Science.gov

Sample records for absolute temperature means

  1. Can climate models be tuned to simulate the global mean absolute temperature correctly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Q.; Shi, Y.; Gong, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Inter-government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has already issued five assessment reports (ARs), which include the simulation of the past climate and the projection of the future climate under various scenarios. The participating models can simulate reasonably well the trend in global mean temperature change, especially of the last 150 years. However, there is a large, constant discrepancy in terms of global mean absolute temperature simulations over this period. This discrepancy remained in the same range between IPCC-AR4 and IPCC-AR5, which amounts to about 3oC between the coldest model and the warmest model. This discrepancy has great implications to the land processes, particularly the processes related to the cryosphere, and casts doubts over if land-atmosphere-ocean interactions are correctly considered in those models. This presentation aims to explore if this discrepancy can be reduced through model tuning. We present an automatic model calibration strategy to tune the parameters of a climate model so the simulated global mean absolute temperature would match the observed data over the last 150 years. An intermediate complexity model known as LOVECLIM is used in the study. This presentation will show the preliminary results.

  2. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  3. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  4. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  5. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  6. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  7. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  8. Generalized approach for using unbiased symmetric metrics with negative values: normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unbiased symmetric metrics provide a useful measure to quickly compare two datasets, with similar interpretations for both under and overestimations. Two examples include the normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor. However, the original formulations...

  9. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  10. Means of determining extrusion temperatures

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Robert E.; Canonico, Domenic A.

    1977-01-01

    In an extrusion process comprising the steps of fabricating a metal billet, heating said billet for a predetermined time and at a selected temperature to increase its plasticity and then forcing said heated billet through a small orifice to produce a desired extruded object, the improvement comprising the steps of randomly inserting a plurality of small metallic thermal tabs at different cross sectional depths in said billet as a part of said fabricating step, and examining said extruded object at each thermal tab location for determining the crystal structure at each extruded thermal tab thus revealing the maximum temperature reached during extrusion in each respective tab location section of the extruded object, whereby the thermal profile of said extruded object during extrusion may be determined.

  11. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, Donald O.; Burger, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  12. Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.

  13. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  14. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  15. Simulation and analysis of spectroscopic filter of rotational Raman lidar for absolute measurement of atmospheric temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qimeng; Li, Shichun; Hu, Xianglong; Zhao, Jing; Xin, Wenhui; Song, Yuehui; Hua, Dengxin

    2018-01-01

    The absolute measurement technique for atmospheric temperature can avoid the calibration process and improve the measurement accuracy. To achieve the rotational Raman temperature lidar of absolute measurement, the two-stage parallel multi-channel spectroscopic filter combined a first-order blazed grating with a fiber Bragg grating is designed and its performance is tested. The parameters and the optical path structure of the core cascaded-device (micron-level fiber array) are optimized, the optical path of the primary spectroscope is simulated and the maximum centrifugal distortion of the rotational Raman spectrum is approximately 0.0031 nm, the centrifugal ratio of 0.69%. The experimental results show that the channel coefficients of the primary spectroscope are 0.67, 0.91, 0.67, 0.75, 0.82, 0.63, 0.87, 0.97, 0.89, 0.87 and 1 by using the twelfth channel as a reference and the average FWHM is about 0.44 nm. The maximum deviation between the experimental wavelength and the theoretical value is approximately 0.0398 nm, with the deviation degree of 8.86%. The effective suppression to elastic scattering signal are 30.6, 35.2, 37.1, 38.4, 36.8, 38.2, 41.0, 44.3, 44.0, 46.7 dB. That means, combined with the second spectroscope, the suppression at least is up to 65 dB. Therefore we can fine extract single rotational Raman line to achieve the absolute measurement technique.

  16. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  17. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  18. Absolute Determination of High DC Voltages by Means of Frequency Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peier, Dirk; Schulz, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    A novel absolute measuring procedure is presented for the definition of fixed points of the voltage in the 100 kV range. The method is based on transit time measurements with accelerated electrons. By utilizing the selective interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of a special cavity resonator, the voltage is referred to fundamental constants and the base unit second. Possible balance voltages are indicated by a current detector. Experimental investigations are carried out with resonators in the normal conducting range. With a copper resonator operating at the temperature of boiling nitrogen (77 K), the relative uncertainty of the voltage points is estimated to be +/- 4 × 10-4. The technically realizable uncertainty can be reduced to +/- 1 × 10-5 by the proposed application of a superconducting niobium resonator. Thus this measuring device becomes suitable as a primary standard for the high-voltage range.

  19. Trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Akande, Samuel O.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Gutowski, William J.

    2018-02-01

    In recent times, Ibadan has been experiencing an increase in mean temperature which appears to be linked to anthropogenic global warming. Previous studies have indicated that the warming may be accompanied by changes in extreme events. This study examined trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan during 1971-2012 at annual and seasonal scales using the high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth-century dataset (ERA-20C) at 15 grid points. Magnitudes of linear trends in mean and extreme temperatures and their statistical significance were calculated using ordinary least squares and Mann-Kendall rank statistic tests. The results show that Ibadan has witnessed an increase in annual and seasonal mean minimum temperatures. The annual mean maximum temperature exhibited a non-significant decline in most parts of Ibadan. While trends in cold extremes at annual scale show warming, trends in coldest night show greater warming than in coldest day. At the seasonal scale, we found that Ibadan experienced a mix of positive and negative trends in absolute extreme temperature indices. However, cold extremes show the largest trend magnitudes, with trends in coldest night showing the greatest warming. The results compare well with those obtained from a limited number of stations. This study should inform decision-makers and urban planners about the ongoing warming in Ibadan.

  20. Have human activities changed the frequencies of absolute extreme temperatures in eastern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Tett, Simon F. B.; Yan, Zhongwei; Feng, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures affect populous regions, like eastern China, causing substantial socio-economic losses. It is beneficial to explore whether the frequencies of absolute or threshold-based extreme temperatures have been changed by human activities, such as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we compared observed and multi-model-simulated changes in the frequencies of summer days, tropical nights, icy days and frosty nights in eastern China for the years 1960-2012 by using an optimal fingerprinting method. The observed long-term trends in the regional mean frequencies of these four indices were +2.36, +1.62, -0.94, -3.02 days decade-1. The models performed better in simulating the observed frequency change in daytime extreme temperatures than nighttime ones. Anthropogenic influences are detectable in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices. The influence of natural forcings could not be detected robustly in any indices. Further analysis found that the effects of GHGs changed the frequencies of summer days (tropical nights, icy days, frosty nights) by +3.48 ± 1.45 (+2.99 ± 1.35, -2.52 ± 1.28, -4.11 ± 1.48) days decade-1. Other anthropogenic forcing agents (dominated by anthropogenic aerosols) offset the GHG effect and changed the frequencies of these four indices by -1.53 ± 0.78, -1.49 ± 0.94, +1.84 ± 1.07, +1.45 ± 1.26 days decade-1, respectively. Little influence of natural forcings was found in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices.

  1. Validation of Mean Absolute Sea Level of the North Atlantic obtained from Drifter, Altimetry and Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximenko, Nikolai A.

    2003-01-01

    Mean absolute sea level reflects the deviation of the Ocean surface from geoid due to the ocean currents and is an important characteristic of the dynamical state of the ocean. Values of its spatial variations (order of 1 m) are generally much smaller than deviations of the geoid shape from ellipsoid (order of 100 m) that makes the derivation of the absolute mean sea level a difficult task for gravity and satellite altimetry observations. Technique used by Niiler et al. for computation of the absolute mean sea level in the Kuroshio Extension was then developed into more general method and applied by Niiler et al. (2003b) to the global Ocean. The method is based on the consideration of balance of horizontal momentum.

  2. SU-F-T-492: The Impact of Water Temperature On Absolute Dose Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, N; Podgorsak, M; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY

    Purpose: The Task Group 51 (TG 51) protocol prescribes that dose calibration of photon beams be done by irradiating an ionization chamber in a water tank at pre-defined depths. Methodologies are provided to account for variations in measurement conditions by applying correction factors. However, the protocol does not completely account for the impact of water temperature. It is well established that water temperature will influence the density of air in the ion chamber collecting volume. Water temperature, however, will also influence the size of the collecting volume via thermal expansion of the cavity wall and the density of the watermore » in the tank. In this work the overall effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Methods: Dose measurements were made using a Farmer-type ion chamber for 6 and 23 MV photon beams with water temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. A reference ion chamber was used to account for fluctuations in beam output between successive measurements. Results: For the same beam output, the dose determined using TG 51 was dependent on the temperature of the water in the tank. A linear regression of the data suggests that the dependence is statistically significant with p-values of the slope equal to 0.003 and 0.01 for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 degree increase in water phantom temperature, the absolute dose determined with TG 51 increased by 0.27% and 0.31% for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. Conclusion: There is a measurable effect of water temperature on absolute dose calibration. To account for this effect, a reference temperature can be defined and a correction factor applied to account for deviations from this reference temperature during beam calibration. Such a factor is expected to be of similar magnitude to most of the existing TG 51 correction factors.« less

  3. Temperature-dependent Absolute Refractive Index Measurements of Synthetic Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have measured the absolute refractive index of five specimens taken from a very large boule of Corning 7980 fused silica from temperatures ranging from 30 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.6 microns with an absolute uncertainty of plus or minus 1 x 10 (exp -5). Statistical variations in derived values of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) are at the plus or minus 2 x 10 (exp -8)/K level. Graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient are presented for selected wavelengths and temperatures along with estimates of uncertainty in index. Coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of measured refractive index are also presented to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our results to those from an independent investigation (which used an interferometric technique for measuring index changes as a function of temperature) whose samples were prepared from the same slugs of material from which our prisms were prepared in support of the Kepler mission. We also compare our results with sparse cryogenic index data from measurements of this material from the literature.

  4. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Temperature Profile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides temperature profiles at 15 heights, containing the variables of virtual temperature, vertical velocity, the speed of sound, and w-bar. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean temperature profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. The existence of negative absolute temperatures in Axelrod’s social influence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Febres, J. C.; Olivares-Rivas, W.

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the concept of temperature as an order parameter in the standard Axelrod’s social influence model. It is defined as the relation between suitably defined entropy and energy functions, T=(. We show that at the critical point, where the order/disorder transition occurs, this absolute temperature changes in sign. At this point, which corresponds to the transition homogeneous/heterogeneous culture, the entropy of the system shows a maximum. We discuss the relationship between the temperature and other properties of the model in terms of cultural traits.

  6. Persistency in monthly mean temperatures in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2016-04-01

    Time series from a number of weather stations in Europe have been studied in order to assess the persistency of montly mean temperatures. In most regions, the correlation between the mean temperatures of two months next to each other in time has maxima in the summer and in the winter, while there are minima in the sping and the autumn. An exception from this is in the oceanic warm climate in the southwest, where the spring minimum is missing. A plausible explanation for the positive correlation in the winter may be related to snow on the ground. The snow is associated with cold spells and increases the albedo, contributing to extension of the low temperatures. The summertime correlation may be related to the water content of the soil. A cold and rainy period results in wet soil and subsequently, relatively large part of the energy of the incoming solar radiation is consumed by evaporation, rather than sensible heating. In the spring, there is generally no snow on the ground and in the autumn, the air temperature is not as sensitive to the water content of the soil as in the summer. This may explain the low correlation in spring and autumn.

  7. A Method to Convert MRI Images of Temperature Change Into Images of Absolute Temperature in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan M.; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Yarmolenko, Pavel; Park, Ji-Young; Stauffer, Paul; Needham, David; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose During hyperthermia (HT), the therapeutic response of tumors varies substantially within the target temperature range (39–43°C). Current thermometry methods are either invasive or measure only temperature change, which limits the ability to study tissue responses to HT. This study combines manganese-containing low-temperature sensitive liposomes (Mn-LTSL) with proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermometry to measure absolute temperature in tumors with high spatial and temporal resolution using MRI. Methods Liposomes were loaded with 300mM MnSO4. The phase transition temperature (Tm) of Mn-LTSL samples was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The release of manganese from Mn-LTSL in saline was characterized with inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. A 2T GE small animal scanner was used to acquire dynamic T1-weighted images and temperature change images of Mn-LTSL in saline phantoms and fibrosarcoma-bearing Fisher 344 rats receiving hyperthermia after Mn-LTSL injection. Results The Tm of Mn-LTSL in rat blood was 42.9 ± 0.2 °C (DSC). For Mn-LTSL samples (0.06mM – 0.5mM Mn2+ in saline) heated monotonically from 30°C to 50°C, a peak in the rate of MRI signal enhancement occurred at 43.1 ± 0.3 °C. The same peak in signal enhancement rate was observed during heating of fibrosarcoma tumors (N=3) after injection of Mn-LTSL, and the peak was used to convert temperature change images into absolute temperature. Accuracies of calibrated temperature measurements were in the range 0.9 – 1.8°C. Conclusion The release of Mn2+ from Mn-LTSL affects the rate of MR signal enhancement which enables conversion of MRI-based temperature change images to absolute temperature. PMID:23957326

  8. A new Ultra Precision Interferometer for absolute length measurements down to cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.; Walkov, A.; Zenker, M.; Bartl, G.; Meeß, R.; Hagedorn, D.; Gaiser, C.; Thummes, G.; Heltzel, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new Ultra Precision Interferometer (UPI) was built at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. As its precursor, the precision interferometer, it was designed for highly precise absolute length measurements of prismatic bodies, e.g. gauge blocks, under well-defined temperature conditions and pressure, making use of phase stepping imaging interferometry. The UPI enables a number of enhanced features, e.g. it is designed for a much better lateral resolution and better temperature stability. In addition to the original concept, the UPI is equipped with an external measurement pathway (EMP) in which a prismatic body can be placed alternatively. The temperature of the EMP can be controlled in a much wider range compared to the temperature of the interferometer's main chamber. An appropriate cryostat system, a precision temperature measurement system and improved imaging interferometry were established to permit absolute length measurements down to cryogenic temperature, demonstrated for the first time ever. Results of such measurements are important for studying thermal expansion of materials from room temperature towards less than 10 K.

  9. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  10. Time-series modeling and prediction of global monthly absolute temperature for environmental decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Van Ranst, Eric; Tang, Huajun

    2013-03-01

    A generalized, structural, time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature, one of the most important environmental parameters, using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach. Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset, the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record. Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal, involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method, respectively, while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal, involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models. A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years. The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors, suggesting that DSC models, when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models, can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (˜10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  11. A new weighted mean temperature model in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinghong; Yao, Yibin; Sang, Jizhang

    2018-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been applied in meteorology to monitor the change of Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) in atmosphere, transformed from Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD). A key factor in converting the ZWD into the PWV is the weighted mean temperature (Tm), which has a direct impact on the accuracy of the transformation. A number of Bevis-type models, like Tm -Ts and Tm -Ts,Ps type models, have been developed by statistics approaches, and are not able to clearly depict the relationship between Tm and the surface temperature, Ts . A new model for Tm , called weighted mean temperature norm model (abbreviated as norm model), is derived as a function of Ts , the lapse rate of temperature, δ, the tropopause height, htrop , and the radiosonde station height, hs . It is found that Tm is better related to Ts through an intermediate temperature. The small effects of lapse rate can be ignored and the tropopause height be obtained from an empirical model. Then the norm model is reduced to a simplified form, which causes fewer loss of accuracy and needs two inputs, Ts and hs . In site-specific fittings, the norm model performs much better, with RMS values reduced averagely by 0.45 K and the Mean of Absolute Differences (MAD) values by 0.2 K. The norm model is also found more appropriate than the linear models to fit Tm in a large area, not only with the RMS value reduced from 4.3 K to 3.80 K, correlation coefficient R2 increased from 0.84 to 0.88, and MAD decreased from 3.24 K to 2.90 K, but also with the distribution of simplified model values to be more reasonable. The RMS and MAD values of the differences between reference and computed PWVs are reduced by on average 16.3% and 14.27%, respectively, when using the new norm models instead of the linear model.

  12. The upper atmosphere of Uranus - Mean temperature and temperature variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, E.; Elliot, J. L.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The number-density, pressure, and temperature profiles of the Uranian atmosphere in the pressure interval from 0.3 to 30 dynes/sq cm are derived from observations of the occultation of SAO 158687 by Uranus on 1977 March 10, observations made from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and the Cape Town station of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The mean temperature is found to be about 95 K, but peak-to-peak variations from 10 K to 20 K or more exist on a scale of 150 km or 3 scale heights. The existence of a thermal inversion is established, but the inversion is much weaker than the analogous inversion on Neptune. The mean temperature can be explained by solar heating in the 3.3 micron methane band with a methane mixing ratio of 4 x 10 to the -6th combined with the cooling effect of ethane with a mixing ratio of not greater than 4 x 10 to the -6th. The temperature variations are probably due to a photochemical process that has formed a Chapman layer.

  13. Application of Mean of Absolute Deviation Method for the Selection of Best Nonlinear Component Based on Video Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anees, Amir; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation (MAD) method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, MAD is applied to advanced encryption standard (AES), affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J., Residue Prime, S8 AES, SKIPJACK, and Xyi substitution boxes.

  14. Review of deformation behavior of tungsten at temperature less than 0.2 absolute melting temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures 0.2 T sub m is reviewed, with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition temperature. It appears that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research is discussed which suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. It is concluded that future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of tungsten alloys and other transition metal alloys.

  15. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  16. Ideal Gas with a Varying (Negative Absolute) Temperature: an Alternative to Dark Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita; Corda, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The present work is an attempt to investigate whether the evolutionary history of the Universe from the offset of inflation can be described by assuming the cosmic fluid to be an ideal gas with a specific gas constant but a varying negative absolute temperature (NAT). The motivation of this work is to search for an alternative to the "exotic" and "supernatural" dark energy (DE). In fact, the NAT works as an "effective quintessence" and there is need to deal neither with exotic matter like DE nor with modified gravity theories. For the sake of completeness, we release some clarifications on NATs in Section 3 of the paper.

  17. Overcoming Relativism and Absolutism: Dewey's Ideals of Truth and Meaning in Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleazby, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Different notions of truth imply and encourage different ideals of thinking, knowledge, meaning, and learning. Thus, these concepts have fundamental importance for educational theory and practice. In this paper, I intend to draw out and clarify the notions of truth, knowledge and meaning that are implied by P4C's pedagogical ideals. There is some…

  18. Development of Gravidynamical Equations for a Weakly Gravitating Body in the Vicinity of Absolute Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander M.

    2002-01-01

    the framework of this model bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. The consistency of the statistical model with the Einstein general relativity3,4,5 has been shown. In the work6, which is a continuation of the paper2, it was investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression (contraction) of a spheroidal body close to an unstable meñhanical equilibrium state (a low mass flow), therefore the process of the gravitational contraction appears slowly developing in time (the case of unobservable velocities of particles composing a spheroidal body). For this case in the work7 it has been shown that the strength and potential of the gravitational field of a slowly contracting spheroidal body satisfy a differential equation of the second order of the parabolic type for the case of unobservable velocities of particles. Therefore gravitational waves of a soliton type are propagated in a weakly gravitating spheroidal body if values of velocities are unobservable. body. In the connection with the above-given statements, in the present paper the following assumptions are used: 1.The spheroidal body under consideration is homogeneous in its chemical structure, i.e. it consists of identical particles with the mass m0. 2.The spheroidal body is not subjected to influence of external fields and bodies. 3.The spheroidal body is isothermal and has temperature close to the absolute zero. 4.The concentration gradient is not too large in the sense that interphase boundaries are absent inside the spheroidal body. 5. In view of low values of the temperature the heat conduction and viscosity processes are not important, which allows to describe the rotation of the spheroidal body as a whole, while movement of flows of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body is modeled by means of a motion of an ideal medium (the case of observable velocities of particles). 6.Since the process of the gravitational compression

  19. Future changes over the Himalayas: Mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Kumar, D.; Choudhary, A.; Maharana, P.

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the projection of near surface air temperature over the Himalayan region from the COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment- South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) regional climate model (RCM) experiments have been carried out for different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The purpose of this study is to assess the probable future changes in the mean temperature climatology and its long term trend for different seasons under greenhouse gas forcing scenarios for different seasons till the end of 21st century. A number of statistical measures such as changes in mean climatology, long term trend and probability distribution function have been used in order to detect the signals of changes in climate. Moreover, the associated uncertainties among different model experiments and their ensemble in space, time and different seasons in particular have been quantified. Despite of strong cold bias in the model experiments over Himalayan region (Nengker et al., 2017), statistically significant strong rate of warming (0.03-0.09 °C/year) across all the seasons and RCPs have been projected by all the models and their ensemble. Season specific response towards the warming is indicated by ensemble under future climate while ON season shows comparable magnitude of warming than DJF. Such warming intensifies with the increase in the radiative forcing under a range of greenhouse gas scenarios from RCP2.6 to RCP8.5. In addition to this, a wide range of spatial variability and disagreements in the trend magnitude between different models describes the uncertainty associated with the model projections and scenarios. A substantial seasonal response to warming with respect to elevation was also found, as DJF season followed by ON portrays highest rate of warming, specifically at higher elevation sites such as western Himalayas and northern part of central Himalayas. The different elevation classes respond differently to the projected future

  20. The impact of water temperature on the measurement of absolute dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed Mehdi

    To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar

  1. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  2. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  3. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    DOE PAGES

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; ...

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  4. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOEpatents

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  5. Lifespan metabolic potential of the unicellular organisms expressed by Boltzmann constant, absolute temperature and proton mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2016-12-01

    The unicellular organisms and phages are the first appeared fundamental living organisms on the Earth. The total metabolic energy (Els, J) of these organisms can be expressed by their lifespan metabolic potential (Als, J/kg) and body mass (M, kg): Els =Als M. In this study we found a different expression - by Boltzmann's constant (k, J/K), nucleon mass (mp+, kg) of protons (and neutrons), body mass (M, kg) of organism or mass (Ms) of biomolecules (proteins, nucleotides, polysaccharides and lipids) building organism, and the absolute temperature (T, K). The found equations are: Els= (M/mp+)kT for phages and Els=(Ms/mp+)kT for the unicellular organisms. From these equations the lifespan metabolic potential can be expressed as: Als=Els/M= (k/mp+)T for phages and Als=Els/M= (k/3.3mp+)T for unicellular organisms. The temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential (Als/T, J/K.kg) is equals to the ratio between Boltzmann's constant and nucleon mass: Als/T=k/mp+ for phages and Als/T=k/3.3mp+ for unicellular organisms. The numerical value of the k/mp+ ratio is equals to 8.254×103 J/K.kg, and the numerical value of k/3.3mp+ ratio is equal to 2.497×103 J/K.kg. These values of temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential could be considered fundamental for the unicellular organisms.

  6. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  7. Global variability of mesospheric temperature: Mean temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Marianna G.; Evans, Wayne F. J.; Hernandez, G.; Offermann, Dirk; Takahashi, Hisao

    2004-12-01

    Daytime zonally (longitudinally) averaged temperatures from the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and nightly temperatures from various ground-based hydroxyl airglow observations are employed in the study of the global and seasonal variability of the upper mesospheric temperature field. The study examines the latitudinal variability of the annual cycle of mesospheric temperature at 75, 82, and 87 km employing 7 years (1991-1997) of WINDII mesospheric temperature data at latitudes from 20°S to 65°N at 75 km, 35°S to 65°N at 82 km, and from 45°S to 65°N at 87 km height. Particular attention is given to the latitude region of ±40° around the equator. Harmonic analysis of the 7-year temperature time series reveals the presence of a dominant annual, ˜90- and 60-day oscillations at high northern latitudes and a strong semiannual oscillation (SAO) at equatorial and tropical latitudes. A quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is also identified extending from 45°S to 65°N. At 75 km the SAO is manifested as minima in the temperature composites at spring and fall equinox and maxima at winter and summer solstice; at 87 km the SAO is out of phase with respect to the 75-km SAO, with maxima at equinox and minima around the solstice periods. The phase reversal takes place around 82 km and is associated with a mesospheric temperature inversion between 77 and 86 km height. Accounting for tidal contribution by adopting tidal predictions by the Extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) shows that a strong temperature decrease (˜35 K) seen during the 1993 March equinox at equatorial and tropical latitudes is not associated with solar migrating tides. WINDII global climatology derived at 75, 82, and 87 km revealed mesospheric SAO asymmetry with a stronger September equinox and interhemispheric asymmetry with a quieter and colder southern hemisphere. Comparisons with independent ground-based observations and the Solar

  8. Drug Treated Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Bipolar Disorder Patients Evaluated by qEEG Absolute Spectral Power and Mean Frequency Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients.

  9. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk <λrk > c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk <νrk > c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  10. Beyond the Mean: Biological Impacts of Cryptic Temperature Change.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kimberly S; Dillon, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Studies have typically used shifts in mean temperatures to make predictions about the biotic impacts of climate change. Though shifts in mean temperatures correlate with changes in phenology and distributions, other hidden, or cryptic, changes in temperature, such as temperature variation and extreme temperatures, could pose greater risks to species and ecological communities. Yet, these cryptic temperature changes have received relatively little attention because mean temperatures are readily available and the organism-appropriate temperature response is often elusive. An alternative to using mean temperatures is to view organisms as physiological filters of hourly temperature data. We explored three classes of physiological filters: (1) nonlinear thermal responses using performance curves of insect fitness, (2) cumulative thermal effects using degree-day models for corn emergence, and (3) threshold temperature effects using critical thermal maxima and minima for diverse ectotherms. For all three physiological filters, we determined the change in biological impacts of hourly temperature data from a standard reference period (1961-90) to a current period (2005-10). We then examined how well mean temperature changes during the same time period predicted the biotic impacts we determined from hourly temperature data. In all cases, mean temperature alone provided poor predictions of the impacts of climate change. These results suggest that incorporating high frequency temperature data can provide better predictions for how species will respond to temperature change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Absolute-length determination of a long-baseline Fabry-Perot cavity by means of resonating modulation sidebands.

    PubMed

    Araya, A; Telada, S; Tochikubo, K; Taniguchi, S; Takahashi, R; Kawabe, K; Tatsumi, D; Yamazaki, T; Kawamura, S; Miyoki, S; Moriwaki, S; Musha, M; Nagano, S; Fujimoto, M K; Horikoshi, K; Mio, N; Naito, Y; Takamori, A; Yamamoto, K

    1999-05-01

    A new method has been demonstrated for absolute-length measurements of a long-baseline Fabry-Perot cavity by use of phase-modulated light. This method is based on determination of a free spectral range (FSR) of the cavity from the frequency difference between a carrier and phase-modulation sidebands, both of which resonate in the cavity. Sensitive response of the Fabry-Perot cavity near resonant frequencies ensures accurate determination of the FSR and thus of the absolute length of the cavity. This method was applied to a 300-m Fabry-Perot cavity of the TAMA gravitational wave detector that is being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo. With a modulation frequency of approximately 12 MHz, we successfully determined the absolute cavity length with resolution of 1 microm (3 x 10(-9) in strain) and observed local ground strain variations of 6 x 10(-8).

  13. Spatiotemporal trends in mean temperatures and aridity index over Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhire, I.; Ahmed, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at quantifying the trends in mean temperatures and aridity index over Rwanda for the period of 1961-1992, based on analysis of climatic data (temperatures, precipitations, and potential evapotranspiration). The analysis of magnitude and significance of trends in temperatures and aridity index show the degree of climate change and mark the level of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g., droughts) in different areas of the country. The study reveals that mean temperatures increased in most parts of the country, with a significant increase observed in the eastern lowlands and in the southwestern parts. The highlands located in the northwest and the Congo-Nile crest showed a nonsignificant increase in mean temperatures. Aridity index increased only in March, April, October, and November, corresponding with the rainy seasons. The remaining months of the year showed a decreasing trend. At an annual resolution, the highlands and the western region showed a rise in aridity index with a decreasing pattern over the eastern lowlands and the central plateau. Generally, the highlands presented a nonsignificant increase in mean temperatures and aridity index especially during the rainy seasons. The eastern lowlands showed a significant increase in mean temperatures and decreasing trends in aridity index. Therefore, these areas are bound to experience more droughts, leading to reduced water and consequent decline in agricultural production. On the other hand, the north highlands and southwest region will continue to be more productive.

  14. THERMAL COMFORT IN RELATION TO MEAN SKIN TEMPERATURE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Nude men were exposed to a range of ambient temperatures and were brought to a condition of thermal comfort by adjustment of the incident radiation...was evident that mean skin temperature, per se, was not a dependable criterion of thermal comfort . (Author)

  15. Rebased Global Mean Temperature comparisons between Global Climate Models and observed Global Mean Temperature: constraints and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.

    2017-12-01

    One of the benchmarks of global climate models (GCMs) is that their slow, decadal or longer timescale variations in past changes in Global Mean Temperature (GMT) track each other [1] and the observed GMT reasonably closely. However, the different GCMs tend to generate GMT time-series which have absolute values that are offset with respect to each other by as much as 3 degrees [2]. Subtracting these offsets, or rebasing, is an integral part of comparisons between observed past GMT and the GMT anomalies generated by ensembles of GCMs. We will formalize how rebasing introduces constraints in how the GCMs are related to each other. The GMT of a given GCM is a macroscopic reduced variable that tracks a subset of the full information contained in the time evolving solution of that GCM. If the GMT slow timescale dynamics of different GCMs is to a good approximation the same subject to a linear translation, then the phenomenology captured by this dynamics is essentially linear. Feedbacks in the different models when expressed through GMT are then to leading order linear. It then follows that a linear energy balance evolution equation for GMT is sufficient to reproduce the slow timescale GMT dynamics, given the appropriate effective heat capacity and feedback parameters. As a consequence, the GMT timeseries future projections generated by the GCMs may underestimate the impact of, and uncertainty in, the outcomes of future forcing scenarios. The offset subtraction procedure identifies a slow time-scale dynamics in model generated GMT. Fluctuations on much faster timescales do not typically track each other from one GCM to another, with the exception of major forcing events such as volcanic eruptions. This suggests that the GMT time-series can be decomposed into a slow and fast timescale which naturally leads to stochastic reduced energy balance models for GMT. [1] IPCC Chapter 9 P743 and fig 9.8, IPCC TS.1 [2] see e.g. [Mauritsen et al., Tuning the Climate of a Global Model

  16. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  17. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  18. Global Mean Temperature Timeseries Projections from GCMs: The Implications of Rebasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate models are assessed by comparison with observations through several benchmarks. One highlighted by the InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is their ability to reproduce "general features of the global and annual mean surface temperature changes over the historical period" [1,2] and to simulate "a trend in global-mean surface temperature from 1951 to 2012 that agrees with the observed trend" [3]. These aspects of annual mean global mean temperature (GMT) change are presented as one feature demonstrating the relevance of these models for climate projections. Here we consider a formal interpretation of "general features" and discuss the implications of this approach to model assessment and intercomparison, for the interpretation of GCM projections. Following the IPCC, we interpret a major element of "general features" as being the slow timescale response to external forcings. (Shorter timescale behaviour such as the response to volcanic eruptions are also elements of "general features" but are not considered here.) Also following the IPCC, we consider only GMT anomalies. The models have absolute temperatures which range over about 3K so this means their timeseries (and the observations) are rebased. We show that rebasing in combination with general agreement, implies a separation of scales which limits the degree to which sub-global behaviour can feedback on the global response. It also implies a degree of linearity in the GMT slow timescale response. For each individual model these implications only apply over the range of absolute temperatures simulated by the model in historic simulations. Taken together, however, they imply consequences over a wider range of GMTs. [1] IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group 1, Technical Summary: Stocker et al. 2013. [2] IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group 1, Chapter 9 - "Evaluation of Climate Models": Flato et al. 2013. [3] IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group 1, Summary for Policy

  19. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  20. A Numeric Study of the Dependence of the Surface Temperature of Beta-Layered Regions on Absolute Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Ebey, Peter S.; Asaki, Thomas J.; Hoffer, James K.

    2000-01-15

    Beta-layering of deuterium-tritium (D-T) ice in spherical shell geometries is numerically and analytically considered to investigate the relationship between temperature differences that arise because of inner-surface perturbations and the absolute shell thickness. The calculations use dimensions based on a proposed design of an inertial confinement fusion target for use at the National Ignition Facility. The temperature differences are calculated within D-T ice shells of varying total thicknesses, and the temperature differences calculated in three dimensions are compared both to the one-dimensional results and to the expected limits in three dimensions for long- and short-wavelength surface perturbations. The three-dimensional numeric resultsmore » agree well with both the long- and short-wavelength limits; the region of crossover from short- to long-wavelength behavior is mapped out. Temperature differences due to surface perturbations are proportional to D-T layer thickness in one-dimensional systems but not in three-dimensional spherical shells. In spherical shells, surface perturbations of long wavelength give rise to temperature perturbations that are approximately proportional to the total shell thickness, while for short-wavelength perturbations, the temperature differences are inversely related to total shell thickness. In contrast to the one-dimensional result, we find that in three dimensions there is not a general relationship between shell thickness and surface temperature differences.« less

  1. Statistical downscaling of mean temperature, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is considered to be one of the greatest environmental threats. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool used for studying climate change. However, GCMs are limited because of their coarse spatial resolution and inability to resolve important sub-grid scale features such as terrain and clouds. Statistical downscaling methods can be used to downscale large-scale variables to local-scale. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) in downscaling the outputs from Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM). The study focus on the the Loess Plateau, China, and the variables for downscaling include daily mean temperature (TMEAN), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN). The results show that SDSM performs well for these three climatic variables on the Loess Plateau. After downscaling, the root mean square errors for TMEAN, TMAX, TMIN for BNU-ESM were reduced by 70.9%, 75.1%, and 67.2%, respectively. All the rates of change in TMEAN, TMAX and TMIN during the 21st century decreased after SDSM downscaling. We also show that SDSM can effectively reduce uncertainty, compared with the raw model outputs. TMEAN uncertainty was reduced by 27.1%, 26.8%, and 16.3% for the future scenarios of RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. The corresponding reductions in uncertainty were 23.6%, 30.7%, and 18.7% for TMAX; 37.6%, 31.8%, and 23.2% for TMIN.

  2. Statistical downscaling of mean temperature, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiang; Miao, Chiyuan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is considered to be one of the greatest environmental threats. This has urged scientific communities to focus on the hot topic. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool used for studying climate change. However, GCMs are limited because of their coarse spatial resolution and inability to resolve important sub-grid scale features such as terrain and clouds. Statistical downscaling methods can be used to downscale large-scale variables to local-scale. In this study, we assess the applicability of the widely used Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) for the Loess Plateau, China. The observed variables included daily mean temperature (TMEAN), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) from 1961 to 2005. The and the daily atmospheric data were taken from reanalysis data from 1961 to 2005, and global climate model outputs from Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM) from 1961 to 2099 and from observations . The results show that SDSM performs well for these three climatic variables on the Loess Plateau. After downscaling, the root mean square errors for TMEAN, TMAX, TMIN for BNU-ESM were reduced by 70.9%, 75.1%, and 67.2%, respectively. All the rates of change in TMEAN, TMAX and TMIN during the 21st century decreased after SDSM downscaling. We also show that SDSM can effectively reduce uncertainty, compared with the raw model outputs. TMEAN uncertainty was reduced by 27.1%, 26.8%, and 16.3% for the future scenarios of RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. The corresponding reductions in uncertainty were 23.6%, 30.7%, and 18.7% for TMAX, ; and 37.6%, 31.8%, and 23.2% for TMIN.

  3. Absolute brightness modeling for improved measurement of electron temperature from soft x-rays on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, L. M.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; van Meter, P.

    2017-10-01

    The two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic on MST is now capable of Te measurement down to 500 eV. The previous lower limit was 1 keV, due to the presence of SXR emission lines from Al sputtered from the MST wall. The two-color technique uses two filters of different thickness to form a coarse spectrometer to estimate the slope of the continuum x-ray spectrum, which depends on Te. The 1.6 - 2.0 keV Al emission lines were previously filtered out by using thick Be filters (400 µm and 800 µm), thus restricting the range of the SXT diagnostic to Te >= 1 keV. Absolute brightness modeling explicitly includes several sources of radiation in the analysis model, enabling the use of thinner filters and measurement of much lower Te. Models based on the atomic database and analysis structure (ADAS) agree very well with our experimental SXR measurements. We used ADAS to assess the effect of bremsstrahlung, recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line emission on the inferred Te. This assessment informed the choice of the optimum filter pair to extend the Te range of the SXT diagnostic. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  4. Links between teleconnection patterns and mean temperature in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ríos-Cornejo, David; Penas, Ángel; Álvarez-Esteban, Ramón; del Río, Sara

    2015-10-01

    This work describes the relationships between Spanish temperature and four teleconnection patterns with influence on the Iberian Peninsula on monthly, seasonal and annual time scales, using data from 144 meteorological stations. Partial correlation analyses were carried out using Spearman test, and spatial distribution maps of the correlation coefficients were produced with geostatistical interpolation techniques. We regionalize the study area based on homogeneous areas containing weather stations with a similar response of temperatures to the same patterns. The links between the temperature and the patterns are mainly positive; only the correlations with Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) in the north and west are negative, indicating that WeMO plays an opposed role in temperature behaviour in Spain. In general terms, the four modes exert considerable influence on temperature in February, May and September. The East Atlantic (EA) is the pattern with the strongest influence on temperature in Spain—mainly in the north—except in June. Generally, on the seasonal and annual scales, large significant areas were only observed for the EA. EA and WeMO best account for the mean temperature on the Mediterranean fringe and in northern Spain, while EA and North Atlantic Oscillation largely explain the temperature in the rest of Spain.

  5. A density-functional study of the phase diagram of cementite-type (Fe,Mn)3C at absolute zero temperature.

    PubMed

    Von Appen, Jörg; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard

    2010-11-15

    The phase diagram of (Fe(1-x) Mn(x))(3)C has been investigated by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations at absolute zero temperature. The atomic distributions of the metal atoms are not random-like as previously proposed but we find three different, ordered regions within the phase range. The key role is played by the 8d metal site which forms, as a function of the composition, differing magnetic layers, and these dominate the physical properties. We calculated the magnetic moments, the volumes, the enthalpies of mixing and formation of 13 different compositions and explain the changes of the macroscopic properties with changes in the electronic and magnetic structures by means of bonding analyses using the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) technique. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of temperature on the ground state of a strongly-coupling magnetic polaron and mean phonon number in RbCl quantum pseudodot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Ding, Zhao-Hua; Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    On the condition of strong electron-LO phonon coupling in a RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD), the ground state energy and the mean number of phonons are calculated by using the Pekar variational method and quantum statistical theory. The variations of the ground state energy and the mean number with respect to the temperature and the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field are studied in detail. We find that the absolute value of the ground state energy increases (decreases) with increasing temperature when the temperature is in the lower (higher) temperature region, and that the mean number increases with increasing temperature. The absolute value of the ground state energy is a decreasing function of the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field whereas the mean number is an increasing function of it. We find two ways to tune the ground state energy and the mean number: controlling the temperature and controlling the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field.

  7. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  8. Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition.

    PubMed

    Bereiter, Bernhard; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji; Severinghaus, Jeff

    2018-01-03

    Little is known about the ocean temperature's long-term response to climate perturbations owing to limited observations and a lack of robust reconstructions. Although most of the anthropogenic heat added to the climate system has been taken up by the ocean up until now, its role in a century and beyond is uncertain. Here, using noble gases trapped in ice cores, we show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.57 ± 0.24 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition (20,000 to 10,000 years ago). Our reconstruction provides unprecedented precision and temporal resolution for the integrated global ocean, in contrast to the depth-, region-, organism- and season-specific estimates provided by other methods. We find that the mean global ocean temperature is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature and has no lead or lag with atmospheric CO 2 , thereby confirming the important role of Southern Hemisphere climate in global climate trends. We also reveal an enigmatic 700-year warming during the early Younger Dryas period (about 12,000 years ago) that surpasses estimates of modern ocean heat uptake.

  9. The brightness temperature of Venus and the absolute flux-density scale at 608 MHz.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Berge, G. L.; Orton, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    The disk temperature of Venus was measured at 608 MHz near the inferior conjunction of 1972, and a value of 498 plus or minus 33 K was obtained using a nominal CKL flux-density scale. The result is consistent with earlier measurements, but has a much smaller uncertainty. Our theoretical model prediction is larger by a factor of 1.21 plus or minus 0.09. This discrepancy has been noticed previously for frequencies below 1400 MHz, but was generally disregarded because of the large observational uncertainties. No way could be found to change the model to produce agreement without causing a conflict with well-established properties of Venus. Thus it is suggested that the flux-density scale may require an upward revision, at least near this frequency, in excess of what has previously been considered likely.

  10. Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, Bernhard; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji; Severinghaus, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the ocean temperature’s long-term response to climate perturbations owing to limited observations and a lack of robust reconstructions. Although most of the anthropogenic heat added to the climate system has been taken up by the ocean up until now, its role in a century and beyond is uncertain. Here, using noble gases trapped in ice cores, we show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.57 ± 0.24 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition (20,000 to 10,000 years ago). Our reconstruction provides unprecedented precision and temporal resolution for the integrated global ocean, in contrast to the depth-, region-, organism- and season-specific estimates provided by other methods. We find that the mean global ocean temperature is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature and has no lead or lag with atmospheric CO2, thereby confirming the important role of Southern Hemisphere climate in global climate trends. We also reveal an enigmatic 700-year warming during the early Younger Dryas period (about 12,000 years ago) that surpasses estimates of modern ocean heat uptake.

  11. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  12. Role of Absolute Humidity in the Inactivation of Influenza Viruses on Stainless Steel Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James; Rudnick, Stephen; First, Melvin; Spengler, John

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus has been found to persist in the environment for hours to days, allowing for secondary transmission of influenza via inanimate objects known as fomites. We evaluated the efficacy of heat and moisture for the decontamination of surfaces for the purpose of preventing of the spread of influenza. Aqueous suspensions of influenza A virus were deposited onto stainless steel coupons, allowed to dry under ambient conditions, and exposed to temperatures of 55°C, 60°C, or 65°C and relative humidity (RH) of 25%, 50%, or 75% for up to 1 h. Quantitative virus assays were performed on the solution used to wash the viruses from these coupons, and results were compared with the solution used to wash coupons treated similarly but left under ambient conditions. Inactivation of influenza virus on surfaces increased with increasing temperature, RH, and exposure time. Reductions of greater than 5 logs of influenza virus on surfaces were achieved at temperatures of 60 and 65°C, exposure times of 30 and 60 min, and RH of 50 and 75%. Our data also suggest that absolute humidity is a better predictor of surface inactivation than RH and allows the prediction of survival using two parameters rather than three. Modest amounts of heat and adequate moisture can provide effective disinfection of surfaces while not harming surfaces, electrical systems, or mechanical components, leaving no harmful residues behind after treatment and requiring a relatively short amount of time. PMID:20435770

  13. Evaluation of Rock Surface Characterization by Means of Temperature Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Incekara, A. H.; Acar, A.; Kaya, S.; Bayram, B.; Sivri, N.

    2017-12-01

    Rocks have many different types which are formed over many years. Close range photogrammetry is a techniques widely used and preferred rather than other conventional methods. In this method, the photographs overlapping each other are the basic data source of the point cloud data which is the main data source for 3D model that provides analysts automation possibility. Due to irregular and complex structures of rocks, representation of their surfaces with a large number points is more effective. Color differences caused by weathering on the rock surfaces or naturally occurring make it possible to produce enough number of point clouds from the photographs. Objects such as small trees, shrubs and weeds on and around the surface also contribute to this. These differences and properties are important for efficient operation of pixel matching algorithms to generate adequate point cloud from photographs. In this study, possibilities of using temperature distribution for interpretation of roughness of rock surface which is one of the parameters representing the surface, was investigated. For the study, a small rock which is in size of 3 m x 1 m, located at ITU Ayazaga Campus was selected as study object. Two different methods were used. The first one is production of producing choropleth map by interpolation using temperature values of control points marked on object which were also used in 3D model. 3D object model was created with the help of terrestrial photographs and 12 control points marked on the object and coordinated. Temperature value of control points were measured by using infrared thermometer and used as basic data source in order to create choropleth map with interpolation. Temperature values range from 32 to 37.2 degrees. In the second method, 3D object model was produced by means of terrestrial thermal photographs. Fort this purpose, several terrestrial photographs were taken by thermal camera and 3D object model showing temperature distribution was created

  14. Is the global mean temperature trend too low?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The global mean temperature trend may be biased due to similar technological and economic developments worldwide. In this study we want to present a number of recent results that suggest that the global mean temperature trend might be steeper as generally thought. In the Global Historical Climate Network version 3 (GHCNv3) the global land surface temperature is estimated to have increased by about 0.8°C between 1880 and 2012. In the raw temperature record, the increase is 0.6°C; the 0.2°C difference is due to homogenization adjustments. Given that homogenization can only reduce biases, this 0.2°C stems from a partial correction of bias errors and it seems likely that the real non-climatic trend bias will be larger. Especially in regions with sparser networks, homogenization will not be able to improve the trend much. Thus if the trend bias in these regions is similar to the bias for more dense networks (industrialized countries), one would expect the real bias to be larger. Stations in sparse networks are representative for a larger region and are given more weight in the computation of the global mean temperature. If all stations are given equal weight, the homogenization adjustments of the GHCNv3 dataset are about 0.4°C per century. In the subdaily HadISH dataset one break with mean size 0.12°C is found every 15 years for the period 1973-2013. That would be a trend bias of 0.78°C per century on a station by station basis. Unfortunately, these estimates strongly focus on Western countries having more stations. It is known from the literature that rich countries have a (statistically insignificant) stronger trend in the global datasets. Regional datasets can be better homogenized than global ones, the main reason being that global datasets do not contain all stations known to the weather services. Furthermore, global datasets use automatic homogenization methods and have less or no metadata. Thus while regional data can be biased themselves, comparing them

  15. Trends and associated uncertainty in the global mean temperature record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppick, A. N.; Moyer, E. J.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    Physical models suggest that the Earth's mean temperature warms in response to changing CO2 concentrations (and hence increased radiative forcing); given physical uncertainties in this relationship, the historical temperature record is a source of empirical information about global warming. A persistent thread in many analyses of the historical temperature record, however, is the reliance on methods that appear to deemphasize both physical and statistical assumptions. Examples include regression models that treat time rather than radiative forcing as the relevant covariate, and time series methods that account for natural variability in nonparametric rather than parametric ways. We show here that methods that deemphasize assumptions can limit the scope of analysis and can lead to misleading inferences, particularly in the setting considered where the data record is relatively short and the scale of temporal correlation is relatively long. A proposed model that is simple but physically informed provides a more reliable estimate of trends and allows a broader array of questions to be addressed. In accounting for uncertainty, we also illustrate how parametric statistical models that are attuned to the important characteristics of natural variability can be more reliable than ostensibly more flexible approaches.

  16. Western Arctic Temperature Sensitivity Varies under Different Mean States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, W.; Russell, J. M.; Morrill, C.; Longo, W. M.; Giblin, A. E.; Holland-Stergar, P.; Hu, A.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere on earth. Predictions of future change, however, are hindered by uncertainty in the mechanisms that underpin Arctic amplification. Data from Beringia (Alaska and Eastern Siberia) are particularly inconclusive with regards to both glacial-interglacial climate change as well as the presence or absence of abrupt climate change events such as the Younger Dryas. Here we investigate temperature change in Beringia from the last glacial maximum (LGM) to present using a unique 30 kyr lacustrine record of leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δDwax) from Northern Alaska. We evaluate our results in the context of PMIP3 climate simulations as well as sensitivity tests of the effects of sea level and Bering Strait closure on Arctic Alaskan climate. The amplitude of LGM cooling in Alaska (-3.2 °C relative to pre-industrial) is smaller than other parts of North America and areas proximal to LGM ice sheets, but similar to Arctic Asia and Europe. This suggests that the local feedbacks (vegetation, etc.) had limited impacts on regional temperatures during the last ice-age, and suggests most of the Arctic exhibited similar responses to global climate boundary conditions. Deglacial warming was superimposed by a series of rapid warming events that encompass most of the temperature increase. These events are largely synchronous with abrupt events in the North Atlantic, but are amplified, muted, or even reversed in comparison depending on the mean climate state. For example, we observe warming during Heinrich 1 and during the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge, which are associated with cooling in the North Atlantic. Climate modeling suggests that opening of the Bering Strait controlled the amplitude and sign of millennial-scale temperature changes across the glacial termination.

  17. A neural network model for predicting weighted mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Maohua

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor is an important element of the Earth's atmosphere, and most of it concentrates at the bottom of the troposphere. Knowledge of the water vapor measured by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is an important direction of GNSS research. In particular, when the zenith wet delay is converted to precipitable water vapor, the weighted mean temperature T_m is a variable parameter to be determined in this conversion. The purpose of the study is getting a more accurate T_m model for global users by a combination of two different characteristics of T_m (i.e., the T_m seasonal variations and the relationships between T_m and surface meteorological elements). The modeling process was carried out by using the neural network technology. A multilayer feedforward neural network model (the NN) was established. The NN model is used with measurements of only surface temperature T_S . The NN was validated and compared with four other published global T_m models. The results show that the NN performed better than any of the four compared models on the global scale.

  18. Estimating trends in the global mean temperature record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppick, Andrew; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Stein, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    Given uncertainties in physical theory and numerical climate simulations, the historical temperature record is often used as a source of empirical information about climate change. Many historical trend analyses appear to de-emphasize physical and statistical assumptions: examples include regression models that treat time rather than radiative forcing as the relevant covariate, and time series methods that account for internal variability in nonparametric rather than parametric ways. However, given a limited data record and the presence of internal variability, estimating radiatively forced temperature trends in the historical record necessarily requires some assumptions. Ostensibly empirical methods can also involve an inherent conflict in assumptions: they require data records that are short enough for naive trend models to be applicable, but long enough for long-timescale internal variability to be accounted for. In the context of global mean temperatures, empirical methods that appear to de-emphasize assumptions can therefore produce misleading inferences, because the trend over the twentieth century is complex and the scale of temporal correlation is long relative to the length of the data record. We illustrate here how a simple but physically motivated trend model can provide better-fitting and more broadly applicable trend estimates and can allow for a wider array of questions to be addressed. In particular, the model allows one to distinguish, within a single statistical framework, between uncertainties in the shorter-term vs. longer-term response to radiative forcing, with implications not only on historical trends but also on uncertainties in future projections. We also investigate the consequence on inferred uncertainties of the choice of a statistical description of internal variability. While nonparametric methods may seem to avoid making explicit assumptions, we demonstrate how even misspecified parametric statistical methods, if attuned to the

  19. Comprehensive modeling of monthly mean soil temperature using multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    Soil temperature (T s) and its thermal regime are the most important factors in plant growth, biological activities, and water movement in soil. Due to scarcity of the T s data, estimation of soil temperature is an important issue in different fields of sciences. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and support vector machine (SVM) methods for estimating the T s. For this aim, the monthly mean data of the T s (at depths of 5, 10, 50, and 100 cm) and meteorological parameters of 30 synoptic stations in Iran were utilized. To develop the MARS and SVM models, various combinations of minimum, maximum, and mean air temperatures (T min, T max, T); actual and maximum possible sunshine duration; sunshine duration ratio (n, N, n/N); actual, net, and extraterrestrial solar radiation data (R s, R n, R a); precipitation (P); relative humidity (RH); wind speed at 2 m height (u 2); and water vapor pressure (Vp) were used as input variables. Three error statistics including root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and determination coefficient (R 2) were used to check the performance of MARS and SVM models. The results indicated that the MARS was superior to the SVM at different depths. In the test and validation phases, the most accurate estimations for the MARS were obtained at the depth of 10 cm for T max, T min, T inputs (RMSE = 0.71 °C, MAE = 0.54 °C, and R 2 = 0.995) and for RH, V p, P, and u 2 inputs (RMSE = 0.80 °C, MAE = 0.61 °C, and R 2 = 0.996), respectively.

  20. Differences between true mean temperatures and means calculated with four different approaches: a case study from three Croatian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Željković, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Different countries use varied methods for daily mean temperature calculation. None of them assesses precisely the true daily mean temperature, which is defined as the integral of continuous temperature measurements in a day. Of special scientific as well as practical importance is to find out how temperatures calculated by different methods and approaches deviate from the true daily mean temperature. Five mean daily temperatures were calculated (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4) using five different equations. The mean of 24-h temperature observations during the calendar day is accepted to represent the true, daily mean T0. The differences Δ i between T0 and four other mean daily temperatures T1, T2, T3, and T4 were calculated and analysed. In the paper, analyses were done with hourly data measured in a period from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2014 (149,016 h, 192 months and 16 years) at three Croatian meteorological stations. The stations are situated in distinct climatological areas: Zagreb Grič in a mild climate, Zavižan in the cold mountain region and Dubrovnik in the hot Mediterranean. Influence of fog on the temperature is analysed. Special attention is given to analyses of extreme (maximum and minimum) daily differences occurred at three analysed stations. Selection of the fixed local hours, which is in use for calculation of mean daily temperature, plays a crucial role in diminishing of bias from the true daily temperature.

  1. The implications of rebasing global mean temperature timeseries for GCM based climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, David; Chapman, Sandra; Watkins, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Global climate and earth system models are assessed by comparison with observations through a number of metrics. The InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlights in particular their ability to reproduce "general features of the global and annual mean surface temperature changes over the historical period" [1,2] and to simulate "a trend in global-mean surface temperature from 1951 to 2012 that agrees with the observed trend" [3]. This focus on annual mean global mean temperature (hereafter GMT) change is presented as an important element in demonstrating the relevance of these models for climate projections. Any new model or new model version whose historic simulations fail to reproduce the "general features " and 20th century trends is likely therefore to undergo further tuning. Thus this focus could have implications for model development. Here we consider a formal interpretation of "general features" and discuss the implications of this approach to model assessment and intercomparison, for the interpretation of GCM projections. Following the IPCC, we interpret a major element of "general features" as being the slow timescale response to external forcings. (Shorter timescale behaviour such as the response to volcanic eruptions are also elements of "general features" but are not considered here.) Also following the IPCC, we consider only GMT anomalies i.e. changes with respect to some period. Since the models have absolute temperatures which range over about 3K (roughly observed GMT +/- 1.5K) this means their timeseries (and the observations) are rebased. We present timeseries of the slow timescale response of the CMIP5 models rebased to late-20th century temperatures and to mid-19th century temperatures. We provide a mathematical interpretation of this approach to model assessment and discuss two consequences. First is a separation of scales which limits the degree to which sub-global behaviour can feedback on the global response. Second, is an

  2. Land surface temperature over global deserts: Means, variability, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-12-01

    Land surface air temperature (LSAT) has been a widely used metric to study climate change. Weather observations of LSAT are the fundamental data for climate change studies and provide key evidence of global warming. However, there are very few meteorological observations over deserts due to their uninhabitable environment. This study fills this gap and provides independent evidence using satellite-derived land surface temperatures (LSTs), benefiting from their global coverage. The frequency of clear sky from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data over global deserts was found to be greater than 94% for the 2002-2015 period. Our results show that MODIS LST has a bias of 1.36°C compared to ground-based observations collected at 31 U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations, with a standard deviation of 1.83°C. After bias correction, MODIS LST was used to evaluate existing reanalyses, including ERA-Interim, Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), MERRA-land, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-R1, and NCEP-R2. The reanalyses accurately reproduce the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the LSTs, but their multiyear means and trends of LSTs exhibit large uncertainties. The multiyear averaged LST over global deserts is 23.5°C from MODIS and varies from 20.8°C to 24.5°C in different reanalyses. The MODIS LST over global deserts increased by 0.25°C/decade from 2002 to 2015, whereas the reanalyses estimated a trend varying from -0.14 to 0.10°C/decade. The underestimation of the LST trend by the reanalyses occurs for approximately 70% of the global deserts, likely due to the imperfect performance of the reanalyses in reproducing natural climate variability.

  3. Sensitivity of idealised baroclinic waves to mean atmospheric temperature and meridional temperature gradient changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantanen, Mika; Räisänen, Jouni; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Järvinen, Heikki

    2018-06-01

    The sensitivity of idealised baroclinic waves to different atmospheric temperature changes is studied. The temperature changes are based on those which are expected to occur in the Northern Hemisphere with climate change: (1) uniform temperature increase, (2) decrease of the lower level meridional temperature gradient, and (3) increase of the upper level temperature gradient. Three sets of experiments are performed, first without atmospheric moisture, thus seeking to identify the underlying adiabatic mechanisms which drive the response of extra-tropical storms to changes in the environmental temperature. Then, similar experiments are performed in a more realistic, moist environment, using fixed initial relative humidity distribution. Warming the atmosphere uniformly tends to decrease the kinetic energy of the cyclone, which is linked both to a weaker capability of the storm to exploit the available potential energy of the zonal mean flow, and less efficient production of eddy kinetic energy in the wave. Unsurprisingly, the decrease of the lower level temperature gradient weakens the resulting cyclone regardless of the presence of moisture. The increase of the temperature gradient in the upper troposphere has a more complicated influence on the storm dynamics: in the dry atmosphere the maximum eddy kinetic energy decreases, whereas in the moist case it increases. Our analysis suggests that the slightly unexpected decrease of eddy kinetic energy in the dry case with an increased upper tropospheric temperature gradient originates from the weakening of the meridional heat flux by the eddy. However, in the more realistic moist case, the diabatic heating enhances the interaction between upper- and low-level potential vorticity anomalies and hence helps the surface cyclone to exploit the increased upper level baroclinicity.

  4. Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie

    2013-10-01

    Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.

  5. Scaling future tropical cyclone damage with global mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, T.; Bresch, D.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the most damaging natural hazards and severely affectmany countries around the globe each year. Their nominal impact is projected to increasesubstantially as the exposed coastal population grows, per capita income increases, andanthropogenic climate change manifests. The magnitude of this increase, however, variesacross regions and is obscured by the stochastic behaviour of TCs, so far impeding arigorous quantification of trends in TC damage with global mean temperature (GMT) rise. Here, we build on the large sample of spatially explicit TCs simulations generated withinISIMIP(2b) for 1) pre-industrial conditions, 2) the historical period, and 3) future projectionsunder RCP2.6 and RCP6.0 to estimate future TC damage assuming fixed present-daysocio-economic conditions or SSP-based future projections of population patterns andincome. Damage estimates will be based on region-specific empirical damage modelsderived from reported damages and accounting for regional characteristics of vulnerability.Different combinations of 1) socio-economic drivers with pre-industrial climate or 2) changingclimate with fixed socio-economic conditions will be used to derive functional relationshipsbetween regionally aggregated changes in damages on one hand and global meantemperature and socio-economic predictors on the other hand. The obtained region-specific scaling of future TC damage with GMT provides valuable inputfor IPCC's special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C by quantifying theincremental changes in impact with global warming. The approach allows for an update ofdamage functions used in integrated assessment models, and contributes to assessing theadequateness of climate mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  6. Sensitivity of amplitude-phase characteristics of the surface air temperature annual cycle to variations in annual mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Guseva, M. S.

    2006-05-01

    The ERA40 and NCEP/NCAR data over 1958 1998 were used to estimate the sensitivity of amplitude-phase characteristics (APCs) of the annual cycle (AC) of the surface air temperature (SAT) T s. The results were compared with outputs of the ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and INM RAS general circulation models and the IAP RAS climate model of intermediate complexity, which were run with variations in greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosol specified over 1860 2100. The analysis was performed in terms of the linear regression coefficients b of SAT AC APCs on the local annual mean temperature and in terms of the sensitivity characteristic D = br 2, which takes into account not only the linear regression coefficient but also its statistical significance (via the correlation coefficient r). The reanalysis data were used to reveal the features of the tendencies of change in the SAT AC APCs in various regions, including areas near the snow-ice boundary, storm-track ocean regions, large desert areas, and the tropical Pacific. These results agree with earlier observations. The model computations are in fairly good agreement with the reanalysis data in regions of statistically significant variations in SAT AC APCs. The differences between individual models and the reanalysis data can be explained, in particular, in terms of the features of the sea-ice schemes used in the models. Over the land in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, the absolute values of D for the fall phase time and the interval of exceeding exhibit a positive intermodel correlation with the absolute value of D for the annual-harmonic amplitude. Over the ocean, the models reproducing larger (in modulus) sensitivity parameters of the SAT annual-harmonic amplitude are generally characterized by larger (in modulus) negative sensitivity values of the semiannual-harmonic amplitude T s, 2, especially at latitudes characteristic of the sea-ice boundary. In contrast to the averaged fields of AC APCs and their

  7. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  8. Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Augustine, John A.; Klett, James D.; ...

    2017-09-30

    At thousands of stations worldwide, the mean daily surface air temperature is estimated as a mean of the daily maximum (T max) and minimum (T min) temperatures. In this paper, we use the NOAA Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) of seven US stations with surface air temperature recorded each minute to assess the accuracy of the mean daily temperature estimate as an average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and to investigate how the accuracy of the estimate increases with an increasing number of daily temperature observations. We find the average difference between the estimate based on an averagemore » of the maximum and minimum temperatures and the average of 1440 1-min daily observations to be - 0.05 ± 1.56 °C, based on analyses of a sample of 238 days of temperature observations. Considering determination of the daily mean temperature based on 3, 4, 6, 12, or 24 daily temperature observations, we find that 2, 4, or 6 daily observations do not reduce significantly the uncertainty of the daily mean temperature. The bias reduction in a statistically significant manner (95% confidence level) occurs only with 12 or 24 daily observations. The daily mean temperature determination based on 24 hourly observations reduces the sample daily temperature uncertainty to - 0.01 ± 0.20 °C. Finally, estimating the parameters of population of all SURFRAD observations, the 95% confidence intervals based on 24 hourly measurements is from - 0.025 to 0.004 °C, compared to a confidence interval from - 0.15 to 0.05 °C based on the mean of T max and T min.« less

  9. Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Augustine, John A.; Klett, James D.

    At thousands of stations worldwide, the mean daily surface air temperature is estimated as a mean of the daily maximum (T max) and minimum (T min) temperatures. In this paper, we use the NOAA Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) of seven US stations with surface air temperature recorded each minute to assess the accuracy of the mean daily temperature estimate as an average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and to investigate how the accuracy of the estimate increases with an increasing number of daily temperature observations. We find the average difference between the estimate based on an averagemore » of the maximum and minimum temperatures and the average of 1440 1-min daily observations to be - 0.05 ± 1.56 °C, based on analyses of a sample of 238 days of temperature observations. Considering determination of the daily mean temperature based on 3, 4, 6, 12, or 24 daily temperature observations, we find that 2, 4, or 6 daily observations do not reduce significantly the uncertainty of the daily mean temperature. The bias reduction in a statistically significant manner (95% confidence level) occurs only with 12 or 24 daily observations. The daily mean temperature determination based on 24 hourly observations reduces the sample daily temperature uncertainty to - 0.01 ± 0.20 °C. Finally, estimating the parameters of population of all SURFRAD observations, the 95% confidence intervals based on 24 hourly measurements is from - 0.025 to 0.004 °C, compared to a confidence interval from - 0.15 to 0.05 °C based on the mean of T max and T min.« less

  10. Two-photon LIF on the HIT-SI3 experiment: Absolute density and temperature measurements of deuterium neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Drew; Sutherland, Derek; Siddiqui, Umair; Scime, Earl; Everson, Chris; Morgan, Kyle; Hossack, Aaron; Nelson, Brian; Jarboe, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed on the helicity injected torus (HIT-SI3) device to determine the density and temperature of the background neutral deuterium population. Measurements were taken in 2 ms long pulsed plasmas after the inductive helicity injectors were turned off. Attempts to measure neutrals during the main phase of the plasma were unsuccessful, likely due to the density of neutrals being below the detection threshold of the diagnostic. An unexpectedly low density of atomic deuterium was measured in the afterglow; roughly 100 times lower than the theoretical prediction of 1017 m-3. The neutral temperatures measured were on the order of 1 eV. Temporally and spatially resolved neutral density and temperature data are presented.

  11. Absolute determination of the cross sections of ozone in the wavelength region 339-355 nm at temperatures 220-293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, Marco; di Sarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio; Amoruso, Antonella

    1989-06-01

    Absolute measurements of the ozone absorption coefficient in the Huggins bands at different temperatures have been carried out. Ozone is produced by an electrical discharge and stored cryogenically; differential absorption measurements are subsequently obtained in a slowly evolving mixture of ozone and molecular oxygen. High resolution (to 0.012 nm) measurements cover a spectral range (339-355 nm) where the ozone absorption shows a strong dependence on temperature. Results at 293 and 220 K are reported; they are particularly interesting in view of the utilization of this spectral region as a low-absorption reference channel for the observation of atmospheric ozone profiles by active probing techniques. Coherent radiation at two wavelengths, around 355 and 353 nm, respectively, can be obtained as third harmonic of the fundamental output of an Nd:YAG laser and by H2 Raman shifting of an XeCl excimer laser output.

  12. Change in mean temperature as a predictor of extreme temperature change in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, G. M.; Chambers, L. E.; Haylock, M. R.; Manton, M. J.; Nicholls, N.; Baek, H.-J.; Choi, Y.; della-Marta, P. M.; Gosai, A.; Iga, N.; Lata, R.; Laurent, V.; Maitrepierre, L.; Nakamigawa, H.; Ouprasitwong, N.; Solofa, D.; Tahani, L.; Thuy, D. T.; Tibig, L.; Trewin, B.; Vediapan, K.; Zhai, P.

    2005-08-01

    Trends (1961-2003) in daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extremes and variance were found to be spatially coherent across the Asia-Pacific region. The majority of stations exhibited significant trends: increases in mean maximum and mean minimum temperature, decreases in cold nights and cool days, and increases in warm nights. No station showed a significant increase in cold days or cold nights, but a few sites showed significant decreases in hot days and warm nights. Significant decreases were observed in both maximum and minimum temperature standard deviation in China, Korea and some stations in Japan (probably reflecting urbanization effects), but also for some Thailand and coastal Australian sites. The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) region between Fiji and the Solomon Islands showed a significant increase in maximum temperature variability.Correlations between mean temperature and the frequency of extreme temperatures were strongest in the tropical Pacific Ocean from French Polynesia to Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and southern Japan. Correlations were weaker at continental or higher latitude locations, which may partly reflect urbanization.For non-urban stations, the dominant distribution change for both maximum and minimum temperature involved a change in the mean, impacting on one or both extremes, with no change in standard deviation. This occurred from French Polynesia to Papua New Guinea (except for maximum temperature changes near the SPCZ), in Malaysia, the Philippines, and several outlying Japanese islands. For urbanized stations the dominant change was a change in the mean and variance, impacting on one or both extremes. This result was particularly evident for minimum temperature.The results presented here, for non-urban tropical and maritime locations in the Asia-Pacific region, support the hypothesis that changes in mean temperature may be used to predict changes in extreme temperatures. At urbanized or higher

  13. A method for evaluating the mean preheat temperature in X-ray driven ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liling; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Dong, Yunsong; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiyan; Kuang, Longyu; jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei; Yang, Jiamin

    2015-03-01

    A novel method is proposed for evaluating the mean preheat temperature in X-ray driven ablation, based on the equation of state (EOS) of the ablator and the radiation hydrodynamic simulation. The equation of state of plastic (CH) has been discussed in detail. There are two types of planar CH in simulations, with the thick target being 10 μm thicker than the thin target. The difference between the transmission fluxes of the two types of targets can represent the energy absorbed by the last 10 μm of the thick target (or the preheated layer). This energy approximates the internal energy of the preheated layer. The mean preheat temperature of the preheated layer has also been obtained from simulations. The simulation results show that the relationship between the absorbed energy and the mean preheat temperature is similar to the EOS of CH for different conditions (e.g., different values of M-band fraction and radiation temperature) and can be written as ɛ=2.530 ×1011T¯ 1.444 when the mean preheat temperature is below 12 eV. For these cases, the relationship between the surface preheat temperature TS and the mean preheat temperature T ¯ was TS=0.63 T ¯ . This relation provides the means for demonstrating the proposed method, because the transmission fluxes and the surface preheat temperature TS can be measured experimentally.

  14. Mean state densities, temperatures and winds during the MAC/SINE and MAC/EPSILON campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebken, F.-J.; Von Zahn, U.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    Two field campaigns were conducted, primarily in northern Norway, in the summer and late autumn of 1987; these yielded a total of 41 in situ temperature profiles and 67 in situ wind profiles. Simultaneously, ground-based measurements were conducted of OH temperatures and sodium lidar temperatures for 85 and 104 hours, respectively. The summer campaign's mean temperature profile exhibited major deviations from the CIRA (1986) reference atmosphere; the differences between this model and the observations are less pronounced in the autumn. Both the summer and autumn mean wind profiles were in general agreement with the CIRA model.

  15. Hot of Not: Physiological versus Meteorological Heatwaves—Support for a Mean Temperature Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Matt; Gardiner, Fergus W.; Hansen, Claire; Caldicott, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a revised heat warning threshold provides an enhanced predictive tool for increases in Emergency Department heat-related presentations in Canberra, Australia. All Emergency Department triage records containing the word “heat”, as well as those diagnosing a heat related illness for the summer periods 2013/2014, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016 were searched. Then a medical record review was conducted to confirm that the patient’s presentation was related to environmental heat, which was defined by the final clinical diagnosis, presentation complaint and details of the patient’s treatment. Researchers then compared this presentation data, to a mean threshold formula. The mean threshold formula included the past three consecutive daily mean temperatures and the last measured temperature upon presentation. This formula was designed to take into account the variance of night-time lows, with concurrent daily ambient temperatures, and was used to determine whether there was a correlation between heat-related presentations and increasing mean temperatures. Heat-related presentations appeared to occur when the mean threshold temperature reached 25 °C (77 °F), with significant increases when the mean threshold reached 30 °C (86 °F). These results confirm that a mean temperature of 30 °C corresponds to a relevant local public health heat-related threat. PMID:27472348

  16. Additive effects of mean temperature, temperature variability, and chlorothalonil to red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) larvae.

    PubMed

    Alza, Carissa M; Donnelly, Maureen A; Whitfield, Steven M

    2016-12-01

    Amphibian populations are declining globally, and multiple anthropogenic stressors, including contamination by pesticides and shifting climates, are driving these declines. Climate change may increase average temperatures or increase temperature variability, either of which may affect the susceptibility of nontarget organisms to contaminants. Eight-day ecotoxicological assays were conducted with red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) larvae to test for additive and interactive effects of exposure to the fungicide chlorothalonil, average temperature, and temperature variability on tadpole growth and survival. Egg masses were collected from seasonal ponds at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, and tadpoles were exposed to a series of chlorothalonil concentrations across a range of ecologically relevant mean temperatures (23.4-27.3 °C) and daily temperature fluctuations (1.1-9.9 °C). Survival was measured each day, and tadpole growth was measured at the end of each trial. Concentrations of chlorothalonil ≥60 µg/L reduced survival, although survival was not affected by mean temperature or daily temperature range, and there were no synergistic interactions between chlorothalonil and temperature regime on survival. Chlorothalonil suppressed tadpole growth at relatively low concentrations (∼15 µg/L). There were impacts of both average temperature and daily temperature range on tadpole growth, although there were no synergistic interactions between temperature regimes and chlorothalonil. The results should inform efforts to manage ecosystems impacted by multiple large-scale anthropogenic stressors as well as methods for the design of ecologically appropriate toxicology trials. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2998-3004. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Soil and air temperatures for different habitats in Mount Rainier National Park.

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Greene; Mark Klopsch

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports air and soil temperature data from 10 sites in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State for 2- to 5-year periods. Data provided are monthly summaries for day and night mean air temperatures, mean minimum and maximum air temperatures, absolute minimum and maximum air temperatures, range of air temperatures, mean soil temperature, and absolute...

  18. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  19. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, F.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in thismore » paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.« less

  20. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  1. Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun

    2014-04-10

    Global mean surface air temperature (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements (Td1). All existing principal global temperature analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends.

  2. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; Gary M. King; Martin F. Jurgensen; Christopher D. Barton; S. Douglas McDowell

    2008-01-01

    Both climate and plant species are hypothesized to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quality, but accurate prediction of how SOC process rates respond to global change will require an improved understanding of how SOC quality varies with mean annual temperature (MAT) and forest type. We investigated SOC quality in paired hardwood and pine stands growing in coarse...

  3. Examination of the Armagh Observatory Annual Mean Temperature Record, 1844-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term annual mean temperature record (1844-2004) of the Armagh Observatory (Armagh, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom) is examined for evidence of systematic variation, in particular, as related to solar/geomagnetic forcing and secular variation. Indeed, both are apparent in the temperature record. Moving averages for 10 years of temperature are found to highly correlate against both 10-year moving averages of the aa-geomagnetic index and sunspot number, having correlation coefficients of approx. 0.7, inferring that nearly half the variance in the 10-year moving average of temperature can be explained by solar/geomagnetic forcing. The residuals appear episodic in nature, with cooling seen in the 1880s and again near 1980. Seven of the last 10 years of the temperature record has exceeded 10 C, unprecedented in the overall record. Variation of sunspot cyclic averages and 2-cycle moving averages of temperature strongly associate with similar averages for the solar/geomagnetic cycle, with the residuals displaying an apparent 9-cycle variation and a steep rise in temperature associated with cycle 23. Hale cycle averages of temperature for even-odd pairs of sunspot cycles correlate against similar averages for the solar/geomagnetic cycle and, especially, against the length of the Hale cycle. Indications are that annual mean temperature will likely exceed 10 C over the next decade.

  4. Annual global mean temperature explains reproductive success in a marine vertebrate from 1955 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Robert A; Dearborn, Donald C; Huntington, Charles E

    2018-04-01

    The salient feature of anthropogenic climate change over the last century has been the rise in global mean temperature. However, global mean temperature is not used as an explanatory variable in studies of population-level response to climate change, perhaps because the signal-to-noise ratio of this gross measure makes its effect difficult to detect in any but the longest of datasets. Using a population of Leach's storm-petrels breeding in the Bay of Fundy, we tested whether local, regional, or global temperature measures are the best index of reproductive success in the face of climate change in species that travel widely between and within seasons. With a 56-year dataset, we found that annual global mean temperature (AGMT) was the single most important predictor of hatching success, more so than regional sea surface temperatures (breeding season or winter) and local air temperatures at the nesting colony. Storm-petrel reproductive success showed a quadratic response to rising temperatures, in that hatching success increased up to some critical temperature, and then declined when AGMT exceeded that temperature. The year at which AGMT began to consistently exceed that critical temperature was 1988. Importantly, in this population of known-age individuals, the impact of changing climate was greatest on inexperienced breeders: reproductive success of inexperienced birds increased more rapidly as temperatures rose and declined more rapidly after the tipping point than did reproductive success of experienced individuals. The generality of our finding that AGMT is the best predictor of reproductive success in this system may hinge on two things. First, an integrative global measure may be best for species in which individuals move across an enormous spatial range, especially within seasons. Second, the length of our dataset and our capacity to account for individual- and age-based variation in reproductive success increase our ability to detect a noisy signal. © 2017

  5. Greater absolute rates of N2O production and consumption with soil warming dwarf variations in denitrification enzyme temperature sensitivities across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    denitrification (i.e. consumption of gross N2O production into N2) to a greater degree, and permit release of a relatively smaller proportion of the nitrate they consumed as N2O; b) the suite of enzymes responsible for N2O production and the one enzyme responsible for its consumption exhibit differential temperature sensitivities in their production and expression during winter months, but the sensitivity of these processes converges during warmer seasons; c) in spite of the smaller proportion of NO3- released as N2O with warming, warming’s positive influence on the amount of NO3- transformed by denitrifying organisms resulted in far greater absolute quantities of N2O released with incubation and seasonal warming. Continuing work explores the influence that temperature may exert on the relative abundances of denitrifying populations and their gene expression, and links these microbial characteristics to denitrification processes with warming. These data signify the importance of understanding enzyme kinetics in concert with microbial adaptation and acclimation as a factor governing the net fluxes of N2O from soil vs. its transformation into N2 with warming.

  6. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documentedmore » methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten

  7. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  8. Spatial variation of deterministic chaos in mean daily temperature and rainfall over Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, I. A.; Ogunjo, S. T.; Oluyamo, S. S.; Rabiu, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Daily rainfall and temperature data from 47 locations across Nigeria for the 36-year period 1979-2014 were treated to time series analysis technique to investigate some nonlinear trends in rainfall and temperature data. Some quantifiers such as Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension, and entropy were obtained for the various locations. Positive Lyapunov exponents were obtained for the time series of mean daily rainfall for all locations in the southern part of Nigeria while negative Lyapunov exponents were obtained for all locations in the Northern part of Nigeria. The mean daily temperature had positive Lyapunov exponent values (0.35-1.6) for all the locations. Attempts were made in reconstructing the phase space of time series of rainfall and temperature.

  9. Non-linear effects of mean temperature and relative humidity on dengue incidence in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaocheng; Lang, Lingling; Ma, Wenjun; Song, Tie; Kang, Min; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yonghui; Lu, Liang; Lin, Hualiang; Ling, Li

    2018-07-01

    Dengue fever is an important infectious disease in Guangzhou, China; previous studies on the effects of weather factors on the incidence of dengue fever did not consider the linearity of the associations. This study evaluated the effects of daily mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the incidence of dengue fever. A generalized additive model with splines smoothing function was performed to examine the effects of daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall on incidence of dengue fever during 2006-2014. Our analysis detected a non-linear effect of mean, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity on dengue fever with the thresholds at 28°C, 23°C and 32°C for daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, 76% for relative humidity, respectively. Below the thresholds, there was a significant positive effect, the excess risk in dengue fever for each 1°C in the mean temperature at lag7-14days was 10.21%, (95% CI: 6.62% to 13.92%), 7.10% (95% CI: 4.99%, 9.26%) for 1°C increase in daily minimum temperature in lag 11days, and 2.27% (95% CI: 0.84%, 3.72%) for 1°C increase in daily maximum temperature in lag 10days; and each 1% increase in relative humidity of lag7-14days was associated with 1.95% (95% CI: 1.21% to 2.69%) in risk of dengue fever. Future prevention and control measures and epidemiology studies on dengue fever should consider these weather factors based on their exposure-response relationship. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Mean air temperature as a risk factor for stroke mortality in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikefuti, Priscilla V.; Barrozo, Ligia V.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.

    2018-05-01

    In Brazil, chronic diseases account for the largest percentage of all deaths among men and women. Among the cardiovascular diseases, stroke is the leading cause of death, accounting for 10% of all deaths. We evaluated associations between stroke and mean air temperature using recorded mortality data and meteorological station data from 2002 to 2011. A time series analysis was applied to 55,633 mortality cases. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes (IS and HS, respectively) were divided to test different impact on which subgroup. Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was used and adjusted for seasonality, pollutants, humidity, and days of the week. HS mortality was associated with low mean temperatures for men relative risk (RR) = 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.28) and women RR = 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.86). RR of IS mortality was not significant using a 21-day lag window. Analyzing the lag response separately, we observed that the effect of temperature is acute in stroke mortality (higher risk among lags 0-5). However, for IS, higher mean temperatures were significant for this subtype with more than 15-day lag. Our findings showed that mean air temperature is associated with stroke mortality in the city of São Paulo for men and women and IS and HS may have different triggers. Further studies are needed to evaluate physiologic differences between these two subtypes of stroke.

  11. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  12. Time series modelling of global mean temperature for managerial decision-making.

    PubMed

    Romilly, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Climate change has important implications for business and economic activity. Effective management of climate change impacts will depend on the availability of accurate and cost-effective forecasts. This paper uses univariate time series techniques to model the properties of a global mean temperature dataset in order to develop a parsimonious forecasting model for managerial decision-making over the short-term horizon. Although the model is estimated on global temperature data, the methodology could also be applied to temperature data at more localised levels. The statistical techniques include seasonal and non-seasonal unit root testing with and without structural breaks, as well as ARIMA and GARCH modelling. A forecasting evaluation shows that the chosen model performs well against rival models. The estimation results confirm the findings of a number of previous studies, namely that global mean temperatures increased significantly throughout the 20th century. The use of GARCH modelling also shows the presence of volatility clustering in the temperature data, and a positive association between volatility and global mean temperature.

  13. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  14. The relative meaning of absolute numbers: the case of pain intensity scores as decision support systems for pain management of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lichtner, Valentina; Dowding, Dawn; Closs, S José

    2015-12-24

    Assessment and management of pain in patients with dementia is known to be challenging, due to patients' cognitive and/or communication difficulties. In the UK, pain in hospital is managed through regular assessments, with the use of pain intensity scores as triggers for action. The aim of this study was to understand current pain assessment practices, in order to later inform the development of a decision support tool designed to improve the management of pain for people with dementia in hospital. An exploratory study was conducted in four hospitals in the UK (11 wards), with observations of patients with dementia (n = 31), interviews of staff (n = 52) and patients' family members (n = 4) and documentary analysis. A thematic analysis was carried out, structured along dimensions of decision making. This paper focuses on the emergent themes related to the use of assessment tools and pain intensity scores. A variety of tools were used to record pain intensity, usually with numerical scales. None of the tools in actual use had been specifically designed for patients with cognitive impairment. With patients with more severe dementia, the patient's body language and other cues were studied to infer pain intensity and then a score entered on behalf of the patient. Information regarding the temporality of pain and changes in pain experience (rather than a score at a single point in time) seemed to be most useful to the assessment of pain. Given the inherent uncertainty of the meaning of pain scores for patients with dementia, numerical scales were used with caution. Numerical scores triggered action but their meaning was relative - to the patient, to the clinician, to the time of recording and to the purpose of documenting. There are implications for use of data and computerized decision support systems design. Decision support interventions should include personalized alerting cut-off scores for individual patients, display pain scores over time and integrate

  15. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  16. Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature.

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    Forested mineral soil wetlands (FMSW) store large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known on: (i) whether the quality of SOC stored in these soils (proportion of active versus more resistant SOC compounds) differs from SOC in upland soils; (ii) how the quality of SOC in FMSW varies with mean annual temperature (MAT); and (iii) whether SOC decomposition...

  17. Beyond the mean: the role of variability in predicting ecological effects of stream temperature on salmon

    Treesearch

    E. Ashley Steel; Abby Tillotson; Donald A. Larson; Aimee H. Fullerton; Keith P. Denton; Brian R. Beckman

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in variance of riverine thermal regimes have been observed and are predicted with climate change and human development. We tested whether changes in daily or seasonal thermal variability, aside from changes in mean temperature, could have biological consequences by exposing Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs to eight...

  18. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; <0.1 m/s air speed). Mean skin temperature was calculated from four local sites (neck, scapula, hand and shin) in accordance with International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (P<0.01), scapula (P<0.001) and shin (P<0.05); but not at the hand (P = 0.482). The largest difference (± SEM) at each site was as follows: neck 0.2 (0.1)°C; scapula 0.2 (0.0)°C; shin 0.1 (0.0)°C and hand 0.1 (0.1)°C. The largest potential error (mean ± SD) in weighted mean skin temperature was 0.4 (0.1)°C (P<0.001) and the associated 95% limits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Errors of five-day mean surface wind and temperature conditions due to inadequate sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legler, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Surface meteorological reports of wind components, wind speed, air temperature, and sea-surface temperature from buoys located in equatorial and midlatitude regions are used in a simulation of random sampling to determine errors of the calculated means due to inadequate sampling. Subsampling the data with several different sample sizes leads to estimates of the accuracy of the subsampled means. The number N of random observations needed to compute mean winds with chosen accuracies of 0.5 (N sub 0.5) and 1.0 (N sub 1,0) m/s and mean air and sea surface temperatures with chosen accuracies of 0.1 (N sub 0.1) and 0.2 (N sub 0.2) C were calculated for each 5-day and 30-day period in the buoy datasets. Mean values of N for the various accuracies and datasets are given. A second-order polynomial relation is established between N and the variability of the data record. This relationship demonstrates that for the same accuracy, N increases as the variability of the data record increases. The relationship is also independent of the data source. Volunteer-observing ship data do not satisfy the recommended minimum number of observations for obtaining 0.5 m/s and 0.2 C accuracy for most locations. The effect of having remotely sensed data is discussed.

  20. Scaling of spectra in grid turbulence with a mean cross-stream temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Carla; Arwatz, Gilad; Mueller, Michael E.; George, William K.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    Scaling of grid turbulence with a constant mean cross-stream temperature gradient is investigated using a combination of theoretical predictions, DNS, and experimental data. Conditions for self-similarity of the governing equations and the scalar spectrum are investigated, which reveals necessary conditions for self-similarity to exist. These conditions provide a theoretical framework for scaling of the temperature spectrum as well as the temperature flux spectrum. One necessary condition, predicted by the theory, is that the characteristic length scale describing the scalar spectrum must vary as √{ t} for a self-similar solution to exist. In order to investigate this, T-NSTAP sensors, specially designed for temperature measurements at high frequencies, were deployed in a heated passive grid turbulence setup together with conventional cold-wires, and complementary DNS calculations were performed to complement and complete the experimental data. These data are used to compare the behavior of different length scales and validate the theoretical predictions.

  1. Second Law Violations by Means of a Stratification of Temperature Due to Force Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trupp, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    In 1868 J.C. Maxwell proved that a perpetual motion machine of the second kind would become possible, if the equilibrium temperature in a vertical column of gas subject to gravity were a function of height. However, Maxwell had claimed that the temperature had to be the same at all points of the column. So did Boltzmann. Their opponent was Loschmidt. He claimed that the equilibrium temperature declined with height, and that a perpetual motion machine of the second kind operating by means of such column was compatible with the second law of thermodynamics. Extending the general idea behind Loschmidt's concept to other force fields, gravity can be replaced by molecular forces acting on molecules that try to escape from the surface of a liquid into the vapor space. Experiments proving the difference of temperature between the liquid and the vapor phase were conducted in the 19th century already.

  2. Efficiencies of power plants, quasi-static models and the geometric-mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2017-02-01

    Observed efficiencies of industrial power plants are often approximated by the square-root formula: 1 - √ T -/ T +, where T +( T -) is the highest (lowest) temperature achieved in the plant. This expression can be derived within finite-time thermodynamics, or, by entropy generation minimization, based on finite rates for the processes. In these analyses, a closely related quantity is the optimal value of the intermediate temperature for the hot stream, given by the geometric-mean value: √ T +/ T -. In this paper, instead of finite-time models, we propose to model the operation of plants by quasi-static work extraction models, with one reservoir (source/sink) as finite, while the other as practically infinite. No simplifying assumption is made on the nature of the finite system. This description is consistent with two model hypotheses, each yielding a specific value of the intermediate temperature, say T 1 and T 2. The lack of additional information on validity of the hypothesis that may be actually realized, motivates to approach the problem as an exercise in inductive inference. Thus we define an expected value of the intermediate temperature as the equally weighted mean: ( T 1 + T 2)/2. It is shown that the expected value is very closely given by the geometric-mean value for almost all of the observed power plants.

  3. Open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustics: mean temperature difference at the regenerator interface.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Nathan T; Zinn, Ben T

    2003-11-01

    In an open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustic engine, the hot heat exchanger is replaced by a steady flow of hot gas into the regenerator to provide the thermal energy input to the engine. The steady-state operation of such a device requires that a potentially large mean temperature difference exist between the incoming gas and the solid material at the regenerator's hot side, due in part to isentropic gas oscillations in the open space adjacent to the regenerator. The magnitude of this temperature difference will have a significant effect on the efficiencies of these open cycle devices. To help assess the feasibility of such thermoacoustic engines, a numerical model is developed that predicts the dependence of the mean temperature difference upon the important design and operating parameters of the open cycle thermoacoustic engine, including the acoustic pressure, mean mass flow rate, acoustic phase angles, and conductive heat loss. Using this model, it is also shown that the temperature difference at the regenerator interface is approximately proportional to the sum of the acoustic power output and the conductive heat loss at this location.

  4. The effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on protein extraction by means of electroporation.

    PubMed

    Haberl-Meglič, Saša; Levičnik, Eva; Luengo, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-12-01

    Different chemical and physical methods are used for extraction of proteins from bacteria, which are used in variety of fields. But on a large scale, many methods have severe drawbacks. Recently, extraction by means of electroporation showed a great potential to quickly obtain proteins from bacteria. Since many parameters are affecting the yield of extracted proteins, our aim was to investigate the effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on the yield of extracted proteins. At the same time bacterial viability was tested. Our results showed that the temperature has a great effect on protein extraction, the best temperature post treatment being 4°C. No effect on bacterial viability was observed for all temperatures tested. Also bacterial growth phase did not affect the yield of extracted proteins or bacterial viability. Nevertheless, further experiments may need to be performed to confirm this observation, since only one incubation temperature (4°C) and one incubation time before and after electroporation (0.5 and 1h) were tested for bacterial growth phase. Based on our results we conclude that temperature is a key element for bacterial membrane to stay in a permeabilized state, so more proteins flow out of bacteria into surrounding media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxygen isotope ratios in trees reflect mean annual temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Burk, R L; Stuiver, M

    1981-03-27

    Values of the oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) in tree-ring cellulose closely reflect the delta(18)O values in atmospheric precipitation and hence mean annual temperature. The change in delta(18)O in cellulose is 0.41 per mil per degree Celsius for selected near-coastal stations. The values of delta(18)O in precipitation and cellulose also change with altitude, as demonstrated for Mount Rainier, Washington. A temperature lapse rate of 5.2 degrees +/- 0.5 degrees C per 1000 meters calculated from cellulose delta(18)O values agrees with the accepted mean annual lapse rate of 5 degrees C per 1000 meters for this region. Cellulose delta(18)O values and delta(18)O values of carbon dioxide equilibrated with leaf water differ by a fixed 16 per mil.

  6. Changes in regional climate extremes as a function of global mean temperature: an interactive plotting framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartenburger, Richard; Hirschi, Martin; Donat, Markus G.; Greve, Peter; Pitman, Andy J.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-09-01

    This article extends a previous study Seneviratne et al. (2016) to provide regional analyses of changes in climate extremes as a function of projected changes in global mean temperature. We introduce the DROUGHT-HEAT Regional Climate Atlas, an interactive tool to analyse and display a range of well-established climate extremes and water-cycle indices and their changes as a function of global warming. These projections are based on simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). A selection of example results are presented here, but users can visualize specific indices of interest using the online tool. This implementation enables a direct assessment of regional climate changes associated with global mean temperature targets, such as the 2 and 1.5° limits agreed within the 2015 Paris Agreement.

  7. The Quantitative Relationship Between ISO 15197 Accuracy Criteria and Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) in the Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Systems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Scott; Simmons, David A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria and mean absolute relative difference (MARD), 2 methods for assessing the accuracy of blood glucose meters, is complex. While lower MARD values are generally better than higher MARD values, it is not possible to define a particular MARD value that ensures a blood glucose meter will satisfy the ISO accuracy criteria. The MARD value that ensures passing the ISO accuracy test can be described only as a probabilistic range. In this work, a Bayesian model is presented to represent the relationship between ISO accuracy criteria and MARD. Under the assumptions made in this work, there is nearly a 100% chance of satisfying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy requirements if the MARD value is between 3.25% and 5.25%. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Zonal-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate zonal mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the zonal circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).

  9. Long-range persistence in the global mean surface temperature and the global warming "time bomb"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.

    2012-04-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Maximum Likelihood Estimations (MLE) based on instrumental data over the last 160 years indicate that there is Long-Range Persistence (LRP) in Global Mean Surface Temperature (GMST) on time scales of months to decades. The persistence is much higher in sea surface temperature than in land temperatures. Power spectral analysis of multi-model, multi-ensemble runs of global climate models indicate further that this persistence may extend to centennial and maybe even millennial time-scales. We also support these conclusions by wavelet variogram analysis, DFA, and MLE of Northern hemisphere mean surface temperature reconstructions over the last two millennia. These analyses indicate that the GMST is a strongly persistent noise with Hurst exponent H>0.9 on time scales from decades up to at least 500 years. We show that such LRP can be very important for long-term climate prediction and for the establishment of a "time bomb" in the climate system due to a growing energy imbalance caused by the slow relaxation to radiative equilibrium under rising anthropogenic forcing. We do this by the construction of a multi-parameter dynamic-stochastic model for the GMST response to deterministic and stochastic forcing, where LRP is represented by a power-law response function. Reconstructed data for total forcing and GMST over the last millennium are used with this model to estimate trend coefficients and Hurst exponent for the GMST on multi-century time scale by means of MLE. Ensembles of solutions generated from the stochastic model also allow us to estimate confidence intervals for these estimates.

  10. A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced zonal wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of

  11. Daily Mean Temperature and Urolithiasis Presentation in Six Cities in Korea: Time-Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Byung Hoon; Chang, In Ho; Choi, Se Young; Suh, Dong Churl; Chang, Chong Won; Choi, Yun Jung; Lee, Seo Yeon

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal variation in urinary stone presentation is well described in the literature. However, previous studies have some limitations. To explore overall cumulative exposure-response and the heterogeneity in the relationships between daily meteorological factors and urolithiasis incidence in 6 major Korean cities, we analyzed data on 687,833 urolithiasis patients from 2009 to 2013 for 6 large cities in Korea: Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Gwangju, Daegu, and Busan. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of mean daily urolithiasis incidence (MDUI) associated with mean daily meteorological factors, including the cumulative RR for a 20-day period. The estimated location-specific associations were then pooled using multivariate meta-regression models. A positive association was confirmed between MDUI and mean daily temperature (MDT), and a negative association was shown between MDUI and mean daily relative humidity (MDRH) in all cities. The lag effect was within 5 days. The multivariate Cochran Q test for heterogeneity at MDT was 12.35 (P = 0.136), and the related I² statistic accounted for 35.2% of the variability. Additionally, the Cochran Q test for heterogeneity and I² statistic at MDHR were 26.73 (P value = 0.148) and 24.7% of variability in the total group. Association was confirmed between daily temperature, relative humidity and urolithiasis incidence, and the differences in urolithiasis incidence might have been partially attributable to the different frequencies and the ranges in temperature and humidity between cities in Korea. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  13. High-temperature studies of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained alloys by means of positron lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würschum, R.; Shapiro, E.; Dittmar, R.; Schaefer, H.-E.

    2000-11-01

    Atomic free volumes and vacancies in the ultrafine grained alloys Pd84Zr16, Cu 0.1 wt % ZrO2, and Fe91Zr9 were studied by means of positron lifetime. The thermally stable microstructures serve as a novel type of model system for studying positron trapping and annihilation as well as the thermal behavior of vacancy-sized free volumes over a wide temperature range up to ca. 1200 K by making use of a metallic 58Co positron source. In ultrafine grained Cu the thermal formation of lattice vacancies could be observed. In Pd84Zr16 an increase of the specific positron trapping rate of nanovoids and, in addition, detrapping of positrons from free volumes with a mean size slightly smaller than one missing atom in the grain boundaries contributes to a reversible increase of the positron lifetime of more than 60 ps with measuring temperature. In Fe91Zr9 similar linear high-temperature increases of the positron lifetime are observed in the nanocrystalline and the amorphous state. The question of thermal vacancy formation in grain boundaries is addressed taking into account the different types of interface structures of the present alloys.

  14. Scenario and modelling uncertainty in global mean temperature change derived from emission driven Global Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B. B. B.; Bernie, D.; McNeall, D.; Hawkins, E.; Caesar, J.; Boulton, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Sexton, D.

    2012-09-01

    We compare future changes in global mean temperature in response to different future scenarios which, for the first time, arise from emission driven rather than concentration driven perturbed parameter ensemble of a Global Climate Model (GCM). These new GCM simulations sample uncertainties in atmospheric feedbacks, land carbon cycle, ocean physics and aerosol sulphur cycle processes. We find broader ranges of projected temperature responses arising when considering emission rather than concentration driven simulations (with 10-90 percentile ranges of 1.7 K for the aggressive mitigation scenario up to 3.9 K for the high end business as usual scenario). A small minority of simulations resulting from combinations of strong atmospheric feedbacks and carbon cycle responses show temperature increases in excess of 9 degrees (RCP8.5) and even under aggressive mitigation (RCP2.6) temperatures in excess of 4 K. While the simulations point to much larger temperature ranges for emission driven experiments, they do not change existing expectations (based on previous concentration driven experiments) on the timescale that different sources of uncertainty are important. The new simulations sample a range of future atmospheric concentrations for each emission scenario. Both in case of SRES A1B and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the concentration pathways used to drive GCM ensembles lies towards the lower end of our simulated distribution. This design decision (a legecy of previous assessments) is likely to lead concentration driven experiments to under-sample strong feedback responses in concentration driven projections. Our ensemble of emission driven simulations span the global temperature response of other multi-model frameworks except at the low end, where combinations of low climate sensitivity and low carbon cycle feedbacks lead to responses outside our ensemble range. The ensemble simulates a number of high end responses which lie above the CMIP5 carbon

  15. Spatiotemporal Divergence of the Warming Hiatus over Land Based on Different Definitions of Mean Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies of the recent warming hiatus over land are primarily based on the average of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). This study compared regional warming rates of mean temperature based on T2 and T24 calculated from hourly observations available from 1998 to 2013. Both T2 and T24 show that the warming hiatus over land is apparent in the mid-latitudes of North America and Eurasia, especially in cold seasons, which is closely associated with the negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) and cold air propagation by the Arctic-original northerly wind anomaly into mid-latitudes. However, the warming rates of T2 and T24 are significantly different at regional and seasonal scales because T2 only samples air temperature twice daily and cannot accurately reflect land-atmosphere and incoming radiation variations in the temperature diurnal cycle. The trend has a standard deviation of 0.43 °C/decade for T2 and 0.41 °C/decade for T24, and 0.38 °C/decade for their trend difference in 5° × 5° grids. The use of T2 amplifies the regional contrasts of the warming rate, i.e., the trend underestimation in the US and overestimation at high latitudes by T2. PMID:27531421

  16. Significant influences of global mean temperature and ENSO on extreme rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafuerte, Marcelino, II; Matsumoto, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Along with the increasing concerns on the consequences of global warming, and the accumulating records of disaster related to heavy rainfall events in Southeast Asia, this study investigates whether a direct link can be detected between the rising global mean temperature, as well as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and extreme rainfall over the region. The maximum likelihood modeling that allows incorporating covariates on the location parameter of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is employed. The GEV model is fitted to annual and seasonal rainfall extremes, which were taken from a high-resolution gauge-based gridded daily precipitation data covering a span of 57 years (1951-2007). Nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are detected over the central parts of Indochina Peninsula, eastern coasts of central Vietnam, northwest of the Sumatra Island, inland portions of Borneo Island, and on the northeastern and southwestern coasts of the Philippines. These nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are directly linked to near-surface global mean temperature and ENSO. In particular, the study reveals that a kelvin increase in global mean temperature anomaly can lead to an increase of 30% to even greater than 45% in annual maximum 1-day rainfall, which were observed pronouncedly over central Vietnam, southern coast of Myanmar, northwestern sections of Thailand, northwestern tip of Sumatra, central portions of Malaysia, and the Visayas island in central Philippines. Furthermore, a pronounced ENSO influence manifested on the seasonal maximum 1-day rainfall; a northward progression of 10%-15% drier condition over Southeast Asia as the El Niño develops from summer to winter is revealed. It is important therefore, to consider the results obtained here for water resources management as well as for adaptation planning to minimize the potential adverse impact of global warming, particularly on extreme rainfall and its associated flood risk over the region

  17. Evolution of record-breaking high and low monthly mean temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. L.; Kostinski, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the ratio of record-breaking highs to record-breaking lows with respect to extent of time-series for monthly mean temperatures within the continental United States (1900-2006) and ask the following question. How are record-breaking high and low surface temperatures in the United States affected by time period? We find that the ratio of record-breaking highs to lows in 2006 increases as the time-series extend further into the past. For example: in 2006, the ratio of record-breaking highs to record-breaking lows is ≈ 13 : 1 with 1950 as the first year and ≈ 25 : 1 with 1900 as the first year; both ratios are an order of magnitude greater than 3-σ for stationary simulations. We also find record-breaking events are more sensitive to trends in time-series of monthly averages than time-series of corresponding daily values. When we consider the ratio as it evolves with respect to a fixed start year, we find it is strongly correlated with the ensemble mean. Correlation coefficients are 0.76 and 0.82 for 1900-2006 and 1950-2006 respectively; 3-σ = 0.3 for pairs of uncorrelated stationary time-series. We find similar values for globally distributed time-series: 0.87 and 0.92 for 1900-2006 and 1950-2006 respectively. However, the ratios evolve differently: global ratios increase throughout (1920-2006) while continental United States ratios decrease from about 1940 to 1970. (Based on Anderson and Kostinski (2011), Evolution and distribution of record-breaking high and low monthly mean temperatures. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05025.1)

  18. Regional scaling of annual mean precipitation and water availability with global temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2018-03-01

    Changes in regional water availability belong to the most crucial potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change, but are highly uncertain. It is thus of key importance for stakeholders to assess the possible implications of different global temperature thresholds on these quantities. Using a subset of climate model simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we derive here the sensitivity of regional changes in precipitation and in precipitation minus evapotranspiration to global temperature changes. The simulations span the full range of available emission scenarios, and the sensitivities are derived using a modified pattern scaling approach. The applied approach assumes linear relationships on global temperature changes while thoroughly addressing associated uncertainties via resampling methods. This allows us to assess the full distribution of the simulations in a probabilistic sense. Northern high-latitude regions display robust responses towards wetting, while subtropical regions display a tendency towards drying but with a large range of responses. Even though both internal variability and the scenario choice play an important role in the overall spread of the simulations, the uncertainty stemming from the climate model choice usually accounts for about half of the total uncertainty in most regions. We additionally assess the implications of limiting global mean temperature warming to values below (i) 2 K or (ii) 1.5 K (as stated within the 2015 Paris Agreement). We show that opting for the 1.5 K target might just slightly influence the mean response, but could substantially reduce the risk of experiencing extreme changes in regional water availability.

  19. Thermocline Temperature Variability Reveals Shifts in the Tropical Pacific Mean State across Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, J. E.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) is one of the most dynamic oceanographic regions, making it a critical area for understanding past climate change. Despite this, there remains uncertainty on the climatic evolution of the EEP through the last glacial period. According to the ocean dynamical thermostat theory, warming (cooling) of the tropical Pacific Ocean may lead to a more La Niña (El Niño)-like mean state due to zonally asymmetric heating and subsequent easterly (westerly) wind anomalies at the equator (Clement and Cane, 1999). Attempts to understand these feedbacks on millennial timescales across Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) have proven to be fruitful in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) (Stott et al., 2002), yet complimentary, high-resolution records from the EEP are lacking. To provide a more complete understanding of the feedback mechanisms of the dynamical thermostat across periods of abrupt climate change, we reconstruct thermocline temperature variability across MIS 3 from a sediment core located in the EEP, directly within the equatorial cold tongue upwelling region (core MV1014-02-17JC). Temperature anomalies in thermocline waters of the EEP are integrally linked to the ENSO system, with large positive and negative anomalies recorded during El Niño and La Niña events, respectively. Mg/Ca ratios in the thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei were measured at 2 cm intervals, resulting in a temporal resolution of <200 years. Preliminary results across Interstadials 5-7 reveal warmer thermocline temperatures (an increase in Mg/Ca of .25 ± .02 mmol/mol) during periods of cooling following peak Interstadial warmth over Greenland, as seen from the NGRIP δ18O record. Thus, periods of cooling over Greenland appear to correspond to an El Niño-like mean state in the tropical Pacific, in line with predictions of an ocean dynamical thermostat. Interestingly, Heinrich Event 3 corresponds to cooler thermocline

  20. Temperature and frequency dependent mean free paths of renormalized phonons in nonlinear lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nianbei; Liu, Junjie; Wu, Changqin; Li, Baowen

    2018-02-01

    Unraveling general properties of renormalized phonons are of fundamental relevance to the heat transport in the regime of strong nonlinearity. In this work, we directly study the temperature and frequency dependent mean free path (MFP) of renormalized phonons with the newly developed numerical tuning fork method. The typical 1D nonlinear lattices such as Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β lattice and {φ }4 lattice are investigated in detail. Interestingly, it is found that the MFPs are inversely proportional to the frequencies of renormalized phonons rather than the square of phonon frequencies predicted by existing phonon scattering theory.

  1. Estimating daily minimum, maximum, and mean near surface air temperature using hybrid satellite models across Israel.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Adar; Dorman, Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2017-11-01

    Meteorological stations measure air temperature (Ta) accurately with high temporal resolution, but usually suffer from limited spatial resolution due to their sparse distribution across rural, undeveloped or less populated areas. Remote sensing satellite-based measurements provide daily surface temperature (Ts) data in high spatial and temporal resolution and can improve the estimation of daily Ta. In this study we developed spatiotemporally resolved models which allow us to predict three daily parameters: Ta Max (day time), 24h mean, and Ta Min (night time) on a fine 1km grid across the state of Israel. We used and compared both the Aqua and Terra MODIS satellites. We used linear mixed effect models, IDW (inverse distance weighted) interpolations and thin plate splines (using a smooth nonparametric function of longitude and latitude) to first calibrate between Ts and Ta in those locations where we have available data for both and used that calibration to fill in neighboring cells without surface monitors or missing Ts. Out-of-sample ten-fold cross validation (CV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with and without available Ts observations for both Aqua and Terra (CV Aqua R 2 results for min 0.966, mean 0.986, and max 0.967; CV Terra R 2 results for min 0.965, mean 0.987, and max 0.968). Our research shows that daily min, mean and max Ta can be reliably predicted using daily MODIS Ts data even across Israel, with high accuracy even for days without Ta or Ts data. These predictions can be used as three separate Ta exposures in epidemiology studies for better diurnal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstruction of regional mean temperature for East Asia since 1900s and its uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, W.

    2017-12-01

    Regional average surface air temperature (SAT) is one of the key variables often used to investigate climate change. Unfortunately, because of the limited observations over East Asia, there were also some gaps in the observation data sampling for regional mean SAT analysis, which was important to estimate past climate change. In this study, the regional average temperature of East Asia since 1900s is calculated by the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-based optimal interpolation (OA) method with considering the data errors. The results show that our estimate is more precise and robust than the results from simple average, which provides a better way for past climate reconstruction. In addition to the reconstructed regional average SAT anomaly time series, we also estimated uncertainties of reconstruction. The root mean square error (RMSE) results show that the the error decreases with respect to time, and are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusions on the persist warming in East Asia during twenty-first century. Moreover, the test of influence of data error on reconstruction clearly shows the sensitivity of reconstruction to the size of the data error.

  3. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  4. Mechanisms Controlling Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature Determined From a State Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte, R. M.; Piecuch, C. G.

    2018-04-01

    Global mean sea surface temperature (T¯) is a variable of primary interest in studies of climate variability and change. The temporal evolution of T¯ can be influenced by surface heat fluxes (F¯) and by diffusion (D¯) and advection (A¯) processes internal to the ocean, but quantifying the contribution of these different factors from data alone is prone to substantial uncertainties. Here we derive a closed T¯ budget for the period 1993-2015 based on a global ocean state estimate, which is an exact solution of a general circulation model constrained to most extant ocean observations through advanced optimization methods. The estimated average temperature of the top (10-m thick) level in the model, taken to represent T¯, shows relatively small variability at most time scales compared to F¯, D¯, or A¯, reflecting the tendency for largely balancing effects from all the latter terms. The seasonal cycle in T¯ is mostly determined by small imbalances between F¯ and D¯, with negligible contributions from A¯. While D¯ seems to simply damp F¯ at the annual period, a different dynamical role for D¯ at semiannual period is suggested by it being larger than F¯. At periods longer than annual, A¯ contributes importantly to T¯ variability, pointing to the direct influence of the variable ocean circulation on T¯ and mean surface climate.

  5. 'Downward control' of the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution of the polar winter stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Boville, Byron A.

    1994-01-01

    According to the 'downward control' principle, the extratropical mean vertical velocity on a given pressure level is approximately proportional to the meridional gradient of the vertically integrated zonal force per unit mass exerted by waves above that level. In this paper, a simple numerical model that includes parameterizations of both planetary and gravity wave breaking is used to explore the influence of gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere on the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution at lower levels in the polar winter stratosphere. The results of these calculations suggest that gravity wave drag in the mesosphere can affect the state of the polar winter stratosphere down to altitudes below 30 km. The effect is most important when planetary wave driving is relatively weak: that is, during southern winter and in early northern winter. In southern winter, downwelling weakens by a factor of 2 near the stratospause and by 20% at 30 km when gravity wave drag is not included in the calculations. As a consequence, temperatures decrease considerably throughout the polar winter stratosphere (over 20 K above 40 km and as much as 8 K at 30 km, where the effect is enhanced by the long radiative relaxation timescale). The polar winter states obtained when gravity wave drag is omitted in this simple model resemble the results of simulations with some general circulation models and suggest that some of the shortcomings of the latter may be due to a deficit in mesospheric momentum deposition by small-scale gravity waves.

  6. Cenozoic mean greenhouse gases and temperature changes with reference to the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cenozoic greenhouse gases (GHG) variations and warming periods underscore the extreme rates of current climate change, with major implications for the adaptability and survivability of terrestrial and marine habitats. Current rise rate of greenhouse gases, reaching 3.3 ppm CO 2 per year during March 2015-2016, is the fastest recorded since the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Event (PETM) when carbon release to the atmosphere was about an order of magnitude less than at present. The ice core evidence of concentration of (GHG) and temperatures in the atmosphere/ocean/cryosphere system over the last 740 kyr suggests that the rate of rise in GHG over the last ~260 years, CO 2 rates rising from 0.94 ppm yr -1 in 1959 (315.97 ppm) to 1.62 ppm yr -1 in 2000 (369.52 ppm) to 3.05 ppm yr -1 in 2015 (400.83 ppm), constitutes a unique spike in the history of the atmosphere. The reliance of pre-740 kyr paleoclimate estimates on multiple proxies, including benthic and plankton fossils, fossil plants, residual organic matter, major and trace elements in fossils, sediments and soils, place limits on the resolution of pre-upper Pleistocene paleoclimate estimates, rendering it likely recorded mean Cenozoic paleoclimate trends may conceal abrupt short-term climate fluctuations. However, as exemplified by the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and earlier GHG and temperature spikes associated with major volcanic and asteroid impact events, the long-term residence time of CO 2 in the atmosphere extends the signatures of abrupt warming events to within detection limits of multiple paleoproxies. The mean post-1750 temperature rise rate (approximately ~0.0034 °C per yr, or ~0.008 °C per yr where temperature is not masked by sulfur aerosols) exceeds those of the PETM (approximately ~0.0008-0.0015 °C per yr) by an order of magnitude and mean glacial termination warming rates (last glacial termination [LGT] ~ 0.00039; Eemian ~0.0004 °C per yr) by near to an order of magnitude

  7. Numerical study of heterogeneous mean temperature and shock wave in a resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Takeru

    2015-10-28

    When a frequency of gas oscillation in an acoustic resonator is sufficiently close to one of resonant frequencies of the resonator, the amplitude of gas oscillation becomes large and hence the nonlinear effect manifests itself. Then, if the dissipation effects due to viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gas are sufficiently small, the gas oscillation may evolve into the acoustic shock wave, in the so-called consonant resonators. At the shock front, the kinetic energy of gas oscillation is converted into heat by the dissipation process inside the shock layer, and therefore the temperature of the gas in the resonator rises.more » Since the acoustic shock wave travels in the resonator repeatedly over and over again, the temperature rise becomes noticeable in due course of time even if the shock wave is weak. We numerically study the gas oscillation with shock wave in a resonator of square cross section by solving the initial and boundary value problem of the system of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a finite difference method. In this case, the heat conduction across the boundary layer on the wall of resonator causes a spatially heterogeneous distribution of mean (time-averaged) gas temperature.« less

  8. Mid-Piacensian mean annual sea surface temperature: an analysis for data-model comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Foley, Kevin M.; Stoll, Danielle K.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical models of the global climate system are the primary tools used to understand and project climate disruptions in the form of future global warming. The Pliocene has been identified as the closest, albeit imperfect, analog to climate conditions expected for the end of this century, making an independent data set of Pliocene conditions necessary for ground truthing model results. Because most climate model output is produced in the form ofmean annual conditions, we present a derivative of the USGS PRISM3 Global Climate Reconstruction which integrates multiple proxies of sea surface temperature (SST) into single surface temperature anomalies. We analyze temperature estimates from faunal and floral assemblage data,Mg/Ca values and alkenone unsaturation indices to arrive at a single mean annual SST anomaly (Pliocene minus modern) best describing each PRISM site, understanding that multiple proxies should not necessarily show concordance. The power of themultiple proxy approach lies within its diversity, as no two proxies measure the same environmental variable. This data set can be used to verify climate model output, to serve as a starting point for model inter-comparisons, and for quantifying uncertainty in Pliocene model prediction in perturbed physics ensembles.

  9. The role of minerals and mean annual temperature on soil carbon accumulation: A modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Georgiou, K.; Tang, J.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest actively cycling terrestrial C pool with mean residence times that can exceed 10,000 years. There is strong evidence suggesting that SOC dynamics depend on soil temperature and C inputs to soil through net primary production (NPP), but it is unclear what the relative importance of these factors is relative to SOC protection by minerals. Recent empirical studies have suggested that mineral protection explains more variation in SOC stock sizes and C respiration fluxes than does NPP or climate. Our previous modeling has demonstrated that representing the chemistry of mineral sorption in a microbially-explicit model affects the temperature sensitivity of SOC dynamics. We apply this modeling framework to interpret observations of SOC stocks, mineral surface availability, mean annual temperature (MAT), and NPP collected along a 4,000 km transect in South America. We use a Random Forest machine learning algorithm and regression to analyze our model output and the empirical data. This analysis shows that mineral surface availability is the dominant control over C respiration and SOC stock, and is substantially larger than the effects of belowground NPP. We further show that minerals interact with MAT to determine the observed range of SOC stocks along this transect in the present day, as well as projected SOC stocks under long-term warming. Our model-data comparison suggests that soil mineralogy and MAT will explain the majority of the spatial variation in SOC stock over decadal-to-millennial timescales. We extend the analysis of these interactions using the ACME Land Model (ALM) coupled with an explicit representation of microbes, minerals, and vertical transport of solutes and gases. The model results confirm the dominant effects of minerals on organic matter decomposition throughout the soil column.

  10. A variable temperature EPR study of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) single crystal at 170 GHz: zero-field splitting parameter and its absolute sign.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sushil K; Andronenko, Serguei I; Chand, Prem; Earle, Keith A; Paschenko, Sergei V; Freed, Jack H

    2005-06-01

    EPR measurements have been carried out on a single crystal of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) at 170-GHz in the temperature range of 312-4.2K. The spectra have been analyzed (i) to estimate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters; (ii) to study the temperature variation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter; (iii) to confirm the negative absolute sign of the ZFS parameter unequivocally from the temperature-dependent relative intensities of hyperfine sextets at temperatures below 10K; and (iv) to detect the occurrence of a structural phase transition at 4.35K from the change in the structure of the EPR lines with temperature below 10K.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    PubMed Central

    Bothwell, Lori D.; Giardina, Christian P.; Litton, Creighton M.

    2014-01-01

    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5) across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N) remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming. PMID:25493213

  14. Bias correction in Global Mean Temperature comparisons between Global Climate Models and implications for the deterministic and stochastic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Sandra; Stainforth, David; Watkins, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Global mean temperature (GMT) provides a simple means of benchmarking a broad ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) against past observed GMT which in turn provide headline assessments of the consequences of possible future forcing scenarios. The slow variations of past changes in GMT seen in different GCMs track each other [1] and the observed GMT reasonably closely. However, the different GCMs tend to generate GMT time-series which have absolute values that are offset with respect to each other [2]. Subtracting these offsets is an integral part of comparisons between ensembles of GCMs and observed past GMT. We will discuss how this constrains how the GCMs are related to each other. The GMT of a given GCM is a macroscopic reduced variable that tracks a subset of the full information contained in the time evolving solution of that GCM. If the GMT slow timescale dynamics of different GCMs is to a good approximation the same, subject to a linear translation, then the phenomenology captured by this dynamics is essentially linear; any feedback is to leading order linear in GMT. It then follows that a linear energy balance evolution equation for GMT is sufficient to reproduce the slow timescale GMT dynamics, provided that the appropriate effective heat capacity and feedback parameters are known. As a consequence, the GCM's GMT timeseries may underestimate the impact of, and uncertainty in, the outcomes of future forcing scenarios. The offset subtraction procedure identifies a slow time-scale dynamics in model generated GMT. Fluctuations on much faster timescales do not typically track each other from one GCM to another, with the exception of major forcing events such as volcanic eruptions. This suggests that the GMT time-series can be decomposed into a slow and fast timescale which naturally leads to stochastic reduced energy balance models for GMT. [1] IPCC Chapter 9 P743 and fig 9.8,IPCC TS.1 [2] see e.g. [Mauritsen et al., Tuning the Climate of a Global Model

  15. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that...

  20. Projected Changes in Seasonal Mean Temperature and Rainfall (2011-2040) in Cagayan Valley, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basconcillo, J. Q.; Lucero, A. J. R.; Solis, A. S.; Kanamaru, H.; Sandoval, R. S.; Bautista, E. U.

    2014-12-01

    Among Filipinos, a meal is most often considered incomplete without rice. There is a high regard for rice in the entire archipelago that in 2012, the country's rice production was accounted to more than 18 million tons with an equivalent harvested area of 4.7 million hectares. This means that from the 5.4 million hectares of arable land in the Philippines, 11 percent are found and being utilized for rice production in Cagayan Valley (CV). In the same year, more than 13 percent of the country's total annual rice production was produced in CV. Rice production also provides employment to 844,000 persons (out of 1.4 million persons) which suggest that occupation and livelihood in Cagayan Valley are strongly anchored in rice production. These figures outline the imaginable vulnerability of rice production in CV amidst varying issues such as land conversion, urbanization, increase in population, retention of farming households, and climate change. While all these issues are of equal importance, this paper is directed towards the understanding the projected changes in seasonal rainfall and mean temperature (2011-2040). It is envisioned by this study that a successful climate change adaptation starts with the provision of climate projections hence this paper's objective to investigate on the changes in climate patterns and extreme events. Projected changes are zonally limited to the Provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino based on the statistical downscaling of three global climate models (BCM2, CNCM3, and MPEH5) and two emission scenarios (A1B and A2). With the idea that rainfall and temperature varies with topography, the AURELHY technique was utilized in interpolating climate projections. Results obtained from the statistical downscaling showed that there will be significant climate changes from 2011-2040 in terms of rainfall and mean temperature. There are also indications of increasing frequency of extreme 24-hour rainfall and number of dry days

  1. The effect of radiation screens on Nordic time series of mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordli, P. Ø.; Alexandersson, H.; Frich, P.; Førland, E. J.; Heino, R.; Jónsson, T.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Tveito, O. E.

    1997-12-01

    A short survey of the historical development of temperature radiation screens is given based upon research in the archives of the Nordic meteorological institutes. In the middle of the nineteenth century most thermometer stands were open shelters, free-standing or fastened to a window or wall. Most of these were soon replaced by wall or window screens, i.e. small wooden or metal cages. Large free-standing screens were also introduced in the nineteenth century, but it took to the 1980s before they had replaced the wall screens completely in all Nordic countries. During recent years, small cylindrical screens suitable for automatic weather stations have been introduced. At some stations they have replaced the ordinary free-standing screen as part of a gradual move towards automation.The first free-standing screens used in the Nordic countries were single louvred. They were later improved by double louvres. Compared with observations from ventilated thermometers the monthly mean temperatures in the single louvred screens were 0.2-0.4°C higher during May-August, whereas in the double louvred screens the temperatures were unbiased. Unless the series are adjusted, this improvement may lead to inhomogeneities in long climatic time series.The change from wall screen to free-standing screen also involved a relocation from the microclimatic influence of a house to a location free from obstacles. Tests to evaluate the effect of relocation by parallel measurements yielded variable results. However, the bulk of the tests showed no effect of the relocation in winter, whereas in summer the wall screen tended to be slightly warmer (0.0-0.3°C) than the double louvred screen. At two Norwegian sites situated on steep valley slopes, the wall screen was ca. 0.5°C colder in midwinter.The free-standing Swedish shelter, which was used at some stations up to 1960, seems to have been overheated in spring and summer (maximum overheating of about 0.4°C in early summer). The new screen for

  2. Global mean temperature indicators linked to warming levels avoiding climate risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, Peter; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Mengel, Matthias; Rogelj, Joeri

    2018-06-01

    International climate policy uses global mean temperature rise limits as proxies for societally acceptable levels of climate change. These limits are informed by risk assessments which draw upon projections of climate impacts under various levels of warming. Here we illustrate that indicators used to define limits of warming and those used to track the evolution of the Earth System under climate change are not directly comparable. Depending on the methodological approach, differences can be time-variant and up to 0.2 °C for a warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. This might lead to carbon budget overestimates of about 10 years of continued year-2015 emissions, and about a 10% increase in estimated 2100 sea-level rise. Awareness of this definitional mismatch is needed for a more effective communication between scientists and decision makers, as well as between the impact and physical climate science communities.

  3. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris": an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-02-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these targets, it is important to know how GMST has progressed since pre-industrial times. However, the Paris Agreement is not conclusive as regards methods to calculate it. Should trend progression be deduced from GCM simulations or from instrumental records by (statistical) trend methods? Which simulations or GMST datasets should be chosen, and which trend models? What is pre-industrial and, finally, are the Paris targets formulated for total warming, originating from both natural and anthropogenic forcing, or do they refer to anthropogenic warming only? To find answers to these questions we performed an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis where datasets and model choices have been varied. For all cases we evaluated trend progression along with uncertainty information. To do so, we analysed four trend approaches and applied these to the five leading observational GMST products. We find GMST progression to be largely independent of various trend model approaches. However, GMST progression is significantly influenced by the choice of GMST datasets. Uncertainties due to natural variability are largest in size. As a parallel path, we calculated GMST progression from an ensemble of 42 GCM simulations. Mean progression derived from GCM-based GMSTs appears to lie in the range of trend-dataset combinations. A difference between both approaches appears to be the width of uncertainty bands: GCM simulations show a much wider spread. Finally, we discuss various choices for pre-industrial baselines and the role of warming definitions. Based on these findings we propose an estimate for signal progression in GMSTs since pre-industrial.

  4. Causes of irregularities in trends of global mean surface temperature since the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The time series of monthly global mean surface temperature (GST) since 1891 is successfully reconstructed from known natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, including internal climate variability, using a multiple regression technique. Comparisons are made with the performance of 40 CMIP5 models in predicting GST. The relative contributions of the various forcing factors to GST changes vary in time, but most of the warming since 1891 is found to be attributable to the net influence of increasing greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. Separate statistically independent analyses are also carried out for three periods of GST slowdown (1896–1910, 1941–1975, and 1998–2013 and subperiods); two periods of strong warming (1911–1940 and 1976–1997) are also analyzed. A reduction in total incident solar radiation forcing played a significant cooling role over 2001–2010. The only serious disagreements between the reconstructions and observations occur during the Second World War, especially in the period 1944–1945, when observed near-worldwide sea surface temperatures (SSTs) may be significantly warm-biased. In contrast, reconstructions of near-worldwide SSTs were rather warmer than those observed between about 1907 and 1910. However, the generally high reconstruction accuracy shows that known external and internal forcing factors explain all the main variations in GST between 1891 and 2015, allowing for our current understanding of their uncertainties. Accordingly, no important additional factors are needed to explain the two main warming and three main slowdown periods during this epoch. PMID:29881771

  5. Temperature, Velocity, and Mean Turbulence Structure in Stongly-Heated Internal Gas Flows

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, Donald Marinus; Mikielewicz, D. P.; Shehata, A. M.

    2002-10-01

    The main objective of the present study is to examine whether "simple" turbulence models (i.e., models requiring two partial differential equations or less for turbulent transport) are suitable for use under conditions of forced flow of gas at low Reynolds numbers in tubes with intense heating, leading to large variations of fluid properties and considerable modification of turbulence. Eleven representative models are considered. The ability of such models to handle such flows was assessed by means of computational simulations of the carefully designed experiments of Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41 (1998) 4297) at heating rates of q+in˜0.0018, 0.0035 and 0.0045,more » yielding flows ranging from essentially turbulent to laminarized. The resulting comparisons of computational results with experiments showed that the model by Launder and Sharma (Lett. Heat Transfer 1 (1974) 131) performed best in predicting axial wall temperature profiles. Overall, agreement between the measured velocity and temperature distributions and those calculated using the Launder–Sharma model is good, which gives confidence in the values forecast for the turbulence quantities produced. These have been used to assist in arriving at a better understanding of the influences of intense heating, and hence strong variation of fluid properties, on turbulent flow in tubes.« less

  6. A study of radiometric surface temperatures: Their fluctuations, distribution and meaning. [Voves, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrier, A.; Itier, B.; Boissard, P. (Principal Investigator); Goillot, C.; Belluomo, P.; Valery, P.

    1980-01-01

    A consecutive night and day flight and measurements on the ground, were made in the region of Voves, south of Chartres. The statistical analysis of the thermal scanner data permitted the establishment of criteria for the homogeneity of surfaces. These criteria were used in defining the surface temperature values which are most representative for use in an energy balance approach to evapotranspiration (day) and heat balance (night). For a number of maize fields that airborne thermal scanner data permitted a detailed energy analysis of different fields of a same crop to be carried out. Such a detailed analysis was not necessary for a calculation of crop evapotranspiration which could be evaluated from the mean temperature of the crop surface. A differential analysis day night is of interest for enhancing the contrast between types of surfaces, as well as for a better definition of the daily energy balance. It should be stressed that, for a homogeneous region, a study such as the present one, could be carried out on a relatively small part of the total surface, as the results for a surface of 2.5 x 2 sq km were not significantly different from those obtained from a surface three times larger.

  7. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Pierre, S; Hewson, I; Sparks, J P; Litton, C M; Giardina, C; Groffman, P M; Fahey, T J

    2017-07-01

    Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil N cycling and availability by using a highly constrained natural mean annual temperature (MAT) elevation gradient in a tropical montane wet forest. We found that net nitrate (NO 3 - ) bioavailability is positively related to MAT (r 2  = 0.79, P = 0.0033), and AOA DNA abundance is positively related to both NO 3 - availability (r 2  = 0.34, P = 0.0071) and MAT (r 2  = 0.34, P < 0.001). In contrast, AOB DNA was only detected in some soils across the gradient. We identified three distinct phylotypes within the AOA which differed from one another in abundance and relative gene expression. In addition, one AOA phylotype increased in abundance with MAT, while others did not. We conclude that MAT is the primary driver of ecosystem N availability across this gradient, and AOA population size and structure appear to mediate the relationship between the nitrification and N bioavailability. These findings hold important implications for nutrient limitation in forests and feedbacks to primary production under changing climate. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  9. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of rhodium at high temperature and pressure by using mean field potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, Nisarg K.; Vyas, Pulastya R.; Gohel, Vinod B.

    2016-10-01

    The thermophysical properties of rhodium are studied up to melting temperature by incorporating anharmonic effects due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons. In order to account anharmonic effects due to lattice vibrations, we have employed mean field potential (MFP) approach and for thermally excited electrons Mermin functional. The local form of the pseudopotential with only one effective adjustable parameter rc is used to construct MFP and hence vibrational free energy due to ions - Fion. We have studied equation of state at 300 K and further, to access the applicability of present conjunction scheme, we have also estimated shock-Hugoniot and temperature along principle Hugoniot. We have carried out the study of temperature variation of several thermophysical properties like thermal expansion (βP), enthalpy (EH), specific heats at constant pressure and volume (CP and CV), specific heats due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons ( and , isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli (BT and Bs) and thermodynamic Gruneisen parameter (γth) in order to examine the inclusion of anharmonic effects in the present study. The computed results are compared with available experimental results measured by using different methods and previously obtained theoretical results using different theoretical philosophy. Our computed results are in good agreement with experimental findings and for some physical quantities better or comparable with other theoretical results. We conclude that local form of the pseudopotential used accounts s-p-d hybridization properly and found to be transferable at extreme environment without changing the values of the parameter. Thus, even the behavior of transition metals having complexity in electronic structure can be well understood with local pseudopotential without any modification in the potential at extreme environment. Looking to the success of present scheme (MFP + pseudopotential) we would like to extend it further for the

  11. Updating temperature and salinity mean values and trends in the Western Mediterranean: The RADMED project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yáñez, M.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Moya, F.; Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Serra, M.; Zunino, P.; Pascual, J.; Salat, J.

    2017-09-01

    The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (>2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geographical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943-2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the intermediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1.

  12. Differences between true mean daily, monthly and annual air temperatures and air temperatures calculated with three equations: a case study from three Croatian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Željković, Ivana; Trogrlić, Robert Šakić; Milković, Janja

    2013-10-01

    Differences between true mean daily, monthly and annual air temperatures T0 [Eq. (1)] and temperatures calculated with three different equations [(2), (3) and (4)] (commonly used in climatological practice) were investigated at three main meteorological Croatian stations from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011. The stations are situated in the following three climatically distinct areas: (1) Zagreb-Grič (mild continental climate), (2) Zavižan (cold mountain climate), and (3) Dubrovnik (hot Mediterranean climate). T1 [Eq. (2)] and T3 [Eq. (4)] mean temperatures are defined by the algorithms based on the weighted means of temperatures measured at irregularly spaced, yet fixed hours. T2 [Eq. (3)] is the mean temperature defined as the average of daily maximum and minimum temperature. The equation as well as the time of observations used introduces a bias into mean temperatures. The largest differences occur for mean daily temperatures. The calculated daily difference value from all three equations and all analysed stations varies from -3.73 °C to +3.56 °C, from -1.39 °C to +0.79 °C for monthly differences and from -0.76 °C to +0.30 °C for annual differences.

  13. A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Maohua; Hu, Wusheng

    2017-12-01

    The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22 K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

  14. Base flow-driven shifts in tropical stream temperature regimes across a mean annual rainfall gradient

    Treesearch

    Ayron M. Strauch; Richard A. MacKenzie; Ralph W. Tingley

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect air temperature and watershed hydrology, but the degree to which these concurrent changes affect stream temperature is not well documented in the tropics. How stream temperature varies over time under changing hydrologic conditions is difficult to isolate from seasonal changes in air temperature. Groundwater and bank storage...

  15. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  17. Association between mean and interannual equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface temperature bias in a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Prasad, K. V. S. R.; Karmakar, Ananya; Parekh, Anant

    2018-03-01

    In the present study the association between mean and interannual subsurface temperature bias over the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) is investigated during boreal summer (June through September; JJAS) in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. Anomalously high subsurface warm bias (greater than 3 °C) over the eastern EIO (EEIO) region is noted in CFSv2 during summer, which is higher compared to other parts of the tropical Indian Ocean. Prominent eastward current bias in the upper 100 m over the EIO region induced by anomalous westerly winds is primarily responsible for subsurface temperature bias. The eastward currents transport warm water to the EEIO and is pushed down to subsurface due to downwelling. Thus biases in both horizontal and vertical currents over the EIO region support subsurface warm bias. The evolution of systematic subsurface warm bias in the model shows strong interannual variability. These maximum subsurface warming episodes over the EEIO are mainly associated with La Niña like forcing. Strong convergence of low level winds over the EEIO and Maritime continent enhanced the westerly wind bias over the EIO during maximum warming years. This low level convergence of wind is induced by the bias in the gradient in the mean sea level pressure with positive bias over western EIO and negative bias over EEIO and parts of western Pacific. Consequently, changes in the atmospheric circulation associated with La Niña like conditions affected the ocean dynamics by modulating the current bias thereby enhancing the subsurface warm bias over the EEIO. It is identified that EEIO subsurface warming is stronger when La Niña co-occurred with negative Indian Ocean Dipole events as compared to La Niña only years in the model. Ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments forced with CFSv2 winds clearly support our hypothesis that ocean dynamics influenced by westerly winds bias is primarily

  18. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  19. On the Trend of the Annual Mean, Maximum, and Minimum Temperature and the Diurnal Temperature Range in the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, Dataset, 1844 -2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Examined are the annual averages, 10-year moving averages, decadal averages, and sunspot cycle (SC) length averages of the mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, during the interval 1844-2012. Strong upward trends are apparent in the Armagh surface-air temperatures (ASAT), while a strong downward trend is apparent in the DTR, especially when the ASAT data are averaged by decade or over individual SC lengths. The long-term decrease in the decadaland SC-averaged annual DTR occurs because the annual minimum temperatures have risen more quickly than the annual maximum temperatures. Estimates are given for the Armagh annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and the DTR for the current decade (2010-2019) and SC24.

  20. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. NAO and its relationship with the Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofan; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Liu, Ting

    2017-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the most prominent teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere and has recently been found to be both an internal source and useful predictor of the multidecadal variability of the Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT). In this study, we examine how well the variability of the NAO and NHT are reproduced in historical simulations generated by the 40 models that constitute Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). All of the models are able to capture the basic characteristics of the interannual NAO pattern reasonably well, whereas the simulated decadal NAO patterns show less consistency with the observations. The NAO fluctuations over multidecadal time scales are underestimated by almost all models. Regarding the NHT multidecadal variability, the models generally represent the externally forced variations well but tend to underestimate the internal NHT. With respect to the performance of the models in reproducing the NAO-NHT relationship, 14 models capture the observed decadal lead of the NAO, and model discrepancies in the representation of this linkage are derived mainly from their different interpretation of the underlying physical processes associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This study suggests that one way to improve the simulation of the multidecadal variability of the internal NHT lies in better simulation of the multidecadal variability of the NAO and its delayed effect on the NHT variability via slow ocean processes.

  2. Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Popp, Alexander; Calvin, Katherine V.; Luderer, Gunnar; Emmerling, Johannes; Gernaat, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Strefler, Jessica; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Marangoni, Giacomo; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Doelman, Jonathan; Drouet, Laurent; Edmonds, Jae; Fricko, Oliver; Harmsen, Mathijs; Havlík, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Stehfest, Elke; Tavoni, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement calls for countries to pursue efforts to limit global-mean temperature rise to 1.5 °C. The transition pathways that can meet such a target have not, however, been extensively explored. Here we describe scenarios that limit end-of-century radiative forcing to 1.9 W m-2, and consequently restrict median warming in the year 2100 to below 1.5 °C. We use six integrated assessment models and a simple climate model, under different socio-economic, technological and resource assumptions from five Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Some, but not all, SSPs are amenable to pathways to 1.5 °C. Successful 1.9 W m-2 scenarios are characterized by a rapid shift away from traditional fossil-fuel use towards large-scale low-carbon energy supplies, reduced energy use, and carbon-dioxide removal. However, 1.9 W m-2 scenarios could not be achieved in several models under SSPs with strong inequalities, high baseline fossil-fuel use, or scattered short-term climate policy. Further research can help policy-makers to understand the real-world implications of these scenarios.

  3. Comment on "the one dimensional acoustic field with arbitrary mean axial temperature gradient and mean flow" (J.Li and A.S.Morgans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 400 (2017) 248-269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokumaci, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study, Li and Morgans [1] present an ingenious WKB approximation for the acoustic plane wave field in a straight uniform duct with mean temperature gradient and mean flow. The authors state that the previous solutions are limited to small linear mean temperature gradients and low mean flow Mach numbers and claim that their solution applies for arbitrary mean temperature profiles and moderate-to-large mean flow velocity Mach numbers at both low and high frequencies.

  4. The role of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in the global mean temperature variability

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Klett, James D.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    We simulated the global mean 1900–2015 warming by 42 Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models varies between 0.58 and 1.70 °C. The observed warming according to the NASA GISS temperature analysis is 0.95 °C with a 1200 km smoothing radius, or 0.86 °C with a 250 km smoothing radius. The projection of the future 2015–2100 global warming under a moderate increase of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RCP4.5 scenario) by individual models is between 0.7 and 2.3 °C. The CMIP5 climate models agree that the future climate will be warmer; however, there is little consensus as to how largemore » the warming will be (reflected by an uncertainty of over a factor of three). Moreover, a parsimonious statistical regression model with just three explanatory variables [anthropogenic radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and aerosols (GHGA), solar variability, and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index] accounts for over 95 % of the observed 1900–2015 temperature variance. This statistical regression model reproduces very accurately the past warming (0.96 °C compared to the observed 0.95 °C) and projects the future 2015–2100 warming to be around 0.95 °C (with the IPCC 2013 suggested RCP4.5 radiative forcing and an assumed cyclic AMO behavior). The AMO contribution to the 1970–2005 warming was between 0.13 and 0.20 °C (depending on which AMO index is used) compared to the GHGA contribution of 0.49–0.58 °C. During the twenty-first century AMO cycle the AMO contribution is projected to remain the same (0.13–0.20 °C), while the GHGA contribution is expected to decrease to 0.21–0.25 °C due to the levelling off of the GHGA radiative forcing that is assumed according to the RCP4.5 scenario. Therefore, the anthropogenic contribution and natural variability are expected to contribute about equally to the anticipated global warming during the second half of the twenty-first century for the RCP4.5 trajectory.« less

  5. The role of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in the global mean temperature variability

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Klett, James D.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; ...

    2016-11-01

    We simulated the global mean 1900–2015 warming by 42 Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models varies between 0.58 and 1.70 °C. The observed warming according to the NASA GISS temperature analysis is 0.95 °C with a 1200 km smoothing radius, or 0.86 °C with a 250 km smoothing radius. The projection of the future 2015–2100 global warming under a moderate increase of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RCP4.5 scenario) by individual models is between 0.7 and 2.3 °C. The CMIP5 climate models agree that the future climate will be warmer; however, there is little consensus as to how largemore » the warming will be (reflected by an uncertainty of over a factor of three). Moreover, a parsimonious statistical regression model with just three explanatory variables [anthropogenic radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and aerosols (GHGA), solar variability, and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index] accounts for over 95 % of the observed 1900–2015 temperature variance. This statistical regression model reproduces very accurately the past warming (0.96 °C compared to the observed 0.95 °C) and projects the future 2015–2100 warming to be around 0.95 °C (with the IPCC 2013 suggested RCP4.5 radiative forcing and an assumed cyclic AMO behavior). The AMO contribution to the 1970–2005 warming was between 0.13 and 0.20 °C (depending on which AMO index is used) compared to the GHGA contribution of 0.49–0.58 °C. During the twenty-first century AMO cycle the AMO contribution is projected to remain the same (0.13–0.20 °C), while the GHGA contribution is expected to decrease to 0.21–0.25 °C due to the levelling off of the GHGA radiative forcing that is assumed according to the RCP4.5 scenario. Therefore, the anthropogenic contribution and natural variability are expected to contribute about equally to the anticipated global warming during the second half of the twenty-first century for the RCP4.5 trajectory.« less

  6. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasticity of preferred body temperatures as means of coping with climate change?

    PubMed Central

    Gvoždík, Lumír

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory behaviour represents an important component of ectotherm non-genetic adaptive capacity that mitigates the impact of ongoing climate change. The buffering role of behavioural thermoregulation has been attributed solely to the ability to maintain near optimal body temperature for sufficiently extended periods under altered thermal conditions. The widespread occurrence of plastic modification of target temperatures that an ectotherm aims to achieve (preferred body temperatures) has been largely overlooked. I argue that plasticity of target temperatures may significantly contribute to an ectotherm's adaptive capacity. Its contribution to population persistence depends on both the effectiveness of acute thermoregulatory adjustments (reactivity) in buffering selection pressures in a changing thermal environment, and the total costs of thermoregulation (i.e. reactivity and plasticity) in a given environment. The direction and magnitude of plastic shifts in preferred body temperatures can be incorporated into mechanistic models, to improve predictions of the impact of global climate change on ectotherm populations. PMID:22072284

  8. Plasticity of preferred body temperatures as means of coping with climate change?

    PubMed

    Gvozdík, Lumír

    2012-04-23

    Thermoregulatory behaviour represents an important component of ectotherm non-genetic adaptive capacity that mitigates the impact of ongoing climate change. The buffering role of behavioural thermoregulation has been attributed solely to the ability to maintain near optimal body temperature for sufficiently extended periods under altered thermal conditions. The widespread occurrence of plastic modification of target temperatures that an ectotherm aims to achieve (preferred body temperatures) has been largely overlooked. I argue that plasticity of target temperatures may significantly contribute to an ectotherm's adaptive capacity. Its contribution to population persistence depends on both the effectiveness of acute thermoregulatory adjustments (reactivity) in buffering selection pressures in a changing thermal environment, and the total costs of thermoregulation (i.e. reactivity and plasticity) in a given environment. The direction and magnitude of plastic shifts in preferred body temperatures can be incorporated into mechanistic models, to improve predictions of the impact of global climate change on ectotherm populations.

  9. A global weighted mean temperature model based on empirical orthogonal function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinzheng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Langlang; Ma, Xiaping

    2018-03-01

    A global empirical orthogonal function (EOF) model of the tropospheric weighted mean temperature called GEOFM_Tm was developed using high-precision Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere Tm data during the years 2008-2014. Due to the quick convergence of EOF decomposition, it is possible to use the first four EOF series, which consists base functions Uk and associated coefficients Pk, to represent 99.99% of the overall variance of the original data sets and its spatial-temporal variations. Results show that U1 displays a prominent latitude distribution profile with positive peaks located at low latitude region. U2 manifests an asymmetric pattern that positive values occurred over 30° in the Northern Hemisphere, and negative values were observed at other regions. U3 and U4 displayed significant anomalies in Tibet and North America, respectively. Annual variation is the major component of the first and second associated coefficients P1 and P2, whereas P3 and P4 mainly reflects both annual and semi-annual variation components. Furthermore, the performance of constructed GEOFM_Tm was validated by comparison with GTm_III and GTm_N with different kinds of data including GGOS Atmosphere Tm data in 2015 and radiosonde data from Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) in 2014. Generally speaking, GEOFM_Tm can achieve the same accuracy and reliability as GTm_III and GTm_N models in a global scale, even has improved in the Antarctic and Greenland regions. The MAE and RMS of GEOFM_Tm tend to be 2.49 K and 3.14 K with respect to GGOS Tm data, respectively; and 3.38 K and 4.23 K with respect to IGRA sounding data, respectively. In addition, those three models have higher precision at low latitude than middle and high latitude regions. The magnitude of Tm remains at the range of 220-300 K, presented a high correlation with geographic latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, there was a significant enhancement at high latitude region reaching 270 K during summer

  10. Inference of Global Mean Temperature Trend and Climate Change from MSU and AMSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global temperature monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric temperature, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global temperature trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global temperature, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal changes of the on-board warm blackbody temperature. From our analysis, we find that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric temperature in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic change.

  11. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

    Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

  12. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

  13. Finite temperature magnon spectra in yttrium iron garnet from a mean field approach in a tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ka

    2018-04-01

    We study magnon spectra at finite temperature in yttrium iron garnet using a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor exchange interaction. The spin reduction due to thermal magnon excitation is taken into account via the mean field approximation to the local spin and is found to be different at two sets of iron atoms. The resulting temperature dependence of the spin wave gap shows good agreement with experiment. We find that only two magnon modes are relevant to the ferromagnetic resonance.

  14. A new method for the estimation of high temperature radiant heat emittance by means of aero-acoustic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greffrath, Fabian; Prieler, Robert; Telle, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    A new method for the experimental estimation of radiant heat emittance at high temperatures has been developed which involves aero-acoustic levitation of samples, laser heating and contactless temperature measurement. Radiant heat emittance values are determined from the time dependent development of the sample temperature which requires analysis of both the radiant and convective heat transfer towards the surroundings by means of fluid dynamics calculations. First results for the emittance of a corundum sample obtained with this method are presented in this article and found in good agreement with literature values.

  15. Absolute rate constant for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide vapor over the temperature range 265-400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide were measured from 265-400 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Analytical techniques were developed to measure H2O2 under reaction conditions. Due to ambiguity in the interpretation of the analytical results, the data combine to give two equally acceptable representations of the temperature dependence. The results are compared to previous work at 298 K and are theoretically discussed in terms of the mechanism of the reaction. Additional experiments on the H + H2O2 reaction at 298 and 359 K are compared with earlier results from this laboratory and give a slightly revised bimolecular rate constant.

  16. Range of monthly mean hourly land surface air temperature diurnal cycle over high northern latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihui; Zeng, Xubin

    2014-05-01

    Daily maximum and minimum temperatures over global land are fundamental climate variables, and their difference represents the diurnal temperature range (DTR). While the differences between the monthly averaged DTR (MDTR) and the range of monthly averaged hourly temperature diurnal cycle (RMDT) are easy to understand qualitatively, their differences have not been quantified over global land areas. Based on our newly developed in situ data (Climatic Research Unit) reanalysis (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) merged hourly temperature data from 1979 to 2009, RMDT in January is found to be much smaller than that in July over high northern latitudes, as it is much more affected by the diurnal radiative forcing than by the horizontal advection of temperature. In contrast, MDTR in January is comparable to that in July over high northern latitudes, but it is much larger than January RMDT, as it primarily reflects the movement of lower frequency synoptic weather systems. The area-averaged RMDT trends north of 40°N are near zero in November, December, and January, while the trends of MDTR are negative. These results suggest the need to use both the traditional MDTR and RMDT suggested here in future observational and modeling studies. Furthermore, MDTR and its trend are more sensitive to the starting hour of a 24 h day used in the calculations than those for RMDT, and this factor also needs to be considered in model evaluations using observational data.

  17. A method to precisely measure Ar isotopes and Xe/Kr ratios in air trapped in ice cores for simultaneous ice core dating and mean ocean temperature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ng, J.; Higgins, J. A.; Kurbatov, A.; Clifford, H.; Spaulding, N. E.; Mayewski, P. A.; Brook, E.; Bender, M. L.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic efforts are underway to find and retrieve ice cores older than 800 thousand years (kyr) by both shallow drilling in "blue ice" areas and classic deep ice coring. Ice stratigraphy at "blue ice" sites is typically disordered, and the high cost of deep drilling mandates rapid reconnaissance drilling (e.g. RAID) with very small sample size. Both approaches therefore require methods of absolute dating on a single piece of ice without stratigraphic context. Here we present a dating method modified from Bender et al. (2008; PNAS) to precisely measure the isotopic composition of argon (36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar) in air bubbles trapped in the ice, which changes over time in a known way. Our method has an analytical uncertainty of 110 kyr (1σ) or 10% of the age of the sample, whichever is greater. We measured Ar isotopes from the Allan Hills blue ice areas, East Antarctica, where 1 Ma ice was previously found by Higgins et al. (2015; PNAS). Results show ice as old as 2.7±0.3 million years, but the ice column is stratigraphically disturbed. Hence Allan Hills ice core records should be viewed as a series of "climate snapshots" rather than a continuum. Xenon-to-krypton (Xe/Kr) ratios are also measured in the same aliquot of extracted gas to reconstruct mean ocean temperature (Shackleton et al., 2016; Fall AGU). Preliminary mean ocean temperature in ice older than 1 Ma ranges from -0.3 to -1.2 deg. colder than present with an uncertainty of 0.24 deg., which agrees well with other Pleistocene ocean temperature records (e.g. Rohling et al., 2014; Nature and Elderfield et al., 2012; Science). The observed range is 40% of the glacial-interglacial variability in the 100-kyr climate cycles ( 2 deg.), close to the 50% reduction in the glacial-interglacial δ18O amplitude across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Finally, Xe/Kr ratios are found to correlate positively with δD of the ice, implying a coupling between the global ocean temperature and Antarctic temperature throughout

  18. Temperature measurement of supercooled droplet in icing phenomenon by means of dual-luminescent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Morita, K.; Mamori, H.; Fukushima, N.; Yamamoto, M.

    2017-08-01

    The collision of a supercooled water droplet with a surface result an object creates ice accretion on the surface. The icing problem in any cold environments leads to severe damages on aircrafts, and a lot of studies on prevention and prediction techniques for icing have been conducted so far. Therefore, it is very important to know the detail of freezing mechanism of supercooled water droplets to improve the anti-and de-icing devices and icing simulation codes. The icing mechanism of a single supercooled water droplet impacting on an object surface would give us great insights for the purpose. In the present study, we develop a dual-luminescent imaging technique to measure the time-resolved temperature of a supercooled water droplet impacting on the surface under different temperature conditions. We apply this technique to measure the exact temperature of a water droplet, and to discuss the detail of the freezing process.

  19. [Time-Temperature indicators (TTI). A means of quality control of produce].

    PubMed

    Durand, M P

    1996-11-01

    The author, after having dwelt on the mediatic importance of bacterial food poisonings, analyses their reasons, insisting on the importance of the temperature as a factor of bacterial growth. Among the cures for the association temperature-bacterial growth, the author draws attention to the benefits of the use of the time temperature indicators (TTI). He describes the purposes, the required qualities, the principles of activity. The "Lifelines TTI" proves to be interesting. The author describes the principles of activity, the directions for reading the results, the practical application. Finally he describes the remarks following on its use in large scale in a group of chain-stores. In the conclusion, the author points that these TTI are an attractive technical innovation regarding to the fresh foods, for the control of coldness in the human nutrition.

  20. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of a portable holographic moire camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.; Shao, Y.

    Electronic holographic moire is utilized to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A CW laser operating at 50 mW and at the wavelength of 632.8 nm is used to illuminate the objects under study. The main variables influencing the fringe patterns visibility are discussed and measurements are performed to obtain the values of these variables in the performed experiments. The coefficient of expansion of an alloy is measured at temperatures ranging from 797 C to 986 C. Excellent agreement is found between the measured values and those provided by the manufacturer.

  1. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of a portable holographic moire camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.; Shao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic holographic moire is utilized to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A CW laser operating at 50 mW and at the wavelength of 632.8 nm is used to illuminate the objects under study. The main variables influencing the fringe patterns visibility are discussed and measurements are performed to obtain the values of these variables in the performed experiments. The coefficient of expansion of an alloy is measured at temperatures ranging from 797 C to 986 C. Excellent agreement is found between the measured values and those provided by the manufacturer.

  2. On the meaning of peak temperature profiles in inverted metamorphic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat-Oualid, Sylvia; Yamato, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Inverted metamorphic sequences (IMS) are common features of main thrust systems on Earth. They exhibit an upwards continuous increase in peak temperature conditions and thereby constitute evidence of the close relationship between the thermal field evolution and tectonic processes. Heat advection and shear heating are known to allow the formation of such metamorphic signatures. Heat diffusion also plays an important role in temperature distribution on both sides of the thrust. Other advection processes such as erosion or accretion may also cause a local peak temperature inversion. Each one of these processes therefore affects the thermal field around the thrust. However, despite the crucial importance of all these processes for the interpretation of the inverted peak temperature signatures, their respective influences have never been quantified and compared all together. To address this issue, we propose an innovative coupled approach. (i) We use two-dimensional numerical models that simulate various thrust systems, allowing for a wide diversity of setups. To illustrate this study, we focus on intracontinental thrust systems for which all processes listed are likely to play a key role in the thermal evolution. We perform a parametric study including kinematic settings (i.e. convergence, erosion and accretion), thermal properties, mechanical strength and heat sources. (ii) Dimensionless numbers based on parameters are used to quantify the relative contributions of each process to the thermal budget evolution. Hence, the three thermal processes (i.e. heat diffusion, heat advection and shear heating) are compared with each other via three dimensionless combinations of the Peclet and Brinkman numbers: RDif, RAdv and RPro, respectively. Erosion and accretion are compared separately, based on a fourth dimensionless number Rea. (iii) We analytically examine the inverted peak temperature recorded along profiles that are perpendicular to the thrust zone defined in our

  3. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Treesearch

    Lori D. Bothwell; Paul C. Selmants; Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton

    2014-01-01

    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical...

  4. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient

    Treesearch

    S. Pierre; I. Hewson; J. P. Sparks; C. M. Litton; C. Giardina; P. M. Groffman; T. J. Fahey

    2017-01-01

    Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of...

  5. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with increasing mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Treesearch

    Paul Selmants; Creighton Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Greg P. Asner

    2014-01-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem...

  6. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L E

    2015-08-11

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.

  7. Intraseasonal Variations in Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2009-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20oN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  8. Assignment of vibrational spectral bands of kidney tissue by means of low temperature SERS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicka, M.; Radzvilaite, M.; Ceponkus, J.; Urboniene, V.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Steiner, G.; Sablinskas, V.

    2017-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a useful method for detection of trace amounts of molecules. It has already been successfully implemented for detection of explosives, food additives, biomarkers in blood or urine, etc. In the last decade, SERS spectroscopy was introduced into the field of health sciences and has been especially focused on early disease detection. In the recent years, application of SERS spectroscopy for detection of various types of human cancerous tissues emerged. Furthermore, SERS spectroscopy of extracellular fluid shows great potential for the differentiation of normal and cancerous tissues; however, due to high variety of molecules present in such biological samples, the experimental spectrum is a combination of many different overlapping vibrational spectral bands. Thus, precise assignment of these bands to the corresponding molecular vibrations is a difficult task. In most cases, researchers try to avoid this task satisfying just with tentative assignment. In this study, low temperature SERS measurements of extracellular fluid of cancerous and healthy kidney tissue samples were carried out in order to get a deeper understanding of the nature of vibrational spectral bands present in the experimental spectrum. The SERS spectra were measured in temperature range from 300 K down to 100 K. SERS method was implemented using silver nanoparticle colloidal solution. The results of the low temperature SERS experiment were analysed and compared with the results of theoretical calculations. The analysis showed that the SERS spectrum of extracellular fluid of kidney tissue is highly influenced by the vibrational bands of adenine and Lcystine molecules.

  9. Documentation of a daily mean stream temperature module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2017-09-15

    A module for simulation of daily mean water temperature in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network Temperature model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water temperature simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream temperature calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.

  10. Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition increased with mean carbon residence time: Field incubation and data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhui; Xu, Xia; Zhou, Guiyao; Luo, Yiqi

    2018-02-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting climate-carbon (C) cycle feedback. Results from previous studies are highly contradictory with old soil C decomposition being more, similarly, or less sensitive to temperature than decomposition of young fractions. The contradictory results are partly from difficulties in distinguishing old from young SOC and their changes over time in the experiments with or without isotopic techniques. In this study, we have conducted a long-term field incubation experiment with deep soil collars (0-70 cm in depth, 10 cm in diameter of PVC tubes) for excluding root C input to examine apparent temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition under ambient and warming treatments from 2002 to 2008. The data from the experiment were infused into a multi-pool soil C model to estimate intrinsic temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition and C residence times of three SOC fractions (i.e., active, slow, and passive) using a data assimilation (DA) technique. As active SOC with the short C residence time was progressively depleted in the deep soil collars under both ambient and warming treatments, the residences times of the whole SOC became longer over time. Concomitantly, the estimated apparent and intrinsic temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition also became gradually higher over time as more than 50% of active SOC was depleted. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of soil C decomposition in deep soil collars was positively correlated with the mean C residence times. However, the regression slope of the temperature sensitivity against the residence time was lower under the warming treatment than under ambient temperature, indicating that other processes also regulated temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition. These results indicate that old SOC decomposition is more sensitive to temperature than young components, making the old C more vulnerable to future warmer

  11. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials. [for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.; Connor, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the concept of thermal control by means of physical or chemical reaction heats for applications involving the storage of cryogens during long-term space voyages. The investigation included some preliminary experimental tests of energy storage material (ESM) effectiveness. The materials considered can store and liberate large amounts of thermal energy by means of mechanisms such as sensible heat, heat of fusion, and physical or chemical reaction heat. A differential thermal analysis was utilized in the laboratory tests. Attention is given to the evaluation of cryogenic ESM thermal control concepts, the experimental determination of phase change materials characteristics, and adsorption ESMs. It is found that an ESM shield surrounded by multiple layer insulation provides the best protection for a cryogen store.

  12. Estimating changes in mean body temperature for humans during exercise using core and skin temperatures is inaccurate even with a correction factor.

    PubMed

    Jay, Ollie; Reardon, Francis D; Webb, Paul; Ducharme, Michel B; Ramsay, Tim; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Kenny, Glen P

    2007-08-01

    Changes in mean body temperature (DeltaT(b)) estimated by the traditional two-compartment model of "core" and "shell" temperatures and an adjusted two-compartment model incorporating a correction factor were compared with values derived by whole body calorimetry. Sixty participants (31 men, 29 women) cycled at 40% of peak O(2) consumption for 60 or 90 min in the Snellen calorimeter at 24 or 30 degrees C. The core compartment was represented by esophageal, rectal (T(re)), and aural canal temperature, and the shell compartment was represented by a 12-point mean skin temperature (T(sk)). Using T(re) and conventional core-to-shell weightings (X) of 0.66, 0.79, and 0.90, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error (with 95% confidence interval limits in parentheses) for the traditional model was -95.2% (-83.0, -107.3) to -76.6% (-72.8, -80.5) after 10 min and -47.2% (-40.9, -53.5) to -22.6% (-14.5, -30.7) after 90 min. Using T(re), X = 0.80, and a correction factor (X(0)) of 0.40, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error for the adjusted model was +9.5% (+16.9, +2.1) to -0.3% (+11.9, -12.5) after 10 min and +15.0% (+27.2, +2.8) to -13.7% (-4.2, -23.3) after 90 min. Quadratic analyses of calorimetry DeltaT(b) data was subsequently used to derive best-fitting values of X for both models and X(0) for the adjusted model for each measure of core temperature. The most accurate model at any time point or condition only accounted for 20% of the variation observed in DeltaT(b) for the traditional model and 56% for the adjusted model. In conclusion, throughout exercise the estimation of DeltaT(b) using any measure of core temperature together with mean skin temperature irrespective of weighting is inaccurate even with a correction factor customized for the specific conditions.

  13. Oblateness, radius, and mean stratospheric temperature of Neptune from the 1985 August 20 occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Sicardy, Bruno; Brahic, Andre; Vilas, Faith

    1987-01-01

    The oblateness and equatorial radius of Neptune at the 1-microbar pressure level, together with the position angle of the projected spin axis, are the goals of a general oblate atmosphere model for Neptune employing a data ensemble obtained from the occultation of a bright IR star that provided accurate measurements of the limb position at these and several other stations. The observed reduction in central flash intensity is explained by a 150-135 K temperature decrease as pressure rises from 1 to 400 microbar. Attention is given to the implications of these oblateness results for models of the Neptune interior.

  14. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  15. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  16. An improved empirical dynamic control system model of global mean sea level rise and surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Luu, Quang-Hung; Tkalich, Pavel; Chen, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Having great impacts on human lives, global warming and associated sea level rise are believed to be strongly linked to anthropogenic causes. Statistical approach offers a simple and yet conceptually verifiable combination of remotely connected climate variables and indices, including sea level and surface temperature. We propose an improved statistical reconstruction model based on the empirical dynamic control system by taking into account the climate variability and deriving parameters from Monte Carlo cross-validation random experiments. For the historic data from 1880 to 2001, we yielded higher correlation results compared to those from other dynamic empirical models. The averaged root mean square errors are reduced in both reconstructed fields, namely, the global mean surface temperature (by 24-37%) and the global mean sea level (by 5-25%). Our model is also more robust as it notably diminished the unstable problem associated with varying initial values. Such results suggest that the model not only enhances significantly the global mean reconstructions of temperature and sea level but also may have a potential to improve future projections.

  17. Analysis of trait mean and variability versus temperature in trematode cercariae: is there scope for adaptation to global warming?

    PubMed

    Studer, A; Poulin, R

    2014-05-01

    The potential of species for evolutionary adaptation in the context of global climate change has recently come under scrutiny. Estimates of phenotypic variation in biological traits may prove valuable for identifying species, or groups of species, with greater or lower potential for evolutionary adaptation, as this variation, when heritable, represents the basis for natural selection. Assuming that measures of trait variability reflect the evolutionary potential of these traits, we conducted an analysis across trematode species to determine the potential of these parasites as a group to adapt to increasing temperatures. Firstly, we assessed how the mean number of infective stages (cercariae) emerging from infected snail hosts as well as the survival and infectivity of cercariae are related to temperature. Secondly and importantly in the context of evolutionary potential, we assessed how coefficients of variation for these traits are related to temperature, in both cases controlling for other factors such as habitat, acclimatisation, latitude and type of target host. With increasing temperature, an optimum curve was found for mean output and mean infectivity, and a linear decrease for survival of cercariae. For coefficients of variation, temperature was only an important predictor in the case of cercarial output, where results indicated that there is, however, no evidence for limited trait variation at the higher temperature range. No directional trend was found for either variation of survival or infectivity. These results, characterising general patterns among trematodes, suggest that all three traits considered may have potential to change through adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low temperature detection of phase transitions and relaxation processes in strontium titanate by means of cathodoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Townsend, P. D.; Fromknecht, R.

    2004-11-01

    Cathodoluminescence is an effective tool for investigating phase changes and relaxation processes in insulators and data are presented for strontium titanate. The results demonstrate considerable sensitivity to the origin of the samples as the detailed spectra and intensity changes with temperature are strongly dependent on the growth conditions, trace impurities and radiation induced defects. It is of particular note that in the defective surface layer the normal second-order phase transition cited near 105 K transforms into a sharply defined first-order transition because of the relaxation of the near surface layer in doped crystals. Detection of the other main relaxation stages is also straightforward via intensity and spectral changes. Secondary effects of phase changes incorporated within the surface layers are clearly evident, particularly for the 197 K sublimation of CO2 nanoparticle inclusions.

  19. Absolute auditory threshold: testing the absolute.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peter; Matysiak, Artur

    2017-11-02

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of sounds in quiet, one of the simplest tasks for auditory systems, are debated. Several models proposed to explain the threshold for sounds in quiet and its dependence on sound parameters include a minimum sound intensity ('hard threshold'), below which sound has no effect on the ear. Also, many models are based on the assumption that threshold is mediated by integration of a neural response proportional to sound intensity. Here, we test these ideas. Using an adaptive forced choice procedure, we obtained thresholds of 95 normal-hearing human ears for 18 tones (3.125 kHz carrier) in quiet, each with a different temporal amplitude envelope. Grand-mean thresholds and standard deviations were well described by a probabilistic model according to which sensory events are generated by a Poisson point process with a low rate in the absence, and higher, time-varying rates in the presence, of stimulation. The subject actively evaluates the process and bases the decision on the number of events observed. The sound-driven rate of events is proportional to the temporal amplitude envelope of the bandpass-filtered sound raised to an exponent. We find no evidence for a hard threshold: When the model is extended to include such a threshold, the fit does not improve. Furthermore, we find an exponent of 3, consistent with our previous studies and further challenging models that are based on the assumption of the integration of a neural response that, at threshold sound levels, is directly proportional to sound amplitude or intensity. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925–1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change. PMID:23784087

  1. Intra-seasonal Oscillations (ISO) of Zonal-Mean Meridional Winds and Temperatures as Measured by UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an empirical analysis of measurements with the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the UARS spacecraft in the upper mesosphere (95 km), persistent and regular intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) with periods of about 2 to 4 months have recently been reported in the zonal-mean meridional winds. Similar oscillations have also been discussed independently in a modeling study, and they were attributed to wave-mean-flow interactions. The observed and modeled meridional wind ISOs were largely confined to low latitudes. We report here an analysis of concurrent temperature measurements on UARS, which produces oscillations similar to those seen in the meridional winds. Although the temperature oscillations are observed at lower altitudes (55 km), their phase variations with latitude are qualitatively consistent with the inferred properties seen in the meridional winds and thus provide independent evidence for the existence of ISOs in the mesosphere.

  2. On the response of MODIS cloud coverage to global mean surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian H.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Wong, Sun; Frey, Richard; Meyer, Kerry G.

    2017-01-01

    The global surface temperature change (ΔTs) mediated cloud cover response is directly related to cloud-climate feedback. Using satellite remote sensing data to relate cloud and climate requires a well-calibrated, stable, and consistent long-term cloud data record. The Collection 5.1 (C5) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud observations have been widely used for this purpose. However, the MODIS data quality varies greatly with the surface type, spectral region, cloud type, and time periods of study, which calls for additional caution when applying such data to studies on cloud cover temporal trends and variability. Using 15 years of cloud observations made by Terra and Aqua MODIS, we analyze the ΔTs-mediated cloud cover response for different cloud types by linearly regressing the monthly anomaly of cloud cover (ΔC) with the monthly anomaly of global Ts. The Collection 6 (C6) Aqua data exhibit a similar cloud response to the long-term counterpart simulated by advanced climate models. A robust increase in altitude with increasing ΔTs is found for high clouds, while a robust decrease of ΔC is noticed for optically thick low clouds. The large differences between C5 and C6 results are from improvements in calibration and cloud retrieval algorithms. The large positive cloud cover responses with data after 2010 and the strong sensitivity to time period obtained from the Terra (C5 and C6) data are likely due to calibration drift that has not been corrected, suggesting that the previous estimate of the short-term cloud cover response from the these data should be revisited.

  3. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  4. A Dynamic Approach to Addressing Observation-Minus-Forecast Mean Differences in a Land Surface Skin Temperature Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara; Reichle, Rolf; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Scarino, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In land data assimilation, bias in the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals is typically removed from the observations prior to assimilation by rescaling the observations to have the same long-term mean (and higher-order moments) as the corresponding model forecasts. Such observation rescaling approaches require a long record of observed and forecast estimates, and an assumption that the O-F mean differences are stationary. A two-stage observation bias and state estimation filter is presented, as an alternative to observation rescaling that does not require a long data record or assume stationary O-F mean differences. The two-stage filter removes dynamic (nonstationary) estimates of the seasonal scale O-F mean difference from the assimilated observations, allowing the assimilation to correct the model for synoptic-scale errors without adverse effects from observation biases. The two-stage filter is demonstrated by assimilating geostationary skin temperature (Tsk) observations into the Catchment land surface model. Global maps of the O-F mean differences are presented, and the two-stage filter is evaluated for one year over the Americas. The two-stage filter effectively removed the Tsk O-F mean differences, for example the GOES-West O-F mean difference at 21:00 UTC was reduced from 5.1 K for a bias-blind assimilation to 0.3 K. Compared to independent in situ and remotely sensed Tsk observations, the two-stage assimilation reduced the unbiased Root Mean Square Difference (ubRMSD) of the modeled Tsk by 10 of the open-loop values.

  5. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  6. Robust scaling with global mean temperature of future heat stress projections within CMIP5 and CESM LENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress is of global concern because it threatens human and animal health and productivity. Here we use the HumanIndexMod to calculate 3 moist thermodynamic quantities and 9 commonly and operationally used heat stress metrics (Buzan et al., 2015). We drive the HumanIndexMod with output from CMIP5 and the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (LENS) using the greenhouse gasses forcing, representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). We limit our analysis to models that provide 4x daily output of surface pressure, reference height temperature and moisture, and use lowest model level winds where available, 18 CMIP5 and 40 LENS simulations. We show three novel results: Comparing time slices (2081-2100 and 2026-2045 for CMIP5, and 2071-2080 and 2026-2035 for LENS), we note that each individual heat stress metric extreme, within the multi-model mean, has spatial patterns that are highly correlated (>0.99). Moist thermodynamics and heat stress extremes are intrinsically linked to the thermodynamics of the climate, and scales simply with global mean surface temperature (GMT) changes. For example, large swaths of land surface area from 30°N to 30°S, excluding the Sahel, the Arabian Peninsula, and Himalayan Plateau, show the response of wet bulb temperature to be 0.85°C/°C GMT (standard deviation <0.25) for CMIP5 and 0.85°C/°C GMT (standard deviation <0.2) for LENS in agreement with prior work by Sherwood and Huber (2010). Many heat stress metrics, after being normalized by global mean surface temperature changes, are highly spatially correlated with each other, and may reduce the necessity of numerous metrics to properly quantify total heat stress. The three results establish that different climate models, with various underlying assumptions (CMIP5) and ranges of internal variability (LENS), show similar responses in heat stress with respect to global mean temperature changes. Thus, we find the uncertainty of heat stress extremes, even changes at the fine

  7. Impact of the ocean diurnal cycle on the North Atlantic mean sea surface temperatures in a regionally coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guemas, Virginie; Salas-Mélia, David; Kageyama, Masa; Giordani, Hervé; Voldoire, Aurore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms by which the ocean diurnal cycle can affect the ocean mean state in the North Atlantic region. We perform two ocean-atmosphere regionally coupled simulations (20°N-80°N, 80°W-40°E) using the CNRMOM1D ocean model coupled to the ARPEGE4 atmospheric model: one with a 1 h coupling frequency (C1h) and another with a 24 h coupling frequency (C24h). The comparison between both experiments shows that accounting for the ocean diurnal cycle tends to warm up the surface ocean at high latitudes and cool it down in the subtropics during the boreal summer season (June-August). In the subtropics, the leading cause for the formation of the negative surface temperature anomalies is the fact that the nocturnal entrainment heat flux overcompensates the diurnal absorption of solar heat flux. Both in the subtropics and in the high latitudes, the surface temperature anomalies are involved in a positive feedback loop: the cold (warm) surface anomalies favour a decrease (increase) in evaporation, a decrease (increase) in tropospheric humidity, a decrease (increase) in downwelling longwave radiative flux which in turn favours the surface cooling (warming). Furthermore, the decrease in meridional sea surface temperature gradient affects the large-scale atmospheric circulation by a decrease in the zonal mean flow.

  8. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  9. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Scenario and modelling uncertainty in global mean temperature change derived from emission-driven global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B. B. B.; Bernie, D.; McNeall, D.; Hawkins, E.; Caesar, J.; Boulton, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Sexton, D. M. H.

    2013-04-01

    We compare future changes in global mean temperature in response to different future scenarios which, for the first time, arise from emission-driven rather than concentration-driven perturbed parameter ensemble of a global climate model (GCM). These new GCM simulations sample uncertainties in atmospheric feedbacks, land carbon cycle, ocean physics and aerosol sulphur cycle processes. We find broader ranges of projected temperature responses arising when considering emission rather than concentration-driven simulations (with 10-90th percentile ranges of 1.7 K for the aggressive mitigation scenario, up to 3.9 K for the high-end, business as usual scenario). A small minority of simulations resulting from combinations of strong atmospheric feedbacks and carbon cycle responses show temperature increases in excess of 9 K (RCP8.5) and even under aggressive mitigation (RCP2.6) temperatures in excess of 4 K. While the simulations point to much larger temperature ranges for emission-driven experiments, they do not change existing expectations (based on previous concentration-driven experiments) on the timescales over which different sources of uncertainty are important. The new simulations sample a range of future atmospheric concentrations for each emission scenario. Both in the case of SRES A1B and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the concentration scenarios used to drive GCM ensembles, lies towards the lower end of our simulated distribution. This design decision (a legacy of previous assessments) is likely to lead concentration-driven experiments to under-sample strong feedback responses in future projections. Our ensemble of emission-driven simulations span the global temperature response of the CMIP5 emission-driven simulations, except at the low end. Combinations of low climate sensitivity and low carbon cycle feedbacks lead to a number of CMIP5 responses to lie below our ensemble range. The ensemble simulates a number of high-end responses which lie

  11. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  12. Statistical downscaling of sub-daily (6-hour) temperature in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia

    2016-04-01

    The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-daily temperature data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air temperature data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air temperature for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air temperature data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).

  13. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOEpatents

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  14. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  15. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  16. Enhanced seasonal predictability of the summer mean temperature in Central Europe favored by new dominant weather patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study two complementary approaches have been combined to estimate the reliability of the data-driven seasonal predictability of the meteorological summer mean temperature (T_{JJA}) over Europe. The developed model is based on linear regressions and uses early season predictors to estimate the target value T_{JJA}. We found for the Potsdam (Germany) climate station that the monthly standard deviations (σ) from January to April and the temperature mean ( m) in April are good predictors to describe T_{JJA} after 1990. However, before 1990 the model failed. The core region where this model works is the north-eastern part of Central Europe. We also analyzed long-term trends of monthly Hess/Brezowsky weather types as possible causes of the dynamical changes. In spring, a significant increase of the occurrences for two opposite weather patterns was found: Zonal Ridge across Central Europe (BM) and Trough over Central Europe (TRM). Both currently make up about 30% of the total alternating weather systems over Europe. Other weather types are predominantly decreasing or their trends are not significant. Thus, the predictability may be attributed to these two weather types where the difference between the two Z500 composite patterns is large. This also applies to the north-eastern part of Central Europe. Finally, the detected enhanced seasonal predictability over Europe is alarming, because severe side effects may occur. One of these are more frequent climate extremes in summer half-year.

  17. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  18. Loss Process for the C2H5 Radical in the Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: First Direct, Absolute Measurement of the Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at Low Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stief, L. J.; Pimentel, A. S.; Payne, W. A.; Nesbitt, F. L.; Cody, R. J.

    2003-05-01

    Photochemical models of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn predict the reaction H + C2H5 to be the most important loss process for C2H5 in these atmospheres. In addition, the reaction channel H + C2H5 -> 2 CH3 is a significant source of the methyl radical. There are only two relatively modern studies of the H + C2H5 reaction, both of which depend on extensive modeling involving eight elementary reactions. The motivation for the present study is the lack of direct, absolute measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction at low pressures and temperatures appropriate for outer planet models. In the present experiments the reactants H and C2H5 are rapidly and simultaneously generated by reaction of F with appropriate mixtures of H2 and C2H6. Using the technique of discharge-flow with collision-free sampling to a mass spectrometer, we monitor the decay of C2H5 in excess H. In contrast to previous studies of this reaction, the primary H + C2H5 reaction is isolated and the radical decays only by reaction with H and by loss at the wall. Secondary reactions such as the self-reaction of C2H5 are negligible. At P = 1 Torr He we measure k (298K) = 1.13 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k (202K) = 1.18 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Experiments at T = 155 K are in progress. The reaction is temperature independent as expected based on studies of other atom-radical reactions. Our result at T = 298 K lies between those of the two relatively modern but complex studies of this reaction. The present total rate constant data and planned product yield studies at low pressures and temperatures will then be available for use in future photochemical models of the atmospheres of the outer planets. The Planetary Atmospheres Program of NASA Headquarters is supporting this research.

  19. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2016-04-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (Tm) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depends on the calculation methods of Tm. Existing global analyses calculated Tm from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using Tm calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  20. Daily estimates of the migrating tide and zonal mean temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortland, David A.

    2017-04-01

    Satellites provide a global view of the structure in the fields that they measure. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the dominant features in these fields at low zonal wave number are contained in the zonal mean, quasi-stationary planetary waves, and tide components. Due to the nature of the satellite sampling pattern, stationary, diurnal, and semidiurnal components are aliased and spectral methods are typically unable to separate the aliased waves over short time periods. This paper presents a data processing scheme that is able to recover the daily structure of these waves and the zonal mean state. The method is validated by using simulated data constructed from a mechanistic model, and then applied to Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature measurements. The migrating diurnal tide extracted from SABER temperatures for 2009 has a seasonal variability with peak amplitude (20 K at 95 km) in February and March and minimum amplitude (less than 5 K at 95 km) in early June and early December. Higher frequency variability includes a change in vertical structure and amplitude during the major stratospheric warming in January. The migrating semidiurnal tide extracted from SABER has variability on a monthly time scale during January through March, minimum amplitude in April, and largest steady amplitudes from May through September. Modeling experiments were performed that show that much of the variability on seasonal time scales in the migrating tides is due to changes in the mean flow structure and the superposition of the tidal responses to water vapor heating in the troposphere and ozone heating in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  1. Variability and predictability of decadal mean temperature and precipitation over China in the CCSM4 last millennium simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Kairan; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Zheng, Xiaogu; Lou, Jiale; Zhao, Tianbao

    2018-02-01

    The modes of variability that arise from the slow-decadal (potentially predictable) and intra-decadal (unpredictable) components of decadal mean temperature and precipitation over China are examined, in a 1000 year (850-1850 AD) experiment using the CCSM4 model. Solar variations, volcanic aerosols, orbital forcing, land use, and greenhouse gas concentrations provide the main forcing and boundary conditions. The analysis is done using a decadal variance decomposition method that identifies sources of potential decadal predictability and uncertainty. The average potential decadal predictabilities (ratio of slow-to-total decadal variance) are 0.62 and 0.37 for the temperature and rainfall over China, respectively, indicating that the (multi-)decadal variations of temperature are dominated by slow-decadal variability, while precipitation is dominated by unpredictable decadal noise. Possible sources of decadal predictability for the two leading predictable modes of temperature are the external radiative forcing, and the combined effects of slow-decadal variability of the Arctic oscillation (AO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), respectively. Combined AO and PDO slow-decadal variability is associated also with the leading predictable mode of precipitation. External radiative forcing as well as the slow-decadal variability of PDO are associated with the second predictable rainfall mode; the slow-decadal variability of Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) is associated with the third predictable precipitation mode. The dominant unpredictable decadal modes are associated with intra-decadal/inter-annual phenomena. In particular, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the intra-decadal variability of the AMO, PDO and AO are the most important sources of prediction uncertainty.

  2. Analytic, empirical and delta method temperature derivatives of D-D and D-T fusion reactivity formulations, as a means of verification

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R.; Booker, Jane M.

    We examine the derivatives with respect to temperature, for various deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion-reactivity formulations. Langenbrunner and Makaruk [1] had studied this as a means of understanding the time and temperature domain of reaction history measured in dynamic fusion experiments. Presently, we consider the temperature derivative dependence of fusion reactivity as a means of exercising and verifying the consistency of the various reactivity formulations.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Forecasting of Long-Term Monthly Precipitation and Mean Temperature Trends in Data Scarce Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    High spatial resolution time-series data are critical for many hydrological and earth science studies. Multiple groups have developed historical and forecast datasets of high-resolution monthly time-series for regions of the world such as the United States (e.g. PRISM for hindcast data and MACA for long-term forecasts); however, analogous datasets have not been available for most data scarce regions. The current work fills this data need by producing and freely distributing hindcast and forecast time-series datasets of monthly precipitation and mean temperature for all global land surfaces, gridded at a 30 arc-second resolution. The hindcast data are constructed through a Delta downscaling method, using as inputs 0.5 degree monthly time-series and 30 arc-second climatology global weather datasets developed by Willmott & Matsuura and WorldClim, respectively. The forecast data are formulated using a similar downscaling method, but with an additional step to remove bias from the climate variable's probability distribution over each region of interest. The downscaling package is designed to be compatible with a number of general circulation models (GCM) (e.g. with GCMs developed for the IPCC AR4 report and CMIP5), and is presently implemented using time-series data from the NCAR CESM1 model in conjunction with 30 arc-second future decadal climatologies distributed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The resulting downscaled datasets are 30 arc-second time-series forecasts of monthly precipitation and mean temperature available for all global land areas. As an example of these data, historical and forecast 30 arc-second monthly time-series from 1950 through 2070 are created and analyzed for the region encompassing Pakistan. For this case study, forecast datasets corresponding to the future representative concentration pathways 45 and 85 scenarios developed by the IPCC are presented and compared. This exercise highlights a range of potential

  4. Experimental Insight into the Thermodynamics of the Dissolution of Electrolytes in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: From the Mass Action Law to the Absolute Standard Chemical Potential of a Proton

    DOE PAGES

    Matsubara, Yasuo; Grills, David C.; Koide, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-28

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of nonaqueous solvents that have expanded the realm of modern chemistry, drawing increasing interest over the last few decades, not only in terms of their own unique physical chemistry but also in many applications including organic synthesis, electrochemistry, and biological systems, wherein charged solutes (i.e., electrolytes) often play vital roles. But, our fundamental understanding of the dissolution of an electrolyte in an IL is still rather limited. For example, the activity of a charged species has frequently been assumed to be unity without a clear experimental basis. In this study, we have discussedmore » a standard component-based scheme for the dissolution of an electrolyte in an IL, supported by our observation of ideal Nernstian responses for the reduction of silver and ferrocenium salts in a representative IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([emim +][NTf 2 -] or [emim +][TFSI -]). Using this scheme, which was also supported by temperature-dependent measurements with ILs having longer alkyl chains in the imidazolium ring, and the solubility of the IL in water, we established the concept of Gibbs transfer energies of “pseudo-single ions” from the IL to conventional neutral molecular solvents (water, acetonitrile, and methanol). This concept, which bridges component- and constituent-based energetics, utilizes an extrathermodynamic assumption, which itself was justified by experimental observations. Furthermore, these energies enable us to eliminate inner potential differences between the IL and molecular solvents (solvent-solvent interactions), that is, on a practical level, conditional liquid junction potential differences, so that we can discuss ion-solvent interactions independently. Specifically, we have examined the standard electrode potential of the ferrocenium/ferrocene redox couple, Fc +/Fc, and the absolute intrinsic standard chemical potential of a proton

  5. The prediction of sea-surface temperature variations by means of an advective mixed-layer ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An advective mixed layer ocean model was developed by eliminating the assumption of horizontal homogeneity in an already existing mixed layer model, and then superimposing a mean and anomalous wind driven current field. This model is based on the principle of conservation of heat and mechanical energy and utilizes a box grid for the advective part of the calculation. Three phases of experiments were conducted: evaluation of the model's ability to account for climatological sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the cooling and heating seasons, sensitivity tests in which the effect of hypothetical anomalous winds was evaluated, and a thirty-day synoptic calculation using the model. For the case studied, the accuracy of the predictions was improved by the inclusion of advection, although nonadvective effects appear to have dominated.

  6. Big Jump of Record Warm Global Mean Surface Temperature in 2014-2016 Related to Unusually Large Oceanic Heat Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jianjun; Overpeck, Jonathan; Peyser, Cheryl; Stouffer, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    A 0.24°C jump of record warm global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the past three consecutive record-breaking years (2014-2016) was highly unusual and largely a consequence of an El Niño that released unusually large amounts of ocean heat from the subsurface layer of the northwestern tropical Pacific. This heat had built up since the 1990s mainly due to greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing and possible remote oceanic effects. Model simulations and projections suggest that the fundamental cause, and robust predictor of large record-breaking events of GMST in the 21st century, is GHG forcing rather than internal climate variability alone. Such events will increase in frequency, magnitude, and duration, as well as impact, in the future unless GHG forcing is reduced.

  7. Boundary layer fluctuations and their effects on mean and variance temperature profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin; He, Xiaozhou; Tong, Penger

    2016-11-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of the mean temperature profile θ (z) and temperature variance profile η (z) near the lower conducting plate of a specially designed quasi-two-dimensional cell for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The measured θ (z) is found to have a universal scaling form θ (z / δ) with varying thermal boundary layer (BL) thickness δ, and its functional form agrees well with the recently derived BL equation by Shishkina et al. The measured η (z) , on the other hand, is found to have a scaling form η (z / δ) only in the near-wall region with z / δ < 2 . Based on the experimental findings, we derive a new BL equation for η (z / δ) , which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The new BL equations thus provide a common framework for understanding the effect of BL fluctuations. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR and by the China Thousand Young Talents Program.

  8. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  9. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  10. Pinus taeda forest growth predictions in the 21st century vary with site mean annual temperature and site quality.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Teskey, Robert O; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Martin, Timothy A

    2017-11-01

    Climate projections from 20 downscaled global climate models (GCMs) were used with the 3-PG model to predict the future productivity and water use of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) growing across the southeastern United States. Predictions were made using Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. These represent scenarios in which total radiative forcing stabilizes before 2100 (RCP 4.5) or continues increasing throughout the century (RCP 8.5). Thirty-six sites evenly distributed across the native range of the species were used in the analysis. These sites represent a range in current mean annual temperature (14.9-21.6°C) and precipitation (1,120-1,680 mm/year). The site index of each site, which is a measure of growth potential, was varied to represent different levels of management. The 3-PG model predicted that aboveground biomass growth and net primary productivity will increase by 10%-40% in many parts of the region in the future. At cooler sites, the relative growth increase was greater than at warmer sites. By running the model with the baseline [CO 2 ] or the anticipated elevated [CO 2 ], the effect of CO 2 on growth was separated from that of other climate factors. The growth increase at warmer sites was due almost entirely to elevated [CO 2 ]. The growth increase at cooler sites was due to a combination of elevated [CO 2 ] and increased air temperature. Low site index stands had a greater relative increase in growth under the climate change scenarios than those with a high site index. Water use increased in proportion to increases in leaf area and productivity but precipitation was still adequate, based on the downscaled GCM climate projections. We conclude that an increase in productivity can be expected for a large majority of the planted loblolly pine stands in the southeastern United States during this century. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Acute effect of daily mean temperature on ischemic heart disease mortality: a multivariable meta-analysis from 12 counties across Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Q; Yu, C H; Bao, J Z

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To evaluate the acute effects of daily mean temperature on ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in 12 counties across Hubei Province, China. Methods: We obtained the daily IHD mortality data and meteorological data of the 12 counties for 2009-2012. The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to estimate the community-specific association between mean temperature and IHD mortality. A multivariate meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationship between temperature and IHD mortality, and the effects of cold and heat on mortality risk. Results: In 2009-2012, of the 6 702 012 people included in this study, 19 688 died of IHD. A daily average of 1.2 IHD deaths occurred in each community. The annual average mean temperature was 16.6 ℃ during the study period. A nonlinear temperature-IHD mortality relationship was observed for different cumulative lag days at the provincial level. The pooled heat effect was acute but attenuated within 2 days. In contrast, the cold effect was delayed and persisted for more than 2 weeks. Compared with a reference temperature (25 th percentile of mean temperature during the study period, P 25 ), the cold effect for P 10 of mean temperature was associated with IHD mortality, the RR (95% CI ) was 1.084 (1.008-1.167) at lag 0-14, and 1.149 (1.053-1.253) at lag 0-21. For the P 1 cold temperature, the mortality RR (95% CI ) values were 1.116 (0.975-1.276) and 1.220 (1.04-1.428), respectively. We found no significant association between high temperatures and IHD mortality in the present study at different lag days. Conclusion: In Hubei Province, low temperature was associated with increased IHD mortality risk, and cold effects lasted for several days; no significant effect of high temperature was observed.

  12. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  13. [Relationship between daily mean temperature and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: a time-series analysis].

    PubMed

    Mo, Yun-zheng; Zheng, Ya-an; Tao, Hui; Xu, Mei-mei; Li, Guo-xing; Dong, Feng-ming; Liu, Jun-han; Pan, Xiao-chuan

    2012-06-18

    To quantitatively evaluate the influences of daily mean air temperature (DMT) on Emergency Department Visits (EDVs) for the respiratory diseases. The EDV data from medical records for respiratory diseases in Peking University Third Hospital between January 2004 and June 2009 were collected. The data of the air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and PM(10)) and meteorological factors at the same time periods were also collected from the local authorities of Beijing. Time-series analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) were used to explore the exposurrre-response relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases. A total of 35 073 patients [males 14 707(41.93%,14 707/35 073), females 19 122(54.52%,19 122/35 073) and gender missing 1 244(3.55%, 1 244/35 073)] EDVs for respiratory diseases were included. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for the respiratory diseases was mainly of "V" shape, the optimum temperature(OT) was about 4 °C and the effect of DMT was significant with a 0-3 day lag structure for most of the models. When DMT≤OT, each 1°C decrease in DMT corresponded to 3.75% (95% CI of RR: 0.938 3-0.965 3), 3.10% (95% CI of RR:0.949 2-0.989 1), 4.09% (95% CI of RR:0.940 7-0.977 8) increase of EDVs for the overall, male, and female, respectively. When DMT>OT, the value caused by each increase in 1°C in DMT was 1.54% (95% CI of RR:1.006 6-1.024 3), 1.80% (95% CI of RR:1.005 3-1.030 9), and 1.51 (95% CI of RR:1.003 2- 1.027 2), respectively. The effect was statistically significant within the 0-3 day lag. When DMT≤OT, the effect was stronger for the older people, while the effect was strongest for the 45-59 years old people. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases is mainly of "V" type, with an optimum temperature of 4 °C.Both DMT decrease when DMT≤OT and increase when DMT>OT correspond to different increase of EDVs for respiratory diseases. Low DMT has stronger effect than high DMT. Different age group and gender have

  14. A new global grid model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS precipitable water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liangke; Jiang, Weiping; Liu, Lilong; Chen, Hua; Ye, Shirong

    2018-05-01

    In ground-based global positioning system (GPS) meteorology, atmospheric weighted mean temperature, T_m , plays a very important role in the progress of retrieving precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the zenith wet delay of the GPS. Generally, most of the existing T_m models only take either latitude or altitude into account in modeling. However, a great number of studies have shown that T_m is highly correlated with both latitude and altitude. In this study, a new global grid empirical T_m model, named as GGTm, was established by a sliding window algorithm using global gridded T_m data over an 8-year period from 2007 to 2014 provided by TU Vienna, where both latitude and altitude variations are considered in modeling. And the performance of GGTm was assessed by comparing with the Bevis formula and the GPT2w model, where the high-precision global gridded T_m data as provided by TU Vienna and the radiosonde data from 2015 are used as reference values. The results show the significant performance of the new GGTm model against other models when compared with gridded T_m data and radiosonde data, especially in the areas with great undulating terrain. Additionally, GGTm has the global mean RMS_{PWV} and RMS_{PWV} /PWV values of 0.26 mm and 1.28%, respectively. The GGTm model, fed only by the day of the year and the station coordinates, could provide a reliable and accurate T_m value, which shows the possible potential application in real-time GPS meteorology, especially for the application of low-latitude areas and western China.

  15. Daytime relapse of the mean radiant temperature based on the six-directional method under unobstructed solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kántor, Noémi; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the knowledge about the capabilities of the popular "six-directional method" describing the radiation fields outdoors. In Taiwan, measurements were carried out with three orthogonally placed net radiometers to determine the mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). The short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the six perpendicular directions were recorded in the daylight hours of 12 days. During unobstructed direct irradiation, a specific daytime relapse was found in the temporal course of the T(mrt) values referring to the reference shapes of a standing man and also of a sphere. This relapse can be related to the short-wave fluxes reaching the body from the lateral directions. Through deeper analysis, an instrumental shortcoming of the six-directional technique was discovered. The pyranometer pairs of the same net radiometer have a 10-15-min long "blind spot" when the sun beams are nearly perpendicular to them. The blind-spot period is supposed to be shorter with steeper solar azimuth curve on the daylight period. This means that the locations with lower geographical latitude, and the summertime measurements, are affected less by this instrumental problem. A methodological shortcoming of the six-directional technique was also demonstrated. Namely, the sum of the short-wave flux densities from the lateral directions is sensitive to the orientation of the radiometers, and therefore by deviating from the original directions, the T(mrt) decrease on clear sunny days will occur in different times and will be different in extent.

  16. Soil nitrogen cycling and availability are linked to ammonia oxidizer abundance across a tropical mean annual temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among environmental variables can obfuscate the primary drivers linking soil microbial community function to ecosystem biogeochemistry. These connections are important to understand in order to predict ecosystem responses to global climate change. In particular, the role of mean annual temperature (MAT) in regulating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling via microbial communities remains unclear. To study these dynamics in situ, we used a a natural elevation gradient of tropical wet montane forest on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i with established permanent plots. Across the gradient, environmental variables besides MAT remain constant. We studied the abundance and activity of the amoA gene, which regulates the rate-limiting step of nitrification, in ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) with relation to N availability and cycling across increasing MAT. Our results show that the abundance of amoA is positively correlated with MAT (p<0.05; r2=0.34) and that MAT and amoA abundance are the primary predictors of nitrate (NO3-) bioavailability (p<0.05). We also found that the relative expression of amoA (cDNA/DNA) is not correlated with MAT or potential net nitrification rate. Our results indicate the direct role of MAT in ammonia oxidizer community structure and demonstrate feedbacks to nutrient availability in forest systems. These findings suggest that forest primary production and carbon cycling may be affected by AOA and AOB responses to rising MAT.

  17. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  18. Molecular composition of soil organic matter with land-use change along a bi-continental mean annual temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Oliva; Haddix, Michelle L; Conant, Richard T; Paul, Eldor A; Simpson, Myrna J

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is critical for maintaining soil fertility and long-term agricultural sustainability. The molecular composition of SOM is likely altered due to global climate and land-use change; but rarely are these two aspects studied in tandem. Here we used molecular-level techniques to examine SOM composition along a bi-continental (from North to South America) mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from seven native grassland/forest and cultivated/pasture sites. Biomarker methods included solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation for the analysis of free lipids of plant and microbial origin, ester-bound lipids from cutin and suberin, and lignin-derived phenols, respectively. Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to examine the overall composition of SOM. Soil cultivation was found to increase the amount of microbial-derived compounds at warmer temperatures (up to 17% increase). The cultivated soils were characterized by much lower contributions of plant-derived SOM components compared to the native soils (up to 64% lower at the coldest site). In addition, cultivation caused an increase in lignin and cutin degradation (up to 68 and 15% increase, respectively), and an increase in the amount of suberin-derived inputs (up to 54% increase). Clear differences in the molecular composition of SOM due to soil cultivation were observed in soils of varying mineral composition and were attributed to disturbance, different vegetation inputs, soil aggregate destruction and MAT. A high organic allophanic tropical soil was characterized by its protection of carbohydrates and nitrogen-containing compounds. The conversion of native to cultivated land shows significant shifts in the degradation stage of SOM. In particular, cutin-derived compounds which are believed to be part of the stable SOM pool may undergo enhanced degradation with long-term cultivation and disruption of soil aggregates. On a per year basis, the total

  19. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  20. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  1. Mean Annual Temperature Drives Microbial Nitrogen Cycling and Fine Root Nutrient Foraging Across a Tropical Montane Wet Forest Elevation Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. L. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P. M.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mean annual temperature (MAT) is positively correlated with rates of primary production and carbon (C) turnover in forests globally, but the underlying biotic drivers of these relationships remain poorly resolved. We hypothesized that (1) MAT increases nitrifier abundance and thereby nitrate (NO-) bioavailability in soils and (2) increased NO- bioavailability reduces fine root nitrogen (N) demand. We used an ecologically well-constrained natural elevation gradient (13˚C -18˚C) in a tropical wet motane forest on the Island of Hawaii to study to role of MAT in situ. Our previous work showed that MAT drives increased soil NO- bioavailability in situ (r²=0.79, P=0.003), and indicated that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea is strongly and positively correlated with MAT in situ (r²=0.34, P<0.001; Pierre et. al. 2017). Using fertilized fine root ingrowth cores (+N, +P, +N+P, control) across the same MAT gradient, we found that increasing MAT and bulk soil NO- bioavailability produced a significant negative fine root response to the +N+P treatment (P=0.023), and no response to other fertilization treatments. Increasing MAT and soil NO- bioavailability led to increased percent arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of fine roots (r²=0.43, P=0.004), but no treatment effect on AM colonization was observed. Our results suggest that N and P generally co-limit fine root foraging across the gradient, while higher MAT and bulk soil NO- bioavailability interact to reduce fine root foraging effort. Further, higher MAT and greater N fertility in soils may reduce the C limitation of AM fungal colonization. We conclude that MAT drives N-rich conditions, which allow for lower N foraging effort, but greater C investment in P acquisition through AM fine root colonization.

  2. Causes of global mean surface temperature slowdowns, trends and variations from months to a century, 1891-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folland, C. K.; Boucher, O.; Colman, A.; Parker, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The recent slowdown in the warming of global mean surface temperature (GST) has highlighted the influences of natural variability. This talk discusses reconstructions of the variations of GST down to the monthly time scale since 1891 using monthly forcing data. We show that most of the variations in annual, and to some extent sub-annual, GST since 1891 can be reproduced skillfully from known forcing factors external and internal to the climate system. This includes the slowdown in warming over about 1998-2013 where reconstruction skill is particularly high down to the multi-monthly time scale. The relative contributions of the several key forcing factors to GST continually vary, but most of the net warming since 1891 is reconstructed to be attributable to the net forcing due to increasing greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. Separate analyses are carried out for three periods of GST slowdown:- 1896-1910, 1941-1976, together with 1998-2013 and some of its sub periods. We also study two periods where strong warming occurred, 1911-1940 and 1977-1997. Comparisons are made with the skill of average GST provided by 40 CMIP5 models. In the recent 1998-2013 slowdown, TSI forcing appears to have caused significant cooling, particularly over 2001-2010. This is additional to well documented cooling effects of an increased frequency of La Nina events, a negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and some increases in volcanic forcing. Although there are short-term features of the GST curve since 1891 that cannot be fully explained, the most serious disagreements between the reconstructions and observations occur in the Second World War, especially in 1944-1945. Here observed near worldwide SSTs may be biased significantly too warm. Despite this, our generally high reconstruction skill is consistent with a good understanding of the multiple causes of observed GST variations and the general veracity of the GST record since 1891.

  3. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities—implications for sensitive climate planning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt . However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  4. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities--implications for sensitive climate planning applications.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt. However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  5. May–June Maximum Temperature Reconstruction from Mean Earlywood Density in North Central China and Its Linkages to the Summer Monsoon Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yuan, Yujiang

    2014-01-01

    Cores of Pinus tabulaformis from Tianshui were subjected to densitometric analysis to obtain mean earlywood density data. Climate response analysis indicates that May–June maximum temperature is the main factor limiting the mean earlywood density (EWD) of Chinese pine trees in the Shimen Mountains. Based on the EWD chronology, we have reconstructed May–June maximum temperature 1666 to 2008 for Tianshui, north central China. The reconstruction explains 40.1% of the actual temperature variance during the common period 1953–2008. The temperature reconstruction is representative of temperature conditions over a large area to the southeast and northwest of the sampling site. Preliminary analysis of links between large-scale climatic variation and the temperature reconstruction shows that there is a relationship between extremes in spring temperature and anomalous atmospheric circulation in the region. It is thus revealed that the mean earlywood density chronology of Pinus tabulaformis has enough potential to reconstruct the temperature variability further into the past. PMID:25207554

  6. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  7. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  8. Occurrence and distribution of extractable and non-extractable GDGTs in podzols: implications for the reconstruction of mean air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Fosse, Céline; Metzger, Pierre; Derenne, Sylvie

    2010-05-01

    being notably higher in the surficial than in the deep soil horizons. Bacterial GDGTs were also detected in the litter layer of the temperate podzol, suggesting the presence of branched-GDGT producing bacteria in the litter, probably in anoxic microenvironments. Last, we showed for the first time that substantial amounts of non-extractable GDGTs could be released after acid hydrolysis of solvent-extracted soils, since non-extractable lipids represented in average ca. 25% of total (i.e. extractable + non-extractable) bacterial GDGTs and ca. 30% of total archaeal GDGTs in podzol samples. In addition, we observed that extractable and non-extractable GDGTs could present different distribution patterns. Thus, the average methylation degree of bacterial GDGTs was higher in the extractable than in the non-extractable lipid fraction in three soil horizons of the temperate podzol. Consequently, different mean air temperature values could be derived from extractable and non-extractable bacterial GDGT distributions, suggesting that data obtained from the extractable lipid fraction have to be interpreted with care. MAT values derived from non-extractable GDGTs were shown to be more consistent with MAT records, implying that MAT estimates obtained from the non-extractable pool might be more reliable.

  9. Non-monotonic behavior of electron temperature in argon inductively coupled plasma and its analysis via novel electron mean energy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the behavior of electron temperature against the power in argon inductively coupled plasma is investigated by a fluid model. The model properly reproduces the non-monotonic variation of temperature with power observed in experiments. By means of a novel electron mean energy equation proposed for the first time in this article, this electron temperature behavior is interpreted. In the overall considered power range, the skin effect of radio frequency electric field results in localized deposited power density, responsible for an increase of electron temperature with power by means of one parameter defined as power density divided by electron density. At low powers, the rate fraction of multistep and Penning ionizations of metastables that consume electron energy two times significantly increases with power, which dominates over the skin effect and consequently leads to the decrease of temperature with power. In the middle power regime, a transition region of temperature is given by the competition between the ionizing effect of metastables and the skin effect of electric field. The power location where the temperature alters its trend moves to the low power end as increasing the pressure due to the lack of metastables. The non-monotonic curve of temperature is asymmetric at the short chamber due to the weak role of skin effect in increasing the temperature and tends symmetric when axially prolonging the chamber. Still, the validity of the fluid model in this prediction is estimated and the role of neutral gas heating is guessed. This finding is helpful for people understanding the different trends of temperature with power in the literature.

  10. Damages detection in cylindrical metallic specimens by means of statistical baseline models and updated daily temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamizar-Mejia, Rodolfo; Mujica-Delgado, Luis-Eduardo; Ruiz-Ordóñez, Magda-Liliana; Camacho-Navarro, Jhonatan; Moreno-Beltrán, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    In previous works, damage detection of metallic specimens exposed to temperature changes has been achieved by using a statistical baseline model based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), piezodiagnostics principle and taking into account temperature effect by augmenting the baseline model or by using several baseline models according to the current temperature. In this paper a new approach is presented, where damage detection is based in a new index that combine Q and T2 statistical indices with current temperature measurements. Experimental tests were achieved in a carbon-steel pipe of 1m length and 1.5 inches diameter, instrumented with piezodevices acting as actuators or sensors. A PCA baseline model was obtained to a temperature of 21º and then T2 and Q statistical indices were obtained for a 24h temperature profile. Also, mass adding at different points of pipe between sensor and actuator was used as damage. By using the combined index the temperature contribution can be separated and a better differentiation of damages respect to undamaged cases can be graphically obtained.

  11. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  12. New estimates of temperature response of leaf photosynthesis in Amazon forest trees, its acclimation to mean temperature change and consequences for modelling climate response to rain forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijt, B.; Jans, W.; Vasconcelos, S.; Tribuzy, E. S.; Felsemburgh, C.; Eliane, M.; Rowland, L.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Meir, P.

    2014-12-01

    In many dynamic vegetation models, degradation of the tropical forests is induced because they assume that productivity falls rapidly when temperatures rise in the region of 30-40°C. Apart plant respiration, this is due to the assumptions on the temperature optima of photosynthetic capacity, which are low and can differ widely between models, where in fact hardly any empirical information is available for tropical forests. Even less is known about the possibility that photosynthesis will acclimate to changing temperatures. The objective of this study to is to provide better estimates for optima, as well as to determine whether any acclimation to temperature change is to be expected. We present both new and hitherto unpublished data on the temperature response of photosynthesis of Amazon rainforest trees, encompassing three sites, several species and five field campaigns. Leaf photosynthesis and its parameters were determined at a range of temperatures. To study the long-term (seasonal) acclimation of this response, this was combined with an artificial, in situ, multi-season leaf heating experiment. The data show that, on average for all non-heated cases, the photosynthetic parameter Vcmax weakly peaks between 35 and 40 ˚C, while heating does not have a clearly significant effect. Results for Jmax are slightly different, with sharper peaks. Scatter was relatively high, which could indicate weak overall temperature dependence. The combined results were used to fit new parameters to the various temperature response curve functions in a range of DGVMs. The figure shows a typical example: while the default Jules model assumes a temperature optimum for Vcmax at around 33 ˚C, the data suggest that Vcmax keeps rising up to at least 40 ˚C. Of course, calculated photosynthesis, obtained by applying this Vcmax in the Farquhar model, peaks at lower temperature. Finally, the implication of these new model parameters for modelled climate change impact on modelled Amazon

  13. Measurement of the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient of thin films by means of an epitaxially regrown thermometric reference material.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Ashok T; Mages, Phillip; Zhang, Chong; Imamura, Jeffrey T; Bowers, John E

    2012-09-01

    The Seebeck coefficient of a typical thermoelectric material, silicon-doped InGaAs lattice-matched to InP, is measured over a temperature range from 300 K to 550 K. By depositing and patterning a thermometric reference bar of silicon-doped InP adjacent to a bar of the material under test, temperature differences are measured directly. This is in contrast to conventional two-thermocouple techniques that subtract two large temperatures to yield a small temperature difference, a procedure prone to errors. The proposed technique retains the simple instrumentation of two-thermocouple techniques while eliminating the critical dependence of the latter on good thermal contact. The repeatability of the proposed technique is demonstrated to be ±2.6% over three temperature sweeps, while the repeatability of two-thermocouple measurements is about ±5%. The improved repeatability is significant for reliable reporting of the ZT figure of merit, which is proportional to the square of the Seebeck coefficient. The accuracy of the proposed technique depends on the accuracy with which the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient of the reference material may be computed or measured. In this work, the Seebeck coefficient of the reference material, n+ InP, is computed by rigorous solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The accuracy and repeatability of the proposed technique can be systematically improved by scaling, and the method is easily extensible to other material systems currently being investigated for high thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency.

  14. The Effects of Data Gaps on the Calculated Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Continental United States: A Spatial and Temporal Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooksbury, David E.; Idso, Craig D.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.

    1999-05-01

    Gaps in otherwise regularly scheduled observations are often referred to as missing data. This paper explores the spatial and temporal impacts that data gaps in the recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures have on the calculated monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. For this analysis 138 climate stations from the United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data set were selected. The selected stations had no missing maximum or minimum temperature values during the period 1951-80. The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures were calculated for each station for each month. For each month 1-10 consecutive days of data from each station were randomly removed. This was performed 30 times for each simulated gap period. The spatial and temporal impact of the 1-10-day data gaps were compared. The influence of data gaps is most pronounced in the continental regions during the winter and least pronounced in the southeast during the summer. In the north central plains, 10-day data gaps during January produce a standard deviation value greater than 2°C about the `true' mean. In the southeast, 10-day data gaps in July produce a standard deviation value less than 0.5°C about the mean. The results of this study will be of value in climate variability and climate trend research as well as climate assessment and impact studies.

  15. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  16. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  17. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  18. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  19. The Effect of Harp Music on Heart Rate, Mean Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate, and Body Temperature in the African Green Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey. Journal of Medical Primatology 36:95...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Background: The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for nonhuman primates (NHP) is...Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music . Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean

  20. A Proposed Methodology to Control Body Temperature in Patients at Risk of Hypothermia by means of Active Rewarming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Silvia; Cusumano, Alessia; Giaconia, Carlo; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient's internal temperature (T core) decreases by 0.5–1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body's thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss) and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.). Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket's effect on the average temperature T skin and, as a consequence, on T core temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia. PMID:25485278

  1. Modeling the Response of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in the Kenya Highlands to a Rise in Mean Annual Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Dorothy; Prosper, Olivia; Savos, Jacob; Dunham, Ann M; Chipman, Jonathan W; Shi, Xun; Ndenga, Bryson; Githeko, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    A dynamical model of Anopheles gambiae larval and adult populations is constructed that matches temperature-dependent maturation times and mortality measured experimentally as well as larval instar and adult mosquito emergence data from field studies in the Kenya Highlands. Spectral classification of high-resolution satellite imagery is used to estimate household density. Indoor resting densities collected over a period of one year combined with predictions of the dynamical model give estimates of both aquatic habitat and total adult mosquito densities. Temperature and precipitation patterns are derived from monthly records. Precipitation patterns are compared with average and extreme habitat estimates to estimate available aquatic habitat in an annual cycle. These estimates are coupled with the original model to produce estimates of adult and larval populations dependent on changing aquatic carrying capacity for larvae and changing maturation and mortality dependent on temperature. This paper offers a general method for estimating the total area of aquatic habitat in a given region, based on larval counts, emergence rates, indoor resting density data, and number of households.Altering the average daily temperature and the average daily rainfall simulates the effect of climate change on annual cycles of prevalence of An. gambiae adults. We show that small increases in average annual temperature have a large impact on adult mosquito density, whether measured at model equilibrium values for a single square meter of habitat or tracked over the course of a year of varying habitat availability and temperature. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mean and extreme temperatures in a warming climate: EURO CORDEX and WRF regional climate high-resolution projections for Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Large temperature spatio-temporal gradients are a common feature of Mediterranean climates. The Portuguese complex topography and coastlines enhances such features, and in a small region large temperature gradients with high interannual variability is detected. In this study, the EURO-CORDEX high-resolution regional climate simulations (0.11° and 0.44° resolutions) are used to investigate the maximum and minimum temperature projections across the twenty-first century according to RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. An additional WRF simulation with even higher resolution (9 km) for RCP8.5 scenario is also examined. All simulations for the historical period (1971-2000) are evaluated against the available station observations and the EURO-CORDEX model results are ranked in order to build multi-model ensembles. In present climate models are able to reproduce the main topography/coast related temperature gradients. Although there are discernible differences between models, most present a cold bias. The multi-model ensembles improve the overall representation of the temperature. The ensembles project a significant increase of the maximum and minimum temperatures in all seasons and scenarios. Maximum increments of 8 °C in summer and autumn and between 2 and 4 °C in winter and spring are projected in RCP8.5. The temperature distributions for all models show a significant increase in the upper tails of the PDFs. In RCP8.5 more than half of the extended summer (MJJAS) has maximum temperatures exceeding the historical 90th percentile and, on average, 60 tropical nights are projected for the end of the century, whilst there are only 7 tropical nights in the historical period. Conversely, the number of cold days almost disappears. The yearly average number of heat waves increases by seven to ninefold by 2100 and the most frequent length rises from 5 to 22 days throughout the twenty-first century. 5% of the longest events will last for more than one month. The amplitude is overwhelming

  3. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of GEOSAT sea surface height, SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Zlotnicki, V.; Newman, J.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly mean global distributions for 1988 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map. Distributions are included for sea surface height variation estimated from GEOSAT; surface wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA spacecrafts; and the Cartesian components of the 10m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  4. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  5. Relationships Between Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes on Intraseasonal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2009-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20oN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  6. Relationships Between Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes on Intraseasonal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20degN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  7. Airborne Sea-Surface Topography in an Absolute Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Jacobs, G.; Blaha, J.

    2003-12-01

    Highly dynamic coastal ocean processes occur at temporal and spatial scales that cannot be captured by the present generation of satellite altimeters. Space-borne gravity missions such as GRACE also provide time-varying gravity and a geoidal msl reference surface at resolution that is too coarse for many coastal applications. The Naval Research Laboratory and the Naval Oceanographic Office have been testing the application of airborne measurement techniques, gravity and altimetry, to determine sea-surface height and height anomaly at the short scales required for littoral regions. We have developed a precise local gravimetric geoid over a test region in the northern Gulf of Mexico from historical gravity data and recent airborne gravity surveys. The local geoid provides a msl reference surface with a resolution of about 10-15 km and provides a means to connect airborne, satellite and tide-gage observations in an absolute (WGS-84) framework. A series of altimetry reflights over the region with time scales of 1 day to 1 year reveal a highly dynamic environment with coherent and rapidly varying sea-surface height anomalies. AXBT data collected at the same time show apparent correlation with wave-like temperature anomalies propagating up the continental slope of the Desoto Canyon. We present animations of the temporal evolution of the surface topography and water column temperature structure down to the 800 m depth of the AXBT sensors.

  8. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  9. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Uranus from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer: 1. Determination of the mean temperature structure of the upper troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Moses, Julianne I.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Hines, Dean; Hammel, Heidi B.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Burgdorf, Martin; Merlet, Cecile; Line, Michael R.

    2014-11-01

    On 2007 December 16-17, spectra were acquired of the disk of Uranus by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), ten days after the planet's equinox, when its equator was close to the sub-Earth point. This spectrum provides the highest-resolution broad-band spectrum ever obtained for Uranus from space, allowing a determination of the disk-averaged temperature and molecule composition to a greater degree of accuracy than ever before. The temperature profiles derived from the Voyager radio occultation experiment by Lindal et al. (Lindal, G.F., Lyons, J.R., Sweetnam, D.N., Eshleman, V.R., Hinson, D.P. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14987-15001) and revisions suggested by Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.A., Kim, J.H. [2011]. Icarus 215, 292-312) that match these data best are those that assume a high abundance of methane in the deep atmosphere. However, none of these model profiles provides a satisfactory fit over the full spectral range sampled. This result could be the result of spatial differences between global and low-latitudinal regions, changes in time, missing continuum opacity sources such as stratospheric hazes or unknown tropospheric constituents, or undiagnosed systematic problems with either the Voyager radio-occultation or the Spitzer IRS data sets. The spectrum is compatible with the stratospheric temperatures derived from the Voyager ultraviolet occultations measurements by Herbert et al. (Herbert, F. et al. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15093-15109), but it is incompatible with the hot stratospheric temperatures derived from the same data by Stevens et al. (Stevens, M.H., Strobel, D.F., Herbert, F.H. [1993]. Icarus 101, 45-63). Thermospheric temperatures determined from the analysis of the observed H2 quadrupole emission features are colder than those derived by Herbert et al. at pressures less than ∼1 μbar. Extrapolation of the nominal model spectrum to far-infrared through millimeter wavelengths shows that the spectrum arising solely from H2

  10. Species and temperature measurement in H2/O2 rocket flow fields by means of Raman scattering diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, Wim A.; Weiss, Jonathan M.

    1992-01-01

    Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes developed for prediction and evaluation of rocket performance is hampered by a lack of experimental data. Non-intrusive laser based diagnostics are needed to provide spatially and temporally resolved gas dynamic and fluid dynamic measurements. This paper reports the first non-intrusive temperature and species measurements in the plume of a 110 N gaseous hydrogen/oxygen thruster at and below ambient pressures, obtained with spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Measurements at 10 mm downstream of the exit plane are compared with predictions from a numerical solution of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and species transport equations with chemical kinetics, which fully model the combustor-nozzle-plume flowfield. The experimentally determined oxygen number density at the centerline at 10 mm downstream of the exit plane is four times that predicted by the model. The experimental number density data fall between those numerically predicted for the exit and 10 mm downstream planes in both magnitude and radial gradient. The predicted temperature levels are within 10 to 15 percent of measured values. Some of the discrepancies between experimental data and predictions result from not modeling the three dimensional core flow injection mixing process, facility back pressure effects, and possible diffuser-thruster interactions.

  11. Species and temperature measurement in H2/O2 rocket flow fields by means of Raman scattering diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groot, Wim A.; Weiss, Jonathan M.

    1992-01-01

    Validation of CFD codes developed for prediction and evaluation of rocket performance is hampered by a lack of experimental data. Nonintrusive laser based diagnostics are needed to provide spatially and temporally resolved gas dynamic and fluid dynamic measurements. This paper reports the first nonintrusive temperature and species measurements in the plume of a 110 N gaseous hydrogen/oxygen thruster at and below ambient pressures, obtained with spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Measurements at 10 mm downstream of the exit plane are compared with predictions from a numerical solution of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and species transport equations with chemical kinetics, which fully model the combustor-nozzle-plume flowfield. The experimentally determined oxygen number density at the centerline at 10 mm downstream of the exit plane is four times that predicted by the model. The experimental number density data fall between those numerically predicted for the exit and 10 mm downstream planes in both magnitude and radial gradient. The predicted temperature levels are within 10 to 15 percent of measured values.

  12. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  13. Dynamical mean-field theoretical approach to explore the temperature-dependent magnetization in Ta-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, M. A.; Umar, A. S.; Rusydi, A.

    2017-04-01

    TiO2 has, in recent years, become a hot subject as it holds a promise for spintronic application. Recent experimental study on anatase Ti1-x Ta x O2 (x ~ 0.05) thin films shows that the system changes from non-magnetic to ferromagnetic due to Ti vacancies that are formed when a small percentage of Ti atoms are substituted by Ta. Motivated by those results that reveal the ferromagnetic phase at room temperature, we conduct a theoretical study on the temperature-dependent magnetization and the Currie temperature of that system. We hypothesize that when several Ti vacancies are formed in the system, each of them induces a local magnetic moment, then such moments couple each other through Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, forming a ferromagnetic order. To study the temperature dependence of the magnetization and predict the Curie temperature, we construct a tight-binding based Hamiltonian for this system and use the method of dynamical mean-field theory to perform calculations for various temperatures. Our work is still preliminary. The model and method may need further improvement to be consistent with known existing facts. We present our preliminary results to show how the present model works.

  14. EOF analysis of COSMIC observations on the global zonal mean temperature structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere from 2007 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Cornelius Csar Jude H.; Chang, Loren C.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the results of a Conventional Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis on daily global zonal mean temperature profiles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (15-35 km), as measured by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission from January 2007 to June 2013. For validation, results were compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that, the leading global EOF mode (27%) from COSMIC is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the tropical cooling associated with boreal winter Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSW). The second global EOF mode from COSMIC (15.3%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). The third global mode from COSMIC (10.9%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This work also shows that the second northern hemisphere EOF mode from COSMIC (16.8%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due Rossby-wave breaking (RWB) which is expected to only be resolved by a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC. Our work concludes that the use of a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC yields non-seasonal EOF modes that are consistent with relatively more intricate temperature anomalies due to the SSW, QBO, ENSO and RWB.

  15. Absolute Bioavailability of Osimertinib in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Bramley, Alex; English, Stephen; Collier, Jo

    2018-04-23

    Osimertinib is a third-generation, central nervous system-active, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. This phase 1, open-label study (NCT02491944) investigated absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral and intravenous (IV) osimertinib. Ten healthy subjects (21-61 years) received a single oral 80-mg dose concomitantly with a 100 μg (containing 1 μCi) IV microtracer dose of [ 14 C]osimertinib. Oral and IV PK were determined simultaneously for osimertinib and its active metabolites, AZ5104 and AZ7550. High-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to characterize IV dose PK. Geometric mean absolute oral bioavailability of osimertinib was 69.8% (90% confidence interval, 66.7, 72.9). Oral osimertinib was slowly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration [t max ] 7.0 hours). Following t max , plasma concentrations fell in an apparent monophasic manner. IV clearance and volume of distribution were 16.8 L/h and 1285 L, respectively. Arithmetic mean elimination half-life estimates were 59.7, 52.6, and 72.6 hours for osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550, respectively (oral dosing), and 54.9, 68.4, and 99.7 hours for [ 14 C]osimertinib, [ 14 C]AZ5104, and [ 14 C]AZ7550, respectively (IV dosing). Oral osimertinib was well absorbed. Simultaneous IV and oral PK analysis proved useful for complete understanding of osimertinib PK and showed that the first-pass effect was minimal for osimertinib. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. On the problems related to natural wet bulb temperature indirect evaluation for the assessment of hot thermal environments by means of WBGT.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the indirect evaluation of the natural wet bulb temperature, t (nw), one of the two quantities forming the basis of the well-known wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, considered worldwide to be a suitable and user-friendly tool for the preliminary assessment of hot thermal environments. This quantity can be measured by a wet bulb thermometer (a temperature sensor covered with a wetted wick naturally ventilated) or, if this is not available, calculated from other microclimatic parameters (i.e. the air temperature, the globe temperature, the air velocity, and the humidity) using a quite trivial energy balance equation. Because of the strong non-linear structure of such an equation, the risk of a multiplicity of steady state solutions could result in the failure to obtain a reliable index evaluation. To dispel all doubts, this work carries out an in-depth analysis of the heat balance equation to be solved for the indirect evaluation of the natural wet bulb temperature. A preliminary investigation of each heat flow term involved in the heat balance on the sensor has been carried out; in a second phase a special continuation method has been implemented, highlighting the effect of microclimatic parameters on the multiplicity of solutions. Results show that under free convection the evaluation produces a single solution only under uniform conditions, whereas in the presence of even slight differences between the air temperature and the mean radiant temperature, there can be as many as three solutions. This phenomenon, if confirmed by a further experimental investigation, could become a difficult matter since a sensor, in principle, has to read a unique value of the quantity measured. In any case, from a numerical point of view, the presence of many values of tnw greatly reduces the possibility of an indirect WBGT calculation from the other involved physical quantities; as a consequence, the indirect evaluation of WBGT should be clearly avoided

  17. Regions of absolute ultimate boundedness for discrete-time systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Weissenberger, S.

    1972-01-01

    This paper considers discrete-time systems of the Lur'e-Postnikov class where the linear part is not asymptotically stable and the nonlinear characteristic satisfies only partially the usual sector condition. Estimates of the resulting finite regions of absolute ultimate boundedness are calculated by means of a quadratic Liapunov function.

  18. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1990 are proposed with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (US) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components on the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation values are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  19. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1991 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free-drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components of the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  20. Modeling absolute plate and plume motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, G. P.; Wessel, P.; Conrad, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic evidence for plume drift has made modeling of absolute plate motions challenging, especially since direct observations of plume drift are lacking. Predictions of plume drift arising from mantle convection models and broadly satisfying observed paleolatitudes have so far provided the only framework for deriving absolute plate motions over moving hotspots. However, uncertainties in mantle rheology, temperature, and initial conditions make such models nonunique. Using simulated and real data, we will show that age progressions along Pacific hotspot trails provide strong constraints on plume motions for all major trails, and furthermore that it is possible to derive models for relative plume drift from these data alone. Relative plume drift depends on the inter-hotspot distances derived from age progressions but lacks a fixed reference point and orientation. By incorporating paleolatitude histories for the Hawaii and Louisville chains we add further constraints on allowable plume motions, yet one unknown parameter remains: a longitude shift that applies equally to all plumes. To obtain a solution we could restrict either the Hawaii or Louisville plume to have latitudinal motion only, thus satisfying paleolatitude constraints. Yet, restricting one plume to latitudinal motion while all others move freely is not realistic. Consequently, it is only possible to resolve the motion of hotspots relative to an overall and unknown longitudinal shift as a function of time. Our plate motions are therefore dependent on the same shift via an unknown rotation about the north pole. Yet, as plume drifts are consequences of mantle convection, our results place strong constraints on the pattern of convection. Other considerations, such as imposed limits on plate speed, plume speed, proximity to LLSVP edges, model smoothness, or relative plate motions via ridge-spotting may add further constraints that allow a unique model of Pacific absolute plate and plume motions to be

  1. Mantle eclogites and garnet pyroxenites - the meaning of two-point isochrons, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf closure temperatures and the cooling of the subcratonic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qiao; Brey, Gerhard P.; Gerdes, Axel; Hoefer, Heidi E.

    2014-03-01

    The Earth's mantle is a huge metamorphic complex which undergoes permanent changes ruled by plate tectonics. It also has enclaves underneath Archean crust which are exempt from the convecting mantle since at least 2.5 Ga. Since then, this mantle may cool slowly as a result of diminishing heat input from the asthenosphere, of declining heat production from radioactive decay and of denudation of the crust. Under such circumstances, two point garnet-clinopyroxene isochrons from mantle xenoliths (here garnet pyroxenites and eclogites) reflect either cooling ages or eruption ages depending on whether the mantle portion under consideration was below or above the closure temperature of a radiogenic system. Available literature data from the Slave and Kaapvaal craton for the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems and our own new data from Bellsbank (Kaapvaal) provide a whole range of two-point isochron ages from younger than the kimberlite eruption age to early Proterozoic. The meaning of ages other than the kimberlite eruption age is unclear. We use here a compilation of Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf two-point isochron age data from this study and the literature, to assess the meaning of such isochrons. This is achieved by plotting the temperature of last equilibration as derived from the Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and clinopyroxene versus the two-point isochron age. There is a low temperature alignment for both systems of increasing age with decreasing temperature and an alignment around the kimberlite eruption ages at high temperatures. We interpret the intersect between the low temperature limb and the kimberlite eruption age as closure temperature which gives about 920 °C for the Lu-Hf system and about 850 °C for the Sm-Nd system. The differences of the cooling ages between the two isotope systems for individual samples combined with the closure temperatures from this study are used to deduce the cooling of the Slave and Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle from the early Proterozoic until

  2. Absolute comparison of simulated and experimental protein-folding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Christopher D.; Nguyen, Houbi; Pande, Vijay S.; Gruebele, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Protein folding is difficult to simulate with classical molecular dynamics. Secondary structure motifs such as α-helices and β-hairpins can form in 0.1-10µs (ref. 1), whereas small proteins have been shown to fold completely in tens of microseconds. The longest folding simulation to date is a single 1-µs simulation of the villin headpiece; however, such single runs may miss many features of the folding process as it is a heterogeneous reaction involving an ensemble of transition states. Here, we have used a distributed computing implementation to produce tens of thousands of 5-20-ns trajectories (700µs) to simulate mutants of the designed mini-protein BBA5. The fast relaxation dynamics these predict were compared with the results of laser temperature-jump experiments. Our computational predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined mean folding times and equilibrium constants. The rapid folding of BBA5 is due to the swift formation of secondary structure. The convergence of experimentally and computationally accessible timescales will allow the comparison of absolute quantities characterizing in vitro and in silico (computed) protein folding.

  3. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  4. [Impact of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality a multivariable Meta-analysis from 12 counties of Hubei province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Q; Yu, C H; Bao, J Z

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To assess the acute effects of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to daily mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between daily mean temperature, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between temperature and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship). Results: During 2009-2012, a total population of 6.7 million was included in this study with 42 739 persons died of stroke. An average of 2.7 (from 0.5 to 6.0) stroke deaths occurred daily in each county, with annual average mean temperature as 16.6 ℃ (from 14.7 ℃ to 17.4 ℃) during the study period. An inverse J-shaped association between temperature and stroke mortality was observed at the provincial level. Pooled mortality effect of cold spells showed a 2-3-day delay and lasted about 10 days, while effect of heat waves appeared acute but attenuated within a few days. The mortality risks on cold-spell days ranged from 0.968 to 1.523 in 12 counties at lag 3-14, with pooled effect as 1.180 (95 %CI: 1.043-1.336). The pooled mortality risk (ranged from 0.675 to 2.066) on heat-wave days at lag 0-2 was 1.114 (95 %CI: 1.012-1.227). Conclusions: An inverse J-shaped association between temperature and stroke mortality was observed in Hubei province, China. Both cold spells and heat waves were associated with increased stroke mortality, while different lag patterns were observed in the mortality effects of heat waves and cold spells.

  5. Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Daly, Christopher; Berg, Jared S.; Fleming, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada, produced by Oregon State University's Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS) and the Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (AGDC), were analyzed. Because both sets of maps are generally available and in use by the community, there is a need to document differences between the processes and input data sets used by the two groups to produce their respective set of maps and to identify similarities and differences between the two sets of maps and possible reasons for the differences. These differences do not affect the observed large-scale patterns of seasonal and annual variability. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones, with consistent but different variability, separated by a transition region. The transition region has high interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Both data sets support the four major ecosystems and ecosystem transition zone identified in our earlier work. Differences between the two sets of maps do occur, however, on the regional scale; they reflect differences in physiographic domains and in the treatment of these domains by the two groups (AGDC, SCAS). These differences also provide guidance for an improved observational network for Alaska. On the basis of validation with independent in situ data, we conclude that the data set produced by SCAS provides the best spatial coverage of Alaskan long-term mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation currently available. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  6. A Comparison between Conductive and Infrared Devices for Measuring Mean Skin Temperature at Rest, during Exercise in the Heat, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Aaron J. E.; Stewart, Ian B.; Disher, Alice E.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin temperature assessment has historically been undertaken with conductive devices affixed to the skin. With the development of technology, infrared devices are increasingly utilised in the measurement of skin temperature. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between four skin temperature devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and recovery. Methods Mean skin temperature (T-sk) was assessed in thirty healthy males during 30 min rest (24.0 ± 1.2°C, 56 ± 8%), 30 min cycle in the heat (38.0 ± 0.5°C, 41 ± 2%), and 45 min recovery (24.0 ± 1.3°C, 56 ± 9%). T-sk was assessed at four sites using two conductive devices (thermistors, iButtons) and two infrared devices (infrared thermometer, infrared camera). Results Bland–Altman plots demonstrated mean bias ± limits of agreement between the thermistors and iButtons as follows (rest, exercise, recovery): -0.01 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.85, -0.37 ± 0.98°C; thermistors and infrared thermometer: 0.34 ± 0.44, -0.44 ± 1.23, -1.04 ± 1.75°C; thermistors and infrared camera (rest, recovery): 0.83 ± 0.77, 1.88 ± 1.87°C. Pairwise comparisons of T-sk found significant differences (p < 0.05) between thermistors and both infrared devices during resting conditions, and significant differences between the thermistors and all other devices tested during exercise in the heat and recovery. Conclusions These results indicate poor agreement between conductive and infrared devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and subsequent recovery. Infrared devices may not be suitable for monitoring T-sk in the presence of, or following, metabolic and environmental induced heat stress. PMID:25659140

  7. A comparison between conductive and infrared devices for measuring mean skin temperature at rest, during exercise in the heat, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Disher, Alice E; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Skin temperature assessment has historically been undertaken with conductive devices affixed to the skin. With the development of technology, infrared devices are increasingly utilised in the measurement of skin temperature. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between four skin temperature devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and recovery. Mean skin temperature ([Formula: see text]) was assessed in thirty healthy males during 30 min rest (24.0 ± 1.2°C, 56 ± 8%), 30 min cycle in the heat (38.0 ± 0.5°C, 41 ± 2%), and 45 min recovery (24.0 ± 1.3°C, 56 ± 9%). [Formula: see text] was assessed at four sites using two conductive devices (thermistors, iButtons) and two infrared devices (infrared thermometer, infrared camera). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated mean bias ± limits of agreement between the thermistors and iButtons as follows (rest, exercise, recovery): -0.01 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.85, -0.37 ± 0.98°C; thermistors and infrared thermometer: 0.34 ± 0.44, -0.44 ± 1.23, -1.04 ± 1.75°C; thermistors and infrared camera (rest, recovery): 0.83 ± 0.77, 1.88 ± 1.87°C. Pairwise comparisons of [Formula: see text] found significant differences (p < 0.05) between thermistors and both infrared devices during resting conditions, and significant differences between the thermistors and all other devices tested during exercise in the heat and recovery. These results indicate poor agreement between conductive and infrared devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and subsequent recovery. Infrared devices may not be suitable for monitoring [Formula: see text] in the presence of, or following, metabolic and environmental induced heat stress.

  8. Interactions of mean body and local skin temperatures in the modulation of human forearm and calf blood flows: a three-dimensional description.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Matsuda-Nakamura, Mayumi; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-02-01

    The inter-relationships between mean body and local skin temperatures have previously been established for controlling hand and foot blood flows. Since glabrous skin contains many arteriovenous anastomoses, it was important to repeat those experiments on non-glabrous regions using the same sample and experimental conditions. Mild hypothermia (mean body temperature 31.4 °C), normothermia (control: 36.0 °C) and moderate hyperthermia (38.3 °C) were induced and clamped (climate chamber and water-perfusion garment) in eight males. Within each condition, five localised thermal treatments (5, 15, 25, 33, 40 °C) were applied to the left forearm and right calf. Steady-state forearm and calf blood flows were measured (venous occlusion plethysmography) for each of the resulting 15 combinations of clamped mean body and local skin temperatures. Under the normothermic clamp, cutaneous blood flows averaged 4.2 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.28: forearm) and 5.4 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.27: calf). When mildly hypothermic, these segments were unresponsive to localised thermal stimuli, but tracked those changes when normothermic and moderately hyperthermic. For deep-body (oesophageal) temperature elevations, forearm blood flow increased by 5.1 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±0.9) relative to normothermia, while the calf was much less responsive: 3.3 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±1.5). Three-dimensional surfaces revealed a qualitative divergence in the control of calf blood flow, with vasoconstrictor tone apparently being released more gradually. These descriptions reinforce the importance of deep-tissue temperatures in controlling cutaneous perfusion, with this modulation being non-linear at the forearm and appearing linear for the calf.

  9. The role of horizontal thermal advection in regulating wintertime mean and extreme temperatures over the central United States during the past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Horizontal temperature advection plays an especially prominent role in affecting winter climate over continental interiors, where both climatological conditions and extreme weather are strongly regulated by transport of remote air masses. Central North America is one such region, and it experienced a major cold-air outbreak (CAO) a few years ago that some have related to amplified Arctic warming. Despite the known importance of dynamics in shaping the winter climate of this sector and the potential for climate change to modify heat transport, limited attention has been paid to the regional impact of thermal advection. Here, we use a reanalysis product and output from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble to quantify the roles of zonal and meridional temperature advection over the central U. S. during winter, both in the late 20th and 21st centuries. We frame our findings as a "tug of war" between opposing influences of the two advection components and between these dynamical forcings vs. thermodynamic changes under greenhouse warming. For example, Arctic amplification leads to much warmer polar air masses, causing a moderation of cold-air advection into the central U. S., yet the model also simulates a wavier mean circulation and stronger northerly flow during CAOs, favoring lower regional temperatures. We also compare the predominant warming effect of zonal advection and overall cooling effect of meridional temperature advection as an additional tug of war. During both historical and future periods, zonal temperature advection is stronger than meridional advection over the Central U. S. The model simulates a future weakening of both zonal and meridional temperature advection, such that westerly flow provides less warming and northerly flow less cooling. On the most extreme warm days in the past and future, both zonal and meridional temperature advection have positive (warming) contributions. On the most extreme cold days, meridional cold air advection

  10. Sex Ratios at Birth and Environmental Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    The relationship between average monthly air temperature and sex ratios at birth (SRB) was analyzed for children born in Germany during the period 1946-1995. Both the absolute temperature and - more markedly - the monthly temperature deviations from the overall mean were significantly positively correlated with the SRB (P<0.01) when temperatures were time-lagged against the SRB data by -10 or -11months. It is concluded that the sex of the offspring is partially determined by environmental temperatures prior to conception.

  11. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, correspondingmore » to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  12. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  13. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  14. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  15. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  16. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  17. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  18. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  19. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  20. Investigation on the oxidation behavior of AlCrVxN thin films by means of synchrotron radiation and influence on the high temperature friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Kokalj, David; Stangier, Dominic; Paulus, Michael; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2018-01-01

    Friction minimization is an important topic which is pursued in research and industry. In addition to the use of lubricants, friction-reducing oxide phases can be utilized which occur during. These oxides are called Magnéli phases and especially vanadium oxides exhibit good friction reducing properties. Thereby, the lubrication effect can be traced back to oxygen deficiencies. AlCrN thin films are being used as coatings for tools which have to withstand high temperatures. A further improvement of AlCrN thin films concerning their friction properties is possible by incorporation of vanadium. This study analyzes the temperature dependent oxidation behavior of magnetron sputtered AlCrVN thin films with different vanadium contents up to 13.5 at.-% by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Up to 400 °C the coatings show no oxidation. A higher temperature of 700 °C leads to an oxidation and formation of Magnéli phases of the coatings with vanadium contents above 10.7 at.-%. Friction coefficients, measured by ball-on-disk test are correlated with the oxide formation in order to figure out the effect of vanadium oxides. At 700 °C a decrease of the friction coefficient with increasing vanadium content can be observed, due to the formation of VO2, V2O3 and the Magnéli phase V4O7.

  1. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  2. An Evaluation of a Borided Layer Formed on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Means of SMAT and Low-Temperature Boriding

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Quantong; Sun, Jian; Fu, Yuzhu; Tong, Weiping; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nanocrystalline surface layer without impurities was fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The grain size in the nanocrystalline layer is about 10 nm and grain morphology displays a random crystallographic orientation distribution. Subsequently, the low-temperature boriding behaviors (at 600 °C) of the SMAT sample, including the phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness, and brittleness, were investigated in comparison with those of coarse-grained sample borided at 1100 °C. The results showed that the boriding kinetics could be significantly enhanced by SMAT, resulting in the formation of a nano-structured boride layers on Ti-6Al-4V alloy at lower temperature. Compared to the coarse-grained boriding sample, the SMAT boriding sample exhibits a similar hardness value, but improved surface toughness. The satisfactory surface toughness may be attributed to the boriding treatment that was carried out at lower temperature. PMID:28774115

  3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  4. Grape harvest dates as indicator of spring-summer mean maxima temperature variations in the Minho region (NW of Portugal) since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.; Fatela, F.; Moreno, F.; Leorri, E.; Taborda, R.; Trigo, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a climatic reconstruction approach for the Minho region (NW of Portugal) using grape harvest dates (GHD) as proxy of surface air temperature. This new GHD series was built based on the records from a set of local and regional newspapers (1854-1978) and the annuals of a Wine Producers Cooperative (1978-2010). The strong inverse correlation between Minho GHD and the mean maxima temperatures of the preceding March to August months (GSTmax), registered at the Braga weather station for the overlap period 1941-2009, allowed a reconstruction, with associated statistical uncertainties, of the regional GSTmax back to 1856. These were then used to characterize the main climatic episodes in the region during the last 154 years. The most noticeable feature that emerges from the comparison of the Minho GSTmax with the global annual average temperatures of Jones et al. (2013) is that these regional temperatures, in clear contrast with the global warming observed from around 1990 onwards, show no noteworthy increasing trend. The influence of climatic variability was examined also in terms of the relations between GSTmax (1950-2009) and the main meteorological teleconnection patterns affecting the North Atlantic European sector where the Minho region is included. Data support the hypothesis that persistent positive modes of spring-summer Scandinavian (SCA) and summer East Atlantic/Western Russia patterns triggered lower GSTmax, especially in the 60s-80s. The search for solar imprints in the Minho region climate identified the SCA mode as a promising connection between the two, since it is significantly inversely correlated with both, the TSI and the GSTmax. Like in other traditional European viticultural regions, the Minho GHD have shown to be a valuable tool for understanding the interactions between large-scale circulation modes and regional/local climatic conditions. Besides it will deliver a reliable assessment of climatic proxies from geological record

  5. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  6. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  7. A 2000-year European Mean Summer Temperature Reconstruction from the PAGES 2k Regional Network and Comparison to Millennium-Length Forced Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Büntgen, U.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Esper, J.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Luterbacher, J.; McCarroll, D.; Wagner, S.; Wahl, E. R.; Wanner, H.; Werner, J.; Zorita, E.

    2012-12-01

    A reconstruction of mean European summer (JJA) land temperatures from 138 B.C.E. to 2003 C.E. is presented and compared to 37 forced transient simulations of the last millennium from coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs). Eleven annually resolved tree-ring and documentary records from ten European countries/regions were used for the reconstruction and compiled as part of the Euro_Med working group contribution to the PAGES 2k Regional Network. Records were selected based upon their summer temperature signal, annual resolution, and time-continuous sampling. All tree-ring data were detrended using the Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) method to retain low-frequency variance in the resulting mean chronologies. The calibration time series was the area-weighted JJA temperature computed from the CRUTEM4v dataset over a European land domain (35°-70°N, 10°W-40°E). A nested 'Composite-Plus-Scale' reconstruction was derived using nine nests reflecting the availability of predictors back in time. Each nest was calculated by standardizing the available predictor series over the calibration interval, and subsequently calculating a weighted composite in which each proxy was multiplied by its correlation with the target index. The CPS methodology was implemented using a resampling scheme that uses 104 years for calibration. The initial calibration period extended from 1850-1953 C.E. and was incremented by one year until reaching the final period of 1900-2003 C.E., yielding a total of 51 reconstructions for each nest. Within each calibration step, the 50 years excluded from calibration were used for validation. Validation statistics across all reconstruction ensemble members within each nest indicate skillful reconstructions (RE: 0.42-0.64; CE: 0.26-0.54) and are all above the maximum validation statistics achieved in an ensemble of red noise benchmarking experiments. Warm periods in the derived reconstruction during the 1st, 2nd, and 7th-12th centuries compare to

  8. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  9. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  10. Statistical Modeling Reveals the Effect of Absolute Humidity on Dengue in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-Yan; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Lionel Kim Hock; Ma, Stefan; Goh, Kee Tai; Wong, Jiancheng; Habibullah, Mohamed Salahuddin; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Lim, Tian Kuay; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Chin Leong; Ng, Lee Ching

    2014-01-01

    Weather factors are widely studied for their effects on indicating dengue incidence trends. However, these studies have been limited due to the complex epidemiology of dengue, which involves dynamic interplay of multiple factors such as herd immunity within a population, distinct serotypes of the virus, environmental factors and intervention programs. In this study, we investigate the impact of weather factors on dengue in Singapore, considering the disease epidemiology and profile of virus serotypes. A Poisson regression combined with Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to evaluate and compare the impact of weekly Absolute Humidity (AH) and other weather factors (mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed) on dengue incidence from 2001 to 2009. The same analysis was also performed on three sub-periods, defined by predominant circulating serotypes. The performance of DLNM regression models were then evaluated through the Akaike's Information Criterion. From the correlation and DLNM regression modeling analyses of the studied period, AH was found to be a better predictor for modeling dengue incidence than the other unique weather variables. Whilst mean temperature (MeanT) also showed significant correlation with dengue incidence, the relationship between AH or MeanT and dengue incidence, however, varied in the three sub-periods. Our results showed that AH had a more stable impact on dengue incidence than temperature when virological factors were taken into consideration. AH appeared to be the most consistent factor in modeling dengue incidence in Singapore. Considering the changes in dominant serotypes, the improvements in vector control programs and the inconsistent weather patterns observed in the sub-periods, the impact of weather on dengue is modulated by these other factors. Future studies on the impact of climate change on dengue need to take all the other contributing factors into

  11. Statistical modeling reveals the effect of absolute humidity on dengue in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Yan; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Lionel Kim Hock; Ma, Stefan; Goh, Kee Tai; Wong, Jiancheng; Habibullah, Mohamed Salahuddin; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Lim, Tian Kuay; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Chin Leong; Ng, Lee Ching

    2014-05-01

    Weather factors are widely studied for their effects on indicating dengue incidence trends. However, these studies have been limited due to the complex epidemiology of dengue, which involves dynamic interplay of multiple factors such as herd immunity within a population, distinct serotypes of the virus, environmental factors and intervention programs. In this study, we investigate the impact of weather factors on dengue in Singapore, considering the disease epidemiology and profile of virus serotypes. A Poisson regression combined with Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to evaluate and compare the impact of weekly Absolute Humidity (AH) and other weather factors (mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed) on dengue incidence from 2001 to 2009. The same analysis was also performed on three sub-periods, defined by predominant circulating serotypes. The performance of DLNM regression models were then evaluated through the Akaike's Information Criterion. From the correlation and DLNM regression modeling analyses of the studied period, AH was found to be a better predictor for modeling dengue incidence than the other unique weather variables. Whilst mean temperature (MeanT) also showed significant correlation with dengue incidence, the relationship between AH or MeanT and dengue incidence, however, varied in the three sub-periods. Our results showed that AH had a more stable impact on dengue incidence than temperature when virological factors were taken into consideration. AH appeared to be the most consistent factor in modeling dengue incidence in Singapore. Considering the changes in dominant serotypes, the improvements in vector control programs and the inconsistent weather patterns observed in the sub-periods, the impact of weather on dengue is modulated by these other factors. Future studies on the impact of climate change on dengue need to take all the other contributing factors into

  12. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2017-10-01

    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  13. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero.

    PubMed

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2017-10-01

    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  14. Limiting global-mean temperature increase to 1.5-2 °C could reduce the incidence and spatial spread of dengue fever in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Colón-González, Felipe J; Harris, Ian; Osborn, Timothy J; Steiner São Bernardo, Christine; Peres, Carlos A; Hunter, Paul R; Lake, Iain R

    2018-06-12

    The Paris Climate Agreement aims to hold global-mean temperature well below 2 °C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels. While it is recognized that there are benefits for human health in limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, the magnitude with which those societal benefits will be accrued remains unquantified. Crucial to public health preparedness and response is the understanding and quantification of such impacts at different levels of warming. Using dengue in Latin America as a study case, a climate-driven dengue generalized additive mixed model was developed to predict global warming impacts using five different global circulation models, all scaled to represent multiple global-mean temperature assumptions. We show that policies to limit global warming to 2 °C could reduce dengue cases by about 2.8 (0.8-7.4) million cases per year by the end of the century compared with a no-policy scenario that warms by 3.7 °C. Limiting warming further to 1.5 °C produces an additional drop in cases of about 0.5 (0.2-1.1) million per year. Furthermore, we found that by limiting global warming we can limit the expansion of the disease toward areas where incidence is currently low. We anticipate our study to be a starting point for more comprehensive studies incorporating socioeconomic scenarios and how they may further impact dengue incidence. Our results demonstrate that although future climate change may amplify dengue transmission in the region, impacts may be avoided by constraining the level of warming. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Limiting global-mean temperature increase to 1.5–2 °C could reduce the incidence and spatial spread of dengue fever in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ian; Osborn, Timothy J.; Steiner São Bernardo, Christine; Peres, Carlos A.; Lake, Iain R.

    2018-01-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement aims to hold global-mean temperature well below 2 °C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels. While it is recognized that there are benefits for human health in limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, the magnitude with which those societal benefits will be accrued remains unquantified. Crucial to public health preparedness and response is the understanding and quantification of such impacts at different levels of warming. Using dengue in Latin America as a study case, a climate-driven dengue generalized additive mixed model was developed to predict global warming impacts using five different global circulation models, all scaled to represent multiple global-mean temperature assumptions. We show that policies to limit global warming to 2 °C could reduce dengue cases by about 2.8 (0.8–7.4) million cases per year by the end of the century compared with a no-policy scenario that warms by 3.7 °C. Limiting warming further to 1.5 °C produces an additional drop in cases of about 0.5 (0.2–1.1) million per year. Furthermore, we found that by limiting global warming we can limit the expansion of the disease toward areas where incidence is currently low. We anticipate our study to be a starting point for more comprehensive studies incorporating socioeconomic scenarios and how they may further impact dengue incidence. Our results demonstrate that although future climate change may amplify dengue transmission in the region, impacts may be avoided by constraining the level of warming. PMID:29844166

  16. New Ultra-High Sensitivity, Absolute, Linear, and Rotary Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1998-01-01

    Several new types of absolute optical encoders of both rotary and linear function are discussed. The means for encoding are complete departures from conventional optical encoders and offer advantages of compact form, immunity to damage-induced dropouts of position information, and about an order of magnitude higher sensitivity over what is commercially available. Rotary versions have sensitivity from 0.02 arcseconds down to 0.003 arcsecond while linear models have sensitivity of 10 nm.

  17. Changes in the zonal mean flow, temperature, and planetary waves observed in the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter months during the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakushina, E. V.; Ermakova, T. S.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.

    2018-06-01

    Four sets of data: the UK Met Office, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55), and ERA-Interim data (ERA) have been used to estimate the climatic variability of the zonal mean flow, temperature, and Stationary Planetary Waves (SPW1, SPW2) from the troposphere up to the lower mesosphere levels. The composites of the meteorological fields during mid-winter month have been averaged over the first (1995-2005) and second (2006-2016) 11 years intervals and have been compared mainly paying attention to interannual and intraseasonal variability. Results show that changes in the mean fields and SPW2 are weaker and statistical significance of these changes is lower in comparison with the changes observed in the intraseasonal variability of these characteristics. All data sets demonstrate a decrease of SPW1 amplitude at the higher-middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere and opposite effect in the upper stratosphere. However, there is an increase of the intraseasonal variability for all meteorological parameters and this rise is statistically significant. The results obtained show that UK Met Office data demonstrate stronger changes and increase of the intraseasonal variability in comparison with other data sets.

  18. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  19. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  20. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  1. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  2. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  3. Rising Mean Annual Temperature Increases Carbon Flux and Alters Partitioning, but Does Not Change Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Hawaiian Tropical Montane Wet Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Selmants, P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) storage exceeds that in the atmosphere by a factor of four, and represents a dynamic balance among C input, allocation, and loss. This balance is likely being altered by climate change, but the response of terrestrial C cycling to warming remains poorly quantified, particularly in tropical forests which play a disproportionately large role in the global C cycle. Over the past five years, we have quantified above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in nine permanent plots spanning a 5.2°C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient (13-18.2°C) in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forest. This elevation gradient is unique in that substrate type and age, soil type, soil water balance, canopy vegetation, and disturbance history are constant, allowing us to isolate the impact of long-term, whole ecosystem warming on C input, allocation, loss and storage. Across the gradient, soil respiration, litterfall, litter decomposition, total belowground C flux, aboveground net primary productivity, and estimates of gross primary production (GPP) all increase linearly and positively with MAT. Carbon partitioning is dynamic, shifting from below- to aboveground with warming, likely in response to a warming-induced increase in the cycling and availability of soil nutrients. In contrast to observed patterns in C flux, live biomass C, soil C, and total ecosystem C pools remained remarkably constant with MAT. There was also no difference in soil bacterial taxon richness, phylogenetic diversity, or community composition with MAT. Taken together these results indicate that in tropical montane wet forests, increased temperatures in the absence of water limitation or disturbance will accelerate C cycling, will not alter ecosystem C storage, and will shift the products of photosynthesis from below- to aboveground. These results agree with an increasing number of studies, and collectively provide a unique insight into anticipated warming-induced changes in tropical

  4. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  5. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]<1% [NH4(+)]removed) as the carbon emission per unit effluent quality achieved by NDN process is less than that of the CAS process. By putting forward carbon emission intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  8. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of GDGTs in the free and bound lipid fractions from podzols: implications for the reconstruction of mean air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, A.; Fosse, C.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.

    2009-12-01

    the temperate podzol, suggesting the presence of branched-GDGT producing bacteria in the litter, probably in anoxic microenvironments. Last, we showed for the first time that substantial amounts of "bound" GDGTs could be released after acid hydrolysis of solvent-extracted soils, since "bound" lipids represented between 10 and 60% of total (i.e. "free" + "bound") bacterial GDGTs and between 15 and 60% of total archaeal GDGTs in podzol samples. In addition, we observed that "free" and "bound" GDGTs could present different distribution patterns. Thus, the average methylation degree of bacterial GDGTs was higher in the "free" than in the "bound" lipid fraction in 3 soil horizons of the temperate podzol. Consequently, different mean air temperature values could be derived from "free" and "bound" bacterial GDGT distributions, suggesting that data obtained from the "free" lipid fraction have to be interpreted with care.

  10. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  11. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    PubMed

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  12. Quantum Bath Refrigeration towards Absolute Zero: Challenging the Unattainability Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, M.; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Alicki, R.; Kurizki, G.

    2012-08-01

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst’s third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  13. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  14. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  15. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  16. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  18. Corresponding states correlation for temperature dependent surface tension of normal saturated liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Huili; Tian, Jianxiang

    2014-07-01

    A new simple correlation based on the principle of corresponding state is proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent surface tension of normal saturated liquids. The correlation is a linear one and strongly stands for 41 saturated normal liquids. The new correlation requires only the triple point temperature, triple point surface tension and critical point temperature as input and is able to represent the experimental surface tension data for these 41 saturated normal liquids with a mean absolute average percent deviation of 1.26% in the temperature regions considered. For most substances, the temperature covers the range from the triple temperature to the one beyond the boiling temperature.

  19. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  20. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  1. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  2. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  5. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  6. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  7. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  8. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  9. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  10. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  11. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles (n = 60) of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups (n = 15). Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1), 400 mJ (G2), piezosurgery unit (G3), and a saw (G4). The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ), and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery. PMID:27957502

  12. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles ( n = 60) of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups ( n = 15). Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1), 400 mJ (G2), piezosurgery unit (G3), and a saw (G4). The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ), and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  13. Assessing epistemic sophistication by considering domain-specific absolute and multiplicistic beliefs separately.

    PubMed

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-06-01

    Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as disagreement with absolute statements. This article suggests considering absolutism and multiplicism as separate dimensions. Following our understanding of epistemic sophistication as a cautious and reluctant endorsement of both positions, we assume evaluativism (a contextually adaptive view of knowledge as personally constructed and evidence-based) to be reflected by low agreement with both generalized absolute and generalized multiplicistic statements. Three studies with a total sample size of N = 416 psychology students were conducted. A domain-specific inventory containing both absolute and multiplicistic statements was developed. Expectations were tested by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational analyses. Results revealed a two-factor solution with an absolute and a multiplicistic factor. Criterion validity of both factors was confirmed. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that agreement to generalized multiplicistic statements decreases with study progress. Moreover, consistent with our understanding of epistemic sophistication as a reluctant attitude towards generalized epistemic statements, evidence for a negative relationship between epistemic sophistication and need for cognitive closure was found. We recommend including multiplicistic statements into epistemic belief questionnaires and considering them as a separate dimension, especially when investigating individuals in later stages of epistemic development (i.e., in higher education). © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  15. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  16. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  17. Absolute ozone densities in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma using two-beam UV-LED absorption spectroscopy and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaikhum, A.; Schröder, D.; Schröter, S.; Gibson, A. R.; Niemi, K.; Friderich, J.; Greb, A.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2017-11-01

    The efficient generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) is an increasingly important topic, e.g. for the treatment of temperature sensitive biological samples in the field of plasma medicine. A 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) driven APPJ device operated with helium feed gas and small admixtures of oxygen (up to 1%), generating a homogeneous glow-mode plasma at low gas temperatures, was investigated. Absolute densities of ozone, one of the most prominent ROS, were measured across the 11 mm wide discharge channel by means of broadband absorption spectroscopy using the Hartley band centred at λ = 255 nm. A two-beam setup with a reference beam in Mach-Zehnder configuration is employed for improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing high-sensitivity measurements in the investigated single-pass weak-absorbance regime. The results are correlated to gas temperature measurements, deduced from the rotational temperature of the N2 (C 3 {{{\\Pi }}}u+ \\to B 3 {{{\\Pi }}}g+, υ = 0 \\to 2) optical emission from introduced air impurities. The observed opposing trends of both quantities as a function of rf power input and oxygen admixture are analysed and explained in terms of a zero-dimensional plasma-chemical kinetics simulation. It is found that the gas temperature as well as the densities of O and O2(b{}1{{{Σ }}}g+) influence the absolute O3 densities when the rf power is varied.

  18. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  19. Cloacal evaporative cooling: a previously undescribed means of increasing evaporative water loss at higher temperatures in a desert ectotherm, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    DeNardo, Dale F; Zubal, Tricia E; Hoffman, Ty C M

    2004-02-01

    The Gila monster Heloderma suspectum is an active forager in an environment that, at times, can be extremely hot and arid. Thus, Gila monsters face extreme thermostatic and hydrostatic demands. For a desert ectotherm routinely risking dehydration, evaporative water loss (EWL) is typically viewed as detrimental. Yet evaporation simultaneously dehydrates and cools an animal. We explored EWL in Gila monsters by measuring cutaneous, ventilatory and cloacal EWL at five ambient temperatures between 20.5 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Our results show that Gila monsters have high EWL rates relative to body mass. Cutaneous EWL underwent a consistent, temperature-dependent increase over the entire range of test temperatures (Q(10)=1.61, with EWL ranging from 0.378 to 0.954 mg g(-1) h(-1)). Ventilatory EWL did not show a significant temperature-dependent response, but ranged from 0.304 to 0.663 mg g(-1) h(-1). Cloacal EWL was extremely low and relatively constant between 20.5 degrees C and 35 degrees C, but rose dramatically above 35 degrees C (Q(10) >8.3 x 10(7), from 0.0008 at 35 degrees C to 7.30 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 40 degrees C). This steep rise in cloacal EWL coincided with an increasing suppression of body temperature relative to ambient temperature. Dehydration to 80% of initial body mass led to a delay in the onset and an attenuation of the dramatic increase in cloacal EWL. These results emphasize the potential value of EWL for thermoregulation in ectotherms and demonstrate for the first time the role of the cloaca in this process.

  20. Absolute measurements of the triplet-triplet annihilation rate and the charge-carrier recombination layer thickness in working polymer light-emitting diodes based on polyspirobifluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, C.; Al Attar, H. A.; Monkman, A. P.

    2005-10-01

    The triplet exciton densities in electroluminescent devices prepared from two polyspirobifluorene derivatives have been investigated by means of time-resolved transient triplet absorption as a function of optical and electrical excitation power at 20 K. Because of the low mobility of the triplet excitons at this temperature, the triplet generation profile within the active polymer layer is preserved throughout the triplet lifetime and as a consequence the absolute triplet-triplet annihilation efficiency is not homogeneously distributed but depends on position within the active layer. This then gives a method to measure the charge-carrier recombination layer after electrical excitation relative to the light penetration depth, which is identical to the triplet generation layer after optical excitation. With the latter being obtained from ellipsometry, an absolute value of 5 nm is found for the exciton formation layer in polyspirobifluorene devices. This layer increases to 11 nm if the balance between the electron and the hole mobility is improved by chemically modifying the polymer backbone. Also, and consistent with previous work, triplet diffusion is dispersive at low temperature. As a consequence of this, the triplet-triplet annihilation rate is not a constant in the classical sense but depends on the triplet excitation dose. At 20 K and for typical excitation doses, absolute values of the latter rate are of the order of 10-14cm3s-1 .

  1. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  2. A RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE USE OF THERMAL AVHRR IMAGERY TO STUDY ANNUAL AND SEASONAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURES FOR LARGE LAKES IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface and vertical temperature data will be obtained from several large lakes With surface areas large enough to be effectively sampled with AVHRR imagery. Yearly and seasonal patterns of surface and whole water column thermal values will be compared to estimates of surface tem...

  3. Internal hive temperature as a means of monitoring honey bee colony health in a migratory beekeeping operation before and during winter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal temperatures of honey bee hives kept at different sites in North Dakota were monitored before and during winter to evaluate the effects of treatment, in the form of exposure to commercial pollination, and location on colony health. In October, hives exposed to commercial pollination durin...

  4. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  5. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  6. First absolute wind measurements in the middle atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Goldstein, Jeffrey J.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Paubert, Gabriel; Rosenqvist, Jan

    1991-12-01

    The first absolute wind measurements in the middle atmosphere of Mars (40-70 km) were obtained from Doppler shifts in the J = 2-1 CO transition at 230.538 GHz. During the 1988 opposition, this line was observed at 100 kHz resolution with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The 12-arcsec FWHM beam of the facility allowed spatial resolution of the Martian disk (23.8 arcsec). The high S/N of the data allowed measurement of winds with a 1-sigma absolute line-of-sight accuracy of 20 m/s. The measurements, performed during southern summer solstice, stress the Southern Hemisphere and clearly indicate a global easterlies flow. If modeled by a broad easterly jet with a maximum centered at 20 S, and extending 80 deg in latitude, the jet core velocity is found to have a chi-sq minimum at 160 m/s, generally consistent with predictions for broad summer easterly jets near 50 km as proposed by theoretical models. If the flow is modeled instead by a planet-wide solid rotator zonal flow which is restricted to the Southern Hemisphere or equatorial regions, the velocity of the easterlies is nearly the same. These wind measurements, together with the temperature measurements of Deming et al. (1986), provide the first experimental rough picture of the middle atmosphere circulation of Mars, in general agreement with the Jaquin axisymmetric middle atmosphere model and the current Mars GCM model of Pollack et al. (1990).

  7. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  8. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  9. Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development

    PubMed Central

    SATO, S.; KAMIYAMA, M.; IWATA, T.; MAKITA, N.; FURUKAWA, H.; IKEDA, H.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated. • Methods Plants were grown at 32/26 °C as a moderately elevated temperature stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 °C (day/night temperatures) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated. • Key Results METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS. • Conclusions The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased temperature above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development. PMID:16497700

  10. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly (P < 0.01) lower at 21°C than at 31°C temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  11. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  12. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  14. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Accurate Measurement of Absolute Terahertz Power Using Broadband Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Moto; Amemiya, Kuniaki

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a highly sensitive terahertz (THz) calorimeter developed using a magnetically loaded epoxy as a broadband absorber. The reflection loss of the absorber, which has a pyramidally textured surface, is less than 0.04, as determined using a THz time-domain spectrometer and a vector network analyzer. The THz calorimeter successfully enabled the measurement of the absolute THz power from a photomixer at microwatt levels at room temperature. The measurement uncertainties at a 95% confidence level were 6.2% for 13 μW at 300 GHz and 5.6% for 1.5 μW at 1 THz, respectively. Details of the evaluation and uncertainty analyses are also presented.

  16. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  17. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  18. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  19. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  20. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  3. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1961 to 2100: projected changes in mean temperature and future heat waves characterization (with a statistical evaluation of RCMs local performance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    Marche region (central Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea) climate dynamics are connected to the Mediterranean basin, identified as one of the most sensitive areas to ongoing climate change. Taken into account difficulties to carry out an overarching assessment over the heterogeneous Mediterranean climate-change issues frame, we opted toward a consistent regional bordered study. Projected changes in mean seasonal temperature, with an introductory multi-statistical model performance evaluation and a future heat waves intensity and duration characterization, are here presented. Multi-model projections over Marche Region, on daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of 7 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research Institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations from 1961 to 2100 refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km. Furthermore, two RCMs outputs from Med-CORDEX project, with a higher horizontal resolution (12km x 12km) and boundary conditions provided by the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, are considered. Observed daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature over Marche region domain have been extracted from E-OBS gridded data set (Version 9.0) referring to the period 1970-2004. This twofold work firstly provides a concise statistical summary of how well employed RCMs reproduce observed (1970-2004) mean temperature over Marche region in term of correlation, root-mean-square difference, and ratio of their variances, graphically displayed on a 2D-Taylor diagram. This multi-statistical model performance evaluation easily allows: - to compare the agreement with observation of the 9 individual RCMs - to compare RCMs with different horizontal resolution (12 km and 25 km) - to evaluate the improvement provided by the RCMs ensemble. Results indicate that the 9 RCMs ensemble

  4. A description of phases with induced hybridisation at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosov, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    In an extended Falicov-Kimball model, an excitonic insulator phase can be stabilised at zero temperature. With increasing temperature, the excitonic order parameter (interaction-induced hybridisation on-site, characterised by the absolute value and phase) eventually becomes disordered, which involves fluctuations of both its phase and (at higher T) its absolute value. In order to build an adequate mean field description, it is important to clarify the nature of degrees of freedom associated with the phase and absolute value of the induced hybridisation, and the corresponding phase space volume. We show that a possible description is provided by the SU(4) parametrisation on-site. In principle, this allows to describe both the lower-temperature regime where phase fluctuations destroy the long-range order, and the higher temperature crossover corresponding to a decrease of absolute value of the hybridisation relative to the fluctuations level. This picture is also expected to be relevant in other contexts, including the Kondo lattice model.

  5. Enhancement of photovoltaic performance of flexible perovskite solar cells by means of ionic liquid interface modification in a low temperature all solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Weijing; Yang, Junyou; Jiang, Qinghui; Li, Xin; Xin, Jiwu

    2018-05-01

    The quality of interface between the electron transport layer (ETL) and perovskite is very crucial to the photovoltaic performance of a flexible perovskite solar cell fabricated under low-temperature process. This work demonstrates a room temperature ionic liquid modification strategy to the interface between ZnO layer and MAPbI3 film for high performance flexible perovskite solar cells based on a PET substrate. [BMIM]BF4 ionic liquid modification can significantly improve the surface quality and wettability of the ZnO ETL, thus greatly increase the charge mobility of ZnO ETL and improve the crystalline of perovskite film based on it. Moreover, the dipolar polarization layer among the ZnO ETL with perovskite, built by modification, can adjust the energy level between the ZnO ETL and perovskite and facilitates the charge extraction. Therefore, an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% have been achieved under standard illumination, it increases by 1.4 times of the flexible perovskite solar cells on a pristine ZnO ETL.

  6. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  7. Driven tracer with absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Instances of negative mobility, where a system responds to a perturbation in a way opposite to naive expectation, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in numerous nonequilibrium systems. In this work we show that absolute negative mobility (ANM), whereby current is produced in a direction opposite to the drive, can occur around equilibrium states. This is demonstrated with a simple one-dimensional lattice model with a driven tracer. We derive analytical predictions in the linear response regime and elucidate the mechanism leading to ANM by studying the high-density limit. We also study numerically a model of hard Brownian disks in a narrow planar channel, for which the lattice model can be viewed as a toy model. We find that the model exhibits negative differential mobility (NDM), but no ANM.

  8. Measurement of absolute gamma emission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithrarachchi, Chandana S.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    2003-06-01

    The energies and emission probabilities (intensities) of gamma-rays emitted in radioactive decays of particular nuclides are the most important characteristics by which to quantify mixtures of radionuclides. Often, quantification is limited by uncertainties in measured intensities. A technique was developed to reduce these uncertainties. The method involves obtaining a pure sample of a nuclide using radiochemical techniques, and using appropriate fractions for beta and gamma measurements. The beta emission rates were measured using a liquid scintillation counter, and the gamma emission rates were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Results were combined to obtain absolute gamma emission probabilities. All sources of uncertainties greater than 0.1% were examined. The method was tested with 38Cl and 88Rb.

  9. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  10. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  11. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  12. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  13. What Does the Mean Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watier, Nicholas N.; Lamontagne, Claude; Chartier, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The arithmetic mean is a fundamental statistical concept. Unfortunately, social science students rarely develop an intuitive understanding of the mean and rely on the formula to describe or define it. According to constructivist pedagogy, educators that have access to a variety of conceptualizations of a particular concept are better equipped to…

  14. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  15. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  16. Revisiting Absolute Radio Backgrounds in Light of Juno Cruise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching

    Radio backgrounds have played a critical role in recent progress in astronomy and cosmology. Major amongst them, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is currently our most precise window on the physics of the early universe. Both its near perfect blackbody spectrum and its angular fluctuations led to unique cosmological inferences. Beyond the CMB, radio backgrounds have offered golden insights to Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics. In this proposal, we take note of the recently released "cruise data" collected over five years by the MicroWave Radiometer (MWR) instrument on board the Juno planetary mission to construct new, unprecedented and well-characterized full-sky maps at 6 frequencies ranging from 0.6 to 22 GHz. We propose to generate, validate and release these full-sky maps and investigate their rich and unique astrophysical implications. In particular, we expect the use of Juno data to shed light on the "ARCADE excess" and lead to new insights on Galactic and extragalactic radio signals. Over the past several years, evidence indicating the existence of a significant isotropic radio background has been hinted at by a number of instruments. In 2011, the Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) collaboration reported measurements of the absolute sky temperature at a number of frequencies between 3 and 90 GHz (Fixsen et al. 2011). While these measurements are dominated by the CMB at frequencies above several GHz, they reveal the presence of significant excess power at the lowest measured frequencies (Seiffert et al. 2011). This conclusion is strengthened by a number of observations at lower frequencies, reported at 22 MHz, 45 MHz, 408 MHz and 1.42 GHz: the emission observed by each of these groups appears to be in significant excess to what can be attributed to Galactic emission, or to unresolved members of known extragalactic radio source populations. In addition, it appears to be anomalously spatially smooth to be

  17. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  18. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  19. Measurement of absolute lung volumes by imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Clausen, J

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the techniques available for estimating total lung capacities from standard chest radiographs in children and infants as well as adults are reviewed. These techniques include manual measurements using ellipsoid and planimetry techniques as well as computerized systems. Techniques are also available for making radiographic lung volume measurements from portable chest radiographs. There are inadequate data in the literature to support recommending one specific technique over another. Though measurements of lung volumes by radiographic, plethysmographic, gas dilution or washout techniques result in remarkably similar mean results when groups of normal subjects are tested, in patients with disease, the results of these different basic measurement techniques can differ significantly. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance techniques can also be used to measure absolute lung volumes and offer the theoretical advantages that the results in individual subjects are less affected by variances of thoracic shape than are measurements made using conventional chest radiographs.

  20. Comparison of Local Scale Measured and Modeled Brightness Temperatures and Snow Parameters from the CLPX 2003 by Means of a Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Theory Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedescol, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary J.; Hardy, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing offers distinct advantages for observing the cryosphere. Solar illumination is not required, and spatial and temporal coverage are excellent from polar-orbiting satellites. Passive microwave measurements are sensitive to the two most useful physical quantities for many hydrological applications: physical temperature and water content/state. Sensitivity to the latter is a direct result of the microwave sensitivity to the dielectric properties of natural media, including snow, ice, soil (frozen or thawed), and vegetation. These considerations are factors motivating the development of future cryospheric satellite remote sensing missions, continuing and improving on a 26-year microwave measurement legacy. Perhaps the biggest issues regarding the use of such satellite measurements involve how to relate parameter values at spatial scales as small as a hectare to observations with sensor footprints that may be up to 25 x 25 km. The NASA Cold-land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) generated a dataset designed to enhance understanding of such scaling issues. CLPX observations were made in February (dry snow) and March (wet snow), 2003 in Colorado, USA, at scales ranging from plot scale to 25 x 25 km satellite footprints. Of interest here are passive microwave observations from ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors, as well as meteorological and snowpack measurements that will enable studies of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of surface conditions on the observations. Prior to performing such scaling studies, an evaluation of snowpack forward modelling at the plot scale (least heterogeneous scale) is in order. This is the focus of this paper. Many forward models of snow signatures (brightness temperatures) have been developed over the years. It is now recognized that a dense medium radiative transfer (DMRT) treatment represents a high degree of physical fidelity for snow modeling, yet dense medium models are particularly sensitive to

  1. Temperature, radiation and aging analysis of the DORIS Ultra Stable Oscillator by means of the Time Transfer by Laser Link experiment on Jason-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Alexandre; Exertier, P.; Samain, E.; Courde, C.; Vernotte, F.; Jayles, C.; Auriol, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment on-board the Jason-2 satellite was launched in June 2008 at 1335 km altitude. It has been designed to use the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) space technique as an optical link between ground and space clocks. T2L2, as all the instruments aboard Jason-2, is referenced to the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) provided by the Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) system. A complex data processing has been developed in order to extract time & frequency products as the relative frequency bias of the USO from ground-to-space time transfer passages. The precision of these products was estimated of a few parts in 10-13 given the very good in-flight performance of T2L2 with a ground-to-space time stability of a few picoseconds (ps) over 100 s. Frequency bias from T2L2 were compared with results from operational orbit computation, notably with the DIODE (Détermination Immédiate d'Orbite par Doris Embarqué) outputs (see Jayles et al. (2016) same issue) at the level of 1 · 10-12. The present paper is focusing on the main physical effects which drive the frequency variations of the Jason-2 USO during its flight, notably over the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) area. In addition to the effects of radiation we studied the effect of the residual temperature variations, in the range 8-11 °C (measured on-board). A model was established to represent these effects on the short term with empirical coefficients (sensitivities of the USO) to be adjusted. The results of fitting the model over ∼200 10-day periods, from 2008 to 2014, show the sensitivities of the Jason-2 USO to temperature and radiation. The analysis of the 6-year output series of empirical coefficients allows us to conclude that: (i) the temperature to frequency dependence is very stable along time at the level of around -1.2 · 10-12 per °C, (ii) the radiation effects are much lower than those previously detected on the Jason-1 USO with

  2. Analysis of the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in Assessing Rounding Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijie; Lu, Yanmin

    2018-03-01

    Most existing Collaborative Filtering (CF) algorithms predict a rating as the preference of an active user toward a given item, which is always a decimal fraction. Meanwhile, the actual ratings in most data sets are integers. In this paper, we discuss and demonstrate why rounding can bring different influences to these two metrics; prove that rounding is necessary in post-processing of the predicted ratings, eliminate of model prediction bias, improving the accuracy of the prediction. In addition, we also propose two new rounding approaches based on the predicted rating probability distribution, which can be used to round the predicted rating to an optimal integer rating, and get better prediction accuracy compared to the Basic Rounding approach. Extensive experiments on different data sets validate the correctness of our analysis and the effectiveness of our proposed rounding approaches.

  3. Correlation of electronic structure and magnetic moment in Ga1-xMnxN : First-principles, mean field and high temperature series expansions calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    Self-consistent ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory and using both full potential linearized augmented plane wave and Korring-Kohn-Rostoker-coherent potential approximation methods, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the Ga1-xMnxN system. Magnetic moments considered to lie along (001) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for the high temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters such as the magnetic phase diagram and the critical exponent. The increasing of the dilution x in this system has allowed to verify a series of HTSEs predictions on the possibility of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic insulators and to demonstrate that the interaction changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic passing through the spins glace phase.

  4. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  5. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R.M.; Petracci, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates. PMID:21643476

  6. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  7. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  8. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  9. Tsunakawa-Shaw method - an absolute paleointensity technique using alternating field demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibuya, H.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among geologic materials volcanic rocks have been typically used to deduce an absolute paleointensity. In the last decade, however, there seems a becoming consensus that volcanic rocks are not so ideal materials due to such as magnetic grains other than non-interacting single domain particles. One approach to obtain a good paleointensity estimate from the rocks is to reduce and correct the non-ideality, suppress alterations in laboratory and screen out suspicious results. We have been working on a development and an application of the Tsunakawa-Shaw method, which has been previously called the LTD-DHT Shaw method. This method is an AF(alternating field)-based technique and thus a paleointensity is estimated using coercivity spectra. To reduce the non-ideality, all remanences undergo low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) before any AF demagnetizations to remove multi-domain like component. To correct the non-ideality, anhysteretic remanent magnetizations (ARMs) are imparted with their directions parallel to natural remanent magnetizations and laboratory-imparted thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) and measured before and after laboratory heating. These ARMs are used to correct remanence anisotropies, possible interaction effects originated from the non-ideal grains and TRM changes caused by laboratory alterations. TRMs are imparted by heating specimens above their Curie temperatures and then cooling to room temperature at once to simulate nature conditions. These cycles are done in vacuum to suppress alterations in laboratory. Obtained results are judged by selection criteria, including a check for validity of the ARM corrections.It has been demonstrated that successful paleointensities are obtained from historical lavas in Japan and Hawaii, and from baked clay samples from a reconstructed ancient kiln, with the flow-mean precision of 5-10%. In case of old volcanic rocks, however, the method does not necessarily seem to be perfect. We will summarize these points in

  10. Relative and Absolute Error Control in a Finite-Difference Method Solution of Poisson's Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm for error control (absolute and relative) in the five-point finite-difference method applied to Poisson's equation is described. The algorithm is based on discretization of the domain of the problem by means of three rectilinear grids, each of different resolution. We discuss some hardware limitations associated with the algorithm,…

  11. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim M; Sengupta, Manajit; Dooraghi, Michael R

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developedmore » the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.« less

  12. Predicting the partitioning of biological compounds between room-temperature ionic liquids and water by means of the solvation-parameter model.

    PubMed

    Padró, Juan M; Ponzinibbio, Agustín; Mesa, Leidy B Agudelo; Reta, Mario

    2011-03-01

    The partition coefficients, P(IL/w), for different probe molecules as well as for compounds of biological interest between the room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF(6)], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [HMIM][PF(6)], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [OMIM][BF(4)] and water were accurately measured. [BMIM][PF(6)] and [OMIM][BF(4)] were synthesized by adapting a procedure from the literature to a simpler, single-vessel and faster methodology, with a much lesser consumption of organic solvent. We employed the solvation-parameter model to elucidate the general chemical interactions involved in RTIL/water partitioning. With this purpose, we have selected different solute descriptor parameters that measure polarity, polarizability, hydrogen-bond-donor and hydrogen-bond-acceptor interactions, and cavity formation for a set of specifically selected probe molecules (the training set). The obtained multiparametric equations were used to predict the partition coefficients for compounds not present in the training set (the test set), most being of biological interest. Partial solubility of the ionic liquid in water (and water into the ionic liquid) was taken into account to explain the obtained results. This fact has not been deeply considered up to date. Solute descriptors were obtained from the literature, when available, or else calculated through commercial software. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental log P(IL/w) values was obtained, which demonstrated that the resulting multiparametric equations are robust and allow predicting partitioning for any organic molecule in the biphasic systems studied.

  13. How Mean is the Mean?

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; McGann, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we voice concerns about the uncritical manner in which the mean is often used as a summary statistic in psychological research. We identify a number of implicit assumptions underlying the use of the mean and argue that the fragility of these assumptions should be more carefully considered. We examine some of the ways in which the potential violation of these assumptions can lead us into significant theoretical and methodological error. Illustrations of alternative models of research already extant within Psychology are used to explore methods of research less mean-dependent and suggest that a critical assessment of the assumptions underlying its use in research play a more explicit role in the process of study design and review. PMID:23888147

  14. High Accuracy, Absolute, Cryogenic Refractive Index Measurements of Infrared Lens Materials for JWST NIRCam using CHARMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas; Frey, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The current refractive optical design of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) uses three infrared materials in its lenses: LiF, BaF2, and ZnSe. In order to provide the instrument s optical designers with accurate, heretofore unavailable data for absolute refractive index based on actual cryogenic measurements, two prismatic samples of each material were measured using the cryogenic, high accuracy, refraction measuring system (CHARMS) at NASA GSFC, densely covering the temperature range from 15 to 320 K and wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.6 microns. Measurement methods are discussed and graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient for these three materials are presented along with estimates of uncertainty. Coefficients for second order polynomial fits of measured index to temperature are provided for many wavelengths to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures.

  15. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-12-15

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperaturemore » states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  16. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  17. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  18. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    PubMed

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  20. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  1. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absolute Refletivity of Jupiter and Saturn (Mendikoa+ 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendikoa, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; Lopez-Santiago, J.

    2017-08-01

    Overall mean absolute reflectivity I/F of Jupiter and Saturn. Scans at central meridian are given versus latitude from observations at Calar Alto observatory between 2012 and 2016. In addition, Minnaert coefficients (I/F)0 and k are given, determining the I/F variation with the cosines of the incidence and emission angles, where (I/F)0 represents the absolute reflectivity in absence of darkening effects at nadir viewing and k is the limb-darkening coefficient. (12 data files).

  3. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, AMI surface wind velocity, TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height, and ECMWF surface wind velocity during 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Fu, L.; Knauss, W.; Pihos, G.; Brown, O.; Freilich, M.; Wentz, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1993 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (U.S.) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite; 10-m height wind speed and direction estimated from the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) on the European Space Agency (ESA) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1) satellite; sea surface height estimated from the joint U.S.-France Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON spacecraft; and 10-m height wind speed and direction produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of annual mean, monthly mean, and sampling distributions are displayed.

  4. Absolute Calibration of the AXAF Telescope Effective Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Cohen, L.; Edgar, R.; Evans, I.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; McDermott, W. C.; McKinnon, P.; Murray, S.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The prelaunch calibration of AXAF encompasses many aspects of the telescope. In principle, all that is needed is the complete point response function. This is, however, a function of energy, off-axis angle of the source, and operating mode of the facility. No single measurement would yield the entire result. Also, any calibration made prior to launch will be affected by changes in conditions after launch, such as the change from one g to zero g. The reflectivity of the mirror and perhaps even the detectors can change as well, for example by addition or removal of small amounts of material deposited on their surfaces. In this paper, we give a broad view of the issues in performing such a calibration, and discuss how they are being addressed in prelaunch preparation of AXAF. As our title indicates, we concentrate here on the total throughput of the observatory. This can be thought of as the integral of the point response function, i.e. the encircled energy, out ot the largest practical solid angle for an observation. Since there is no standard x-ray source in the sky whose flux is known to the -1% accuracy we are trying to achieve, we must do this calibration on the ground. we also must provide a means for monitoring any possible changes in this calibration from pre-launch until on-orbit operation can transfer the calibration to a celestial x-ray source whose emission is stable. In this paper, we analyze the elements of the absolute throughput calibration, which we call Effective Area. We review the requirements for calibrations of components or subsystems of the AXAF facility, including mirror, detectors, and gratings. We show how it is necessary to calibrate this ground-based detection system at standard man-made x-ray sources, such as electron storage rings. We present the status of all these calibrations, with indications of the measurements remaining to be done, even though the measurements on the AXAF flight optics and detectors will have been completed by the

  5. Absolute color scale for improved diagnostics with wavefront error mapping.

    PubMed

    Smolek, Michael K; Klyce, Stephen D

    2007-11-01

    Wavefront data are expressed in micrometers and referenced to the pupil plane, but current methods to map wavefront error lack standardization. Many use normalized or floating scales that may confuse the user by generating ambiguous, noisy, or varying information. An absolute scale that combines consistent clinical information with statistical relevance is needed for wavefront error mapping. The color contours should correspond better to current corneal topography standards to improve clinical interpretation. Retrospective analysis of wavefront error data. Historic ophthalmic medical records. Topographic modeling system topographical examinations of 120 corneas across 12 categories were used. Corneal wavefront error data in micrometers from each topography map were extracted at 8 Zernike polynomial orders and for 3 pupil diameters expressed in millimeters (3, 5, and 7 mm). Both total aberrations (orders 2 through 8) and higher-order aberrations (orders 3 through 8) were expressed in the form of frequency histograms to determine the working range of the scale across all categories. The standard deviation of the mean error of normal corneas determined the map contour resolution. Map colors were based on corneal topography color standards and on the ability to distinguish adjacent color contours through contrast. Higher-order and total wavefront error contour maps for different corneal conditions. An absolute color scale was produced that encompassed a range of +/-6.5 microm and a contour interval of 0.5 microm. All aberrations in the categorical database were plotted with no loss of clinical information necessary for classification. In the few instances where mapped information was beyond the range of the scale, the type and severity of aberration remained legible. When wavefront data are expressed in micrometers, this absolute scale facilitates the determination of the severity of aberrations present compared with a floating scale, particularly for distinguishing

  6. Temperature Effect of Hydrogen-Like Impurity on the Ground State Energy of Strong Coupling Polaron in a RbCl Quantum Pseudodot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2016-11-01

    We study the ground state energy and the mean number of LO phonons of the strong-coupling polaron in a RbCl quantum pseudodot (QPD) with hydrogen-like impurity at the center. The variations of the ground state energy and the mean number of LO phonons with the temperature and the strength of the Coulombic impurity potential are obtained by employing the variational method of Pekar type and the quantum statistical theory (VMPTQST). Our numerical results have displayed that [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] the absolute value of the ground state energy increases (decreases) when the temperature increases at lower (higher) temperature regime, [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] the mean number of the LO phonons increases with increasing temperature, [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] the absolute value of ground state energy and the mean number of LO phonons are increasing functions of the strength of the Coulombic impurity potential.

  7. Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April - May temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1455 AD - 1950 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Oliver; Pfister, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April-July temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1454 AD - 1950 AD O. Wetter and C. Pfister Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History, Institute of History, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (oliver.wetter@hist.unibe.ch) Before agricultural harvesting machines replaced manual labour the date of the grain harvest was largely dependent on mean temperatures from spring to early summer. It thus constitutes a very valuable source of information to reconstruct these temperatures. The later the harvest began, the cooler spring and early summer must have been and vice versa. For this reconstruction a new data series of grain harvests in the tri-border region Basel (representative for north-west Switzerland, the Alsace (France) and south-west Germany) was used as a temperature proxy. The harvesting dates have been extracted from the account books of the hospital of Basel which cover the period from c.1454 AD to 1705 AD. This series could be completed with several series of grain tithe dates originating from the Swiss Midland, covering the period between 1557 and 1825 and several grain harvest dates series covering the time between 1825 and 1950. Thus a series of almost 500 years could be compiled. Since the method of harvesting remained unchanged until the 1950's when manual labour was replaced by machines, the harvest dates of the modern series, lying within the temperature measurement series, could be used for calibrating the medieval dates.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  10. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  11. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  15. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (< 10 ps) pulses that are locked to a cesium clock. In essence, the ACS delivers photons to the APOLLO detector at exquisitely well-defined time intervals as a ‘truth’ input against which APOLLO’s timing performance may be judged and corrected. Preliminary analysis indicates no inaccuracies in APOLLO data beyond the  ∼3 mm level, suggesting that historical APOLLO data are of high quality and motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  16. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  17. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  18. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  19. Temperature variability during delirium in ICU patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Arendina W; Kappen, Teus H; Raijmakers, Rosa J; Zaal, Irene J; Slooter, Arjen J C

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU) and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and -nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or -nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome) and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome) were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (β(unadjuste)d=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001). Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (β(adjusted)=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001). Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (β(unadjusted)=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0.10, p=0.61). This did not change after

  20. Temperature Variability during Delirium in ICU Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooi, Arendina W.; Kappen, Teus H.; Raijmakers, Rosa J.; Zaal, Irene J.; Slooter, Arjen J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU) and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and –nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. Methods We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or –nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome) and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome) were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Results Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (βunadjusted=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001). Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (βadjusted=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001). Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (βunadjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0.10, p=0.61). This

  1. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolutemore » shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.« less

  2. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Marchuk, O; Barnsley, R

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  3. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise.

    PubMed

    Torrontegui, E; Kosloff, R

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω^{2} is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  4. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  5. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  6. Relative arrival-time upper-mantle tomography and the elusive background mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, Ian D.

    2012-08-01

    The interpretation of seismic tomographic images of upper-mantle seismic wave speed structure is often a matter of considerable debate because the observations can usually be explained by a range of hypotheses, including variable temperature, composition, anisotropy, and the presence of partial melt. An additional problem, often overlooked in tomographic studies using relative as opposed to absolute arrival-times, is the issue of the resulting velocity model's zero mean. In shield areas, for example, relative arrival-time analysis strips off a background mean velocity structure that is markedly fast compared to the global average. Conversely, in active areas, the background mean is often markedly slow compared to the global average. Appreciation of this issue is vital when interpreting seismic tomographic images: 'high' and 'low' velocity anomalies should not necessarily be interpreted, respectively, as 'fast' and 'slow' compared to 'normal mantle'. This issue has been discussed in the seismological literature in detail over the years, yet subsequent tomography studies have still fallen into the trap of mis-interpreting their velocity models. I highlight here some recent examples of this and provide a simple strategy to address the problem using constraints from a recent global tomographic model, and insights from catalogues of absolute traveltime anomalies. Consultation of such absolute measures of seismic wave speed should be routine during regional tomographic studies, if only for the benefit of the broader Earth Science community, who readily follow the red = hot and slow, blue = cold and fast rule of thumb when interpreting the images for themselves.

  7. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons

  8. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  9. Seasonality of absolute humidity explains seasonality of influenza-like illness in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thai, Pham Quang; Choisy, Marc; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Yen, Nguyen Thu; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Weiss, Daniel J; Boni, Maciej F; Horby, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Experimental and ecological studies have shown the role of climatic factors in driving the epidemiology of influenza. In particular, low absolute humidity (AH) has been shown to increase influenza virus transmissibility and has been identified to explain the onset of epidemics in temperate regions. Here, we aim to study the potential climatic drivers of influenza-like illness (ILI) epidemiology in Vietnam, a tropical country characterized by a high diversity of climates. We specifically focus on quantifying and explaining the seasonality of ILI. We used 18 years (1993-2010) of monthly ILI notifications aggregated by province (52) and monthly climatic variables (minimum, mean, maximum temperatures, absolute and relative humidities, rainfall and hours of sunshine) from 67 weather stations across Vietnam. Seasonalities were quantified from global wavelet spectra, using the value of the power at the period of 1 year as a measure of the intensity of seasonality. The 7 climatic time series were characterized by 534 summary statistics which were entered into a regression tree to identify factors associated with the seasonality of AH. Results were extrapolated to the global scale using simulated climatic times series from the NCEP/NCAR project. The intensity of ILI seasonality in Vietnam is best explained by the intensity of AH seasonality. We find that ILI seasonality is weak in provinces experiencing weak seasonal fluctuations in AH (annual power <17.6), whereas ILI seasonality is strongest in provinces with pronounced AH seasonality (power >17.6). In Vietnam, AH and ILI are positively correlated. Our results identify a role for AH in driving the epidemiology of ILI in a tropical setting. However, in contrast to temperate regions, high rather than low AH is associated with increased ILI activity. Fluctuation in AH may be the climate factor that underlies and unifies the seasonality of ILI in both temperate and tropical regions. Alternatively, the mechanism of action of

  10. Coastal flood implications of 1.5°C, 2°C and 2.5°C global mean temperature stabilization targets for small island nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, D.; Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) is magnifying the frequency and severity of flooding in coastal regions. The rate and amount of global-mean SLR is a function of the trajectory of the global mean surface temperature (GMST). Therefore, temperature stabilization targets (e.g., 1.5°C or 2°C, as from the Paris Agreement) have important implications for regulating coastal flood risk. Quantifying the differences in the impact from SLR between these and other GMST stabilization targets is necessary for assessing the benefits and harms of mitigation goals. Low-lying small island nations are particularly vulnerable to inundation and coastal flooding from SLR because building protective and resilient infrastructure may not be physically or economically feasible. For small island nations, keeping GMST below a specified threshold may be the only option for maintaining habitability. Here, we assess differences in the return levels of coastal floods for small island nations between 1.5°C, 2.0°C, and 2.5°C GMST stabilization. We employ probabilistic, localized SLR projections and long-term hourly tide gauge records to construct estimates of local flood risk. We then estimate the number of small island nations' inhabitants at risk for permanent inundation under different GMST stabilization targets.

  11. Corsica: A Multi-Mission Absolute Calibration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefond, P.; Exertier, P.; Laurain, O.; Guinle, T.; Femenias, P.

    2013-09-01

    In collaboration with the CNES and NASA oceanographic projects (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason), the OCA (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur) developed a verification site in Corsica since 1996, operational since 1998. CALibration/VALidation embraces a wide variety of activities, ranging from the interpretation of information from internal-calibration modes of the sensors to validation of the fully corrected estimates of the reflector heights using in situ data. Now, Corsica is, like the Harvest platform (NASA side) [14], an operating calibration site able to support a continuous monitoring with a high level of accuracy: a 'point calibration' which yields instantaneous bias estimates with a 10-day repeatability of 30 mm (standard deviation) and mean errors of 4 mm (standard error). For a 35-day repeatability (ERS, Envisat), due to a smaller time series, the standard error is about the double ( 7 mm).In this paper, we will present updated results of the absolute Sea Surface Height (SSH) biases for TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-2 and Envisat.

  12. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  13. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  14. European climate change at global mean temperature increases of 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial conditions as simulated by the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellström, Erik; Nikulin, Grigory; Strandberg, Gustav; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Jacob, Daniela; Keuler, Klaus; Lenderink, Geert; van Meijgaard, Erik; Schär, Christoph; Somot, Samuel; Sørland, Silje Lund; Teichmann, Claas; Vautard, Robert

    2018-05-01

    We investigate European regional climate change for time periods when the global mean temperature has increased by 1.5 and 2 °C compared to pre-industrial conditions. Results are based on regional downscaling of transient climate change simulations for the 21st century with global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth-phase Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We use an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) simulations undertaken at a computational grid of 12.5 km horizontal resolution covering Europe. The ensemble consists of a range of RCMs that have been used for downscaling different GCMs under the RCP8.5 forcing scenario. The results indicate considerable near-surface warming already at the lower 1.5 °C of warming. Regional warming exceeds that of the global mean in most parts of Europe, being the strongest in the northernmost parts of Europe in winter and in the southernmost parts of Europe together with parts of Scandinavia in summer. Changes in precipitation, which are less robust than the ones in temperature, include increases in the north and decreases in the south with a borderline that migrates from a northerly position in summer to a southerly one in winter. Some of these changes are already seen at 1.5 °C of warming but are larger and more robust at 2 °C. Changes in near-surface wind speed are associated with a large spread among individual ensemble members at both warming levels. Relatively large areas over the North Atlantic and some parts of the continent show decreasing wind speed while some ocean areas in the far north show increasing wind speed. The changes in temperature, precipitation and wind speed are shown to be modified by changes in mean sea level pressure, indicating a strong relationship with the large-scale circulation and its internal variability on decade-long timescales. By comparing to a larger ensemble of CMIP5 GCMs we find that the RCMs can alter the results, leading either to

  15. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  16. Precision determination of absolute neutron flux

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, A. T.; Anderson, E. S.; Dewey, M. S.; ...

    2018-06-08

    A technique for establishing the total neutron rate of a highly-collimated monochromatic cold neutron beam was demonstrated using an alpha–gamma counter. The method involves only the counting of measured rates and is independent of neutron cross sections, decay chain branching ratios, and neutron beam energy. For the measurement, a target of 10B-enriched boron carbide totally absorbed the neutrons in a monochromatic beam, and the rate of absorbed neutrons was determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on 10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. A second measurement based on Bragg diffraction from a perfect silicon crystal was performedmore » to determine the mean de Broglie wavelength of the beam to a precision of 0.024%. With these measurements, the detection efficiency of a neutron monitor based on neutron absorption on 6Li was determined to an overall uncertainty of 0.058%. We discuss the principle of the alpha–gamma method and present details of how the measurement was performed including the systematic effects. We further describe how this method may be used for applications in neutron dosimetry and metrology, fundamental neutron physics, and neutron cross section measurements.« less

  17. Precision determination of absolute neutron flux

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, A. T.; Anderson, E. S.; Dewey, M. S.

    A technique for establishing the total neutron rate of a highly-collimated monochromatic cold neutron beam was demonstrated using an alpha–gamma counter. The method involves only the counting of measured rates and is independent of neutron cross sections, decay chain branching ratios, and neutron beam energy. For the measurement, a target of 10B-enriched boron carbide totally absorbed the neutrons in a monochromatic beam, and the rate of absorbed neutrons was determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on 10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. A second measurement based on Bragg diffraction from a perfect silicon crystal was performedmore » to determine the mean de Broglie wavelength of the beam to a precision of 0.024%. With these measurements, the detection efficiency of a neutron monitor based on neutron absorption on 6Li was determined to an overall uncertainty of 0.058%. We discuss the principle of the alpha–gamma method and present details of how the measurement was performed including the systematic effects. We further describe how this method may be used for applications in neutron dosimetry and metrology, fundamental neutron physics, and neutron cross section measurements.« less

  18. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  19. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured.

  20. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  1. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  3. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

  4. Reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach for 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Deyun

    2017-11-01

    The wrapped phase of phase-shifting approach can be unwrapped by using Gray code, but both the wrapped phase error and Gray code decoding error can result in period jump error, which will lead to gross measurement error. Therefore, this paper presents a reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach. The combination of unequal-period Gray code and phase shifting patterns at high frequencies are used to obtain high-frequency absolute analog code, and at low frequencies, the same unequal-period combination patterns are used to obtain the low-frequency absolute analog code. Next, the difference between the two absolute analog codes was employed to eliminate period jump errors, and a reliable unwrapped result can be obtained. Error analysis was used to determine the applicable conditions, and this approach was verified through theoretical analysis. The proposed approach was further verified experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform reliable analog code unwrapping.

  5. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650