MMPBSA approaches, ABFE calculations were found to be overall superior in obtaining correlation with experimental affinities for the test cases considered. A difference in weighted average Pearson () and Spearman () correlations of 0.25 and 0.31 was observed when using a standard single-trajectory MMPBSA setup ( = 0.64 and = 0.66 for ABFE; = 0.39 and = 0.35 for MMPBSA). The best performing MMPBSA protocols returned weighted average Pearson and Spearman correlations that were about 0.1 inferior to ABFE calculations: = 0.55 and = 0.56 when including an entropy estimate, and = 0.53 and = 0.55 when including explicit water molecules. Overall, the study suggests that ABFE calculations are indeed the

  15. Statistical Analysis on the Performance of Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area versus Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations: Bromodomains as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Bodkin, Michael J; Knapp, Stefan; Biggin, Philip C

    2017-09-25

    Binding free energy calculations that make use of alchemical pathways are becoming increasingly feasible thanks to advances in hardware and algorithms. Although relative binding free energy (RBFE) calculations are starting to find widespread use, absolute binding free energy (ABFE) calculations are still being explored mainly in academic settings due to the high computational requirements and still uncertain predictive value. However, in some drug design scenarios, RBFE calculations are not applicable and ABFE calculations could provide an alternative. Computationally cheaper end-point calculations in implicit solvent, such as molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) calculations, could too be used if one is primarily interested in a relative ranking of affinities. Here, we compare MMPBSA calculations to previously performed absolute alchemical free energy calculations in their ability to correlate with experimental binding free energies for three sets of bromodomain-inhibitor pairs. Different MMPBSA approaches have been considered, including a standard single-trajectory protocol, a protocol that includes a binding entropy estimate, and protocols that take into account the ligand hydration shell. Despite the improvements observed with the latter two MMPBSA approaches, ABFE calculations were found to be overall superior in obtaining correlation with experimental affinities for the test cases considered. A difference in weighted average Pearson ([Formula: see text]) and Spearman ([Formula: see text]) correlations of 0.25 and 0.31 was observed when using a standard single-trajectory MMPBSA setup ([Formula: see text] = 0.64 and [Formula: see text] = 0.66 for ABFE; [Formula: see text] = 0.39 and [Formula: see text] = 0.35 for MMPBSA). The best performing MMPBSA protocols returned weighted average Pearson and Spearman correlations that were about 0.1 inferior to ABFE calculations: [Formula: see text] = 0.55 and [Formula: see text] = 0.56 when including

  16. Intense air-sea exchanges and heavy orographic precipitation over Italy: The role of Adriatic sea surface temperature uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Davolio, Silvio

    2017-11-01

    Strong and persistent low-level winds blowing over the Adriatic basin are often associated with intense precipitation events over Italy. Typically, in case of moist southeasterly wind (Sirocco), rainfall affects northeastern Italy and the Alpine chain, while with cold northeasterly currents (Bora) precipitations are localized along the eastern slopes of the Apennines and central Italy coastal areas. These events are favoured by intense air-sea interactions and it is reasonable to hypothesize that the Adriatic sea surface temperature (SST) can affect the amount and location of precipitation. High-resolution simulations of different Bora and Sirocco events leading to severe precipitation are performed using a convection-permitting model (MOLOCH). Sensitivity experiments varying the SST initialization field are performed with the aim of evaluating the impact of SST uncertainty on precipitation forecasts, which is a relevant topic for operational weather predictions, especially at local scales. Moreover, diagnostic tools to compute water vapour fluxes across the Italian coast and atmospheric water budget over the Adriatic Sea have been developed and applied in order to characterize the air mass that feeds the precipitating systems. Finally, the investigation of the processes through which the SST influences location and intensity of heavy precipitation allows to gain a better understanding on mechanisms conducive to severe weather in the Mediterranean area and in the Adriatic basin in particular. Results show that the effect of the Adriatic SST (uncertainty) on precipitation is complex and can vary considerably among different events. For both Bora and Sirocco events, SST does not influence markedly the atmospheric water budget or the degree of moistening of air that flows over the Adriatic Sea. SST mainly affects the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, thus influencing the flow dynamics and the orographic flow regime, and in turn, the precipitation pattern.

  17. A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations provides particularly good data coverage in this region for a comparison with the gridded Navy winds and air temperatures. The standard errors of estimate between the Navy and FGGE IIb winds and air temperatures are 3.6 m/s and 2.5 C, respectively. The computations for the latent and sensible heat fluxes are based on bulk formulas with the same constant heat exchange coefficient of 0.0015. The results show extremely strong wintertime heat fluxes in the northern Greenland Sea and especially in the Barents Sea in contrast to previous studies.

  18. The Effect of Sea-Surface Sun Glitter on Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple model for the microwave brightness temperature of sea surface Sun glitter is presented. The model is an accurate closeform approximation for the fourfold Sun glitter integral. The model computations indicate that Sun glitter contamination of on orbit radiometer measurements is appreciable over a large swath area. For winds near 20 m/s, Sun glitter affects the retrieval of environmental parameters for Sun angles as large as 20 to 25 deg. The model predicted biases in retrieved wind speed and sea surface temperature due to neglecting Sun glitter are consistent with those experimentally observed in SEASAT SMMR retrievals. A least squares retrieval algorithm that uses a combined sea and Sun model function shows the potential of retrieving accurate environmental parameters in the presence of Sun glitter so long as the Sun angles and wind speed are above 5 deg and 2 m/s, respectively.

  19. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  20. Quantifying surface water runoff from Wadi Arogut towards the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Marei, Amer

    2015-04-01

    The surrounded area of the Dead Sea, especially the west side suffers from many hydrological problems. While the Dead Sea level drop considered a major problem that affect the quality of the surrounded freshwater resources, a lot of the surface water flood from the adjacent Wadi are lost through direct run off without any exploitation. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a type of balance between surface water exploitation through the Wadi and at the same time allow a sufficient amount of flow to the Dead Sea to ensure its sustainability. In this study, we choose one of the larger tributaries in the western side of the Dead Sea basin. The stream was modelled for runoff response to different rainfall amount and climate conditions (dry, normal, and wet seasons) which were chosen from the rainy seasons in the previous 30 years. Finally, the amount of surface water contribution from each of the three seasons of the Dead Sea was quantified. The outcome of the model shows the results from the normal rainy season, which is frequently reoccurs and common in the region. The model data show that such events normally contribute with about 18-22 MCM annually to the Dead Sea. The problem is with the recurrence of dry season such as 2005/2006, by which the amount of the surface water decrease and consequently has adverse effect on the Dead Sea. However, the presence of less frequent thunder storm season such as that one in 1991/1992 has also a positive effect on the Dead Sea level. In the rainy season 1991/1992 there was a higher amount of rainfall over the study area that reaches around 155 MCM. Despite the presence of this high amount most of the recharge lost to the ground as groundwater recharge. The high amount of rain increases the amount of inundated surface water out of the Wadi banks and covers more surfaces all over the study area, which in role promote more water loss to the ground. That is why the total loss (rather than surface runoff) was much higher (77

  1. Coral-Derived Western Pacific Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianran; Cobb, Kim M.; Roff, George; Zhao, Jianxin; Yang, Hongqiang; Hu, Minhang; Zhao, Kuan

    2018-04-01

    Reconstructions of ocean temperatures prior to the industrial era serve to constrain natural climate variability on decadal to centennial timescales, yet relatively few such observations are available from the west Pacific Warm Pool. Here we present multiple coral-based sea surface temperature reconstructions from Yongle Atoll, in the South China Sea over the last 1,250 years (762-2013 Common Era [CE]). Reconstructed coral Sr/Ca-sea surface temperatures indicate that the "Little Ice Age (1711-1817 CE)" period was 0.7°C cooler than the "Medieval Climate Anomaly (913-1132 CE)" and that late 20th century warming of the western Pacific is likely unprecedented over the past millennium. Our findings suggest that the Western Pacific Warm Pool may have expanded (contracted) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (Little Ice Age), leading to a strengthening (weakening) of the Asian summer monsoon, as recorded in Chinese stalagmites.

  2. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  3. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K.; Jakuba, Michael V.; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L.; McFarland, Christopher J.; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea‐ice‐melt and under‐ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under‐ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under‐Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H‐ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land‐fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under‐ice optical measurements with three dimensional under‐ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice‐thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under‐ice light field on small scales (<1000 m2), while sea ice‐thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo. PMID:27660738

  4. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  5. Characteristics of 13.9 GHz radar scattering from oil films on the sea surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Croswell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft microwave scatterometer measurements are presented, which were made in 1979 as part of a project to study the response of a number of active and passive microwave and optical remote sensors to an oil-covered sea surface conducted by NASA Langley Research Center. A 13.9-GHz Doppler scatterometer with a fan beam antenna and coherent detection was used to measure radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle. The radar scattering signature of the clear surface and signatures of the surface covered with various crude oil films are compared. Reductions in Ku band microwave backscatter up to 14 dB are observed for both treated and untreated LaRosa and Murban crude oil films deposited on the sea surface. Maximum Ku band sensitivity to the effects of the oil in terms of differential scatter is observed in the 25-35 deg incidence angle region.

  6. Aquarius: An Instrument to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S .E.; Colomb, R.; Yueh, S.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument that is being developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, global water cycle, and climate. Aquarius is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, which is a partnership between the U.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and Argentina (CONAE). The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large-scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  7. Air-sea heat flux climatologies in the Mediterranean Sea: Surface energy balance and its consistency with ocean heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiangzhou; Yu, Lisan

    2017-05-01

    This study provides an analysis of the Mediterranean Sea surface energy budget using nine surface heat flux climatologies. The ensemble mean estimation shows that the net downward shortwave radiation (192 ± 19 W m-2) is balanced by latent heat flux (-98 ± 10 W m-2), followed by net longwave radiation (-78 ± 13 W m-2) and sensible heat flux (-13 ± 4 W m-2). The resulting net heat budget (Qnet) is 2 ± 12 W m-2 into the ocean, which appears to be warm biased. The annual-mean Qnet should be -5.6 ± 1.6 W m-2 when estimated from the observed net transport through the Strait of Gibraltar. To diagnose the uncertainty in nine Qnet climatologies, we constructed Qnet from the heat budget equation by using historic hydrological observations to determine the heat content changes and advective heat flux. We also used the Qnet from a data-assimilated global ocean state estimation as an additional reference. By comparing with the two reference Qnet estimates, we found that seven products (NCEP 1, NCEP 2, CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP) overestimate Qnet, with magnitude ranging from 6 to 27 W m-2, while two products underestimate Qnet by -6 W m-2 (JRA55) and -14 W m-2 (CORE.2). Together with the previous warm pool work of Song and Yu (2013), we show that CFSR, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP are warm-biased not only in the western Pacific warm pool but also in the Mediterranean Sea, while CORE.2 is cold-biased in both regions. The NCEP 1, 2, and ERA-Interim are cold-biased over the warm pool but warm-biased in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Experimental evaluation of theoretical sea surface reflectance factors relevant to above-water radiometry.

    PubMed

    Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-21

    Determination of the water-leaving radiance LW through above-water radiometry requires knowledge of accurate reflectance factors ρ of the sea surface. Publicly available ρ relevant to above-water radiometry include theoretical data sets generated: i. by assuming a sky radiance distribution accounting for aerosols and multiple scattering, but neglecting polarization, and quantifying sea surface effects through Cox-Munk wave slope statistics; or differently ii. accounting for polarization, but assuming an ideal Rayleigh sky radiance distribution, and quantifying sea surface effects through modeled wave elevation and slope variance spectra. The impact on above-water data products of differences between those factors ρ was quantified through comparison of LW from the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) with collocated LW from in-water radiometry. Results from the analysis of radiance measurements from the sea performed with 40 degrees viewing angle and 90 degrees azimuth offset with respect to the sun plane, indicated a slightly better agreement between above- and in-water LW determined for wind speeds tentatively lower than 4 m s-1 with ρ computed accounting for aerosols, multiple scattering and Cox-Munk surfaces. Nevertheless, analyses performed by partitioning the investigated data set also indicated that actual ρ values would exhibit dependence on sun zenith comprised between those characterizing the two sets of reflectance factors.

  9. Radial orbit error reduction and sea surface topography determination using satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelis, Theodossios

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented in satellite altimetry that attempts to simultaneously determine the geoid and sea surface topography with minimum wavelengths of about 500 km and to reduce the radial orbit error caused by geopotential errors. The modeling of the radial orbit error is made using the linearized Lagrangian perturbation theory. Secular and second order effects are also included. After a rather extensive validation of the linearized equations, alternative expressions of the radial orbit error are derived. Numerical estimates for the radial orbit error and geoid undulation error are computed using the differences of two geopotential models as potential coefficient errors, for a SEASAT orbit. To provide statistical estimates of the radial distances and the geoid, a covariance propagation is made based on the full geopotential covariance. Accuracy estimates for the SEASAT orbits are given which agree quite well with already published results. Observation equations are develped using sea surface heights and crossover discrepancies as observables. A minimum variance solution with prior information provides estimates of parameters representing the sea surface topography and corrections to the gravity field that is used for the orbit generation. The simulation results show that the method can be used to effectively reduce the radial orbit error and recover the sea surface topography.

  10. Ecoregional analysis of nearshore sea-surface temperature in the North Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aim Sea surface temperature (SST) has been a parameter widely-identified to be useful to the investigation of marine species distribution, migration, and invasion, especially as SSTs are predicted to be affected by climate change. Here we use a remotely-sensed dataset to focus on...

  11. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  12. Analysis of near-shore sea surface temperatures in the Northern Pacific

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies report a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. However, much less is known about temperature change in the near-coastal environment, which is particularly sensitive to climatic change. In near-shore regions in situ sea surface temper...

  13. The influence of local sea surface temperatures on Australian east coast cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepler, Acacia S.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.; Sherwood, Steven C.

    2016-11-01

    Cyclones are a major cause of rainfall and extreme weather in the midlatitudes and have a preference for genesis and explosive development in areas where a warm western boundary current borders a continental landmass. While there is a growing body of work on how extratropical cyclones are influenced by the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current in the Northern Hemisphere, there is little understanding of similar regions in the Southern Hemisphere including the Australian east coast, where cyclones that develop close to the coast are the main cause of severe weather and coastal flooding. This paper quantifies the impact of east Australian sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on local cyclone activity and behavior, using three different sets of sea surface temperature boundary conditions during the period 2007-2008 in an ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting Model physics parameterizations. Coastal sea surface temperatures are demonstrated to have a significant impact on the overall frequency of cyclones in this region, with warmer SSTs acting as a trigger for the intensification of weak or moderate cyclones, particularly those of a subtropical nature. However, sea surface temperatures play only a minor role in the most intense cyclones, which are dominated by atmospheric conditions.

  14. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T (sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  15. On the relationship between water vapor over the oceans and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1989-01-01

    Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry were correlated with the National Meteorological Center (NMC) blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can generally be prescribed from the sea surface temperature with a standard deviation of 0.36 g/sq cm. The form of the relationship between precipitable water and sea surface temperature in the range T(sub s) greater than 18 C also resembles that predicted from simple arguments based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The annual cycle of the globally integrated mass of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) water vapor is shown to differ from analyses of other water vapor data in both phase and amplitude and these differences point to a significant influence of the continents on water vapor. Regional scale analyses of water vapor demonstrate that monthly averaged water vapor data, when contrasted with the bulk sea surface temperature relationship developed in this study, reflect various known characteristics of the time mean large-scale circulation over the oceans. A water vapor parameter is introduced to highlight the effects of large-scale motion on atmospheric water vapor. Based on the magnitude of this parameter, it is shown that the effects of large-scale flow on precipitable water vapor are regionally dependent, but for the most part, the influence of circulation is generally less than about + or - 20 percent of the seasonal mean.

  16. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  17. Microwave radiometer and scatterometer design for the aquarius sea surface Salinity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Yueh, Simon H.; Pellerano, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of sea surface salinity with L-band microwave radiometers is a very challenging task. Since the L-band brightness temperature variations associated with salinity changes are small, it is necessary to have a very sensitive and stable radiometer. In addition, the corrections for the ocean surface roughness require real time scatterometer measurements. The designs of the Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer are described in this paper.

  18. Optimizing Surface Winds using QuikSCAT Measurements in the Mediterranean Sea During 2000-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-28

    Temperature and salinity from the 1/4° Generalized Digital Envi- ronmental Model ( GDEM ) monthly climatology developed at the Naval Oceanographic...monthly GDEM climatology was also used for relaxation of the sea-surface salinity (SSS) to keep the surface salinity balance on track. The net heat...salinity from the GDEM clima- tology are used to initialize themodel. There is a relaxation tomonthly mean SSS fromGDEM. The referencemixed-layer

  19. Transport of contaminants by Arctic sea ice and surface ocean currents

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirman, S.

    1995-12-31

    Sea ice and ocean currents transport contaminants in the Arctic from source areas on the shelves, to biologically active regions often more than a thousand kilometers away. Coastal regions along the Siberian margin are polluted by discharges of agricultural, industrial and military wastes in river runoff, from atmospheric deposition and ocean dumping. The Kara Sea is of particular concern because of deliberate dumping of radioactive waste, as well as the large input of polluted river water. Contaminants are incorporated in ice during suspension freezing on the shelves, and by atmospheric deposition during drift. Ice releases its contaminant load through brinemore » drainage, surface runoff of snow and meltwater, and when the floe disintegrates. The marginal ice zone, a region of intense biological activity, may also be the site of major contaminant release. Potentially contaminated ice from the Kara Sea is likely to influence the marginal ice zones of the Barents and Greenland seas. From studies conducted to date it appears that sea ice from the Kara Sea does not typically enter the Beaufort Gyre, and thus is unlikely to affect the northern Canadian and Alaskan margins.« less

  20. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  1. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  2. Open-source algorithm for detecting sea ice surface features in high-resolution optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas C.; Polashenski, Chris M.

    2018-04-01

    Snow, ice, and melt ponds cover the surface of the Arctic Ocean in fractions that change throughout the seasons. These surfaces control albedo and exert tremendous influence over the energy balance in the Arctic. Increasingly available meter- to decimeter-scale resolution optical imagery captures the evolution of the ice and ocean surface state visually, but methods for quantifying coverage of key surface types from raw imagery are not yet well established. Here we present an open-source system designed to provide a standardized, automated, and reproducible technique for processing optical imagery of sea ice. The method classifies surface coverage into three main categories: snow and bare ice, melt ponds and submerged ice, and open water. The method is demonstrated on imagery from four sensor platforms and on imagery spanning from spring thaw to fall freeze-up. Tests show the classification accuracy of this method typically exceeds 96 %. To facilitate scientific use, we evaluate the minimum observation area required for reporting a representative sample of surface coverage. We provide an open-source distribution of this algorithm and associated training datasets and suggest the community consider this a step towards standardizing optical sea ice imagery processing. We hope to encourage future collaborative efforts to improve the code base and to analyze large datasets of optical sea ice imagery.

  3. The Impact of Dielectric Constant Model and Surface Reference on Differences Between SMOS and Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, E. P.; Boutin, J.; Yin, X.; LeVine, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Two ongoing space missions share the scientific objective of mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), yet their observations show significant discrepancies. ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Aquarius use L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometers to measure emission from the sea surface and retrieve SSS. Significant differences in SSS retrieved by both sensors are observed, with SMOS SSS being generally lower than Aquarius SSS, except for very cold waters where SMOS SSS is the highest overall. Figure 1 is an example of the difference between the SSS retrieved by SMOS and Aquarius averaged over one month and 1 degree in longitude and latitude. Differences are mostly between -1 psu and +1 psu (psu, practical salinity unit), with a significant regional and latitudinal dependence. We investigate the impact of the vicarious calibration and retrieval algorithm used by both mission on these differences.

  4. Aliased tidal errors in TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlax, Michael G.; Chelton, Dudley B.

    1994-01-01

    Alias periods and wavelengths for the M(sub 2, S(sub 2), N(sub 2), K(sub 1), O(sub 1), and P(sub 1) tidal constituents are calculated for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Alias wavelenghts calculated in previous studies are shown to be in error, and a correct method is presented. With the exception of the K(sub 1) constituent, all of these tidal aliases for TOPEX/POSEIDON have periods shorter than 90 days and are likely to be confounded with long-period sea surface height signals associated with real ocean processes. In particular, the correspondence between the periods and wavelengths of the M(sub 2) alias and annual baroclinic Rossby waves that plagued Geosat sea surface height data is avoided. The potential for aliasing residual tidal errors in smoothed estimates of sea surface height is calculated for the six tidal constituents. The potential for aliasing the lunar tidal constituents M(sub 2), N(sub 2) and O(sub 1) fluctuates with latitude and is different for estimates made at the crossovers of ascending and descending ground tracks than for estimates at points midway between crossovers. The potential for aliasing the solar tidal constituents S(sub 2), K(sub 1) and P(sub 1) varies smoothly with latitude. S(sub 2) is strongly aliased for latitudes within 50 degress of the equator, while K(sub 1) and P(sub 1) are only weakly aliased in that range. A weighted least squares method for estimating and removing residual tidal errors from TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height data is presented. A clear understanding of the nature of aliased tidal error in TOPEX/POSEIDON data aids the unambiguous identification of real propagating sea surface height signals. Unequivocal evidence of annual period, westward propagating waves in the North Atlantic is presented.

  5. Sea, ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan Continental Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two cruises were conducted in Cook Inlet to obtain ground truth. Forty-seven stations during 22-23 August and 68 stations during 25-29 September 1972 were occupied and temperature, salinity, percent light transmission, and suspended load of surface waters obtained. Similar data at various depths was also obtained at selected stations. Cook Inlet is an estuary with complex mixing of river discharges and ocean water. The Upper Cook Inlet shows a gradual and systematic decrease in salinity, however, west of Kenai the mixing of waters is complex. The sediments in suspension originating at the head of the inlet generally settle out east of Kenai and Drift River. Sediment load in suspension decreased gradually from 1700 mg/1 near Anchorage to about 50 mg/1 in the Narrows. In the Lower Cook Inlet the suspended load varied between 1-10 mg/1. Surface waters with sediments in suspension and ocean water with relatively lower sediment concentration are clearly discernible in ERTS-1 images obtained during September 18, 1972 pass over Cook Inlet. The movement and mixing of these waters can also be delineated in the images.

  6. The Interrelationship Between Temperature Changes in the Free Atmosphere and Sea Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Wu, Zhong-Xiang

    1992-03-01

    Fields of sea surface temperature anomalies from the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) and microwave sounding measurements (MSU) of temperature in the troposphere are examined separately and together for the 1979-1988 period. Global correlation patterns of both sets of fields are investigated at a range of leads and lags up to 6 months and exhibit a wide range of correlation structure. There are regions, such as the tropical eastern Pacific, where sea surface temperature anomalies persist for several months and are associated with local air temperature anomalies; in this particular example, about 0.7°C air temperature change is associated with a 1.0°C sea temperature change. By contrast, some ocean regions and many atmospheric regions, mostly in middle and high latitude, show only local spatial correlations that disappear completely in a month or two. The most persistent and extensive spatial correlation patterns are quite different for the sea and the air. In the sea the "butterfly" pattern of the Pacific is the most important and reverses sign between the eastern equatorial Pacific and the western Pacific and subtropics. In the warm phase the temperature anomalies associated with this pattern are similar to the correlation pattern. For the atmosphere the main correlation pattern is an equatorial belt with no sign changes in the tropics; this pattern is linked to the oceanic El Niño mode. In the warm phase the temperature anomalies show peak values on both sides of the equator in the eastern and central Pacific. Based mainly on the results from the spatial patterns, certain regions are selected for intercomparison of time series. In the tropical eastern Pacific the sea leads the air by about a month while in the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio regions the sequence is reversed.

  7. Use of a spacecraft borne altimeter for determining the mean sea surface and the geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to test a first generation spacecraft-borne radar altimeter's capability to measure the topography of the sea surface. The initial radar altimeter will have an instrumental error of one meter and an overall accuracy to two to five meters. This instrument will thus improve the accuracy of the geoid from the present 10 to 20 meters to better than 5 meters. In order to detect storm surges, tidal forces, and ocean currents, an altimeter with an overall accuracy of at least ?1 meter will be required. The overall accuracy of the initial radar altimeter will thus primarily provide geodetic information and possible oceanographic information such as sea state.

  8. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  9. Sun Glint and Sea Surface Salinity Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; LeVine, David M.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission in space, called Aquarius/SAC-D, is being built to measure the salinity of the world's oceans. Salinity is an important parameter for understanding movement of the ocean water. This circulation results in the transportation of heat and is important for understanding climate and climate change. Measuring salinity from space requires precise instruments and a careful accounting for potential sources of error. One of these sources of error is radiation from the sun that is reflected from the ocean surface to the sensor in space. This paper examines this reflected radiation and presents an advanced model for describing this effect that includes the effects of ocean waves on the reflection.

  10. LLWBCS changes through surface mesoscale activity and baroclinic tides in the Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdeau, L.; Djath, B.; Ganachaud, A. S.; Tchilibou, M. L.; Verron, J. A.; Jouanno, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the south west Pacific, the Solomon Sea is on the pathway of the Low Latitudes Western Boundary Currents that connect the subtropics to the equator. Changes in their strengths, or in their water mass properties may have implication for ENSO and its low frequency modulation. During their transit in the Solomon Sea, the salinity maximum at thermocline level, characteristic of the South Pacific Tropical Waters (SPTW), is largely eroded. Different mechanisms could explain such salt erosion whose current/bathymetry interaction, internal tides, eddy activity. The Solomon Sea is an area of high level of eddy kinetic energy (EKE), especially in the surface layers, and its complex bathymetry is favourable for generation and dissipation of internal tides. Based on high resolution modelling, glider, and altimetric data mesoscale eddies observed at the surface are analysed in their 4D aspects. Their role on water mass transformation is explored. These eddies may affect the surface layers (σ<23.3) and the upper thermocline waters (23.3< σ <24.3), but they cannot explained the erosion of the salinity maximum below. Simulations with and without explicit tides provide a description of baroclinic tides in the Solomon Sea. Their role on water mixing is evaluated, especially for the SPTW.

  11. Multisensor satellite data integration for sea surface wind speed and direction determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Pihos, G. G.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to integrate meteorological data from various satellite sensors to yield a global measure of sea surface wind speed and direction for input to the Navy's operational weather forecast models were investigated. The sensors were launched or will be launched, specifically the GOES visible and infrared imaging sensor, the Nimbus-7 SMMR, and the DMSP SSM/I instrument. An algorithm for the extrapolation to the sea surface of wind directions as derived from successive GOES cloud images was developed. This wind veering algorithm is relatively simple, accounts for the major physical variables, and seems to represent the best solution that can be found with existing data. An algorithm for the interpolation of the scattered observed data to a common geographical grid was implemented. The algorithm is based on a combination of inverse distance weighting and trend surface fitting, and is suited to combing wind data from disparate sources.

  12. Simulation of an active underwater imaging through a wavy sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Ali; Saghafifar, Hossein

    2018-06-01

    A numerical simulation for underwater imaging through a wavy sea surface has been done. We have used a common approach to model the sea surface elevation and its slopes as an important source of image disturbance. The simulation algorithm is based on a combination of ray tracing and optical propagation, which has taken to different approaches for downwelling and upwelling beams. The nature of randomly focusing and defocusing property of surface waves causes a fluctuated irradiance distribution as an illuminating source of immersed object, while it gives rise to a great disturbance on the image through a coordinate change of image pixels. We have also used a modulation transfer function based on Well's small angle approximations to consider the underwater optical properties effect on the transferring of the image. As expected, the absorption effect reduces the light intensity and scattering decreases image contrast by blurring the image.

  13. Impact of the Sun on Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M; Abraham, Saji; Wentz, F; Lagerloef, G S

    2005-01-01

    The sun is a sufficiently strong source of radiation at L-band to be an important source of interference for radiometers on future satellite missions such as SMOS, Aquarius, and Hydros designed to monitor soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Radiation from the sun can impact passive remote sensing systems in several ways, including line-of-sight radiation that comes directly from the sun and enters through antenna side lobes and radiation that is reflected from the surface to the radiometer. Examples are presented in the case of Aquarius, a pushbroom radiometer with three beams designed to monitor sea surface salinity. Near solar minimum, solar contamination is not a problem unless the sun enters near the main beam. But near solar maximum, contamination from the sun equivalent to a change of salinity on the order of 0.1 psu can occur even when the signal enters in sidelobes far from the main beam.

  14. Error trends in SASS winds as functions of atmospheric stability and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    Wind speed measurements obtained with the scatterometer instrument aboard the Seasat satellite are compared equivalent neutral wind measurements obtained from ship reports in the western N. Atlantic and eastern N. Pacific where the concentration of ship reports are high and the ranges of atmospheric stability and sea surface temperature are large. It is found that at low wind speeds the difference between satellite measurements and surface reports depends on sea surface temperature. At wind speeds higher than 8 m/s the dependence was greatly reduced. The removal of systematic errors due to fluctuations in atmospheric stability reduced the r.m.s. difference from 1.7 m/s to 0.8 m/s. It is suggested that further clarification of the effects of fluctuations in atmospheric stability on Seasat wind speed measurements should increase their reliability in the future.

  15. Relating the microwave radar cross section to the sea surface stress - Physics and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, David E.; Plant, William J.; Brown, Robert A.; Davidson, Kenneth L.; Shaw, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The FASINEX (Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment) provided a unique data set with coincident airborne measurements of the ocean surface radar cross section (at Ku-band) and surface windstress. It is being analyzed to create new algorithms and to better understand the air-sea variables that can have a strong influence on the RCS (radar cross section). Several studies of portions of data from the FASINEX indicate that the RCS is more dependent on the surface stress than on the wind speed. Radar data have been acquired by the JPL and NRL groups. The data span 12 different flight days. Stress measurements can be inferred from ship-board instruments and from aircraft closely following the scatterometers.

  16. Surface current patterns suggested by suspended sediment distribution over the outer continental margin, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of total suspended matter (TSM) were collected at the surface over the northern outer continental margin of the Bering Sea during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Volume concentrations of surface TSM averaged 0.6 and 1.1 mg l-1 for 1980 and 1981, respectively. Organic matter, largely plankton, made up about 65% of the near-surface TSM for both years. Distributions of TSM suggested that shelf circulation patterns were characterized either by meso- and large- scale eddies or by cross-shelf components of flow superimposed on a general northwesterly net drift. These patterns may be caused by large submarine canyons which dominate the physiography of this part of the Bering Sea continental margin. ?? 1987.

  17. Accurate Modelling of Surface Currents and Internal Tides in a Semi-enclosed Coastal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. E.; Soontiens, N. K.; Dunn, M. B. H.; Liu, J.; Olson, E.; Halverson, M. J.; Pawlowicz, R.

    2016-02-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a deep (400 m), strongly stratified, semi-enclosed coastal sea on the west coast of North America. We have configured a baroclinic model of the Strait of Georgia and surrounding coastal waters using the NEMO ocean community model. We run daily nowcasts and forecasts and publish our sea-surface results (including storm surge warnings) to the web (salishsea.eos.ubc.ca/storm-surge). Tides in the Strait of Georgia are mixed and large. The baroclinic model and previous barotropic models accurately represent tidal sea-level variations and depth mean currents. The baroclinic model reproduces accurately the diurnal but not the semi-diurnal baroclinic tidal currents. In the Southern Strait of Georgia, strong internal tidal currents at the semi-diurnal frequency are observed. Strong semi-diurnal tides are also produced in the model, but are almost 180 degrees out of phase with the observations. In the model, in the surface, the barotropic and baroclinic tides reinforce, whereas the observations show that at the surface the baroclinic tides oppose the barotropic. As such the surface currents are very poorly modelled. Here we will present evidence of the internal tidal field from observations. We will discuss the generation regions of the tides, the necessary modifications to the model required to correct the phase, the resulting baroclinic tides and the improvements in the surface currents.

  18. An analysis of the relationship between cloud anomalies and sea surface temperature anomalies in a global circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Barnett, Tim P.; Roeckner, Erich; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and the anomalies of the monthly mean cloud cover (including the high-level, low-level, and total cloud cover), the outgoing longwave radiation, and the reflected solar radiation was analyzed using a least absolute deviations regression at each grid point over the open ocean for a 6-yr period. The results indicate that cloud change in association with a local 1-C increase in SSTAs cannot be used to predict clouds in a potential future world where all the oceans are 1-C warmer than at present, because much of the observed cloud changes are due to circulation changes, which in turn are related not only to changes in SSTAs but to changes in SSTA gradients. However, because SSTAs are associated with changes in the local ocean-atmosphere moisture and heat fluxes as well as significant changes in circulation (such as ENSO), SSTAs can serve as a surrogate for many aspects of global climate change.

  19. Late Quaternary Palaeoceanographic Changes in Sea Surface Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischel, Andrea; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic changes and the variability in surface water mass hydrography are reconstructed in order to track tropical ocean and climate variability and inter-hemispheric heat exchange through the last 42,000 year BP. Our studies are based on the relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera combined with sea surface temperature approximation based Mg/Ca measurements, XRF scanning and stable oxygen isotope analyses in a 5 m long gravity core Ga307-Win-12GC (17°50.80N, 64°48.7290W), retrieved in the Virgin Island Basin in approx. 3,960 m water depth. The Virgin Island Basin is the deepest part of the Anegada-Jungfern Passage in the northeast Caribbean, one of the most important pathways for water mass exchange between the Central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Due to its bathymetry surface waters as well as deep water mass strata from the northern and southern hemisphere enter the basin, comprising Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage suggests rather stable sea-surface conditions during the Holocene in the NE Caribbean. However, major changes in the hydrographic setting could be identified within the glacial period. During the glacial period, clear millennial-scale variability in sea-surface temperature and productivity are present. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of Globigerinoides ruber in the sediment core may be correlated to Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the northern North Atlantic. Furthermore an increase in relative abundance of Globorotalia rubescens occurs synchronous with ice rafted debris layers described from the North Atlantic. The faunal changes in the tropical Atlantic may thus be correlated to major climate changes in the North Atlantic, mainly D-O cyclicity as well as Heinrich events. Thus, the synchronous change in water mass distribution and hydrographic cyclicity suggests a possible linkage

  20. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  1. Sea Surface Wakes Observed by Spaceborne SAR in the Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne; Jacobsen, Sven

    2014-11-01

    In the paper, we present some X-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images acquired at the offshore wind farms in the North Sea and the East China Sea. The high spatial resolution SAR images show different sea surface wake patterns downstream of the offshore wind turbines. The analysis suggests that there are major two types of wakes among the observed cases. The wind turbine wakes generated by movement of wind around wind turbines are the most often observed cases. In contrast, due to the strong local tidal currents in the near shore wind farm sites, the tidal current wakes induced by tidal current impinging on the wind turbine piles are also observed in the high spatial resolution TS-X images. The discrimination of the two types of wakes observed in the offshore wind farms is also described in the paper.

  2. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  3. A 28-ka history of sea surface temperature, primary productivity and planktonic community variability in the western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Waterson, Elizabeth J.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium series radionuclides and organic biomarkers, which represent major groups of planktonic organisms, were measured in western Arabian Sea sediments that span the past 28 ka. Variability in the past strength of the southwest and northeast monsoons and its influence on primary productivity, sea surface temperature (SST), and planktonic community structure were investigated. The average alkenone-derived SST for the last glacial period was ˜3°C lower than that measured for the Holocene. Prior to the deglacial, the lowest SSTs coincide with the highest measured fluxes of organic biomarkers, which represent primarily a planktonic suite of diatoms, coccolithophorids, dinoflagellates, and zooplankton. We propose that intensification of winter northeast monsoon winds during the last glacial period resulted in deep convective mixing, cold SSTs and enhanced primary productivity. In contrast, postdeglacial (<17 ka) SSTs are warmer during times in which biomarker fluxes are high. Associated with this transition is a planktonic community structure change, in which the ratio of the average cumulative flux of diatom biomarkers to the cumulative flux of coccolithophorid biomarkers is twice as high during the deglacial and Holocene than the average ratio during the last glacial period. We suggest that this temporal transition represents a shift from a winter northeast monsoon-dominated (pre-17 ka) to a summer southwest monsoon-dominated (post-17 ka) wind system.

  4. Comparison of two Centennial-scale Sea Surface Temperature Datasets in the Regional Climate Change Studies of the China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingyuan, Wang; Yanan, Wang; Yiwei, Liu

    2017-08-01

    Two widely used sea surface temperature (SST) datasets are compared in this article. We examine characteristics in the climate variability of SST in the China Seas.Two series yielded almost the same warming trend for 1890-2013 (0.7-0.8°C/100 years). However, HadISST1 series shows much stronger warming trends during 1961-2013 and 1981-2013 than that of COBE SST2 series. The disagreement between data sets was marked after 1981. For the hiatus period 1998-2013, the cooling trends of HadISST1 series is much lower than that of COBE SST2. These differences between the two datasets are possibly caused by the different observations which are incorporated to fill with data-sparse regions since 1982. Those findings illustrate that there are some uncertainties in the estimate of SST warming patterns in certain regions. The results also indicate that the temporal and spatial deficiency of observed data is still the biggest handicap for analyzing multi-scale SST characteristics in regional area.

  5. Alkylphenols in surface sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea inner shelf: occurrence, distribution and fate.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-yong; Li, Yan-xia; Li, Xian-guo; Zhang, Da-hai; Gao, Yi

    2014-07-01

    Alkylphenols (APs) have been found as ubiquitous environmental pollutants with reproductive and developmental toxicity. In this study, APs in surface sediments of the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) inner shelf were analyzed to assess influences of riverine and atmospheric inputs of pollutants on the marine environment. NP concentrations ranged from 349.5 to 1642.8 ng/g (average 890.1 ng/g) in the YS sediments and from 31.3 to 1423.7 ng/g (average 750.1 ng/g) in the ECS inner shelf sediments. NP distribution pattern was mainly controlled by the sedimentary environment. OP concentration was 0.8-9.3 ng/g (average 4.7 ng/g) in the YS sediments and 0.7-11.1 ng/g (average 5.1 ng/g) in the ECS sediments. Assessment of the influence of distances from land on OP concentrations provided evidence for the predominance of coastal riverine and/or atmospheric inputs rather than long-range transport. And the biological pump may play an important role for sequestration of OP in the nearshore area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vernal distribution and turnover of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the surface water of the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong; Xu, Zong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and interannual variations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its precursors, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), were discussed on the basis of field observations in the surface waters of the Yellow Sea during spring 2007. Maxima of dimethylated sulfur compounds and low chlorophyll a concentrations were found in the central southern Yellow Sea, whereas low concentrations of DMS and DMSP were detected at the boundary between the northern and southern parts of the Yellow Sea. This frontal region is influenced by active water currents, air-sea interface exchanges, and biological turnover. The horizontal variations in DMS production and consumption rates showed a decreasing tendency from the coastal to offshore areas mainly due to the complicated biological features. DMS positively correlated with dissolved CH4 and CO2 but negatively correlated with nutrients (nitrite and phosphate). Particulate DMSP concentrations and DMS production rates positively correlated with dinoflagellate abundances but negatively correlated with diatom cell densities. DMS and DMSP concentrations, as well as DMS production and consumption rates, exhibited approximately 2.0-2.8 fold increases from 2005 to 2012. This finding was likely caused by shifts in the phytoplankton communities from diatoms to dinoflagellates and the increases in abundances of zooplankton and bacteria. Average sea-to-air DMS fluxes were estimated to be 8.12 ± 1.24 µmol·(m-2·d-1), and DMS microbial consumption was approximately 1.68 times faster than the DMS sea-air exchange. These findings imply that biological consumption, relative to ventilation, is a predominant mechanism in DMS removal from the surface water.

  7. Black Sea impact on its west-coast land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Constantin, Sorin

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the Black Sea influence on the thermal characteristics of its western hinterland based on satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The marine impact on the land surface temperature (LST) values is detected at daily, seasonal and annual time scales, and a strong linkage with the land cover is demonstrated. The remote sensing products used within the study supply LST data with complete areal coverage during clear sky conditions at 1-km spatial resolution, which is appropriate for climate studies. The sea influence is significant up to 4-5 km, by daytime, while the nighttime influence is very strong in the first 1-2 km, and it gradually decreases westward. Excepting the winter, the daytime temperature increases towards the plateau with the distance from the sea, e.g. with a gradient of 0.9 °C/km in the first 5 km in spring or with 0.7 °C/km in summer. By nighttime, the sea water usually remains warmer than the contiguous land triggering higher LST values in the immediate proximity of the coastline in all seasons, e.g. mean summer LST is 19.0 °C for the 1-km buffer, 16.6 °C for the 5-km buffer and 16.0 °C for the 10-km buffer. The results confirm a strong relationship between the land cover and thermal regime in the western hinterland of the Black Sea coast. The satellite-derived LST and air temperature values recorded at the meteorological stations are highly correlated for similar locations, but the marine influence propagates differently, pledging for distinct analysis. Identified anomalies in the general observed trends are investigated in correlation with sea surface temperature dynamics in the coastal area.

  8. No inter-gyre pathway for sea-surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Foukal, Nicholas P; Lozier, M Susan

    2016-04-22

    Recent Lagrangian analyses of surface drifters have questioned the existence of a surface current connecting the Gulf Stream (GS) to the subpolar gyre (SPG) and have cast doubt on the mechanism underlying an apparent pathway for sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies between the two regions. Here we use modelled Lagrangian trajectories to determine the fate of surface GS water and satellite SST data to analyse pathways of GS SST anomalies. Our results show that only a small fraction of the surface GS water reaches the SPG, the water that does so mainly travels below the surface mixed layer, and GS SST anomalies do not propagate into the SPG on interannual timescales. Instead, the inter-gyre heat transport as part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must be accomplished via subsurface pathways. We conclude that the SST in the SPG cannot be predicted by tracking SST anomalies along the GS.

  9. No inter-gyre pathway for sea-surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foukal, Nicholas P.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2016-01-01

    Recent Lagrangian analyses of surface drifters have questioned the existence of a surface current connecting the Gulf Stream (GS) to the subpolar gyre (SPG) and have cast doubt on the mechanism underlying an apparent pathway for sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies between the two regions. Here we use modelled Lagrangian trajectories to determine the fate of surface GS water and satellite SST data to analyse pathways of GS SST anomalies. Our results show that only a small fraction of the surface GS water reaches the SPG, the water that does so mainly travels below the surface mixed layer, and GS SST anomalies do not propagate into the SPG on interannual timescales. Instead, the inter-gyre heat transport as part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must be accomplished via subsurface pathways. We conclude that the SST in the SPG cannot be predicted by tracking SST anomalies along the GS. PMID:27103496

  10. Impact of Surface Roughness on AMSR-E Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Markus, Thorsten; Maslanik, James A.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Heinrichs, John F.; Holmgren, Jon; Perovich, Donald K.; Sturm, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface roughness by a using radiative transfer model to simulate AMSR-E Tbs as a function of incidence angle at which the surface is viewed. The simulated Tbs are then used to examine the influence that surface roughness has on two operational sea ice algorithms, namely: 1) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Team (NT) algorithm and 2) the enhanced NT algorithm, as well as the impact of roughness on the AMSR-E snow depth algorithm. Surface snow and ice data collected during the AMSR-Ice03 field campaign held in March 2003 near Barrow, AK, were used to force the radiative transfer model, and resultant modeled Tbs are compared with airborne passive microwave observations from the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer. Results indicate that passive microwave Tbs are very sensitive even to small variations in incidence angle, which can cause either an over or underestimation of the true amount of sea ice in the pixel area viewed. For example, this paper showed that if the sea ice areas modeled in this paper mere assumed to be completely smooth, sea ice concentrations were underestimated by nearly 14% using the NT sea ice algorithm and by 7% using the enhanced NT algorithm. A comparison of polarization ratios (PRs) at 10.7,18.7, and 37 GHz indicates that each channel responds to different degrees of surface roughness and suggests that the PR at 10.7 GHz can be useful for identifying locations of heavily ridged or rubbled ice. Using the PR at 10.7 GHz to derive an "effective" viewing angle, which is used as a proxy for surface roughness, resulted in more accurate retrievals of sea ice concentration for both algorithms. The AMSR-E snow depth algorithm was found to be extremely sensitive to instrument calibration and sensor viewing angle, and it is concluded that more work is needed to investigate the sensitivity of the gradient ratio at 37 and

  11. Mesoscale model response to random, surface-based perturbations — A sea-breeze experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Miller, W. F.; Lee, T. J.

    1990-09-01

    The introduction into a mesoscale model of random (in space) variations in roughness length, or random (in space and time) surface perturbations of temperature and friction velocity, produces a measurable, but barely significant, response in the simulated flow dynamics of the lower atmosphere. The perturbations are an attempt to include the effects of sub-grid variability into the ensemble-mean parameterization schemes used in many numerical models. Their magnitude is set in our experiments by appeal to real-world observations of the spatial variations in roughness length and daytime surface temperature over the land on horizontal scales of one to several tens of kilometers. With sea-breeze simulations, comparisons of a number of realizations forced by roughness-length and surface-temperature perturbations with the standard simulation reveal no significant change in ensemble mean statistics, and only small changes in the sea-breeze vertical velocity. Changes in the updraft velocity for individual runs, of up to several cms-1 (compared to a mean of 14 cms-1), are directly the result of prefrontal temperature changes of 0.1 to 0.2K, produced by the random surface forcing. The correlation and magnitude of the changes are entirely consistent with a gravity-current interpretation of the sea breeze.

  12. Unpolarized infrared emissivity with shadow from anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics.

    PubMed

    Bourlier, Christophe

    2005-07-10

    The emissivity of two-dimensional anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics is investigated. The emissivity derivation is of importance for retrieval of the sea-surface temperature or equivalent temperature of a rough sea surface by infrared thermal imaging. The well-known Cox-Munk slope probability-density function, considered non-Gaussian, is used for the emissivity derivation, in which the skewness and the kurtosis (related to the third- and fourth-order statistics, respectively) are included. The shadowing effect, which is significant for grazing angles, is also taken into account. The geometric optics approximation is assumed to be valid, which means that the rough surface is modeled as a collection of facets reflecting locally the light in the specular direction. In addition, multiple reflections are ignored. Numerical results of the emissivity are presented for Gaussian and non-Gaussian statistics, for moderate wind speeds, for near-infrared wavelengths, for emission angles ranging from 0 degrees (nadir) to 90 degrees (horizon), and according to the wind direction. In addition, the emissivity is compared with both measurements and a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method.

  13. Aerosol optical depth under "clear" sky conditions derived from sea surface reflection of lidar signals.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Hu, Yongxiang; Huang, Jian Ping; Stamnes, Knut

    2016-12-26

    There are considerable demands for accurate atmospheric correction of satellite observations of the sea surface or subsurface signal. Surface and sub-surface reflection under "clear" atmospheric conditions can be used to study atmospheric correction for the simplest possible situation. Here "clear" sky means a cloud-free atmosphere with sufficiently small aerosol particles. The "clear" aerosol concept is defined according to the spectral dependence of the scattering cross section on particle size. A 5-year combined CALIPSO and AMSR-E data set was used to derive the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the lidar signal reflected from the sea surface. Compared with the traditional lidar-retrieved AOD, which relies on lidar backscattering measurements and an assumed lidar ratio, the AOD retrieved through the surface reflectance method depends on both scattering and absorption because it is based on two-way attenuation of the lidar signal transmitted to and then reflected from the surface. The results show that the clear sky AOD derived from the surface signal agrees with the clear sky AOD available in the CALIPSO level 2 database in the westerly wind belt located in the southern hemisphere, but yields significantly higher aerosol loadings in the tropics and in the northern hemisphere.

  14. Sea-surface temperature gradients across blue whale and sea turtle foraging trajectories off the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnoyer, Peter; Canny, David; Mate, Bruce R.; Morgan, Lance E.; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2006-02-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) fronts are integral to pelagic ecology in the North Pacific Ocean, so it is necessary to understand their character and distribution, and the way these features influence the behavior of endangered and highly migratory species. Here, telemetry data from sixteen satellite-tagged blue whales ( Balaenoptera musculus) and sea turtles ( Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, and Lepidochelys olivacea) are employed to characterize 'biologically relevant' SST fronts off Baja California Sur. High residence times are used to identify presumed foraging areas, and SST gradients are calculated across advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images of these regions. The resulting values are compared to classic definitions of SST fronts in the oceanographic literature. We find subtle changes in surface temperature (between 0.01 and 0.10 °C/km) across the foraging trajectories, near the lowest end of the oceanographic scale (between 0.03 and 0.3 °C/km), suggesting that edge-detection algorithms using gradient thresholds >0.10 °C/km may overlook pelagic habitats in tropical waters. We use this information to sensitize our edge-detection algorithm, and to identify persistent concentrations of subtle SST fronts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean between 2002 and 2004. The lower-gradient threshold increases the number of fronts detected, revealing more potential habitats in different places than we find with a higher-gradient threshold. This is the expected result, but it confirms that pelagic habitat can be overlooked, and that the temperature gradient parameter is an important one.

  15. Surface oceanographic fronts influencing deep-sea biological activity: Using fish stable isotopes as ecological tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.

    2017-06-01

    Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results

  16. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  17. Biogeographical distribution and diversity of bacterial communities in surface sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wang, Peng

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at an investigation of the features of bacterial communities in surface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS). In particular, biogeographical distribution patterns and the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria found in sediments collected from a coral reef platform, a continental slope, and a deep-sea basin were determined. Bacterial diversity was measured by an observation of 16S rRNA genes, and 18 phylogenetic groups were identified in the bacterial clone library. Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria, candidate division OP11, and Alphaproteobacteria made up the majority of the bacteria in the samples, with their mean bacterial clones being 16%, 15%, 12%, and 9%, respectively. By comparison, the bacterial communities found in the SCS surface sediments were significantly different from other previously observed deep-sea bacterial communities. This research also emphasizes the fact that geographical factors have an impact on the biogeographical distribution patterns of bacterial communities. For instance, canonical correspondence analyses illustrated that the percentage of sand weight and water depth are important factors affecting the bacterial community composition. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of adequately determining the relationship between geographical factors and the distribution of bacteria in the world's seas and oceans.

  18. Concentration of iodine-129 in surface seawater at subarctic and subtropical circulations in the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the migration of anthropogenic 129I in the environment, we measured 129I concentrations at both subarctic (above 40oN) and subtropical (below 40oN) circulations in the surface seawater of the Japan Sea. The averaged concentrations of stations 193, 194, 201, 206 and 210 above 200 m were (2.1 ± 0.3) × 1010 atoms/m3, (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1010 atoms/m3, (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1010 atoms/m3, (1.4 ± 0.3) × 1010 atoms/m3 and (1.7 ± 0.3) × 1010 atoms/m3, respectively. The averaged concentration at the subarctic circulation in the Japan Sea above 200 m (1.9 × 1010 atoms/m3) was higher than that in the subtropical circulation (1.5 × 1010 atoms/m3). This latitudinal distribution pattern of 129I is not consistent with those of bomb-derived radionuclides such as 14C, 90Sr and 137Cs. Taking into account latitudinal location and the total amount of releases from reprocessing plants, this discriminating latitudinal distribution of 129I in the Japan Sea would indicate that a significant amount of 129I originating from active reprocessing plants in Europe is supplied to the surface of the Japan Sea.

  19. Temporal and spatial variations of surface particulate organic carbon in the Bohai and Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, F.; Wang, X.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow-Bohai Sea is a semi-closed marginal sea in the east of China, affected much by human activities, especially the Bohai Sea. The present study evaluates spatial and seasonal variations of surface particulate organic carbon (POC) that was derived from MODIS month-average data for the period of July 2002-December 2016. Our analyses show that POC concentrations are significantly higher in the Bohai Sea (314.7-587.9 mg m-3) than in the Yellow Sea (181.3-492.2 mg m-3). In general, POC concentrations were higher in the nearshore waters than in the offshore. There are strong seasonal to interannual variations in POC. Mean POC was highest in spring in both Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea; the lowest POC was found in summer in the Yellow Sea, but in winter in the Bohai Sea. The elevated POC from summer to fall indicates that there was allochthonous source of POC. Overall, there was a decreasing trend in POC prior to year 2012, followed by a strong upward trend until the end of 2015. The interannual variability in POC was significantly correlated with NPGO, PDO and ENSO in the Yellow Sea, but only with NPGO in the Bohai Sea. Our analyses point out that both climate variability and human activity may impacts the carbon cycle in the Yellow-Bohai Sea.

  20. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.

    1996-02-01

    We present a data set of 738 planktonic foraminiferal species counts from sediment surface samples of the eastern North Atlantic and the South Atlantic between 87°N and 40°S, 35°E and 60°W including published Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) data. These species counts are linked to Levitus's [1982] modern water temperature data for the four caloric seasons, four depth ranges (0, 30, 50, and 75 m), and the combined means of those depth ranges. The relation between planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and sea surface temperature (SST) data is estimated using the newly developed SIMMAX technique, which is an acronym for a modern analog technique (MAT) with a similarity index, based on (1) the scalar product of the normalized faunal percentages and (2) a weighting procedure of the modern analog's SSTs according to the inverse geographical distances of the most similar samples. Compared to the classical CLIMAP transfer technique and conventional MAT techniques, SIMMAX provides a more confident reconstruction of paleo-SSTs (correlation coefficient is 0.994 for the caloric winter and 0.993 for caloric summer). The standard deviation of the residuals is 0.90°C for caloric winter and 0.96°C for caloric summer at 0-m water depth. The SST estimates reach optimum stability (standard deviation of the residuals is 0.88°C) at the average 0- to 75-m water depth. Our extensive database provides SST estimates over a range of -1.4 to 27.2°C for caloric winter and 0.4 to 28.6°C for caloric summer, allowing SST estimates which are especially valuable for the high-latitude Atlantic during glacial times. An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on adiskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG. (LOGIN toAGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUESTas the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APPEND. TypeLS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file toget it. Finally type EXIT to

  1. Trends in Sea Ice Cover, Sea Surface Temperature, and Chlorophyll Biomass Across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, K. E.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Wood, C.; Panday, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR) are among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and act as important carbon sinks, particularly during May and June when seasonal sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms occur throughout the region. Recent dramatic shifts in seasonal sea ice cover across the PAR should have profound consequences for this seasonal phytoplankton production as well as the intimately linked higher trophic levels. In order to investigate ecosystem responses to these observed recent shifts in sea ice cover, the development of a prototype Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is now underway in the PAR. The DBO is being developed as an internationally-coordinated change detection array that allows for consistent sampling and monitoring at five spatially explicit biologically productive locations across a latitudinal gradient: (1) DBO-SLP (south of St. Lawrence Island (SLI)), (2) DBO-NBS (north of SLI), (3) DBO-SCS (southern Chukchi Sea), (4) DBO-CCS (central Chukchi Sea), and (5) DBO-BCA (Barrow Canyon Arc). Standardized measurements at many of the DBO sites were made by multiple research cruises during the 2010 and 2011 pilot years, and will be expanded with the development of the DBO in coming years. In order to provide longer-term context for the changes occurring across the PAR, we utilize multi-sensor satellite data to investigate recent trends in sea ice cover, chlorophyll biomass, and sea surface temperatures for each of the five DBO sites, as well as a sixth long-term observational site in the Bering Strait. Satellite observations show that over the past three decades, trends in sea ice cover in the PAR have been heterogeneous, with significant declines in the Chukchi Sea, slight declines in the Bering Strait region, but increases in the northern Bering Sea south of SLI. Declines in the persistence of seasonal sea ice cover in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait region are due to both earlier sea

  2. Distribution of Surface pH and Total Alkalinity at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea in October 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J.; Kang, D.; Jin, Y.; Obzhirov, A.

    2008-12-01

    Surface pH, total alkalinity, temperature and salinity were measured at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea (along a track from Vladivostok to the northeastern slope of Sakhalin Island through Soya Strait: 42°N, 132°E - 55°N, 145°E) in October 2007. Continuous pH measurements were conducted using an underway potentiometric pH system modified from Tishchenko et al. (2002) and discrete total alkalinity measurements were made by direct titration with hydrochloric acid. Warm saline surface waters were observed in the East Sea (from Vladivostok to Soya Strait), and relatively cold less-saline waters were observed in the Sea of Okhotsk (at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island). In the East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk, surface pH ranged from 8.063 to 8.158 and 8.047 to 8.226, and total alkalinity normalized to salinity 35 ranged from 2323 to 2344 μmol kg-1 and 2367 to 2422 μmol kg-1, respectively. Due to the freshwater input from rivers and geochemical activity in the water column and sediment, the Sea of Okhotsk generally showed much wider ranges of water properties and richer in carbonate parameters than those of the East Sea. Particularly, water properties changed dramatically at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island; surface salinity decreased southward by about 0.5-1 psu and pH and normalized total alkalinity increased southward by about 0.05-0.1 and 20-50 μmol kg-1, respectively. Thus, pCO2 concentration calculated from pH and total alkalinity, ranged from 350-375 μatm in the north to 280-300 μatm in the south of the Okhotsk Sea. The high pH and normalized total alkalinity, and low pCO2 and salinity in the south might be the result of surface water mixing with fresh water discharge from rivers and/or the results of massive primary production along the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island. In the most study area, surface pCO2 ranged from 280 to 370 μatm and was undersaturated relative to atmosphere. Therefore, the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea acted as

  3. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Wright, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Hines, D. E.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; hide

    2001-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The SRA sweeps a radar beam of P (two-way) half-power width across the aircraft ground track over a swath equal to 0.8 of the aircraft height, simultaneously measuring the backscattered power at its 36 GHz (8.3 mm) operating frequency and the range to the sea surface at 64 cross-track positions. In realtime, the slant ranges are multiplied by the cosine of the off-nadir incidence angles (including the effect of aircraft roll attitude) to determine the vertical distances from the aircraft to the sea surface. These distances are subtracted from the aircraft height to produce a sea-surface elevation map, which is displayed on a monitor in the aircraft to enable real-time assessments of data quality and wave properties. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 degree roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 degrees through nadir to +29 degrees. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 degrees in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 meters to 65 meters). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. Data were collected over a wide range of wind and sea

  4. Estimation of sea surface temperature from remote measurements in the 11-13 micron window region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Conrath, B. J.; Kunde, V. G.

    1972-01-01

    The Nimbus-4 IRIS data was examined in the spectral region 775 to 1250/cm (8-13 microns) for useful information to determine the sea surface temperature. The high spectral resolution data of IRIS was degraded to low resolution by averaging to simulate a multi-channel radiometer in the window region. These simulated data show that within the region 775-975/cm (12.9-10.25 microns) the brightness temperatures are linearly related to the absorption parameters. Such a linear relationship is observed over cloudy as well as clear regions and over a wide range of latitudes. From this linear relationship it is feasible to correct for the atmospheric attenuation and get the sea surface temperature, accurate to within 1 K, in a cloud free field of view. The information about the cloud cover is taken from the TV pictures and BUV albedo measurements on board the Nimbus-4 satellite.

  5. Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis (Prymnesiophyceae) blooms on the surface of the Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifel, K.M.; McCoy, M.P.; Tiffany, M.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Trees, C.C.; Barlow, S.B.; Faulkner, D.J.; Hurlbert, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dense populations of the coccolithophore Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis were found in surface films at several locations around the Salton Sea in Februarya??August, 1999. An unidentified coccolithophorid was also found in low densities in earlier studies of the lake (1955a??1956). To our knowledge, this is the first record of this widespread marine species in any lake. Samples taken from surface films typically contained high densities of one or two other phytoplankton species as well as high densities of the coccolithophore. Presence or absence of specific algal pigments was used to validate direct cell counts. In a preliminary screen using a brine shrimp lethality assay, samples showed moderate activity. Extracts were then submitted to a mouse bioassay, and no toxic activity was observed. These results indicate that blooms of P. pseudoroscoffensis are probably not toxic to vertebrates and do not contribute to the various mortality events of birds and fish that occur in the Salton Sea.

  6. Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis (Prymnesiophyceae) blooms on the surface of the Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifel, K.M.; McCoy, M.P.; Tiffany, M.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Trees, C.C.; Barlow, S.B.; Faulkner, D.J.; Hurlbert, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dense populations of the coccolithophore Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis were found in surface films at several locations around the Salton Sea in February-August, 1999. An unidentified coccolithophorid was also found in low densities in earlier studies of the lake (1955-1956). To our knowledge, this is the first record of this widespread marine species in any lake. Samples taken from surface films typically contained high densities of one or two other phytoplankton species as well as high densities of the coccolithophore. Presence or absence of specific algal pigments was used to validate direct cell counts. In a preliminary screen using a brine shrimp lethality assay, samples showed moderate activity. Extracts were then submitted to a mouse bioassay, and no toxic activity was observed. These results indicate that blooms of P. pseudoroscoffensis are probably not toxic to vertebrates and do not contribute to the various mortality events of birds and fish that occur in the Salton Sea.

  7. Are we near the predictability limit of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Matthew; Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.

    2017-08-01

    The predictability of seasonal anomalies worldwide rests largely on the predictability of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Tropical forecast skill is also a key metric of climate models. We find, however, that despite extensive model development, the tropical SST forecast skill of the operational North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) of eight coupled atmosphere-ocean models remains close both regionally and temporally to that of a vastly simpler linear inverse model (LIM) derived from observed covariances of SST, sea surface height, and wind fields. The LIM clearly captures the essence of the predictable SST dynamics. The NMME and LIM skills also closely track and are only slightly lower than the potential skill estimated using the LIM's forecast signal-to-noise ratios. This suggests that the scope for further skill improvement is small in most regions, except in the western equatorial Pacific where the NMME skill is currently much lower than the LIM skill.

  8. Comparison of SMOS and Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity and Analysis of Possible Causes for the Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, E. P.; Boutin, J.; Yin, X.; Le Vine, D. M.; Waldteufel, P.; Vergely, J. -L.

    2014-01-01

    Two ongoing space missions share the scientific objective of mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), yet their observations show significant discrepancies. ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Aquarius use L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometers to measure emission from the sea surface and retrieve SSS. Significant differences in SSS retrieved by both sensors are observed, with SMOS SSS being generally lower than Aquarius SSS, except for very cold waters where SMOS SSS is the highest overall. Figure 1 is an example of the difference between the SSS retrieved by SMOS and Aquarius averaged over one month and 1 degree in longitude and latitude. Differences are mostly between -1 psu and +1 psu (psu, practical salinity unit), with a significant regional and latitudinal dependence. We investigate the impact of the vicarious calibration and some components of the retrieval algorithm used by both mission on these differences.

  9. Simulation of sea surface wave influence on small target detection with airborne laser depth sounding.

    PubMed

    Tulldahl, H Michael; Steinvall, K Ove

    2004-04-20

    A theoretical model for simulation of airborne depth-sounding lidar is presented with the purpose of analyzing the influence from water surface waves on the ability to detect 1-m3 targets placed on the sea bottom. Although water clarity is the main limitation, sea surface waves can significantly affect the detectability. The detection probability for a target at a 9-m depth can be above 90% at 1-m/s wind and below 80% at 6-m/s wind for the same water clarity. The simulation model contains both numerical and analytical components. Simulated data are compared with measured data and give realistic results for bottom depths between 3 and 10 m.

  10. Eddy-induced Sea Surface Salinity changes in the tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, T. C.; Chaigneau, A.; Soviadan, D.; Boutin, J.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) signature of westward propagating mesoscale eddies in the tropical Pacific by collocating 5 years (2010-2015) of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) SSS and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies. The main characteristics of mesoscale eddies are first identified in SLA maps. Composite analyses in the Central and Eastern ITCZ regions then reveal regionally dependent impacts with opposite SSS anomalies for the cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. In the Central region (where we have the largest meridional SSS gradient), we found dipole-like SSS changes with maximum anomalies on the leading edge of the eddy. In the Eastern region (where we have the largest near-surface vertical salinity gradient) we found monopole-like SSS changes with maximum anomalies in the eddy centre. These dipole/monopole patterns and the rotational sense of eddies suggest the dominant role of horizontal and vertical advection in the Central and Eastern ITCZ regions, respectively.

  11. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  12. The Development of a Sea Surface Height Climate Data Record from Multi-mission Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, B. D.; Ray, R. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Desai, S. D.; Brown, S.; Mitchum, G. T.; Nerem, R.; Yang, X.; Holmes, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The determination of the rate of change of mean sea level (MSL) has undeniable societal significance. The science value of satellite altimeter observations has grown dramatically over time as improved models and technologies have increased the value of data acquired on both past and present missions enabling credible MSL estimates. With the prospect of an observational time series extending into several decades from TOPEX/Poseidon through Jason-1 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and further in time with a future set of operational altimeters, researchers are pushing the bounds of current technology and modeling capability in order to monitor global and regional sea level rates at an accuracy of a few tenths of a mm/yr. GRACE data analysis suggests that the ice melt from Alaska alone contributes 0.3 mm/y to global sea level rise. The measurement of MSL change from satellite altimetry requires an extreme stability of the altimeter measurement system since the signal being measured is at the level of a few mm/yr. This means that the orbit and reference frame within which the altimeter measurements are situated, and the associated altimeter corrections, must be stable and accurate enough to permit a robust MSL estimate. Foremost, orbit quality and consistency are critical not only to satellite altimeter measurement accuracy across one mission, but also for the seamless transition between missions (Beckley, et. al, 2005). The analysis of altimeter data for TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and OSTM requires that the orbits for all three missions be in a consistent reference frame, and calculated with the best possible standards to minimize error and maximize the data return from the time series, particularly with respect to the demanding application of measuring sea level trends. In this presentation we describe the development and utility of the MEaSURE's TPJAOS V1.0 sea surface height Climate Data Record (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/MERGED_TP_J1_OSTM

  13. Different Planctomycetes diversity patterns in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and in sediment.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qinglong; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2008-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene approach was applied to investigate the diversity of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the Western Pacific Ocean. The results revealed that the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade dominated the Planctomycetes community at all surface seawater sites while the minority genera Gemmata and Planctomyces were only found at sites H5 and H2 respectively. Although the clone frequency of the PRB clade seemed stable (between 83.3% and 94.1%) for all surface seawater sites, the retrieved Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade presented unexpected diversity. Interestingly, low latitude seawater appeared to have higher diversity than mid-latitudes. integral-LIBSHUFF software analysis revealed significantly different diversity patterns between in latitudinal surface seawater and in the sediment of South China Sea station M2896. Our data suggested that different hydrological and geographic features contributed to the shift of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and the first comparison of diversity pattern between surface seawater and sediments and has broadened our understanding of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments.

  14. Assimilation of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Fields: Validating Ocean Analyses and Identifying Errors in Surface Buoyancy Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Nadiga, S.; Bayler, E. J.; Behringer, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently available satellite sea-surface salinity (SSS) fields provide an important new global data stream for assimilation into ocean forecast systems. In this study, we present results from assimilating satellite SSS fields from NASA's Aquarius mission into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) operational Modular Ocean Model version 4 (MOM4), the oceanic component of NOAA's operational seasonal-interannual Climate Forecast System (CFS). Experiments on the sensitivity of the ocean's overall state to different relaxation time periods were run to evaluate the importance of assimilating high-frequency (daily to mesoscale) and low-frequency (seasonal) SSS variability. Aquarius SSS data (Aquarius Data Processing System (ADPS) version 3.0), mapped daily fields at 1-degree spatial resolution, were used. Four model simulations were started from the same initial ocean condition and forced with NOAA's daily Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) fluxes, using a relaxation technique to assimilate daily satellite sea surface temperature (SST) fields and selected SSS fields, where, except as noted, a 30-day relaxation period is used. The simulations are: (1) WOAMC, the reference case and similar to the operational setup, assimilating monthly climatological SSS from the 2009 NOAA World Ocean Atlas; (2) AQ_D, assimilating daily Aquarius SSS; (3) AQ_M, assimilating monthly Aquarius SSS; and (4) AQ_D10, assimilating daily Aquarius SSS, but using a 10-day relaxation period. The analysis focuses on the tropical Pacific Ocean, where the salinity dynamics are intense and dominated by El Niño interannual variability in the cold tongue region and by high-frequency precipitation events in the western Pacific warm pool region. To assess the robustness of results and conclusions, we also examine the results for the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Preliminary validation studies are conducted using observations, such as satellite sea-surface height (SSH

  15. Linkages Between Multiscale Global Sea Surface Temperature Change and Precipitation Variabilities in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Weng, Heng-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A growing number of evidence indicates that there are coherent patterns of variability in sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly not only at interannual timescales, but also at decadal-to-inter-decadal timescale and beyond. The multi-scale variabilities of SST anomaly have shown great impacts on climate. In this work, we analyze multiple timescales contained in the globally averaged SST anomaly with and their possible relationship with the summer and winter rainfall in the United States over the past four decades.

  16. Surface Circulation in the Iroise Sea (W. Brittany) from High Resolution HF Radar Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2005. Sub-mesoscale coast - al eddies observed by high frequency radar: a newmechanism for delivering nutri- ents to kelp forests in the Southern...lseet.univ-tln.fr (Y. Barbin), rights reserved.western Brittany coast to monitor surface currents up to 140 km off- shore. The Iroise Sea circulation...and often violent west- erly and southwesterly winds. Low pressure atmospheric systems (cyclones), generated in the Northwestern Atlantic , regularly

  17. Plasticity of Noddy Parents and Offspring to Sea-Surface Temperature Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Devney, Carol A.; Caley, M. Julian; Congdon, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and/or developmental plasticity is crucial for resisting the impacts of environmental stressors. We investigated the plasticity of adult foraging behavior and chick development in an offshore foraging seabird, the black noddy (Anous minutus), during two breeding seasons. The first season had anomalously high sea-surface temperatures and ‘low’ prey availability, while the second was a season of below average sea-surface temperatures and ‘normal’ food availability. During the second season, supplementary feeding of chicks was used to manipulate offspring nutritional status in order to mimic conditions of high prey availability. When sea-surface temperatures were hotter than average, provisioning rates were significantly and negatively impacted at the day-to-day scale. Adults fed chicks during this low-food season smaller meals but at the same rate as chicks in the unfed treatment the following season. Supplementary feeding of chicks during the second season also resulted in delivery of smaller meals by adults, but did not influence feeding rate. Chick begging and parental responses to cessation of food supplementation suggested smaller meals fed to artificially supplemented chicks resulted from a decrease in chick demands associated with satiation, rather than adult behavioral responses to chick condition. During periods of low prey abundance, chicks maintained structural growth while sacrificing body condition and were unable to take advantage of periods of high prey abundance by increasing growth rates. These results suggest that this species expresses limited plasticity in provisioning behavior and offspring development. Consequently, responses to future changes in sea-surface temperature and other environmental variation may be limited. PMID:20686693

  18. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the ocean wave backscattering the radar signal is one half the radar’s wavelength (Neal 1992). This process is called Bragg scattering (Barrick 1977...transmit frequency of radar is important because it helps us to figure out the length of the ocean waves and backscattered radar wavelength (Harlan et al...Representation of some remote sensing methods exploiting signals backscattered from the sea surface (from Shearman 1981). 7 HF radars have many advantages

  19. Near-Surface Dispersion and Circulation in the Marmara Sea (MARMARA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    NURC (P.I.s: Drs. S. Besiktepe and J. Chiggiato ) • The NRL Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits (EPOS) project to improve our understanding on the...View/AEGEAN_SEA ) PUBLICATIONS Chiggiato , J., S. Besiktepe, E. Jarosz, J. Book, R. Gerin, P.-M. Poulain and L. Torrisi (2010) Numerical modelling of...EGU2010-2697. Chiggiato , J., S. Besiktepe, E. Jarosz, J. Book, R. Gerin, P.-M. Poulain and L. Torrisi (2010) Numerical modelling of the surface

  20. A radiative transfer model for sea surface temperature retrieval for the along-track scanning radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZáVody, A. M.; Mutlow, C. T.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1995-01-01

    The measurements made by the along-track scanning radiometer are now converted routinely into sea surface temperature (SST). The details of the atmospheric model which had been used for deriving the SST algorithms are given, together with tables of the coefficients in the algorithms for the different SST products. The accuracy of the retrieval under normal conditions and the effect of errors in the model on the retrieved SST are briefly discussed.

  1. Project GEOS-C. [designed to measure the topography of ocean surface and the sea state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oceanographic-geodetic satellite, designated Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite-C (GEOS-C), an earth-orbiting spacecraft designed to measure precisely the topography of the ocean surface and the sea state (wave height, wave period, wave propagation direction) is described. Launch operations, spacecraft description, and mission objectives are included along with a brief flight history of the NASA satellite geodesy program. Principal investigations to be performed by the GEOS-C mission are discussed.

  2. Research on the Additional Secondary Phase Factor for Automatic Identification System Signals Transmitted over a Rough Sea Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Sun, Xiaowen

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the Additional Secondary Phase Factor (ASF) characteristics of Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals spreading over a rough sea surface. According to the change of the ASFs for AIS signals in different signal form, the influences of the different propagation conditions on the ASFs are analyzed. The expression, numerical calculation, and simulation analysis of the ASFs of AIS signal are performed in the rough sea surface. The results contribute to the high-accuracy propagation delay measurement of AIS signals spreading over the rough sea surface as, well as providing a reference for reliable communication link design in marine engineering for Very High Frequency (VHF) signals. PMID:29462995

  3. Effects of ocean acidification, warming and melting of sea ice on aragonite saturation of the Canada Basin surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; McLaughlin, F. A.; Carmack, E. C.

    2011-02-01

    In 2008, surface waters in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean were found to be undersaturated with respect to aragonite. This is associated with recent extensive melting of sea ice in this region, as well as elevated sea surface temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have estimated the relative contribution of each of these controlling factors to the calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω) from observations of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and oxygen isotope ratio. Results indicate that the increase in atmospheric CO2 has lowered surface Ω by ˜0.3 in the Canada Basin since the preindustrial period. Recent melting of sea ice has further lowered mean Ω by 0.4, and of this, half was due to dilution of surface water and half was due to the change in air-sea disequilibrium state. Surface water warming has generally counteracted the mean decrease in Ω by 0.1.

  4. Assessing Confidence in Pliocene Sea Surface Temperatures to Evaluate Predictive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling. M.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.33.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history.This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  5. Sea surface temperature anomalies driven by oceanic local forcing in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Isabel Porto; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi

    2014-03-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly events in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) were investigated through wavelet analysis and numerical modeling. Wavelet analysis was applied to recognize the main spectral signals of SST anomaly events in the BMC and in the Drake Passage as a first attempt to link middle and high latitudes. The numerical modeling approach was used to clarify the local oceanic dynamics that drive these anomalies. Wavelet analysis pointed to the 8-12-year band as the most energetic band representing remote forcing between high to middle latitudes. Other frequencies observed in the BMC wavelet analysis indicate that part of its variability could also be forced by low-latitude events, such as El Niño. Numerical experiments carried out for the years of 1964 and 1992 (cold and warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases) revealed two distinct behaviors that produced negative and positive sea surface temperature anomalies on the BMC region. The first behavior is caused by northward cold flow, Río de la Plata runoff, and upwelling processes. The second behavior is driven by a southward excursion of the Brazil Current (BC) front, alterations in Río de la Plata discharge rates, and most likely by air-sea interactions. Both episodes are characterized by uncoupled behavior between the surface and deeper layers.

  6. Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina R.

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.3–3.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history. This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  7. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  8. Deep-Sea Trench Microbiology Down to 10.9 Kilometers Below the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea trenches, extending to more than 10.9 km below the sea surface, are among the most remote and infrequently sampled habitats. As a result a global perspective of microbial diversity and adaptation is lacking in these extreme settings. I will present the results of studies of deep-sea trench microbes collected in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), Tonga Trench, New Britain Trench and Mariana Trench. The samples collected include sediment, seawater and animals in baited traps. The analyses to be described include microbial community activity and viability measurements as a function of hydrostatic pressure, microbial culturing at high pressure under various physiological conditions, phylogenetics and metagenome and single-cell genome characterizations. Most of the results to date stem from samples recovered from the PRT. The deep-sea PRT Trench microbes have more in common at the species level with other deep-sea microbial communities previously characterized in the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea than with the microbial populations above them in shallow waters. They also harbor larger genomes with more genes assigned to signal transduction, transcription, replication, recombination and repair and inorganic ion transport. The overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome include di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that correspond to the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. But, perhaps the most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes is heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the high numbers of metal efflux systems present. Single-cell genomics approaches have proven particularly useful for placing PRT metagenomic data into context.

  9. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  10. Rectification of Atmospheric Intraseasonal Oscillations on Seasonal to Interannual Sea Surface Temperature in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    An ocean general circulation model (the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM) is used to examine the rectification of atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) on lower-frequency seasonal to interannual sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean (IO). Existing studies have shown that ISOs rectify on low-frequency equatorial surface currents, suggesting that they may also have important impacts on low-frequency SST variability. To evaluate these impacts, a hierarchy of experiments is run with HYCOM that isolates the ocean response to atmospheric forcing by 10-30 day (submonthly), 30-90 day (dominated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and 10-90 day (all ISO) events. Other experiments isolate the ocean response to a range of forcing processes including shortwave radiation, precipitation, and winds. Results indicate that ISOs have a non-negligible effect on the seasonal and annual cycles of SST in the Arabian Sea. The maximum seasonal SST variability in the Arabian Sea is 1.6°C, while the ISO-forced seasonal SST variability has a maximum of 0.4°C. Because SSTs in the Arabian Sea are already warm (>28°C), a change of 0.4°C can affect convection there. ISOs also have non-negligible effects on the seasonal variability of SST in the south- and west- equatorial IO. The ISO contribution to the seasonal cycle of mixed layer thickness (hmix) in the eastern equatorial IO has a maximum of 9m, while the total hmix seasonal cycle has a maximum of 14m. ISOs affect the hmix seasonal cycle by up to 10m in the Arabian Sea, where the total seasonal cycle has a maximum of 75m. Further work will seek to explain the causes of this observed rectification of ISOs on seasonal SST and mixed layer variability, and to extend our results to include interannual timescales.

  11. The Impact of Sea Surface Temperature on Organized Convective Storms Crossing over Coastlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, K.

    2016-02-01

    As organized coastal convective storms develop over land and move over the coastal ocean, their storm-scale structures, intensity, and associated weather threats evolve. This study aims to quantify the impact of sea surface temperature on the fundamental mechanisms controlling the evolution of coastal quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs) as they move offshore. Results from this work will contribute to the improved predictability of these coastal, potentially severe warm season storms. The current work systematically studies the interaction between QLCSs and marine atmospheric boundary layers (MABLs) associated with the coastal ocean in an idealized numerical framework. The initial simulations are run in 2-dimensions, with a 250 m horizontal resolution and a vertical resolution ranging from 100 m in the lowest 3000 m stretched to 250 m at the top of the 20 km domain. To create a numerical environment representative of a coastal region, the western half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent a land surface, while the eastern half represents a water surface. A series of sensitivity experiments are conducted to explore the influence of sea surface temperature and the overlying MABL on coastal QLCSs. Sea surface temperature values are selected to represent values observed within the Mid-Atlantic Bight coastal waters, including 5oC (min SST - January), 14oC (early summer), and 23oC (late summer). The numerical MABL is allowed to develop through surface heat fluxes. Preliminary simulations indicate that SST influences storm structure, with the stratiform precipitation shield becoming progressively wider as SST increases. SST also impacts propagation speed; once the storms are over the water, the early and late summer QLCSs move more quickly than the min SST storm. The physical mechanisms contributing to these and other differences will be discussed.

  12. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  13. Remotely sensed sea surface temperature variability off California during a 'Santa Ana' clearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. J.; Svejkovsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    Multichannel atmospheric correction equations for the NOAA 6 proposed by Bernstein (1982) and by McClain (1981) are evaluated by using satellite and in situ data collected over and in the Southern California Bight. The temporal and spatial variation of sea surface temperature over small scales is estimated from the data, and the effect of this variation in matching satellite and in situ data sets is discussed. Changes in the temperature fields between images are examined for diurnal variation and for surface advection of horizontal temperature gradients.

  14. Atypical Red Blood Cells Are Prevalent in California Sea Lion Pups Born during Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Events.

    PubMed

    Flores-Morán, Adriana; Banuet-Martínez, Marina; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We examined whether atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more common in 2015, when the high SST event was more pronounced, and whether the stable isotope signature of pup fur, as an indicator of maternal feeding strategies, accounted for the number of atypical cells. Various atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more prevalent and more abundant than reference values. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in both years, and only pups born in 2014 showed evidence of active erythropoiesis. Microcytes and reticulocytes were more common in pups with higher isotopic δ 13 C and lower δ 15 N values, suggesting a probable relationship between maternal feeding strategies and the effect of climatic anomalies on red blood cell physiology of their pups. As developing pinnipeds require increased oxygen storage capacity for diving and foraging, the presence of atypical erythrocytes could be relevant to CSL pup fitness if the underlying cause is not reverted. This study is a first step to explore the effects that climatic alterations in the marine environment can have on the blood physiology of developing individuals.

  15. Impact of Assimilating Surface Velocity Observations on the Model Sea Surface Height Using the NCOM-4DVAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-26

    statistical analysis is done by not only examining the SSH forecast error across the entire do- main, but also by concentrating on the areamost densely covered...over (b) entire GoM domain and (d) GLAD region only. Statistics shown for FR (thin black), SSH1 (thick black), and VEL (gray) experiment 96-h SSH...coefficient. To statistically FIG. 9. Sea surface height (m) for AVISO (a) 1 Aug, (b) 20 Aug, (c) 10 Sep, and (d) 30 Sep; for SSH1 experiment (e) 1

  16. A multi-centennial time series of well-constrained ΔR values for the Irish Sea derived using absolutely-dated shell samples from the mollusc Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. G.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C. A.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Determinations of the local correction (ΔR) to the globally averaged marine radiocarbon reservoir age are often isolated in space and time, derived from heterogeneous sources and constrained by significant uncertainties. Although time series of ΔR at single sites can be obtained from sediment cores, these are subject to multiple uncertainties related to sedimentation rates, bioturbation and interspecific variations in the source of radiocarbon in the analysed samples. Coral records provide better resolution, but these are available only for tropical locations. It is shown here that it is possible to use the shell of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica as a source of high resolution time series of absolutely-dated marine radiocarbon determinations for the shelf seas surrounding the North Atlantic ocean. Annual growth increments in the shell can be crossdated and chronologies can be constructed in a precise analogue with the use of tree-rings. Because the calendar dates of the samples are known, ΔR can be determined with high precision and accuracy and because all the samples are from the same species, the time series of ΔR values possesses a high degree of internal consistency. Presented here is a multi-centennial (AD 1593 - AD 1933) time series of 31 ΔR values for a site in the Irish Sea close to the Isle of Man. The mean value of ΔR (-62 14C yrs) does not change significantly during this period but increased variability is apparent before AD 1750.

  17. Sea Ice Surface Temperature Product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Riggs, George A.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    Global sea ice products are produced from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Daily sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST) products are available at 1- and 4-km resolution. Validation activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the MODIS IST product at the South Pole station in Antarctica and in the Arctic Ocean using near-surface air-temperature data from a meteorological station and drifting buoys. Results from the study areas show that under clear skies, the MODIS ISTs are very close to those of the near-surface air temperatures with a bias of -1.1 and -1.2 K, and an uncertainty of 1.6 and 1.7 K, respectively. It is shown that the uncertainties would be reduced if the actual temperature of the ice surface were reported instead of the near-surface air temperature. It is not possible to get an accurate IST from MODIS in the presence of even very thin clouds or fog, however using both the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and the MODIS on the Aqua satellite, it may be possible to develop a relationship between MODIS-derived IST and ice temperature derived from the AMSR-E. Since the AMSR-E measurements are generally unaffected by cloud cover, they may be used to complement the MODIS IST measurements.

  18. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface I: Wave-current coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; William, Perrie; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He

    2016-06-01

    To study the electromagnetic backscattering from a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface, a fractal sea surface wave-current model is derived, based on the mechanism of wave-current interactions. The numerical results show the effect of the ocean current on the wave. Wave amplitude decreases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height increase, spectrum intensity decreases and shifts towards lower frequencies when the current occurs parallel to the direction of the ocean wave. By comparison, wave amplitude increases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height decrease, spectrum intensity increases and shifts towards higher frequencies if the current is in the opposite direction to the direction of ocean wave. The wave-current interaction effect of the ocean current is much stronger than that of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction. The kurtosis of the nonlinear fractal ocean surface is larger than that of linear fractal ocean surface. The effect of the current on skewness of the probability distribution function is negligible. Therefore, the ocean wave spectrum is notably changed by the surface current and the change should be detectable in the electromagnetic backscattering signal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service.

  19. Large-Scale Distribution and Activity of Prokaryotes in Deep-Sea Surface Sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the Adjacent Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d’Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  20. Satellite observations of rainfall effect on sea surface salinity in the waters adjacent to Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chung-Ru; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2017-10-01

    Changes of oceanic salinity are highly related to the variations of evaporation and precipitation. To understand the influence of rainfall on the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the waters adjacent to Taiwan, satellite remote sensing data from the year of 2012 to 2014 are employed in this study. The daily rain rate data obtained from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer. The SSS data was derived from the measurements of radiometer instruments onboard the Aquarius satellite. The results show the average values of SSS in east of Taiwan, east of Luzon and South China Sea are 33.83 psu, 34.05 psu, and 32.84 psu, respectively, in the condition of daily rain rate higher than 1 mm/hr. In contrast to the rainfall condition, the average values of SSS are 34.07 psu, 34.26 psu, and 33.09 psu in the three areas, respectively at no rain condition (rain rate less than 1 mm/hr). During the cases of heavy rainfall caused by spiral rain bands of typhoon, the SSS is diluted with an average value of -0.78 psu when the average rain rate is higher than 4 mm/hr. However, the SSS was increased after temporarily decreased during the typhoon cases. A possible reason to explain this phenomenon is that the heavy rainfall caused by the spiral rain bands of typhoon may dilute the sea surface water, but the strong winds can uplift the higher salinity of subsurface water to the sea surface.

  1. Challenges to estimate surface- and groundwater flow in arid regions: the Dead Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Mallast, Ulf; Gräbe, Agnes; Guttman, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Storz-Peretz, Yael; Greenman, Anat; Salameh, Elias; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Vachtman, Dina; Zvi, Arie Ben; Ionescu, Danny; Brenner, Asher; Merz, Ralf; Geyer, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The overall aim of the this study, which was conducted within the framework of the multilateral IWRM project SUMAR, was to expand the scientific basement to quantify surface- and groundwater fluxes towards the hypersaline Dead Sea. The flux significance for the arid vicinity around the Dead Sea is decisive not only for a sustainable management in terms of water availability for future generations but also for the resilience of the unique ecosystems along its coast. Coping with different challenges interdisciplinary methods like (i) hydrogeochemical fingerprinting, (ii) satellite and airborne-based thermal remote sensing, (iii) direct measurement with gauging station in ephemeral wadis and a first multilateral gauging station at the river Jordan, (iv) hydro-bio-geochemical approach at submarine and shore springs along the Dead Sea and (v) hydro(geo)logical modelling contributed to the overall aim. As primary results, we deduce that the following: (i) Within the drainage basins of the Dead Sea, the total mean annual precipitation amounts to 300 mm a(−1) west and to 179 mm a(−1) east of the lake, respectively. (ii) The total mean annual runoff volumes from side wadis (except the Jordan River) entering the Dead Sea is approximately 58–66 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1) (western wadis: 7–15 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1); eastern wadis: 51 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1)). (iii) The modelled groundwater discharge from the upper Cretaceous aquifers in both flanks of the Dead Sea towards the lake amounts to 177 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1). (iv) An unexpected abundance of life in submarine springs exists, which in turn explains microbial moderated geo-bio-chemical processes in the Dead Sea sediments, affecting the highly variable chemical composition of on- and offshore spring waters.The results of this work show a promising enhancement of describing and modelling the Dead Sea basin as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do larvae from deep-sea hydrothermal vents disperse in surface waters?

    PubMed

    Yahagi, Takuya; Kayama Watanabe, Hiromi; Kojima, Shigeaki; Kano, Yasunori

    2017-06-01

    Larval dispersal significantly contributes to the geographic distribution, population dynamics, and evolutionary processes of animals endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Little is known as to the extent that their larvae migrate vertically to shallower waters and experience stronger currents and richer food supplies. Here, we first provide evidence from early life-history traits and population genetics for the surface dispersal of a vent species. Planktotrophic larvae of a red blood limpet, Shinkailepas myojinensis (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha: Phenacolepadidae), were cultured to observe their swimming behavior and to evaluate the effects of temperature on survival and growth. In addition, the population structure was analyzed based on 1.2-kbp mitochondrial DNA sequences from 77 specimens that cover the geographic and bathymetric distributions of the species (northwest Pacific, 442-1,227 m in depth). Hatched larvae constantly swam upward at 16.6-44.2 mm/min depending on temperature. Vertical migration from hydrothermal vents to the surface, calculated to take ~4-43 d, is attainable given their lengthy survival time without feeding. Fed larvae best survived and grew at 25°C (followed by 20°C), which approximates the sea surface temperature in the geographic range of the species. Little or no growth was observed at the temperature of the vent habitat where adult limpets occur (≤15°C). Population genetic analyses showed no differentiation among localities that are <1,350 km apart. The larvae of S. myojinensis most likely migrate to the surface water, where high phytoplankton biomass and strong currents enable their growth and long distance dispersal over many months. Sea surface temperature may represent a critical factor in determining the geographic distribution of many vent endemic species with a planktotrophic early development, and in turn the faunal composition of individual vent sites and regions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Sea Surface Salinity Variability from Simulations and Observations: Preparing for Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, S. Daniel; LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Oceanic fresh water transport has been shown to play an important role in the global hydrological cycle. Sea surface salinity (SSS) is representative of the surface fresh water fluxes and the upcoming Aquarius mission scheduled to be launched in December 2010 will provide excellent spatial and temporal SSS coverage to better estimate the net exchange. In most ocean general circulation models, SSS is relaxed to climatology to prevent model drift. While SST remains a well observed variable, relaxing to SST reduces the range of SSS variability in the simulations (Fig.1). The main objective of the present study is to simulate surface tracers using a primitive equation ocean model for multiple forcing data sets to identify and establish a baseline SSS variability. The simulated variability scales are compared to those from near-surface argo salinity measurements.

  4. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross

    2010-05-01

    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.

  5. Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. J.; Rayner, N. A.; Smith, R. O.; Parker, D. E.; Saunby, M.

    2011-07-01

    Changes in instrumentation and data availability have caused time-varying biases in estimates of global and regional average sea surface temperature. The size of the biases arising from these changes are estimated and their uncertainties evaluated. The estimated biases and their associated uncertainties are largest during the period immediately following the Second World War, reflecting the rapid and incompletely documented changes in shipping and data availability at the time. Adjustments have been applied to reduce these effects in gridded data sets of sea surface temperature and the results are presented as a set of interchangeable realizations. Uncertainties of estimated trends in global and regional average sea surface temperature due to bias adjustments since the Second World War are found to be larger than uncertainties arising from the choice of analysis technique, indicating that this is an important source of uncertainty in analyses of historical sea surface temperatures. Despite this, trends over the twentieth century remain qualitatively consistent.

  6. Acidification at the Surface in the East Sea: A Coupled Climate-carbon Cycle Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Seol, Kyung-Hee; Boo, Kyung-On; Lee, Johan; Cho, Chunho; Byun, Young-Hwa; Seo, Seongbong

    2018-05-01

    This modeling study investigates the impacts of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on acidification in the East Sea. A historical simulation for the past three decades (1980 to 2010) was performed using the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (version 2), a coupled climate model with atmospheric, terrestrial and ocean cycles. As the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased, acidification progressed in the surface waters of the marginal sea. The acidification was similar in magnitude to observations and models of acidification in the global ocean. However, in the global ocean, the acidification appears to be due to increased in-situ oceanic CO2 uptake, whereas local processes had stronger effects in the East Sea. pH was lowered by surface warming and by the influx of water with higher dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the northwestern Pacific. Due to the enhanced advection of DIC, the partial pressure of CO2 increased faster than in the overlying air; consequently, the in-situ oceanic uptake of CO2 decreased.

  7. Retrieve sea surface salinity using principal component regression model based on SMOS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Li, Changjun; Li, Hongping; Lv, Kebo; Zhao, Qinghui

    2016-06-01

    The sea surface salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in monitoring ocean states. Observing SSS can promote the understanding of global water cycle. This paper provides a new approach for retrieving sea surface salinity from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite data. Based on the principal component regression (PCR) model, SSS can also be retrieved from the brightness temperature data of SMOS L2 measurements and Auxiliary data. 26 pair matchup data is used in model validation for the South China Sea (in the area of 4°-25°N, 105°-125°E). The RMSE value of PCR model retrieved SSS reaches 0.37 psu (practical salinity units) and the RMSE of SMOS SSS1 is 1.65 psu when compared with in-situ SSS. The corresponding Argo daily salinity data during April to June 2013 is also used in our validation with RMSE value 0.46 psu compared to 1.82 psu for daily averaged SMOS L2 products. This indicates that the PCR model is valid and may provide us with a good approach for retrieving SSS from SMOS satellite data.

  8. Sea surface microlayers: A unified physicochemical and biological perspective of the air-ocean interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunliffe, Michael; Engel, Anja; Frka, Sanja; Gašparović, Blaženka; Guitart, Carlos; Murrell, J. Colin; Salter, Matthew; Stolle, Christian; Upstill-Goddard, Robert; Wurl, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface and is the boundary layer interface between the ocean and the atmosphere. This important biogeochemical and ecological system is critical to a diverse range of Earth system processes, including the synthesis, transformation and cycling of organic material, and the air-sea exchange of gases, particles and aerosols. In this review we discuss the SML paradigm, taking into account physicochemical and biological characteristics that define SML structure and function. These include enrichments in biogenic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteinaceous material that contribute to organic carbon cycling, distinct microbial assemblages that participate in air-sea gas exchange, the generation of climate-active aerosols and the accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants with potentially serious implications for the health of the ocean. Characteristically large physical, chemical and biological gradients thus separate the SML from the underlying water and the available evidence implies that the SML retains its integrity over wide ranging environmental conditions. In support of this we present previously unpublished time series data on bacterioneuston composition and SML surfactant activity immediately following physical SML disruption; these imply timescales of the order of minutes for the reestablishment of the SML following disruption. A progressive approach to understanding the SML and hence its role in global biogeochemistry can only be achieved by considering as an integrated whole, all the key components of this complex environment.

  9. Characterization of Light Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Surface Water DOC, and Aerosols over the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. D.; Ariya, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Whole air, size-fractionated marine aerosols, and surface ocean water DOC were sampled together during June-July 2004 on the Nordic seas, in order to explore factors leading to the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the sea surface and their transfer to the atmosphere. High site-to-site variability in 19 non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations suggests highly variable, local sources for these compounds. Acetone, C5 and C6 hydrocarbons, and dimethylsulfide were identified in the seawater samples using solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. The aerosols were analysed by SEM-EDX and contained primarily inorganic material (sea salt, marine sulfates, and carbonates) and little organic matter. However, a culturable bacterium was isolated from the large (9.9 - 18 μ m) fraction at one site, and identified as Micrococcus luteus. We will discuss the implication of these results on potential exchange processes at the ocean-atmosphere interface and the impact of bioaerosols in transferring marine organic carbon to atmospheric organic carbon.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Trace Elements in the Sea Surface Microlayer: Results from a Two Year Study in the Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebling, A. M.; Westrich, J. R.; Lipp, E. K.; Mellett, T.; Buck, K. N.; Landing, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    Natural and anthropogenic aerosols are a significant source of trace elements to oligotrophic ocean surface waters, where they provide episodic pulses of limiting micronutrients for the microbial community. Opportunistic bacteria have been shown to experience rapid growth during deposition events. However, little is known about the fate of trace elements at the air-sea interface, i.e. the sea surface microlayer. It has been hypothesized that dust particles would be retained in the sea surface microlayer long enough to undergo chemical and physical changes that would affect the bioavailability of trace elements. In this study, aerosols, sea surface microlayer, and underlying water column samples were collected in the Florida Keys in July 2014 and May 2015 at various locations and analyzed for a suite of dissolved and particulate trace elements. Sea surface microlayer samples ( 50 μm) were collected using a cylinder of ultra-pure quartz glass; a novel adaptation of the glass plate technique. Sampling sites ranged from a more pristine environment approximately ten kilometers offshore to a more anthropogenic environment within a shallow bay a few hundred meters offshore. While it was clear from the results that dust deposition events played a large role in the chemical composition of the sea surface microlayer (elevated concentrations in dissolved and particulate trace elements associated with dust deposition), the location where the samples were collected also had a large impact on the sea surface microlayer as well as the underlying water column. The results were compared with other parameters analyzed such as Vibrio cultures as well as iron speciation, providing an important step towards our goal of understanding of the fate of trace elements in the sea surface microlayer as well as the specific effects of aeolian dust deposition on heterotrophic microbes in the upper ocean.

  13. Use of Skylab EREP data in a sea-surface temperature experiment. [Monroe Reservoir and Key West, Fla.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anding, D. C. (Principal Investigator); Walker, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A sea surface temperature experiment was studied, demonstrating the feasibility of a procedure for the remote measurement of sea surface temperature which inherently corrects for the effect of the intervening atmosphere without recourse to climatological data. The procedure was applied to Skylab EREP S191 spectrometer data, and it is demonstrated that atmospheric effects on the observed brightness temperature can be reduced to less than 1.0 K.

  14. Variability of sea surface height and circulation in the North Atlantic: Forcing mechanisms and linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeliang; Lu, Youyu; Dupont, Frederic; W. Loder, John; Hannah, Charles; G. Wright, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Simulations with a coarse-resolution global ocean model during 1958-2004 are analyzed to understand the inter-annual and decadal variability of the North Atlantic. Analyses of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) suggest relationships among basin-scale variations of sea surface height (SSH) and depth-integrated circulation, and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) indices. The linkages between the atmospheric indices and ocean variables are shown to be related to the different roles played by surface momentum and heat fluxes in driving ocean variability. In the subpolar region, variations of the gyre strength, SSH in the central Labrador Sea and the NAO index are highly correlated. Surface heat flux is important in driving variations of SSH and circulation in the upper ocean and decadal variations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Surface momentum flux drives a significant barotropic component of flow and makes a noticeable contribution to the AMOC. In the subtropical region, momentum flux plays a dominant role in driving variations of the gyre circulation and AMOC; there is a strong correlation between gyre strength and SSH at Bermuda.

  15. A simple mathematical model to predict sea surface temperature over the northwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Roohollah; Abbasi, Mahmud Reza; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Dehghani, Majid

    2017-10-01

    A novel and simple mathematical model was developed in this study to enhance the capacity of a reduced-order model based on eigenvectors (RMEV) to predict sea surface temperature (SST) in the northwest portion of the Indian Ocean, including the Persian and Oman Gulfs and Arabian Sea. Developed using only the first two of 12,416 possible modes, the enhanced RMEV closely matched observed daily optimum interpolation SST (DOISST) values. Spatial distribution of the first mode indicated the greatest variations in DOISST occurred in the Persian Gulf. Also, the slightly increasing trend in the temporal component of the first mode observed in the study area over the last 34 years properly reflected the impact of climate change and rising DOISST. Given its simplicity and high level of accuracy, the enhanced RMEV can be applied to forecast DOISST in oceans, which the poor forecasting performance and large computational-time of other numerical models may not allow.

  16. Extensive survey of terrestrial organic carbon in surface sediments of the East Siberian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonk, Jorien; Gustafsson, Örjan; Alling, Vanja; Sánchez-García, Laura; van Dongen, Bart; Andersson, Per; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Eglinton, Tim

    2010-05-01

    The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is the largest and shallowest continental shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean, yet it is the least explored. The perenially frozen tundra and taiga of the circum-Arctic coastal area holds approximately half of the global belowground carbon pool. Significant amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) are exported with the Great Siberian Arctic rivers to the shelf seas. In addition, the carbon-rich, ice-bound Yedoma coasts in East Siberia release significant amounts of Pleistocene carbon through thermal degradation and coastal erosion. The fate of these large-scale releases of terrOC in the East Siberian Shelf Sea is still poorly understood. The urgency of this research is accentuated by the fact that the East-Siberian Arctic landmass is experiencing the strongest climate warming on Earth, with a great potential for various carbon-climate feedback links. During the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08), a 50-day research expedition onboard the Russian vessel Yakob Smirnitskiy in late summer 2008, we obtained surface sediments from over 60 ESS locations. The data obtained after bulk analyses of these sediments are combined with results obtained from previous ESS campaigns in 2003 and 2004 to facilitate a comprehensive investigation of the ESS surface sediment composition. Sedimentary OC contents were between 0.13 and 3.7% (median 1.02%, interquartile range 0.563) with the highest values near the Indigirka and Kolyma river mouths and in the Long Strait. Stable carbon isotope values were in the range of -27.4 to -21.2 per mill (median -25.3 per mill, interquartile range 2.04), with more depleted values close to the coast. A clear transition was observed east of 170° E with more enriched values, signalling a regime shift with stronger influence of the Pacific Ocean. The terrOC fraction in the surface sediments was estimated from the 13C data to be on average 70% for ESS as a whole, with maximal values of 90-100% (along most of the

  17. Slow and Steady: Ocean Circulation. The Influence of Sea Surface Height on Ocean Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2000-01-01

    The study of ocean circulation is vital to understanding how our climate works. The movement of the ocean is closely linked to the progression of atmospheric motion. Winds close to sea level add momentum to ocean surface currents. At the same time, heat that is stored and transported by the ocean warms the atmosphere above and alters air pressure distribution. Therefore, any attempt to model climate variation accurately must include reliable calculations of ocean circulation. Unlike movement of the atmosphere, movement of the ocean's waters takes place mostly near the surface. The major patterns of surface circulation form gigantic circular cells known as gyres. They are categorized according to their general location-equatorial, subtropical, subpolar, and polar-and may run across an entire ocean. The smaller-scale cell of ocean circulation is known' as an eddy. Eddies are much more common than gyres and much more difficult to track in computer simulations of ocean currents.

  18. The relationship among sea surface roughness variations, oceanographic analyses, and airborne remote sensing analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, G. F.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was studied to determine whether it could image large scale estuaries and oceanic features such as fronts and to explain the electromagnetic interaction between SAR and the individual surface front features. Fronts were observed to occur at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne measurements consisted of data collection by SAR onboard an F-4 aircraft and real aperture side looking radar (SLAR) in Mohawk aircraft. A total of 89 transects were flown. Surface roughness and color as well as temperature and salinity were evaluated. Cross-frontal surveys were made. Frontal shear and convergence flow were obtained. Surface active organic materials, it was indicated, are present at the air-sea interface. In all, 2000 analyses were conducted to characterize the spatial and temporal variabilities associated with water mass boundaries.

  19. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Baldwin in the preparation of their publication "Accuracy of in situ sea surface temperatures used to calibrate infrared satellite measurements". The remainder of this report is drawn from these publications and presentations.

  20. Interannual Variation of Surface Circulation in the Japan/East Sea due to External Forcings and Intrinsic Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Cho, Seong Hun; Jung, Hee Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Byun, Do-Seong; Kwon, Kyungman

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of surface ocean currents can be as large as seasonal variation in the Japan/East Sea (JES). To identify the major factors that cause such interannual variability of surface ocean circulation in the JES, surface circulation was simulated from 1998 to 2009 using a three-dimensional model. Contributions of atmospheric forcing (ATM), open boundary data (OBC), and intrinsic variability (ITV) of the surface flow in the JES on the interannual variability of surface ocean circulation were separately examined using numerical simulations. Variability in surface circulation was quantified in terms of variance in sea surface height, 100-m depth water temperature, and surface currents. ITV was found to be the dominant factor that induced interannual variabilities of surface circulation, the main path of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC), and surface kinetic energy on a time scale of 2-4 years. OBC and ATM were secondary factors contributing to the interannual variation of surface circulation. Interannual variation of ATM changed the separation latitude of EKWC and increased the variability of surface circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Interannual variation of OBC enhanced low-frequency changes in surface circulation and eddies in the Yamato Basin. It also modulated basin-wide uniform oscillations of sea level. This study suggests that precise estimation of initial conditions using data assimilation is essential for long-term prediction of surface circulation in the JES.

  1. Application of MIMO Techniques in sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, X.; Yue, X.; Liu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-12-01

    The sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system contains of the sky wave transmission stations at different sites and several surface wave radar stations. The subject comes from the national 863 High-tech Project of China. The hybrid sky-surface wave system and the HF surface wave system work simultaneously and the HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) can work in multi-static and surface-wave networking mode. Compared with the single mode radar system, this system has advantages of better detection performance at the far ranges in ocean dynamics parameters inversion. We have applied multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) techniques in this sea-state radar system. Based on the multiple channel and non-causal transmit beam-forming techniques, the MIMO radar architecture can reduce the size of the receiving antennas and simplify antenna installation. Besides, by efficiently utilizing the system's available degrees of freedom, it can provide a feasible approach for mitigating multipath effect and Doppler-spread clutter in Over-the-horizon Radar. In this radar, slow-time phase-coded MIMO method is used. The transmitting waveforms are phase-coded in slow-time so as to be orthogonal after Doppler processing at the receiver. So the MIMO method can be easily implemented without the need to modify the receiver hardware. After the radar system design, the MIMO experiments of this system have been completed by Wuhan University during 2015 and 2016. The experiment used Wuhan multi-channel ionospheric sounding system(WMISS) as sky-wave transmitting source and three dual-frequency HFSWR developed by the Oceanography Laboratory of Wuhan University. The transmitter system located at Chongyang with five element linear equi-spaced antenna array and Wuhan with one log-periodic antenna. The RF signals are generated by synchronized, but independent digital waveform generators - providing complete flexibility in element phase and amplitude control, and waveform type and parameters

  2. The Footprint of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation in Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Dai, Aiguo; Song, Fengfei; Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also show considerable decadal variations that can cause regional climate oscillations around the IO. However, the mechanisms of the IO decadal variability remain unclear. Here we perform numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate model in which the external forcings with or without the observed SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (TEP) are applied for 1871-2012. Both the observed timing and magnitude of the IO decadal variations are well reproduced in those experiments with the TEP SSTs prescribed to observations. Although the external forcings account for most of the warming trend, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is dominated by internal variability that is induced by the TEP SSTs, especially the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The IPO weakens (enhances) the warming of the external forcings by about 50% over the IO during IPO’s cold (warm) phase, which contributes about 10% to the recent global warming hiatus since 1999. The decadal variability in IO SSTs is modulated by the IPO-induced atmospheric adjustment through changing surface heat fluxes, sea surface height and thermocline depth.

  3. The Footprint of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation in Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Dai, Aiguo; Song, Fengfei; Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-02-17

    Superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also show considerable decadal variations that can cause regional climate oscillations around the IO. However, the mechanisms of the IO decadal variability remain unclear. Here we perform numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate model in which the external forcings with or without the observed SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (TEP) are applied for 1871-2012. Both the observed timing and magnitude of the IO decadal variations are well reproduced in those experiments with the TEP SSTs prescribed to observations. Although the external forcings account for most of the warming trend, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is dominated by internal variability that is induced by the TEP SSTs, especially the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The IPO weakens (enhances) the warming of the external forcings by about 50% over the IO during IPO's cold (warm) phase, which contributes about 10% to the recent global warming hiatus since 1999. The decadal variability in IO SSTs is modulated by the IPO-induced atmospheric adjustment through changing surface heat fluxes, sea surface height and thermocline depth.

  4. Large accumulation of micro-sized synthetic polymer particles in the sea surface microlayer.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-08-19

    Determining the exact abundance of microplastics on the sea surface can be susceptible to the sampling method used. The sea surface microlayer (SML) can accumulate light plastic particles, but this has not yet been sampled. The abundance of microplastics in the SML was evaluated off the southern coast of Korea. The SML sampling method was then compared to bulk surface water filtering, a hand net (50 μm mesh), and a Manta trawl net (330 μm mesh). The mean abundances were in the order of SML water > hand net > bulk water > Manta trawl net. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) identified that alkyds and poly(acrylate/styrene) accounted for 81 and 11%, respectively, of the total polymer content of the SML samples. These polymers originated from paints and the fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) matrix used on ships. Synthetic polymers from ship coatings should be considered to be a source of microplastics. Selecting a suitable sampling method is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution.

  5. Area Estimation of Deep-Sea Surfaces from Oblique Still Images

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Miguel; Afonso, Andreia; Calado, António; Madureira, Pedro; Campos, Aldino

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the area of seabed surfaces from pictures or videos is an important problem in seafloor surveys. This task is complex to achieve with moving platforms such as submersibles, towed or remotely operated vehicles (ROV), where the recording camera is typically not static and provides an oblique view of the seafloor. A new method for obtaining seabed surface area estimates is presented here, using the classical set up of two laser devices fixed to the ROV frame projecting two parallel lines over the seabed. By combining lengths measured directly from the image containing the laser lines, the area of seabed surfaces is estimated, as well as the camera’s distance to the seabed, pan and tilt angles. The only parameters required are the distance between the parallel laser lines and the camera’s horizontal and vertical angles of view. The method was validated with a controlled in situ experiment using a deep-sea ROV, yielding an area estimate error of 1.5%. Further applications and generalizations of the method are discussed, with emphasis on deep-sea applications. PMID:26177287

  6. Arctic Sea Ice Basal Melt Onset Variability and Associated Ocean Surface Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrick, R. A.; Hutchings, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The interannual and regional variability in Arctic sea ice melt has previously been characterized only in terms of surface melting. A focus on the variability in the onset of basal melt is additionally required to understand Arctic melt patterns. Monitoring basal melt provides a glimpse into the importance of ocean heating to sea ice melt. This warming is predominantly through seawater exposure due to lead opening and the associated solar warming at the ocean's surface. We present the temporal variability in basal melt onset observed by ice mass balance buoys throughout the Arctic Ocean since 2003, providing a different perspective than the satellite microwave data used to measure the onset of surface melt. We found that melt onset varies greatly, even for buoys deployed within 100km of each other. Therefore large volumes of data are necessary to accurately estimate the variability of basal melt onset. Once the variability of basal melt onset has been identified, we can investigate how this range has been changing as a response to atmospheric and oceanic warming, changes in ice morphology as well as the intensification of the ice albedo feedback.

  7. The Ohio State 1991 geopotential and sea surface topography harmonic coefficient models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Wang, Yan Ming; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1991-01-01

    The computation is described of a geopotential model to deg 360, a sea surface topography model to deg 10/15, and adjusted Geosat orbits for the first year of the exact repeat mission (ERM). This study started from the GEM-T2 potential coefficient model and it's error covariance matrix and Geosat orbits (for 22 ERMs) computed by Haines et al. using the GEM-T2 model. The first step followed the general procedures which use a radial orbit error theory originally developed by English. The Geosat data was processed to find corrections to the a priori geopotential model, corrections to a radial orbit error model for 76 Geosat arcs, and coefficients of a harmonic representation of the sea surface topography. The second stage of the analysis took place by doing a combination of the GEM-T2 coefficients with 30 deg gravity data derived from surface gravity data and anomalies obtained from altimeter data. The analysis has shown how a high degree spherical harmonic model can be determined combining the best aspects of two different analysis techniques. The error analysis was described that has led to the accuracy estimates for all the coefficients to deg 360. Significant work is needed to improve the modeling effort.

  8. The footprint of the inter-decadal Pacific oscillation in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Dai, Aiguo

    Superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also show considerable decadal variations that can cause regional climate oscillations around the IO. However, the mechanisms of the IO decadal variability remain unclear. Here we perform numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate model in which the external forcings with or without the observed SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (TEP) are applied for 1871–2012. Both the observed timing and magnitude of the IO decadal variations are well reproduced in those experiments with the TEP SSTs prescribed to observations. Although the external forcingsmore » account for most of the warming trend, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is dominated by internal variability that is induced by the TEP SSTs, especially the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The IPO weakens (enhances) the warming of the external forcings by about 50% over the IO during IPO’s cold (warm) phase, which contributes about 10% to the recent global warming hiatus since 1999. As a result, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is modulated by the IPO-induced atmospheric adjustment through changing surface heat fluxes, sea surface height and thermocline depth.« less

  9. The footprint of the inter-decadal Pacific oscillation in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Dai, Aiguo; ...

    2016-02-17

    Superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also show considerable decadal variations that can cause regional climate oscillations around the IO. However, the mechanisms of the IO decadal variability remain unclear. Here we perform numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate model in which the external forcings with or without the observed SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (TEP) are applied for 1871–2012. Both the observed timing and magnitude of the IO decadal variations are well reproduced in those experiments with the TEP SSTs prescribed to observations. Although the external forcingsmore » account for most of the warming trend, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is dominated by internal variability that is induced by the TEP SSTs, especially the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The IPO weakens (enhances) the warming of the external forcings by about 50% over the IO during IPO’s cold (warm) phase, which contributes about 10% to the recent global warming hiatus since 1999. As a result, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is modulated by the IPO-induced atmospheric adjustment through changing surface heat fluxes, sea surface height and thermocline depth.« less

  10. Oil Spill AISA+ Hyperspectral Data Detection Based on Different Sea Surface Glint Suppression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Ren, G.; Ma, Y.; Dong, L.; Wan, J.

    2018-04-01

    The marine oil spill is a sudden event, and the airborne hyperspectral means to detect the oil spill is an important part of the rapid response. Sun glint, the specular reflection of sun light from water surface to sensor, is inevitable due to the limitation of observation geometry, which makes so much bright glint in image that it is difficult to extract oil spill feature information from the remote sensing data. This paper takes AISA+ airborne hyperspectral oil spill image as data source, using multi-scale wavelet transform, enhanced Lee filter, enhanced Frost filter and mean filter method for sea surface glint suppression of images. And then the classical SVM method is used for the oil spill information detection, and oil spill information distribution map obtained by human-computer interactive interpretation is used to verify the accuracy of oil spill detection. The results show that the above methods can effectively suppress the sea surface glints and improve the accuracy of oil spill detection. The enhanced Lee filter method has the highest detection accuracy of 88.28 %, which is 12.2 % higher than that of the original image.

  11. A next generation altimeter for mapping the sea surface height variability: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Morrow, Rosemary

    2016-07-01

    The global observations of the sea surface height (SSH) have revolutionized oceanography since the beginning of precision radar altimetry in the early 1990s. For the first time we have continuous records of SSH with spatial and temporal sampling for detecting the global mean sea level rise, the waxing and waning of El Niño, and the ocean circulation from gyres to ocean eddies. The limit of spatial resolution of the present constellation of radar altimeters in mapping SSH variability is approaching 100 km (in wavelength) with 3 or more simultaneous altimetric satellites in orbit. At scales shorter than 100 km, the circulation contains substantial amount of kinetic energy in currents, eddies and fronts that are responsible for the stirring and mixing of the ocean, especially from the vertical exchange of the upper ocean with the deep. A mission currently in development will use the technique of radar interferometry for making high-resolution measurement of the height of water over the ocean as well as on land. It is called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which is a joint mission of US NASA and French CNES, with contributions from Canada and UK. SWOT promises the detection of SSH at scales approaching 15 km, depending on the sea state. SWOT will make SSH measurement over a swath of 120 km with a nadir gap of 20 km in a 21-day repeat orbit. A conventional radar altimeter will provide measurement along the nadir. This is an exploratory mission with applications in oceanography and hydrology. The increased spatial resolution offers an opportunity to study ocean surface processes to address important questions about the ocean circulation. However, the limited temporal sampling poses challenges to map the evolution of the ocean variability that changes rapidly at the small scales. The measurement technique and the development of the mission will be presented with emphasis on its science program with outlook on the opportunities and challenges.

  12. Reconstruction of Monsoon Driven South China Sea Surface Ocean Circulation using Coral Δ14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodkin, N.; Bolton, A.; Karnauskas, K. B.; Hughen, K. A.; Griffin, S.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The need to improve our understanding of annual and decadal climate behavior in the South China Sea is increasingly important, as this region includes the largest population density globally but encompasses few climate records. Here we present a record of annually resolved Δ14C from a coral collected off the coast of Nha Trang, Vietnam (12°12'49.90″N, 109°18'17.51″E), that reveals a significant correlation to regional winter sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature (SST), and extends back more than 400 years. Coral Δ14C during thermonuclear bomb testing indicates the presence of wet-season (summer) upwelling, demonstrated by low Δ14C values for both baseline and peak values relative to other records in the region (Bolton et al., 2016, Radiocarbon). However, annually resolved pre-bomb Δ14C correlates significantly to regional dry-season (winter) SLP and SST, indicating that annual variability is driven by changes to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subsequent down-welling at this site. Spectral density is focused at 25, 11.8, 7, 4, and 3.2 years per cycle reflecting a range of influences on surface advection variability including the EAWM (D'Arrigo et al., 2005, GRL) and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral power at all of these frequencies decreases following the Little Ice Age ( 1600-1850?) to today, indicating that wind driven surface advection was more variable when hemispheric temperatures were cooler. Decadal variance in the past 100 years is significantly correlated to variance records of the Arctic Oscillation (AO, Thompson and Wallace, 1989, GRL), suggesting that increasing variance in the EAWM may be tied to increasing variance of the AO during the Little Ice Age and vice versa.

  13. Bathymetric controls on Pliocene North Atlantic and Arctic sea surface temperature and deepwater production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hill, D.J.; Jones, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma) is the most recent interval in Earth's history in which global temperatures reached and remained at levels similar to those projected for the near future. The distribution of global warmth, however, was different than today in that the high latitudes warmed more than the tropics. Multiple temperature proxies indicate significant sea surface warming in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans during the MPWP, but predictions from a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model (HadCM3) have so far been unable to fully predict the large scale of sea surface warming in the high latitudes. If climate proxies accurately represent Pliocene conditions, and if no weakness exists in the physics of the model, then model boundary conditions may be in error. Here we alter a single boundary condition (bathymetry) to examine if Pliocene high latitude warming was aided by an increase in poleward heat transport due to changes in the subsidence of North Atlantic Ocean ridges. We find an increase in both Arctic sea surface temperature and deepwater production in model experiments that incorporate a deepened Greenland-Scotland Ridge. These results offer both a mechanism for the warming in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans indicated by numerous proxies and an explanation for the apparent disparity between proxy data and model simulations of Pliocene northern North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean conditions. Determining the causes of Pliocene warmth remains critical to fully understanding comparisons of the Pliocene warm period to possible future climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

  14. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  15. Vertical spatial coherence model for a transient signal forward-scattered from the sea surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoerger, E.J.; McDaniel, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of acoustic energy forward scattered from the sea surface, which is modeled as a random communications scatter channel, is the basis for developing an expression for the time-dependent coherence function across a vertical receiving array. The derivation of this model uses linear filter theory applied to the Fresnel-corrected Kirchhoff approximation in obtaining an equation for the covariance function for the forward-scattered problem. The resulting formulation is used to study the dependence of the covariance on experimental and environmental factors. The modeled coherence functions are then formed for various geometrical and environmental parameters and compared to experimental data.

  16. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  17. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  18. Doppler Navigation System with a Non-Stabilized Antenna as a Sea-Surface Wind Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nekrasov, Alexey; Khachaturian, Alena; Veremyev, Vladimir; Bogachev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We propose a concept of the utilization of an aircraft Doppler Navigation System (DNS) as a sea-surface wind sensor complementary to its normal functionality. The DNS with an antenna, which is non-stabilized physically to the local horizontal with x-configured beams, is considered. We consider the wind measurements by the DNS configured in the multi-beam scatterometer mode for a rectilinear flight scenario. The system feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed wind algorithm retrieval are supported by computer simulations. Finally, the associated limitations of the proposed approach are considered. PMID:28598374

  19. Compact, Lightweight Dual- Frequency Microstrip Antenna Feed for Future Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Wilson, William J.; Njoku, Eni; Hunter, Don; Dinardo, Steve; Kona, Keerti S.; Manteghi, Majid; Gies, Dennis; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    The development of a compact, lightweight, dual frequency antenna feed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions is described. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) to be used to feed a large lightweight deployable rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approx. 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The design features will also enable applications to airborne sensors operating on small aircrafts. This paper describes the design of stacked patch elements, 16-element array configuration and power-divider beam forming network The test results from the fabrication of stacked patches and power divider were also described.

  20. Doppler Navigation System with a Non-Stabilized Antenna as a Sea-Surface Wind Sensor.

    PubMed

    Nekrasov, Alexey; Khachaturian, Alena; Veremyev, Vladimir; Bogachev, Mikhail

    2017-06-09

    We propose a concept of the utilization of an aircraft Doppler Navigation System (DNS) as a sea-surface wind sensor complementary to its normal functionality. The DNS with an antenna, which is non-stabilized physically to the local horizontal with x -configured beams, is considered. We consider the wind measurements by the DNS configured in the multi-beam scatterometer mode for a rectilinear flight scenario. The system feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed wind algorithm retrieval are supported by computer simulations. Finally, the associated limitations of the proposed approach are considered.

  1. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air–sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s−1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s−1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. PMID:28369320

  2. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 38 cells in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Charles; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data with monthly resolution are provided for 38 cells in the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas region, plus Bermuda. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 coupled climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Statistical scaling of the forecast data sets are performed to produce confluent SST series according to a now established method. These SST series are available for download. High water temperatures in 1998 killed enormous amounts of corals in tropical seas, though in the Caribbean region the effects at that time appeared less marked than in the Indo-Pacific. However, SSTs are rising in accordance with world-wide trends and it has been predicted that temperature will become increasingly important in this region in the near future. Patterns of SST rise within the Caribbean region are shown, and the importance of sub-regional patterns within this biologically highly interconnected area are noted.

  3. The significance of the Skylab altimeter experiment results and potential applications. [measurement of sea surface topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Gopalapillai, S.; Kuhner, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab Altimeter Experiment has proven the capability of the altimeter for measurement of sea surface topography. The geometric determination of the geoid/mean sea level from satellite altimetry is a new approach having significant applications in many disciplines including geodesy and oceanography. A Generalized Least Squares Collocation Technique was developed for determination of the geoid from altimetry data. The technique solves for the altimetry geoid and determines one bias term for the combined effect of sea state, orbit, tides, geoid, and instrument error using sparse ground truth data. The influence of errors in orbit and a priori geoid values are discussed. Although the Skylab altimeter instrument accuracy is about + or - 1 m, significant results were obtained in identification of large geoidal features such as over the Puerto Rico trench. Comparison of the results of several passes shows that good agreement exists between the general slopes of the altimeter geoid and the ground truth, and that the altimeter appears to be capable of providing more details than are now available with best known geoids. The altimetry geoidal profiles show excellent correlations with bathymetry and gravity. Potential applications of altimetry results to geodesy, oceanography, and geophysics are discussed.

  4. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer.

    PubMed

    Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. © FEMS 2017.

  5. Sensitivity of Global Sea-Air CO2 Flux to Gas Transfer Algorithms, Climatological Wind Speeds, and Variability of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity analyses of sea-air CO2 flux to gas transfer algorithms, climatological wind speeds, sea surface temperatures (SST) and salinity (SSS) were conducted for the global oceans and selected regional domains. Large uncertainties in the global sea-air flux estimates are identified due to different gas transfer algorithms, global climatological wind speeds, and seasonal SST and SSS data. The global sea-air flux ranges from -0.57 to -2.27 Gt/yr, depending on the combination of gas transfer algorithms and global climatological wind speeds used. Different combinations of SST and SSS global fields resulted in changes as large as 35% on the oceans global sea-air flux. An error as small as plus or minus 0.2 in SSS translates into a plus or minus 43% deviation on the mean global CO2 flux. This result emphasizes the need for highly accurate satellite SSS observations for the development of remote sensing sea-air flux algorithms.

  6. The Air-Sea Interface and Surface Stress under Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander; Lukas, Roger; Donelan, Mark; Ginis, Isaac

    2013-04-01

    of the drag coefficient wind speed dependence around 65 m/s. This minimum may contribute to the rapid intensification of storms to major tropical cyclones. The subsequent slow increase of the drag coefficient with wind above 65 m/s serves as an obstacle for further intensification of tropical cyclones. Such dependence may explain the observed bi-modal distribution of tropical cyclone intensity. Implementation of the new parameterization into operational models is expected to improve predictions of tropical cyclone intensity and the associated wave field. References: Donelan, M. A., B. K. Haus, N. Reul, W. Plant, M. Stiassnie, H. Graber, O. Brown, and E. Saltzman, 2004: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds, Farrell, B.F, and P.J. Ioannou, 2008: The stochastic parametric mechanism for growth of wind-driven surface water waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography 38, 862-879. Kelly, R.E., 1965: The stability of an unsteady Kelvin-Helmholtz flow. J. Fluid Mech. 22, 547-560. Koga, M., 1981: Direct production of droplets from breaking wind-waves-Its observation by a multi-colored overlapping exposure technique, Tellus 33, 552-563. Miles, J.W., 1959: On the generation of surface waves by shear flows, part 3. J. Fluid. Mech. 6, 583-598. Soloviev, A.V. and R. Lukas, 2010: Effects of bubbles and sea spray on air-sea exchanges in hurricane conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 136, 365-376. Soloviev, A., A. Fujimura, and S. Matt, 2012: Air-sea interface in hurricane conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 117, C00J34.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the lower atmosphere and surface waters of the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Tang, Jianhui; Mi, Lijie; Tian, Chongguo; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Shaorui; Li, Qilu; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-12-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in the forms of neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the gas phase of air and ionic perfluoroalkyl substances in the dissolved phase of surface water, were investigated during a sampling campaign in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary in May 2012. In the gas phase, the concentrations of neutral ∑PFASs were within the range of 76-551pg/m 3 . Higher concentrations were observed in the South Yellow Sea. 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the predominant compound as it accounted for 92%-95% of neutral ∑PFASs in all air samples. Air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that neutral ∑PFASs came mainly from the coast of the Yellow Sea, including the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces of China, and the coastal region of South Korea. The fluxes of gas phase dry deposition were simulated for neutral PFASs, and neutral ∑PFASs fluxes varied from 0.37 to 2.3pg/m 2 /s. In the dissolved phase of the surface water, concentrations of ionic ∑PFASs ranged from 1.6 to 118ng/L, with the Bohai Sea exhibiting higher concentrations than both the Yellow Sea and the Yangtze River estuary. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound accounting for 51%-90% of the ionic ∑PFAS concentrations. Releases from industrial and domestic activities as well as the semiclosed geographical conditions increased the level of ionic ∑PFASs in the Bohai Sea. The spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were different significantly. The Laizhou Bay was the major source region of PFCAs and the Yangtze River estuary was the major source of PFSAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (p<0.05) between d-excess and MSA in the ice record and sea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and

  9. Retrieving Arctic Sea Fog Geometrical Thickness and Inversion Characteristics from Surface and Radiosonde Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Gaëlle; Jiskoot, Hester

    2017-04-01

    Arctic sea fog hasn't been extensively studied despite its importance for environmental impact such as on traffic safety and on glacier ablation in coastal Arctic regions. Understanding fog processes can improve nowcasting of environmental impact in such remote regions where few observational data exist. To understand fog's physical, macrophysical and radiative properties, it is important to determine accurate Arctic fog climatology. Our previous study suggested that fog peaks in July over East Greenland and associates with sea ice break-up and a sea breeze with wind speeds between 1-4 m/s. The goal of this study is to understand Arctic coastal fog macrophysical properties and quantify its vertical extent. Radiosonde profiles were extracted from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) between 1980-2012, coincident with manual and automated fog observations at three synoptic weather stations along the coast of East Greenland. A new method using air mass saturation ratio and thermodynamic stability was developed to derive fog top height from IGRA radiosonde profiles. Soundings were classified into nine categories, based on surface and low-level saturation ratio, inversion type, and the fog top height relative to the inversion base. Results show that Arctic coastal fog mainly occurs under thermodynamically stable conditions characterized by deep and strong low-level inversions. Fog thickness is commonly about 100-400 m, often reaching the top of the boundary layer. Fog top height is greater at northern stations, where daily fog duration is also longer and often lasts throughout the day. Fog thickness is likely correlated to sea ice concentration density during sea ice break-up. Overall, it is hypothesized that our sounding classes represent development or dissipation stages of advection fog, or stratus lowering and fog lifting processes. With a new automated method, it is planned to retrieve fog height from IGRA data over Arctic terrain around the entire North

  10. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  11. Comparison of sea surface flux measured by instrumented aircraft and ship during SOFIA and SEMAPHORE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Pierre; Dupuis, HéLèNe; Lambert, Dominique; BéNech, Bruno; Druilhet, Aimé; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.; Weill, Alain

    1998-10-01

    Two major campaigns (Surface of the Oceans, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE)) devoted to the study of ocean-atmosphere interaction were conducted in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in the Azores region. Among the various platforms deployed, instrumented aircraft and ship allowed the measurement of the turbulent flux of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum. From coordinated missions we can evaluate the sea surface fluxes from (1) bulk relations and mean measurements performed aboard the ship in the atmospheric surface layer and (2) turbulence measurements aboard aircraft, which allowed the flux profiles to be estimated through the whole atmospheric boundary layer and therefore to be extrapolated toward the sea surface level. Continuous ship fluxes were calculated with bulk coefficients deduced from inertial-dissipation measurements in the same experiments, whereas aircraft fluxes were calculated with eddy-correlation technique. We present a comparison between these two estimations. Although momentum flux agrees quite well, aircraft estimations of sensible and latent heat flux are lower than those of the ship. This result is surprising, since aircraft momentum flux estimates are often considered as much less accurate than scalar flux estimates. The various sources of errors on the aircraft and ship flux estimates are discussed. For sensible and latent heat flux, random errors on aircraft estimates, as well as variability of ship flux estimates, are lower than the discrepancy between the two platforms, whereas the momentum flux estimates cannot be considered as significantly different. Furthermore, the consequence of the high-pass filtering of the aircraft signals on the flux values is analyzed; it is weak at the lowest altitudes flown and cannot therefore explain the discrepancies between the two platforms but becomes

  12. Development and evaluation of an empirical diurnal sea surface temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    An innovative method is developed to determine the diurnal heating amplitude of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) using observations of high-quality satellite SST measurements and NWP atmospheric meteorological data. The diurnal cycle results from heating that develops at the surface of the ocean from low mechanical or shear produced turbulence and large solar radiation absorption. During these typically calm weather conditions, the absorption of solar radiation causes heating of the upper few meters of the ocean, which become buoyantly stable; this heating causes a temperature differential between the surface and the mixed [or bulk] layer on the order of a few degrees. It has been shown that capturing the diurnal cycle is important for a variety of applications, including surface heat flux estimates, which have been shown to be underestimated when neglecting diurnal warming, and satellite and buoy calibrations, which can be complicated because of the heating differential. An empirical algorithm using a pre-dawn sea surface temperature, peak solar radiation, and accumulated wind stress is used to estimate the cycle. The empirical algorithm is derived from a multistep process in which SSTs from MTG's SEVIRI SST experimental hourly data set are combined with hourly wind stress fields derived from a bulk flux algorithm. Inputs for the flux model are taken from NASA's MERRA reanalysis product. NWP inputs are necessary because the inputs need to incorporate diurnal and air-sea interactive processes, which are vital to the ocean surface dynamics, with a high enough temporal resolution. The MERRA winds are adjusted with CCMP winds to obtain more realistic spatial and variance characteristics and the other atmospheric inputs (air temperature, specific humidity) are further corrected on the basis of in situ comparisons. The SSTs are fitted to a Gaussian curve (using one or two peaks), forming a set of coefficients used to fit the data. The coefficient data are combined with

  13. Atmospheric structure favoring high sea surface temperatures in the western equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirasatriya, Anindya; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Hosoda, Kohtaro

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the atmospheric processes over high sea surface temperature called Hot Event (HE) in the western equatorial Pacific from climatological analysis and a case study of the HE which began on 28 May 2003 (hereafter, HE030528). Climatological analysis shows that during the development stage of HE, solar radiation inside the HE area is higher than its climatology and wind speed is lower than the decay stage. During the decay stage, strong westerly wind often occurs inside HE area. The case study of HE030528 shows that the suppressed convection above high SST area resulted from the deep convection from the northern and southern areas outside HE. The suppressed convection created a band-shaped structure of low cloud cover along HE area increasing solar radiation during the development stage. Thus, the theory of "remote convection" was supported for the HE030528 formation mechanisms. The large sea level pressure gradient magnitude between the southern side of the terrain gap and the northern coast of the Solomon Islands, through which strong wind blew, indicated the role of land topography for the increase of wind speed during the decay of HE030528. Moreover, surface wind had an important role to influence the variability of solar radiation during the occurrence of HE030528 by controlling the water vapor supply in the upper troposphere through surface evaporation and surface convergence variation. Thus, surface wind was the key factor for HE030528 occurrence. The representativeness of HE030528 and the possible relation between HE and Madden-Julian Oscillation are also discussed.

  14. Detection and Characterization of Deep Water Wave Breaking Using Moderate Incidence Angle Microwave Backscatter from the Sea Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    interaction and wave breaking. The ocean surface can be modelled as a two-scale or composite surface - 21 - made up of short wind-generated ripples... composite or two-scale rough surface (Barrick and Peake, 1968). For radar wavelengths on the order of a few centimeters, the resonant scatterers are...short wind ripples which ride on top of long gravity waves, and a - 46 - composite model is used to describe the two-scale nature of the sea surface

  15. System architecture and operational analysis of medium displacement unmanned surface vehicle sea hunter as a surface warfare component of distributed lethality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    students in a war- gaming class , and working in tandem with a NPS distance...surface mode ability provides a threat suppression method against small craft attacks and boarding attempts. b. Vulnerability As a sea-going surface...Design Architecture With a proposed CONOPS established, the physical architecture can proceed to a more detailed design. For the purpose of

  16. Sea Surface Salinity signatures of tropical instability waves: New evidences from SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaobin; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reverdin, Gilles; Lee, Tong; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, has been providing global maps of sea surface salinity (SSS) since 2010. SSS measurements from the SMOS satellite during June 2010 and December 2012 provide an unprecedented space-borne observation of the salinity structure of tropical instability waves (TIWs) including strong La Niña conditions during recent years. We use SMOS level 3 SSS maps averaged over 100 x 100 km2 with a 10-day running window and sampled daily over a 0.25 x 0.25° grid generated at Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat: Expérimentation et Approches Numériques (http://catds.ifremer.fr/Products/Available-products-from-CEC-OS/Locean-v2013) [Boutin et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2012]. We also analyze daily SST from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) produced on an operational basis at the UK Met Office using optimal interpolation [Donlon et al., 2011]. From a time-longitude section in the eastern Pacific ocean, westward propagations of SSS and SST anomalies along 2° N became apparent west of 90° W during June 2010 - March 2011 and June 2011 - March 2012, coincident with negative indexes in the NINO3 and NINO3.4 regions. The 33-day SSS anomaly and SST anomaly appeared together approximately in the same time and regions. The 17-day SSS anomaly is less clear than the 17-day SST anomaly. The SSS anomaly has approximate amplitude of 0.5 practical salinity scale (pss) and the SST anomaly has approximate amplitude of 2 ° C. Then, we focus on analysis of SSS and SST anomalies during June to December 2010. During this period the tropical Pacific was characterized by a strong La Niña, providing favorable conditions for the occurrence of TIWs. The high anomalies and meridional gradients of both SSS and SST appear north of the equator west of 100° W. Near 100W, they straddle the equator where South Pacific water and eastern edge upwelling water with high

  17. Elephant overflows: Multi-annual variability in Weddell Sea Deep Water driven by surface forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Andrew; Meredith, Michael; Abrahamsen, Povl; Naviera-Garabato, Alberto; Ángel Morales Maqueda, Miguel; Polzin, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    The volume of the deepest and densest water mass in Drake Passage, Lower Weddell Sea Deep Water (LWSDW), is shown to have been decreasing over the last 20 years of observations, with an associated reduction in density driven by freshening. Superimposed on this long term trend is a multi-annual oscillation with a period of 3-5 years. This variability only appears in Drake Passage; observations in the east of the Scotia Sea show a similar long term trend, but with no apparent multi-annual variability. Clues as to the source of this variability may be found on the continental slope at approximately 1000 m immediately north of Elephant Island on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here there is an intermittent westward flowing cold/fresh slope current whose volume and properties are strongly correlated with the LWSDW multi-annual variability, although leading the LWSDW by around one year. As the slope current and LWSDW are separated from each other both geographically and in water mass characteristics, their co-variability implies that they are responding to a common forcing, while the lag between deep LWSDW and shallow slope current provides information on the timescale of this response. A newly available high resolution temperature and salinity multi-year time series from the Elephant Island slope at 1000 m is compared with reanalysis and model derived surface fluxes, sea ice extent and wind stress. We find that there are strong positive relationships between the surface wind stress and heat flux over the shelf at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the properties of the slope current at 1000 m on seasonal to annual timescales. We use tracer release experiments in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) model to investigate the lag between the slope current and LWSDW timeseries and hypothesise that the observed multi-annual variability in both water masses is driven by surface forcing over the shelf and the overflow of modified water from the slope in

  18. Total Mercury in Surface and Deep Waters in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde', M.; Cofone, F.; Servidio, A.; Rosselli, A.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Ammoscato, I.; Mannarino, V.; Sprovieri, F.; Gensini, M.; Pirrone, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) Med-Oceanor measurement program and as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) objectives, we performed two cruise campaigns with the CNR's Research Vessel (RV) Urania, in the western and eastern Mediterranean Basin, in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Total Mercury (THg) concentration in seawater was systematically measured at different depths from the sea bottom to the surface. A total of 155 surface and deep seawater samples at 25 selected stations were collected during the cruise campaigns using a stainless-steel rosette system on which 24 Niskin bottles (10L) were mounted. Continuous monitoring of temperature, conductivity, salinity and oxygen with depth were obtained by CTD measurements. All fluorinated containers were cleaned prior to use following GMOS SOPs. The chemical reagents used were suitable for ultra-trace Hg analysis. After sampling, samples were preserved by adding HCl solution to the sample bottles, which were refrigerated during transportation and analyzed within four weeks of the end of the oceanographic campaign. Sea water samples were analyzed in the laboratory following the US-EPA 1631 method revision E (US-EPA, 2002). To assess the critical issues related to mercury (Hg) contamination and to prevent leakage of Hg through volatilization we used all necessary precautions for sampling, sample stabilization, preservation and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Quality assurance and quality control were performed using transport blanks, laboratory blanks and use of seawater certified reference materials. The accuracy of the analytical procedures for the determination of THg in sea water was corroborated by participation in a global inter-laboratory comparison study for THg in natural waters. THg concentrations in surface and deep waters found in the Mediterranean basin during the last two cruise campaigns Med-Oceanor as well as the THg measurements in sea water

  19. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 5 (ERSSTv5): Upgrades, Validations, and Intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Thorne, P.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Chepurin, G. A.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Menne, M. J.; Vose, R. S.; Smith, T. M.; Zhang, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The monthly global 2°×2° Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) has been revised and updated from version 4 to version 5. This update incorporates a new release of ICOADS R3.0, a decade of near-surface data from Argo floats, and a new estimate of centennial sea-ice from HadISST2. A number of choices in aspects of quality control, bias adjustment and interpolation have been substantively revised. The resulting ERSST estimates have more realistic spatio-temporal variations, better representation of high latitude SSTs, and ship SST biases are now calculated relative to more accurate buoy measurements, while the global long-term trend remains about the same. Progressive experiments have been undertaken to highlight the effects of each change in data source and analysis technique upon the final product. The reconstructed SST is systematically decreased by 0.077°C, as the reference data source is switched from ship SST in v4 to modern buoy SST in v5. Furthermore, high latitude SSTs are decreased by 0.1°-0.2°C by using sea-ice concentration from HadISST2 over HadISST1. Changes arising from remaining innovations are mostly important at small space and time scales, primarily having an impact where and when input observations are sparse. Cross-validations and verifications with independent modern observations show that the updates incorporated in ERSSTv5 have improved the representation of spatial variability over the global oceans, the magnitude of El Niño and La Niña events, and the decadal nature of SST changes over 1930s-40s when observation instruments changed rapidly. Both long (1900-2015) and short (2000-2015) term SST trends in ERSSTv5 remain significant as in ERSSTv4.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Sea Surface Salinity Using Satellite Imagery in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Hasanlou, M.; Safari, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    The recent development of satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) observations has enabled us to analyse SSS variations with high spatiotemporal resolution. In this regards, The Level3-version4 data observed by Aquarius are used to examine the variability of SSS in Gulf of Mexico for the 2012-2014 time periods. The highest SSS value occurred in April 2013 with the value of 36.72 psu while the lowest value (35.91 psu) was observed in July 2014. Based on the monthly distribution maps which will be demonstrated in the literature, it was observed that east part of the region has lower salinity values than the west part for all months mainly because of the currents which originate from low saline waters of the Caribbean Sea and furthermore the eastward currents like loop current. Also the minimum amounts of salinity occur in coastal waters where the river runoffs make fresh the high saline waters. Our next goal here is to study the patterns of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (CHLa) and fresh water flux (FWF) and examine the contributions of them to SSS variations. So by computing correlation coefficients, the values obtained for SST, FWF and CHLa are 0.7, 0.22 and 0.01 respectively which indicated high correlation of SST on SSS variations. Also by considering the spatial distribution based on the annual means, it found that there is a relationship between the SSS, SST, CHLa and the latitude in the study region which can be interpreted by developing a mathematical model.

  1. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  2. Sea surface temperature and salinity from French research vessels, 2001–2013

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Fabienne; Diverres, Denis; Jacquin, Stéphane; Gouriou, Yves; Grelet, Jacques; Le Menn, Marc; Tassel, Joelle; Reverdin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    French Research vessels have been collecting thermo-salinometer (TSG) data since 1999 to contribute to the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) programme. The instruments are regularly calibrated and continuously monitored. Water samples are taken on a daily basis by the crew and later analysed in the laboratory. We present here the delayed mode processing of the 2001–2013 dataset and an overview of the resulting quality. Salinity measurement error was a few hundredths of a unit or less on the practical salinity scale (PSS), due to careful calibration and instrument maintenance, complemented with a rigorous adjustment on water samples. In a global comparison, these data show excellent agreement with an ARGO-based salinity gridded product. The Sea Surface Salinity and Temperature from French REsearch SHips (SSST-FRESH) dataset is very valuable for the ‘calibration and validation’ of the new satellite observations delivered by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius missions. PMID:26504523

  3. Measurement of sea ice backscatter characteristics at 36 GHz using the surface contour radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, L. S.; Walsh, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Scattering studies of sea ice off the coast of Greenland were performed in January 1984 using the 36-GHz Surface Contour Radar (SCR) aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft. An oscillating mirror scans an actual half-power width of 0.96 degrees laterally to measure the surface at 51 evenly spaced points. By banking the aircraft, real-time topographical mapping and relative backscattered power are obtained at incidence angles between 0 and 30 degrees off-nadar, achieving at 175 m altitude a 2.9 by 4.4 m spatial resolution at nadir. With an aircraft ground speed of 100 m/s, 5-m successive scan line spacing and 1.8-m cross-track direction spacing is provided. By circling the aircraft in the 15 degree bank, the azimuthal anisotropy of the scattering is investigated along with the incidence angle dependence.

  4. Estimating Sea Surface Temperature Measurement Methods Using Characteristic Differences in the Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, G.; Kennedy, J. J.; Berry, D. I.; Hirahara, S.; Merchant, C. J.; Morak-Bozzo, S.; Kent, E. C.

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reliable observational metadata represents a key barrier to understanding sea surface temperature (SST) measurement biases, a large contributor to uncertainty in the global surface record. We present a method to identify SST measurement practice by comparing the observed SST diurnal cycle from individual ships with a reference from drifting buoys under similar conditions of wind and solar radiation. Compared to existing estimates, we found a larger number of engine room-intake (ERI) reports post-World War II and in the period 1960-1980. Differences in the inferred mixture of observations lead to a systematic warmer shift of the bias adjusted SST anomalies from 1980 compared to previous estimates, while reducing the ensemble spread. Changes in mean field differences between bucket and ERI SST anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere over the period 1955-1995 could be as large as 0.5°C and are not well reproduced by current bias adjustment models.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the surface water and sediments of Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Agah, Homira; Mehdinia, Ali; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, the concentrations and distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water and surface sediments from the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea, were investigated in May (premonsoon) and December (postmonsoon) 2012. The concentrations of PAHs in the surface water samples ranged from 1.7 to 2.8ngl -1 and from 0.04 to 59.6ngl -1 in pre- and postmonsoon, respectively. In general, the PAH levels of the water samples from Chabahar Bay were higher in postmonsoon than in premonsoon (p<0.05). The concentrations of PAHs in the sediment samples varied from undetectable levels to 92.8ngg -1 d.w. in both seasons. The seasonal comparison of the results in sediment samples showed that the overall concentration of PAH compounds was higher in the postmonsoon season (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  7. Forecasting decadal changes in sea surface temperatures and coral bleaching within a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angang; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2014-09-01

    Elevated sea surface temperature (SST) caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. While increased SST has been shown to negatively affect the health of coral reefs by increasing rates of coral bleaching, how changes to atmospheric heating impact SST distributions, modified by local flow environments, has been less understood. This study aimed to simulate future water flow patterns and water surface heating in response to increased air temperature within a coral reef system in Bocas del Toro, Panama, located within the Caribbean Sea. Water flow and SST were modeled using the Delft3D-FLOWcomputer simulation package. Locally measured physical parameters, including bathymetry, astronomic tidal forcing, and coral habitat distribution were input into the model and water flow, and SST was simulated over a four-month period under present day, as well as projected warming scenarios in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Changes in SST, and hence the thermal stress to corals, were quantified by degree heating weeks. Results showed that present-day reported bleaching sites were consistent with localized regions of continuous high SST. Regions with highest SST were located within shallow coastal sites adjacent to the mainland or within the interior of the bay, and characterized by low currents with high water retention times. Under projected increases in SSTs, shallow reef areas in low flow regions were found to be hot spots for future bleaching.

  8. The clear-sky greenhouse effect sensitivity to a sea surface temperature change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvel, J. PH.; Breon, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content (W), estimated by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, is analyzed first. A fairly linear relation between W and the normalized greenhouse effect g, is found. On the contrary, the SST dependence of both W and g exhibits nonlinearities with, especially, a large increase for SST above 25 C. This enhanced sensitivity of g and W can be interpreted in part by a corresponding large increase of atmospheric water vapor content related to the transition from subtropical dry regions to equatorial moist regions. Using two years of data (1985 and 1986), the normalized greenhouse effect sensitivity to the sea surface temperature is computed from the interannual variation of monthly mean values.

  9. Performance analysis of air-water quantum key distribution with an irregular sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua-bin; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Wang, Lian

    2018-05-01

    In the air-water quantum key distribution (QKD), the irregular sea surface has some influence on the photon polarization state. The wind is considered as the main factor causing the irregularity, so the model of irregular sea surface based on the wind speed is adopted. The relationships of the quantum bit error rate with the wind speed and the initial incident angle are simulated. Therefore, the maximum secure transmission depth of QKD is confirmed, and the limitation of the wind speed and the initial incident angle is determined. The simulation results show that when the wind speed and the initial incident angle increase, the performance of QKD will fall down. Under the intercept-resend attack condition, the maximum safe transmission depth of QKD is up to 105 m. To realize safe communications in the safe diving depth of submarines (100 m), the initial incident angle is requested to be not exceeding 26°, and with the initial incident angle increased, the limitation of wind speed is decreased.

  10. Sea ice-atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Schweiger, A.; Maslanik, J.; Key, J.; Weaver, R.; Barry, R.

    1990-01-01

    The application of multi-spectral satellite data to estimate polar surface energy fluxes is addressed. To what accuracy and over which geographic areas large scale energy budgets can be estimated are investigated based upon a combination of available remote sensing and climatological data sets. The general approach was to: (1) formulate parameterization schemes for the appropriate sea ice energy budget terms based upon the remotely sensed and/or in-situ data sets; (2) conduct sensitivity analyses using as input both natural variability (observed data in regional case studies) and theoretical variability based upon energy flux model concepts; (3) assess the applicability of these parameterization schemes to both regional and basin wide energy balance estimates using remote sensing data sets; and (4) assemble multi-spectral, multi-sensor data sets for at least two regions of the Arctic Basin and possibly one region of the Antarctic. The type of data needed for a basin-wide assessment is described and the temporal coverage of these data sets are determined by data availability and need as defined by parameterization scheme. The titles of the subjects are as follows: (1) Heat flux calculations from SSM/I and LANDSAT data in the Bering Sea; (2) Energy flux estimation using passive microwave data; (3) Fetch and stability sensitivity estimates of turbulent heat flux; and (4) Surface temperature algorithm.

  11. Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in the Sea Surface Microlayer in Jinhae Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic contamination of the marine environment is a worldwide concern. The abundance of microplastics was evaluated in the sea surface microlayer in Jinhae Bay, on the southern coast of Korea. The microplastics in this study are divided into paint resin particles and plastics by polymer type. The mean abundance of paint resin particles (94 ± 68 particles/L) was comparable to that of plastics (88 ± 68 particles/L). Fragmented microplastics, including paint resin particles, accounted for 75 % of total particles, followed by spherules (14 %), fibers (5.8 %), expanded polystyrene (4.6 %), and sheets (1.6 %). Alkyd (35 %) and poly(acrylate/styrene) (16 %) derived from ship paint resin were dominant, and the other microplastic samples consisted of polypropylene, polyethylene, phenoxy resin, polystyrene, polyester, synthetic rubber, and other polymers. The abundance of plastics was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Jinhae Bay, which is surrounded by a coastal city, than along the east coast of Geoje, which is relatively open sea. The floating microplastic abundance in surface water was the highest reported worldwide.

  12. Understanding Madden-Julian-Induced sea surface temperature variations in the North Western Australian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialard, J.; Drushka, K.; Bellenger, H.; Lengaigne, M.; Pous, S.; Duvel, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The strongest large-scale intraseasonal (30-110 day) sea surface temperature (SST) variations in austral summer in the tropics are found in the eastern Indian Ocean between Australia and Indonesia (North-Western Australian Basin, or NWAB). TMI and Argo observations indicate that the temperature signal (std. ~0.4 °C) is most prominent within the top 20 m. This temperature signal appears as a standing oscillation with a 40-50 day timescale within the NWAB, associated with ~40 Wm-2 net heat fluxes (primarily shortwave and latent) and ~0.02 Nm-2 wind stress perturbations. This signal is largely related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation. A slab ocean model with climatological observed mixed-layer depth and an ocean general circulation model both accurately reproduce the observed intraseasonal SST oscillations in the NWAB. Both indicate that most of the intraseasonal SST variations in the NWAB in austral winter are related to surface heat flux forcing, and that intraseasonal SST variations are largest in austral summer because the mixed-layer is shallow (~20 m) and thus more responsive during that season. The general circulation model indicates that entrainment cooling plays little role in intraseasonal SST variations. The larger intraseasonal SST variations in the NWAB as compared to the widely-studied thermocline-ridge of the Indian Ocean region is explained by the larger convective and air-sea heat flux perturbations in the NWAB.

  13. Calibration approach and plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.; Coppo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The sea and land surface temperature radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21 year dataset of the along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of <0.3 K traced to international standards. To achieve, these low uncertainties require an end-to-end instrument calibration strategy that includes prelaunch calibration at subsystem and instrument level, on-board calibration systems, and sustained postlaunch activities. The authors describe the preparations for the prelaunch calibration activities, including the spectral response, the instrument level alignment tests, and the solar and infrared radiometric calibrations. A purpose built calibration rig has been designed and built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory space department (RAL Space) that will accommodate the SLSTR instrument, the infrared calibration sources, and the alignment equipment. The calibration rig has been commissioned and results of these tests will be presented. Finally, the authors will present the planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that the calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  14. Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yavor; Marshall, John; Hausmann, Ute; Armour, Kyle C.; Ferreira, David; Holland, Marika M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) around Antarctica respond to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on multiple timescales. To that end we examine the relationship between SAM and SST within unperturbed preindustrial control simulations of coupled general circulation models (GCMs) included in the Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We develop a technique to extract the response of the Southern Ocean SST (55°S-70°S) to a hypothetical step increase in the SAM index. We demonstrate that in many GCMs, the expected SST step response function is nonmonotonic in time. Following a shift to a positive SAM anomaly, an initial cooling regime can transition into surface warming around Antarctica. However, there are large differences across the CMIP5 ensemble. In some models the step response function never changes sign and cooling persists, while in other GCMs the SST anomaly crosses over from negative to positive values only 3 years after a step increase in the SAM. This intermodel diversity can be related to differences in the models' climatological thermal ocean stratification in the region of seasonal sea ice around Antarctica. Exploiting this relationship, we use observational data for the time-mean meridional and vertical temperature gradients to constrain the real Southern Ocean response to SAM on fast and slow timescales.

  15. SAR Altimetry for Mean Sea Surface Determination in the Arctic DTU15MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, G.; Andersen, O. B.; Stenseng, L.

    2015-12-01

    A reliable MSS that includes high-latitude regions within the 82 degree parallel is required for the Sentinel-3 data processing. In this paper we present the new DTU15MSS which is an update of the DTU13MSS with more years of CryoSat-2. CryoSat-2 offers a unique dataset in the Arctic Ocean for testing SAR altimetry with nearly five years of high-resolution SAR altimetry. In the Arctic Ocean older conventional altimetry satellites (ERS-1/ERS-2/Envisat) have only been able to provide sparse data for the past 20 years. Here we present the development of the DTU13MSS in the Arctic being the latest release of the global high resolution mean sea surface from DTU Space based on 4 years/repeat of Cryostat-2. The analysis shows that Laser Altimetry from the ICESat satellite being the basis of DTU10 and DTU13MSS between 82 and 86N is now obsolete for mean sea surface determination. The study also highlight the problems of integrating altimetry from various modes (LRM, SAR and SAR-in) as well as the problems relating to the fact that the averaging period of CryoSat-2 is adjacent to the 20 years (1993-2012) period used to develop DTU13MSS. Evaluation of the new MSS is performed and comparison with existing MSS models is performed to evaluate the impact of these updates into MSS computation.

  16. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds Infrared Sea Surface Temperature Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R. Michael; Long, Charles N.

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the most appropriate and important climate parameters: a widespread increase is an indicator of global warming and modifications of the geographical distribution of SST are an extremely sensitive indicator of climate change. There is high demand for accurate, reliable, high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution SST measurements for the parameterization of ocean-atmosphere heat, momentum, and gas (SST is therefore critical to understanding the processes controlling the global carbon dioxide budget) fluxes, for detailed diagnostic and process-orientated studies to better understand the behavior of the climate system, as model boundary conditions, for assimilation into climate models, and for themore » rigorous validation of climate model output. In order to achieve an overall net flux uncertainty < 10 W/m 2 (Bradley and Fairall, 2006), the sea surface (skin) temperature (SSST) must be measured to an error < 0.1 C and a precision of 0.05 C. Anyone experienced in shipboard meteorological measurements will recognize this is a tough specification. These demands require complete confidence in the content, interpretation, accuracy, reliability, and continuity of observational SST data—criteria that can only be fulfilled by the successful implementation of an ongoing data product validation strategy.« less

  17. Enhanced Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Temperature and Its Relation to Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Perez, Gay Jane P.; Stock, Larry V.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated the Visayan Islands in the Philippines on November 8, 2013 was recorded as the strongest typhoon ever-observed using satellite data. Typhoons in the region usually originate from the mid-Pacific region that includes the Warm Pool, which is regarded as the warmest ocean surface region globally. Two study areas were considered: one in the Warm Pool Region and the other in the West Pacific Region near the Philippines. Among the most important factors that affect the strength of a typhoon are sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor. It is remarkable that in November 2013 the average SST in the Warm Pool Region was the highest observed during the 1981 to 2014 period while that of the West Pacific Region was among the highest as well. Moreover, the increasing trend in SST was around 0.20C per decade in the warm pool region and even higher at 0.23C per decade in the West Pacific region. The yearly minimum SST has also been increasing suggesting that the temperature of the ocean mixed layer is also increasing. Further analysis indicated that water vapor, clouds, winds and sea level pressure for the same period did not reveal strong signals associated with the 2013 event. The SST is shown to be well-correlated with wind strength of historically strong typhoons in the country and the observed trends in SST suggest that extremely destructive typhoons like Haiyan are likely to occur in the future.

  18. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  19. Low-illumination image denoising method for wide-area search of nighttime sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ming-zhu; Qu, Hong-song; Zhang, Gui-xiang; Tao, Shu-ping; Jin, Guang

    2018-05-01

    In order to suppress complex mixing noise in low-illumination images for wide-area search of nighttime sea surface, a model based on total variation (TV) and split Bregman is proposed in this paper. A fidelity term based on L1 norm and a fidelity term based on L2 norm are designed considering the difference between various noise types, and the regularization mixed first-order TV and second-order TV are designed to balance the influence of details information such as texture and edge for sea surface image. The final detection result is obtained by using the high-frequency component solved from L1 norm and the low-frequency component solved from L2 norm through wavelet transform. The experimental results show that the proposed denoising model has perfect denoising performance for artificially degraded and low-illumination images, and the result of image quality assessment index for the denoising image is superior to that of the contrastive models.

  20. Observed modes of sea surface temperature variability in the South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurral, Ramiro I.; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; García-Serrano, Javier

    2018-02-01

    The South Pacific (SP) region exerts large control on the climate of the Southern Hemisphere at many times scales. This paper identifies the main modes of interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the SP which consist of a tropical-driven mode related to a horseshoe structure of positive/negative SST anomalies within midlatitudes and highly correlated to ENSO and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) variability, and another mode mostly confined to extratropical latitudes which is characterized by zonal propagation of SST anomalies within the South Pacific Gyre. Both modes are associated with temperature and rainfall anomalies over the continental regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Besides the leading mode which is related to well known warmer/cooler and drier/moister conditions due to its relationship with ENSO and the IPO, an inspection of the extratropical mode indicates that it is associated with distinct patterns of sea level pressure and surface temperature advection. These relationships are used here as plausible and partial explanations to the observed warming trend observed within the Southern Hemisphere during the last decades.

  1. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Hines, D. E.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; Fandry, C.

    1999-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the 36 GHz (8.3 mm) NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 deg roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 deg through nadir to +29 deg. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 deg in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 m to 65 m). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. A unique feature of this experiment was the use of a nadir-directed low-gain horn antenna (35 deg beamwidth) to acquire azimuthally integrated backscattered power data versus incidence angle before and after the turn data.

  2. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° gr