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Sample records for absolute temperature measurements

  1. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  2. Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Fischer, Joachim; Matyszkiel, Robert

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these parameters are known, then it is possible to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurement due to only the internal errors of these cameras. Values of this uncertainty can be used as an objective criterion for comparisons of different thermal measurement cameras.

  3. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  4. Temperature-dependent Absolute Refractive Index Measurements of Synthetic Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have measured the absolute refractive index of five specimens taken from a very large boule of Corning 7980 fused silica from temperatures ranging from 30 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.6 microns with an absolute uncertainty of plus or minus 1 x 10 (exp -5). Statistical variations in derived values of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) are at the plus or minus 2 x 10 (exp -8)/K level. Graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient are presented for selected wavelengths and temperatures along with estimates of uncertainty in index. Coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of measured refractive index are also presented to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our results to those from an independent investigation (which used an interferometric technique for measuring index changes as a function of temperature) whose samples were prepared from the same slugs of material from which our prisms were prepared in support of the Kepler mission. We also compare our results with sparse cryogenic index data from measurements of this material from the literature.

  5. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained. PMID:23282107

  6. Absolute temperature measurements using a two-color QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundas, Jason; Dennis, Richard; Patnaude, Kelly; Burrows, Douglas; Faska, Ross; Sundaram, Mani; Reisinger, Axel; Manitakos, Dan

    2010-04-01

    The infrared photon flux emitted by an object depends not only on its temperature but also on a proportionality factor referred to as its emissivity. Since the latter parameter is usually not known quantitatively a priori, any temperature determination based on single-band radiometric measurements suffers from an inherent uncertainty. Recording photon fluxes in two separate spectral bands can in principle circumvent this limitation. The technique amounts to solving a system of two equations in two unknowns, namely, temperature and emissivity. The temperature derived in this manner can be considered absolute in the sense that it is independent of the emissivity, as long as that emissivity is the same in both bands. QmagiQ has previously developed a 320x256 midwave/longwave staring focal plane array which has been packaged into a dual-band laboratory camera. The camera in question constitutes a natural tool to generate simultaneous and independent emissivity maps and temperature maps of entire two-dimensional scenes, rather than at a single point on an object of interest. We describe a series of measurements we have performed on a variety of targets of different emissivities and temperatures. We examine various factors that affect the accuracy of the technique. They include the influence of the ambient radiation reflected off the target, which must be properly accounted for and subtracted from the collected signal in order to lead to the true target temperature. We also quantify the consequences of spectrally varying emissivities.

  7. The impact of water temperature on the measurement of absolute dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed Mehdi

    To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar

  8. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  9. Measurement of absolute minority species concentration and temperature in a flame by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunjing; Gupta, Rajendra

    2003-04-20

    It is experimentally demonstrated that absolute concentrations of minority species in flames can be measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PTDS) technique. In addition, the PTDS signal simultaneously yields the flame temperature the measurement point. Absolute concentration profiles of OH have been measured in a flat-flame burner with methane as fuel. The PTDS measurements agree well with those obtained independently by the absorption technique. The flame temperature measurements by PTDS are also in good agreement with those obtained by the Boltzmann distribution among the rotational levels of OH. PMID:12716166

  10. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  11. Absolute Measurements of Starspot Area and Temperature: II Pegasi in 1989 October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, James E.; O'Neal, Douglas; Saar, Steven H.

    1995-10-01

    We are developing an empirical spectrum synthesis technique that yields independent measurements of starspot filling factor, f5, and starspot temperature, TS, by fitting TiO bands of differing temperature sensitivity. The absolute depth of the TiO bands constrains fS, while the ratio of their depths is a function only of TS. One strength of this technique is its ability to determine the spot parameters in traditionally difficult cases: slowly rotating stars, uniformly spotted stars, and stars that always have spots. For this initial study, we have used a simpler procedure of measuring the band depths in the most spotted star in our survey (the single-lined RS CVn binary system II Pegasi) and for a full grid of comparison stars (inactive G, K, and M dwarfs and giants). This yields TS and fS for a given assumed temperature of the nonspotted photosphere, TQ. The latter was further constrained by the use of simultaneous photometry. We have analyzed a series of spectra of II Peg obtained throughout a single 6.7 day rotational cycle in 1989 October. We find that starspots on II Peg are better modeled by comparison spectra of giants than by dwarfs. Combining TiO analysis with contemporaneous photometry, we find that cool starspots (TS ≍ 3500 K) are always visible, with a fractional projected coverage of the visible hemisphere varying from 54% to 64% as the star rotates. The nonspotted photosphere has a temperature TQ ≍ 4800 K. Our results imply that even at the historical light maximum of V = 7.2, at least 34% of II Peg was covered by starspots.

  12. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  13. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  14. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  15. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  16. Research on temperature measurement technology for graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Lu, Fei; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhou, Shan; Xu, De

    2015-02-01

    The nonlinear effect of materials and sensors in high-energy laser calorimeters is especially obvious—due to the steep temperature gradients of their absorbers. Significant measurement errors occur when traditional integral temperature sensors and methods are utilized. In an effort to remedy this, a method is proposed in this paper in which an absorption cavity is divided into many parts and multiple discrete thermocouple sensors are used to measure the temperature rise of the absorbers. The temperature distribution in the absorbers is theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and verified through experimentation. Energy measurement results are compared according to the temperature distribution for different layouts of thermocouples. A high-accuracy calorimeter is developed by setting and optimizing thermocouple layout, as well as correcting various elements such as the specific heat of graphite and responsivity of thermocouples. The calorimeter employing this measurement method is calibrated against a standard energy meter, resulting in correction coefficient of 1.027 and relative standard deviation of the correction coefficient of only 0.8%. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental verification all prove that the proposed method successfully improves measurement accuracy.

  17. Research on temperature measurement technology for graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Lu, Fei; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhou, Shan; Xu, De

    2015-02-01

    The nonlinear effect of materials and sensors in high-energy laser calorimeters is especially obvious-due to the steep temperature gradients of their absorbers. Significant measurement errors occur when traditional integral temperature sensors and methods are utilized. In an effort to remedy this, a method is proposed in this paper in which an absorption cavity is divided into many parts and multiple discrete thermocouple sensors are used to measure the temperature rise of the absorbers. The temperature distribution in the absorbers is theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and verified through experimentation. Energy measurement results are compared according to the temperature distribution for different layouts of thermocouples. A high-accuracy calorimeter is developed by setting and optimizing thermocouple layout, as well as correcting various elements such as the specific heat of graphite and responsivity of thermocouples. The calorimeter employing this measurement method is calibrated against a standard energy meter, resulting in correction coefficient of 1.027 and relative standard deviation of the correction coefficient of only 0.8%. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental verification all prove that the proposed method successfully improves measurement accuracy. PMID:25725875

  18. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  19. Winter Mesopause Region Scale Height derived from VHF Meteor Radar Temperatures and LF absolute Reflection Heights measured at Collm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Ch.; Kürschner, D.

    The change of ionospheric absolute reflection heights h of low-frequency LF radio waves at oblique incidence in the course of the day is measured at Collm Observatory 51 3 r N 13 0 r E using 1 8 kHz sideband phase comparisons on sporadic oscillation bursts between the sky wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz transmitter Zehlendorf reflection point 52 1 r N 13 2 r E Plasma scale height H estimates are calculated from the decrease increase of h in the morning evening during winter months The day-to-day variations of H are compared with those of daily mean temperatures at 90 km measured with a VHF meteor radar 36 2 MHz at Collm utilising the amplitude decay of meteor reflections A good qualitative correspondence is found between the two data sets Since mesospheric long-period temperature variations are generally accepted to be the signature of atmospheric planetary waves this shows that LF reflection height measurements can be used for monitoring the dynamics of the upper middle atmosphere

  20. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  1. Long-period upper mesosphere temperature and plasma scale height variations derived from VHF meteor radar and LF absolute reflection height measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, C.; Kürschner, D.

    2006-09-01

    The change of ionospheric absolute reflection heights h of low-frequency (LF) radio waves at oblique incidence in the course of the day is measured at Collm Observatory (51.3° N, 13.0° E) using 1.8 kHz sideband phase comparisons between the sky-wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz transmitter (Zehlendorf, reflection point at 52.1° N, 13.2° E). Plasma scale height estimates H are calculated from the decrease/increase of h in the morning/evening. The day-to-day variations of H are compared with those of daily mean temperatures at 90 km, measured with a VHF meteor radar (36.2 MHz) at Collm and using the amplitude decay of meteor reflections. A good qualitative correspondence is found between the two data sets. Since mesospheric long-period temperature variations are generally accepted to be the signature of atmospheric planetary waves, this shows that LF reflection height measurements can be used for monitoring the dynamics of the upper middle atmosphere.

  2. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  3. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  4. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  5. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  6. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  7. Absolute distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides absolute distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.

  8. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  9. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  11. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  12. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  14. Absolute decay width measurements in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2012-09-01

    The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.

  15. Absolute optical surface measurement with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Sandner, Marc; Gesierich, Achim; Burke, Jan

    Deflectometry utilises the deformation and displacement of a sample pattern after reflection from a test surface to infer the surface slopes. Differentiation of the measurement data leads to a curvature map, which is very useful for surface quality checks with sensitivity down to the nanometre range. Integration of the data allows reconstruction of the absolute surface shape, but the procedure is very error-prone because systematic errors may add up to large shape deviations. In addition, there are infinitely many combinations for slope and object distance that satisfy a given observation. One solution for this ambiguity is to include information on the object's distance. It must be known very accurately. Two laser pointers can be used for positioning the object, and we also show how a confocal chromatic distance sensor can be used to define a reference point on a smooth surface from which the integration can be started. The used integration algorithm works without symmetry constraints and is therefore suitable for free-form surfaces as well. Unlike null testing, deflectometry also determines radius of curvature (ROC) or focal lengths as a direct result of the 3D surface reconstruction. This is shown by the example of a 200 mm diameter telescope mirror, whose ROC measurements by coordinate measurement machine and deflectometry coincide to within 0.27 mm (or a sag error of 1.3μm). By the example of a diamond-turned off-axis parabolic mirror, we demonstrate that the figure measurement uncertainty comes close to a well-calibrated Fizeau interferometer.

  16. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  17. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  18. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  19. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  20. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J L; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    2014-02-01

    Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 to April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is nonlinear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). Absolute humidity exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  1. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  2. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  3. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  4. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  5. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}Δ−X{sup 2}Π system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100 K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200 K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  6. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  7. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  8. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  9. On the Absolute Continuity of the Blackwell Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárány, Balázs; Kolossváry, István

    2015-04-01

    In 1957, Blackwell expressed the entropy of hidden Markov chains using a measure which can be characterised as an invariant measure for an iterated function system with place-dependent weights. This measure, called the Blackwell measure, plays a central role in understanding the entropy rate and other important characteristics of fundamental models in information theory. We show that for a suitable set of parameter values the Blackwell measure is absolutely continuous for almost every parameter in the case of binary symmetric channels.

  10. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  11. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  12. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  13. Notes on Van der Meer scan for absolute luminosity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagura, Vladislav

    2011-10-01

    The absolute luminosity can be measured in an accelerator by sweeping beams transversely across each other in the so-called van der Meer scan. We prove that the method can be applied in the general case of arbitrary beam directions and a separation scan plane. A simple method to develop an image of the beam in its transverse plane from spatial distributions of interaction vertexes is also proposed. From the beam images one can determine their overlap and the absolute luminosity. This provides an alternative way of the luminosity measurement during van der Meer scan.

  14. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  15. In situ thermal imaging and absolute temperature monitoring by luminescent diphenylalanine nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhixing; Wu, Xinglong; Zhang, Jinlei; Zhu, Xiaobin; Chu, Paul K

    2013-06-10

    The temperature sensing capability of diphenylalanine nanotubes is investigated. The materials can detect local rapid temperature changes and measure the absolute temperature in situ with a precision of 1 °C by monitoring the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) intensity and lifetime, respectively. The PL lifetime is independent of ion concentrations in the medium as well as pH in the physiological range. This biocompatible thermal sensing platform has immense potential in the in situ mapping of microenvironmental temperature fluctuations in biological systems for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:23679829

  16. A New Approach For Absolute Temperature Calibration: Application to the CLARREO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    A novel scheme to provide on-orbit absolute calibration of blackbody temperature sensors (on-demand) has been demonstrated using a copy of the engineering model version of a space flight hardware blackbody design (GIFTS). The scheme uses the phase change signature of reference materials to assign an absolute temperatures scale to the blackbody sensors over a large temperature range. Uncertainties of better than 0.020 K have been demonstrated over the temperature range from 234 to 303 K. Thermal modeling has been conducted to optimize the design, and to show that accuracies comparable to those measured in the laboratory should be obtainable in the less-controlled on-orbit temperature environment. The implementation if this scheme is very attractive due to its simplicity and relatively low mass. In addition, all aspects of the electronics (control and temperature readout) needed to support this scheme have been developed and demonstrated in the as-delivered GIFTS Engineering Model blackbody calibration system developed by the University of Wisconsin. NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly absolute standards that can provide the basis to meet stringent requirements on measurement accuracy. For example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies having absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.020 K (3 sigma). The novel blackbody temperature calibration scheme described here is very well suited for the CLARREO mission because if its low mass, high accuracy, and ease of implementation into a demonstrated flight blackbody design.

  17. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  18. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that

  19. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  20. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading. Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. This method is the least accurate. Place the strip on the forehead and read it after 1 ...

  1. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  2. Absolute length measurement using manually decided stereo correspondence for endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Koishi, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Tsumura, N.; Miyake, Y.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various kinds of endoscope have been developed and widely used to endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic operation and endoscopy. The size of the inflammatory part is important to determine a method of medical treatment. However, it is not easy to measure absolute size of inflammatory part such as ulcer, cancer and polyp from the endoscopic image. Therefore, it is required measuring the size of those part in endoscopy. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the absolute length in a straight line between arbitrary two points based on the photogrammetry using endoscope with magnetic tracking sensor which gives camera position and angle. In this method, the stereo-corresponding points between two endoscopic images are determined by the endoscopist without any apparatus of projection and calculation to find the stereo correspondences, then the absolute length can be calculated on the basis of the photogrammetry. The evaluation experiment using a checkerboard showed that the errors of the measurements are less than 2% of the target length when the baseline is sufficiently-long.

  3. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  4. On-orbit absolute temperature calibration using multiple phase change materials: overview of recent technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Perepezko, John H.

    2010-11-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors onorbit, that uses the transient melt signatures from multiple phase change materials, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and is now undergoing technology advancement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  5. High Accuracy, Absolute, Cryogenic Refractive Index Measurements of Infrared Lens Materials for JWST NIRCam using CHARMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas; Frey, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The current refractive optical design of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) uses three infrared materials in its lenses: LiF, BaF2, and ZnSe. In order to provide the instrument s optical designers with accurate, heretofore unavailable data for absolute refractive index based on actual cryogenic measurements, two prismatic samples of each material were measured using the cryogenic, high accuracy, refraction measuring system (CHARMS) at NASA GSFC, densely covering the temperature range from 15 to 320 K and wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.6 microns. Measurement methods are discussed and graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient for these three materials are presented along with estimates of uncertainty. Coefficients for second order polynomial fits of measured index to temperature are provided for many wavelengths to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures.

  6. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  7. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  8. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt temperature, the transient temperature signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase change materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.

  9. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through the melt point of each reference material, the transient temperature signature from the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  10. Absolute orientations from EBSD measurements - as easy as it seems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Bestmann, Michel; Heilbronner, Renée

    2016-04-01

    In structural geology, some problems can be addressed by inspecting the crystal orientation of grains in a rock. Deriving shear senses, kinematics of flow, information on deformation processes and recrystallization are some examples. Usually, oriented samples are taken in the field and, if inspected in an universal stage, the researcher has full control over the procedure and can make sure that the derived orientation is related to our geographic reference frame - that it is an absolute orientation. Nowadays, usage of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has greatly improved the information in the derived data (fully crystal orientations, mappings, etc…), and the speed of data acquisition. However, this comes to the price of having to rely on the vendor supplied software and machine setup. Recent benchmarks and comparison of reference data revealed that for various EBSD setups around the world, the orientation data defaults to the wrong absolute orientation. The absolute orientation is not correctly derived - it commonly suffer a 180 degree rotation around the normal of the sample surface. In this contribution we will discuss the implications of such erroneous measurements and what kind of interpretations derived by orientation and texture data will be affected.

  11. Absolute falling-ball viscometer: evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, M.; Megharfi, M.; Verdier, C.

    2005-08-01

    To reduce the uncertainties in measurements obtained by means of capillary viscometers, we developed an absolute falling-ball viscometer. The metrological characterization of this experimental bench is presented for a mineral oil with a viscosity of 30 Pa s by means of two distinct methods described in the GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). First, the calculation is performed using the law of propagation of uncertainties. Then, because of the increasing use of the techniques of propagation of distributions in metrology, we calculated the measurement uncertainties by a numerical Monte Carlo simulation. Both results were then compared for a confidence interval of 95%. Finally, the viscosity measurements and uncertainties obtained by the falling-ball viscometer were compared against those obtained by a capillary viscometer.

  12. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  13. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both tomore » operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.« less

  14. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  15. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  16. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  17. An Alpha-Gamma Counter for Absolute Neutron Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Greene, G.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Laptev, A.

    2012-03-01

    An alpha-gamma counter was used to measure the absolute neutron flux of a monochromatic cold neutron beam to sub-0.1,% precision. Simultaneously, the counter was used to calibrate a thin neutron flux monitor based on neutron absorption on ^6Li to the same precision. This monitor was used in the most precise beam-based measurement of the neutron lifetime, where the limiting systematic effect was the uncertainty in the neutron counting efficiency (0.3,%). The counter uses a thick target of ^10B-enriched boron carbide to completely absorb the beam. The rate of absorbed neutrons is determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on ^10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. The calibration results and the implications for the neutron lifetime will be discussed.

  18. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  19. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Allison, Stephen W [Knoxville, TN; Cates, Michael R [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Alvin J [Knoxville, TN

    2002-09-24

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  20. Absolute blood velocity measured with a modified fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Donald D.; Lemaillet, Paul; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Hiller, Matthias; Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    We present a new method for the quantitative estimation of blood flow velocity, based on the use of the Radon transform. The specific application is for measurement of blood flow velocity in the retina. Our modified fundus camera uses illumination from a green LED and captures imagery with a high-speed CCD camera. The basic theory is presented, and typical results are shown for an in vitro flow model using blood in a capillary tube. Subsequently, representative results are shown for representative fundus imagery. This approach provides absolute velocity and flow direction along the vessel centerline or any lateral displacement therefrom. We also provide an error analysis allowing estimation of confidence intervals for the estimated velocity.

  1. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  2. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  3. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  4. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  5. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  6. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  7. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  8. An empirical reevaluation of absolute pitch: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Sollberger, Silja; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    Here, we reevaluated the "two-component" model of absolute pitch (AP) by combining behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. This specific model postulates that AP is driven by a perceptual encoding ability (i.e., pitch memory) plus an associative memory component (i.e., pitch labeling). To test these predictions, during EEG measurements AP and non-AP (NAP) musicians were passively exposed to piano tones (first component of the model) and additionally instructed to judge whether combinations of tones and labels were conceptually associated or not (second component of the model). Auditory-evoked N1/P2 potentials did not reveal differences between the two groups, thus indicating that AP is not necessarily driven by a differential pitch encoding ability at the processing level of the auditory cortex. Otherwise, AP musicians performed the conceptual association task with an order of magnitude better accuracy and shorter RTs than NAP musicians did, this result clearly pointing to distinctive conceptual associations in AP possessors. Most notably, this behavioral superiority was reflected by an increased N400 effect and accompanied by a subsequent late positive component, the latter not being distinguishable in NAP musicians. PMID:23647515

  9. Luminous-flux measurements by an absolute integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastello, Maria Luisa; Miraldi, Elio; Pisoni, Paolo

    1996-08-01

    We present an original implementation of the absolute-sphere method recently proposed by Ohno. The luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by means of an integrating sphere with an opening calibrated by a luminous-intensity standard placed outside. The adapted experimental setup permits one to measure luminous-flux values between 5 and 2500 lm with a significant improvement with respect to the simulated performances reported in the literature. Traditionally, the luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by goniophotometric techniques in which the luminous-intensity distribution is measured and integrated over the whole solid angle. Thus sphere results are compared with those obtained with the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale goniophotometer. In particular, a set of standards, characterized by luminous-flux values of approximately 2000 lm, has been calibrated with both techniques. We highlight some of the problems encountered. Experimental results show that the agreement between the two methods is within the estimated uncertainty and suggest promising areas for future research.

  10. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  11. Cold spots in quantum systems far from equilibrium: Local entropies and temperatures near absolute zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a question motivated by the third law of thermodynamics: Can there be a local temperature arbitrarily close to absolute zero in a nonequilibrium quantum system? We consider nanoscale quantum conductors with the source reservoir held at finite temperature and the drain held at or near absolute zero, a problem outside the scope of linear response theory. We obtain local temperatures close to absolute zero when electrons originating from the finite temperature reservoir undergo destructive quantum interference. The local temperature is computed by numerically solving a nonlinear system of equations describing equilibration of a scanning thermoelectric probe with the system, and we obtain excellent agreement with analytic results derived using the Sommerfeld expansion. A local entropy for a nonequilibrium quantum system is introduced and used as a metric quantifying the departure from local equilibrium. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the probe temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  12. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  13. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  14. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-02-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  15. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Key, William S.; Sanders, Alvin J.; Earl, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  16. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  17. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  18. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  19. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  20. Measurement of the absolute hohlraum wall albedo under ignition foot drive conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, L J; Wallace, R J; Hammel, B A; Weber, F A; Landen, O L; Campbell, K M; DeWald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Rosen, M D; Jones, O S; Turner, R E; Kauffmann, R L; Hammer, J H

    2003-11-25

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  1. Absolute partial decay-branch measurements in 13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.

    2012-10-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C* reaction at a beam energy of 42 MeV has been investigated using a large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array and the high-resolution Q3D magnetic spectrograph. The Q3D facilitated the unambiguous determination of the reaction channel via identification of the deuteron ejectile, thereby providing the spectrum of excited states in 13C in the range from 10.7 to 15.0 MeV. The silicon array was used to detect and identify the 13C recoil-breakup products with efficiencies of up to 49%. The results obtained for the absolute partial branching ratios represent the first complete measurements for states in this energy region and allow the extraction of reduced widths. The quantities measured for Γn0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot are 0.91±0.11 and ≤0.13 (10.753 MeV), 0.51±0.04 and 0.51±0.04 (10.818 MeV), 0.68±0.03 and 0.42±0.02 (10.996 MeV), 0.49±0.08 and 0.71±0.11 (11.848 MeV), and 0.49±0.08 and 0.53±0.08 (12.130 MeV), respectively. For the two observed higher-lying energy levels, Γα0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot have been measured as 0.54±0.02 and 0.45±0.02 (13.760 MeV) and 0.94±0.03 and 0.13±0.02 (14.582 MeV), respectively. The consequences for the proposed molecular structures in 13C are explored following the extraction of reduced widths.

  2. Measurement of statistical evidence on an absolute scale following thermodynamic principles.

    PubMed

    Vieland, V J; Das, J; Hodge, S E; Seok, S-C

    2013-09-01

    Statistical analysis is used throughout biomedical research and elsewhere to assess strength of evidence. We have previously argued that typical outcome statistics (including p values and maximum likelihood ratios) have poor measure-theoretic properties: they can erroneously indicate decreasing evidence as data supporting an hypothesis accumulate; and they are not amenable to calibration, necessary for meaningful comparison of evidence across different study designs, data types, and levels of analysis. We have also previously proposed that thermodynamic theory, which allowed for the first time derivation of an absolute measurement scale for temperature (T), could be used to derive an absolute scale for evidence (E). Here we present a novel thermodynamically based framework in which measurement of E on an absolute scale, for which "one degree" always means the same thing, becomes possible for the first time. The new framework invites us to think about statistical analyses in terms of the flow of (evidential) information, placing this work in the context of a growing literature on connections among physics, information theory, and statistics. PMID:23463577

  3. A Helium-Cooled Absolute Cavity Radiometer For Solar And Laboratory Irradiance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, P.; Miller, P.

    1983-09-01

    We describe the design and testing of a helium-cooled absolute radiometer (HCAR) devel-oped for highly reproducible measurements of total solar irradiance and ultraviolet flux, and for laboratory standards uses. The receiver of this cryogenic radiometer is a blackened cone of pure copper whose temperature is sensed by a germanium resistance thermometer. During a duty cycle, radiant power input is compared to electrical heating in an accurate resistor wound on the receiver, as in conventional self-calibrating radiometers of the PACRAD and ACR type. But operation at helium temperatures enables us to achieve excellent radia-tive shielding between the receiver and the radiometer thermal background. This enables us to attain a sensitivity level of 10-7 watts at 30 seconds integration time, at least 10 times better than achieved by room temperature cavities. The dramatic drop of copper specific heat at helium temperatures reduces the time constant for a given mass of receiver, by a factor of 103. Together with other cryogenic materials properties such as electrical superconductivity and the high thermal conductivity of copper, this can be used to greatly reduce non-equivalence errors between electrical and radiant heating, that presently limit the absolute accuracy of radiometers to approximately 0,2%. Absolute accuracy of better than 0.01% has been achieved with a similar cryogenic radiometer in laboratory measurements of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant at NPL in the U.K. Electrical and radiometric tests con-ducted so far on our prototype indicate that comparable accuracy and long-term reproducibility can be achieved in a versatile instrument of manageable size for Shuttle flight and laboratory standards uses. This work is supported at AER under NOAA contract NA8ORAC00204 and NSF grant DMR-8260273.

  4. Absolute absorption spectra of batho- and photorhodopsins at room temperature. Picosecond laser photolysis of rhodopsin in polyacrylamide.

    PubMed Central

    Kandori, H; Shichida, Y; Yoshizawa, T

    1989-01-01

    Picosecond laser photolysis of rhodopsin in 15% polyacrylamide gel was performed for estimating absolute absorption spectra of the primary intermediates of cattle rhodopsin (bathorhodopsin and photorhodopsin). Using a rhodopsin digitonin extract embedded in 15% polyacrylamide gel, a precise percentage of bleaching of rhodopsin after excitation of a picosecond laser pulse was measured. Using this value, the absolute absorption spectrum of bathorhodopsin was calculated from the spectral change before and 1 ns after the picosecond laser excitation (corresponding to the difference spectrum between rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin). The absorption spectrum of bathorhodopsin thus obtained displayed a lambda max at 535 nm, which was shorter than that at low temperature (543 nm) and a half band-width broader than that measured at low temperature. The oscillator strength of bathorhodopsin at room temperature was smaller than that at low temperature. The absolute absorption spectrum of photorhodopsin was also estimated from the difference spectrum measured at 15 ps after the excitation of rhodopsin (Shichida, Y., S. Matuoka, and T. Yoshizawa. 1984. Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 7:221-228), assuming a sequential conversion of photorhodopsin to bathorhodopsin. Its lambda max was located at approximately 570 nm, and the oscillator strength was smaller than those of rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin. PMID:2790133

  5. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  6. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  7. Multiple-integrating sphere spectrophotometer for measuring absolute spectral reflectance and transmittance.

    PubMed

    Zerlaut, G A; Anderson, T E

    1981-11-01

    A spectroreflectometer/transmissometer is described that permits determination of absolute optical characteristics in the 300-2600-nm wavelength region (which is essentially the complete solar spectrum). The uniqueness of the instrument derives from use of three rapidly interchangeable 20-cm (8-in.) integrating spheres to measure (1) absolute hemispherical spectral reflectance as a function of angles of incidence from -40 to +40 degrees employing an Edwards-type integrating sphere with a center-mounted sample [using small 2.5-cm (1-in.) diam specimens], (2) absolute hemispherical and absolute diffuse spectral reflectance at an angle of incidence of 20 degrees employing a sphere with a wall-mounted sample (for large specimens) and a screened detector, and (3) absolute hemispherical and absolute directional (near-normal exitance) transmittance employing a complete integrating sphere with the only ports being for the sample and reference beams. Data are presented that demonstrate the ability to measure the spectral reflectance of nonmirror surfaces to an absolute accuracy of 0.995 (an uncertainty of +/-0.005 reflectance units) in both reflectance spheres and of highly specular mirrors to an absolute accuracy of 0.993 (an uncertainty of +/-0.007 reflectance units). Spectral transmittance can be measured to an absolute accuracy of better than 0.995 (an uncertainty of +/-0.005 transmittance units). PMID:20372262

  8. Absolute thickness metrology with submicrometer accuracy using a low-coherence distance measuring interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Absolute physical thickness across the sample aperture is critical in determining the index of a refraction profile from the optical path length profile for gradient index (GRIN) materials, which have a designed inhomogeneous refractive index. Motivated by this application, instrumentation was established to measure the absolute thickness of samples with nominally plane-parallel surfaces up to 50 mm thick. The current system is capable of measuring absolute thickness with 120 nm (1σ) repeatability and submicrometer expanded measurement uncertainty. Beside GRIN materials, this method is also capable of measuring other inhomogeneous and opaque materials. PMID:26368894

  9. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hatchett, S.; Haan, S.; Cerjan, C.; Landen, O.; Moran, M.; Song, P.; Wilson, D. C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2008-10-15

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density ({rho}R), ion temperature (T{sub i}), and yield (Y{sub n}) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring {rho}R at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well.

  10. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited).

    PubMed

    Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Moran, M; Song, P; Wilson, D C; Leeper, R J

    2008-10-01

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density (rhoR), ion temperature (T(i)), and yield (Y(n)) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring rhoR at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well. PMID:19044488

  11. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  12. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  13. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Curry, E.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Li, S.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2013-02-01

    A measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm nitrogen band, relevant to ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) detectors, is reported. Two independent calibrations of the fluorescence emission induced by a 120 GeV proton beam were employed: Cherenkov light from the beam particle and calibrated light from a nitrogen laser. The fluorescence yield in air at a pressure of 1013 hPa and temperature of 293 K was found to be Y337=5.61±0.06stat±0.22syst photons/MeV. When compared to the fluorescence yield currently used by UHECR experiments, this measurement improves the uncertainty by a factor of three, and has a significant impact on the determination of the energy scale of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  14. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF. PMID:23635195

  15. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  16. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Connolly, R; Liu, C.; Summers, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  17. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  18. ARCADE 2 MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS AT 3-90 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the absolute temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no emissive windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual emission from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic emission. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 {+-} 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 {+-} 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 {+-} 2.1 (K) ({nu}/{nu}{sub 0}){sup -2.599{+-}0.036} from 22 MHz to 10 GHz ({nu}{sub 0} = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 {+-} 0.001 K.

  19. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  20. Absolutely Exponential Stability and Temperature Control for Gas Chromatograph System Under Dwell Time Switching Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi-Ming; Wang, Xue-Fang; Tan, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a design strategy for temperature control of the gas chromatograph. Usually gas chromatograph is modeled by a simple first order system with a time-delay, and a proportion integration (PI) controller is widely used to regulate the output of the gas chromatograph to the desired temperature. As the characteristics of the gas chromatograph varies at the different temperature range, the single-model based PI controller cannot work well when output temperature varies from one range to another. Moreover, the presence of various disturbance will further deteriorate the performance. In order to improve the accuracy of the temperature control, multiple models are used at the different temperature ranges. With a PI controller designed for each model accordingly, a delay-dependent switching control scheme using the dwell time technique is proposed to ensure the absolute exponential stability of the closed loop. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed switching technique. PMID:26316283

  1. Absolute intensity measurements of CO2 bands in the 2395-2680/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute intensities for over 800 transitions belonging to twelve bands of (C-12)(O-16)2, (O-16)(C-12)(O-18), (O-16)(C-12)(O-17), and (O-16)(C-13)(O-18) molecules in the 2395-2680/cm spectral region have been derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure. The data used in the analysis were recorded at room temperature and low pressure with the 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory. The measured intensities obtained for each band have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and F-factor coefficients. The results are compared with other published values.

  2. Measurements of absolute line intensities in carbon dioxide bands near 5.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure has been used to derive experimental absolute intensities for over 300 unblended lines belonging to twelve CO2 bands in the 5.2-micron region. The spectral data were recorded at 0.01/cm resolution and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak and have a signal-to-rms noise ratio of 2000-4000. A natural sample of carbon dioxide was used as the sample gas. For each band, the measured line intensities have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and coefficients of the F factor. The results are compared to the values used to calculate the intensities in the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation.

  3. Study of absolute detection technique with the rotational Raman lidar for atmospheric temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shichun; Wei, Pengpeng; Gong, Xin; Hua, Dengxin

    2015-10-01

    The rotational Raman lidar is a valid tool to profile atmospheric temperature. But the fact that its proper operation generally needs a certain collocated device for calibration seriously restricts application in the meteorology and environment fields. We propose an absolute detection technique of atmospheric temperature with the rotational Raman lidar, which is based on the dependence of rotational Raman spectral envelope on temperature. To retrieve atmospheric temperature without calibration, six rotational Raman spectra of nitrogen molecule are chosen from the anti-Strokes branch. A temperature retrieval algorithm is presented and analyzed based on the least square principle. A two-cascade Raman spectroscopic filter is constructed by one first-order diffraction grating, one convex lens, one linear fiber array and 6 groups of fiber Bragg gratings. This lidar is configured with a 300-mJ pulse energy laser and a 250-mm clear aperture telescope. Simulation results show that it can extract the nitrogen molecules rotational Raman spectral lines, and that atmospheric temperature profile obtained through absolute retrieval algorithm can be up to 3.5 km with less than 0.5-K deviation within 17 minutes interval.

  4. Time-series modeling and prediction of global monthly absolute temperature for environmental decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Van Ranst, Eric; Tang, Huajun

    2013-03-01

    A generalized, structural, time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature, one of the most important environmental parameters, using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach. Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset, the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record. Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal, involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method, respectively, while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal, involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models. A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years. The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors, suggesting that DSC models, when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models, can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (˜10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  5. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  6. The measurement of absolute absorption of millimeter radiation in gases - The absorption of CO and O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, William G.; Cohen, Edward A.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Hillig, Kurt W., II

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus is described that will measure absolute absorption of millimeter radiation in gases. The method measures the change in the quality factor of a Fabry-Perot resonator with and without gas present. The magnitude of the change is interpreted in terms of the absorption of the lossy medium inside the resonator. Experiments have been performed on the 115-GHz CO line and the 119-GHz O2 line at two different temperatures to determine the linewidth parameter and the peak absorption value. These numbers can be combined to give the integrated intensity which can be accurately calculated from results of spectroscopy measurements. The CO results are within 2 percent percent of theoretically predicted valves. Measurements on O2 have shown that absorption can be measured as accurately as 0.5 dB/km with this technique. Results have been obtained for oxygen absolute absorption in the 60-80-GHz region.

  7. Absolute beam energy measurements in e+e- storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The CERN Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) was dedicated to the measurement of the mass Mz and the width Γz of the Z0 resonance during the LEP1 phase which terminated in September 1995. The Storage Ring operated in Energy Scan mode during the 1993 and 1995 physics runs by choosing the beam energy Ebeam to correspond to a center-of-mass (CM) energy at the interaction points (IPs) ECMpeak±1762 MeV. After a short review of the techniques usually adopted to set and control the beam energy, this paper describes in more detail two methods adopted at LEP for precise beam energy determination that are essential to reduce the contribution to the systematic error on Mz and Γz. The positron beam momentum was initially determined at the 20-GeV injection energy by measuring the speed of a less relativistic proton beam circulating on the same orbit, taking advantage of the unique opportunity to inject two beams into the LEP at short time intervals. The positron energy at the Z0 peak was in this case derived by extrapolation. Once transverse polarization became reproducible, the Resonant Depolarization (RD) technique was implemented at the Z0 operating energies, providing a ⩽2×10-5 instantaneous accuracy. RD Beam Energy Calibration has been adopted during the LEP Energy Scan campaigns as well as in Accelerator Physics runs for accurate measurement of machine parameters.

  8. Absolute angle measurement using the earth-field-referenced hall effect sensors.

    PubMed

    Kolen, P T; Rhode, J P; Francis, P R

    1993-03-01

    A miniaturized absolute angle sensor utilizing Hall generators referenced to the Earth's ambient magnetic field has been developed. The sensor has three-dimensional angular sensitivity which allows the output to be self-normalized resulting in high immunity to both B-field and temperature induced errors. The individual Hall generator elements were operated with a final sensitivity of 4.07 V G-1. The Earth's field, magnitude 0.486 G with a surface declination angle of 58.2 degrees (San Diego, California), was used as the excitation/reference field. Bandwidth limiting, low-noise design, and active/passive thermal compensation techniques were employed resulting in a sensor bandwidth of DC to 100 Hz with a maximum signal-to-noise ratio of 44.5 dB. The maximum angular resolution of the sensor was measured to be +/- 0.27 degrees. Temperature induced error was measured to be less than 2% from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The measurement of shoulder joint rotation was used as the test case application for the sensor with excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental performance. PMID:8468339

  9. Measurement at different temperatures of absolute intensities, line half-widths, and broadening by Ar and N2 for the 30 0 1 II--00 0 0 band of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Suarez, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Vibration-rotation line intensities, self-broadening coefficients, and foreign-gas-broadening (Ar and N2) coefficients were measured at 197, 233, and 294 K for the 30 0 1 II--00 0 0 band of CO2 at 6348/cm. Values for the total band intensity, purely vibrational transition moment, and vibration-rotation interaction factor were deduced from the measurements.

  10. Evaluation of absolute form measurements using a tilted-wave interferometer.

    PubMed

    Fortmeier, Ines; Stavridis, Manuel; Wiegmann, Axel; Schulz, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang; Elster, Clemens

    2016-02-22

    Tilted-wave interferometry is a promising measurement technique for the highly accurate measurement of aspheres and freeform surfaces. However, the interferometric fringe evaluation of the sub-apertures causes unknown patch offsets, which currently prevent this measurement technique from providing absolute measurements. Simple strategies, such as constructing differences of optical path length differences (OPDs) or ignoring the piston parameter, can diminish the accuracy resulting from the absolute form measurement. Additional information is needed instead; in this paper, the required accuracy of such information is explored in virtual experiments. Our simulation study reveals that, when one absolute OPD is known within a range of 500 nm, the accuracy of the final measurement result is significantly enhanced. PMID:26906998

  11. Absolute measurement of F2-laser power at 157 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, Stefan; Brandt, Friedhelm; Kremling, Hans-Albert; Gottwald, Alexander; Hoehl, Arne; Richter, Mathias

    2006-05-10

    We report a comparison of laser power measurements at the F2-laser wavelength oaf nm made at two facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute. At the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, the scale for laser power was directly traced to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 157 nm, whereas at the PTB laser radiometry facility in Braunschweig the calibration of transfer detectors was performed with a newly developed standard for laser power at 157 nm, which is traceable in several steps to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 633 nm. The comparison was performed under vacuum conditions with laser pulse energies of?10 {mu}J, however with different average powers because different primary standard radiometers were used. The relative deviation for the responsivity of the transfer detector was 4.8% and thus within the combined standard uncertainty.

  12. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  13. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  14. The Implications for Higher-Accuracy Absolute Measurements for NGS and its GRAV-D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Winester, D.; Roman, D. R.; Eckl, M. C.; Smith, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Absolute and relative gravity measurements play an important role in the work of NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS). When NGS decided to replace the US national vertical datum, the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project added a new dimension to the NGS gravity program. Airborne gravity collection would complement existing satellite and surface gravity data to allow the creation of a gravimetric geoid sufficiently accurate to form the basis of the new reference surface. To provide absolute gravity ties for the airborne surveys, initially new FG5 absolute measurements were made at existing absolute stations and relative measurements were used to transfer those measurements to excenters near the absolute mark and to the aircraft sensor height at the parking space. In 2011, NGS obtained a field-capable A10 absolute gravimeter from Micro-g LaCoste which became the basis of the support of the airborne surveys. Now A10 measurements are made at the aircraft location and transferred to sensor height. Absolute and relative gravity play other roles in GRAV-D. Comparison of surface data with new airborne collection will highlight surface surveys with bias or tilt errors and can provide enough information to repair or discard the data. We expect that areas of problem surface data may be re-measured. The GRAV-D project also plans to monitor the geoid in regions of rapid change and update the vertical datum when appropriate. Geoid change can result from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), tectonic change, and the massive drawdown of large scale aquifers. The NGS plan for monitoring these changes over time is still in its preliminary stages and is expected to rely primarily on the GRACE and GRACE Follow On satellite data in conjunction with models of GIA and tectonic change. We expect to make absolute measurements in areas of rapid change in order to verify model predictions. With the opportunities presented by rapid, highly accurate

  15. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF. PMID:23126915

  16. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2012-10-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  17. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  18. Laser interferometer for absolute distance measurement based on a tunable VCSEL laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef

    2005-02-01

    In the work, we present the absolute distance interferometer with a narrow-linewidth tunable VCSEL laser (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) working at &lambda ~760 nm. As a detection technique, we use a fast wavelength-scanning interferometry improved by an amplitude division of the interference fringe with using two signals in quadrature. Used VCSEL laser is wide tunable with the mod-hop free tuning range more than 1.2 nm by means of the amplitude modulation of the injection current. We control the stabilization and tuning process of the laser wavelength with using the frequency lock to a Fabry-Perot resonator. We build that resonator as a glass plan-parallel etalon with high-fines. Except the frequency lock, the etalon helps us to measure a wavelength-tuning interval of VCSEL laser during the scanning process. We have stabilized an operating temperature of the VCSEL laser by means of a fast digital temperature controller. The optical set-up of the interferometer begins with a polarizing beam-splitter. It splits the laser beam into the measuring and reference arm of the Michelson interferometer. Two cubic corner cubes reflect beams back to this beam-splitter. It collects reflected beams to the same axis of propagation. Then a detection unit produces the combination of two perpendicularly polarized laser beams with production of two electronic signals that are in the quadrature. A fast analog-to-digital card equipped with the digital signal processor (DSP) samples these signals. DSP also controls the course of the scanning process. After Δλ ~ 1 nm scan of the wavelength of VCSEL laser we obtain a record of passed interference fringes and passed Fabry-Perot resonance modes at the same time. On basis of these measured quantities we are able to calculate with high precision the instantaneous value of the optical path length difference between the measuring and reference arm of the Michelson interferometer. We experimentally compared the developed absolute

  19. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Erdmann, M.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Krause, R.; Link, K.; Norden, M. J.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Anderson, J.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR.

  20. Review of deformation behavior of tungsten at temperature less than 0.2 absolute melting temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures 0.2 T sub m is reviewed, with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition temperature. It appears that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research is discussed which suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. It is concluded that future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of tungsten alloys and other transition metal alloys.

  1. Femtosecond frequency comb measurement of absolute frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants in cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Mbele, Vela; Gerginov, Vladislav; Fortier, Tara M.; Diddams, Scott A.; Hollberg, Leo; Tanner, Carol E.

    2010-04-15

    We report measurements of absolute transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants for the 8S{sub 1/2}, 9S{sub 1/2}, 7D{sub 3/2}, and 7D{sub 5/2} states in {sup 133}Cs vapor. The stepwise excitation through either the 6P{sub 1/2} or 6P{sub 3/2} intermediate state is performed directly with broadband laser light from a stabilized femtosecond laser optical-frequency comb. The laser beam is split, counterpropagated, and focused into a room-temperature Cs vapor cell. The repetition rate of the frequency comb is scanned and we detect the fluorescence on the 7P{sub 1/2,3/2{yields}}6S{sub 1/2} branches of the decay of the excited states. The excitations to the different states are isolated by the introduction of narrow-bandwidth interference filters in the laser beam paths. Using a nonlinear least-squares method we find measurements of transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants that are in agreement with other recent measurements for the 8S state and provide improvement by 2 orders of magnitude over previously published results for the 9S and 7D states.

  2. Measurement of absolute optical thickness of mask glass by wavelength-tuning Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangjin; Hbino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Optical thickness is a fundamental characteristic of an optical component. A measurement method combining discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) analysis and a phase-shifting technique gives an appropriate value for the absolute optical thickness of a transparent plate. However, there is a systematic error caused by the nonlinearity of the phase-shifting technique. In this research the absolute optical-thickness distribution of mask blank glass was measured using DFT and wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometry without using sensitive phase-shifting techniques. The error occurring during the DFT analysis was compensated for by using the unwrapping correlation. The experimental results indicated that the absolute optical thickness of mask glass was measured with an accuracy of 5 nm. PMID:26125394

  3. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  4. Temperature Measurement Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center has designed a simple but medically important device--one which holds temperature probes, called thermistors, to a person's skin without affecting the characteristics of the skin segment being measured. The device improves the accuracy of skin surface temperature measurements, valuable data in health evaluation. The need for such a device was recognized in the course of life science experiments at Ames. In earlier methods, the sensing head of the temperature probe was affixed to the patient's skin by tape or elastic bands. This created a heat variance which altered skin temperature readings. The Ames-developed thermistor holder is a plastic ring with tab extensions, shown in the upper photo on the chest, arm and leg of the patient undergoing examination. The ring holds the sensing head of the temperature probe and provides firm, constant pressure between the skin and the probe. The tabs help stabilize the ring and provide attachment points for the fastening tape or bands, which do not directly touch the sensor. With this new tool, it is possible to determine more accurately the physiological effects of strenuous exercise, particularly on the treadmill. The holder is commercially available from Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio, which is producing the device under a NASA patent license.

  5. Combined absolute and relative gravity measurement for microgravity monitoring in Aso volcanic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Shin; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2014-05-01

    Absolute measurement with a portable A10-017 absolute gravimeter at some benchmarks in the Aso volcanic field are valuable for reducing uncertainties of regional gravity variations and will be useful for delineating the long term trends of gravity changes. A10 absolute gravimeter is a new generation of portable absolute instrument and has accuracy 10 microGal. To further the development of a high precision gravity data, we also conducted measurement using two relative gravimeter (Scintrex CG-5 [549] and LaCoste type G-1016) to be combined with an A10 absolute gravimeter. The using absolute gravimeter along with relative gravimeter can reduce drift correction factor and improve the result of gravity change data in microgravity monitoring. Microgravity monitoring is a valued tool for mapping the redistribution of subsurface mass and for assessing changes in the fluid as a dynamic process in volcanic field. Gravity changes enable the characterization of subsurface processes: i.e., the mass of the intrusion or hydrothermal flow. A key assumption behind gravity monitoring is that changes in earth's gravity reflect mass-transport processes at depth [1]. The absolute gravity network was installed at seven benchmarks using on May 2010, which re-occupied in October 2010, and June 2011. The relative gravity measurements were performed at 28 benchmarks in one month before the eruption on May 2011 and then followed by series of gravity monitoring after the eruption in every three to five months. Gravity measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. Some gravity benchmarks were measured using both absolute and relative gravimeter and is used as the reference benchmarks. In longer time period, the combined gravity method will improve the result of gravity change data for monitoring in the Aso volcanic field. As a result, the gravity changes detected the hydrothermal flow in the subsurface which has a correlation to water level fluctuation in the

  6. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  7. A Monte Carlo Comparison of Measures of Relative and Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietfeld, John L.; Enders, Craig K; Schraw, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Researchers studying monitoring accuracy currently use two different indexes to estimate accuracy: relative accuracy and absolute accuracy. The authors compared the distributional properties of two measures of monitoring accuracy using Monte Carlo procedures that fit within these categories. They manipulated the accuracy of judgments (i.e., chance…

  8. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship.

    PubMed

    Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species. PMID:24635697

  9. Absolute measurement of optical flat surface shape based on the conjugate differential method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Rihong; Yuan, Caojin; Chen, Lei; Cai, Huijuan; Sun, Weiyuan

    2015-11-16

    In this paper the conjugate differential method is proposed to measure the absolute surface shape of the flat mirror using a phase-shifting interferometer. The conjugate differential method is derived from the differential method, which extracts absolute phase differences by introducing the slight transverse shifts of the optic. It employs the measurement schemes making transverse shifts on the orthogonally bilateral symmetry positions. So the measurement procedures have been changed into four-step tests to get the phase difference map instead of three-step tests for the differential method. The precision of the slope approximation is enhanced by reducing couplings between multi-step tests, and the reliability of the measurements can be improved. Several differential wavefront reconstruction methods, such as Fourier transform, Zernike polynomial fitting and Hudgin model method, can be applied to reconstruct the absolute surface shape from the differencing phase maps in four different simulation environment. They were also used to reconstruct the absolute surface shape with the conjugate differential method in the experiment. Our method accords with the classical three-flat test better than the traditional differential method, where the deviation of RMS value between the conjugate differential method and the three-flat test is less than 0.3 nm. PMID:26698450

  10. Re-creating Gauss's method for non-electrical absolute measurements of magnetic fields and moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    In 1832, Gauss made the first absolute measurements of magnetic fields and of magnetic moments in experiments that are straightforward and instructive to replicate. We show, using rare-earth permanent magnets and a variation of Gauss's technique, that the horizontal component of the ambient geomagnetic field, as well as the size of the magnetic moments of such magnets, can be found. The method shows the connection between the SI and cgs emu unit systems for these quantities and permits an absolute realization of the Ampere with considerable precision.

  11. Superharp: A wire scanner with absolute position readout for beam energy measurement at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, C.

    1994-09-07

    Superharp is an upgrade CEBAF wire scanner with absolute position readout from shaft encoder. As high precision absolute beam position probe ({Delta}x {approximately} 10{mu}m), three pairs of superharps are installed at the entrance, the mid-point, and the exit of Hall C arc beamline in beam switch yard, which will be tuned in dispersive mode as energy spectrometer performing 10{sup {minus}3} beam energy measurement. With dual sensor system: the direct current pickup and the bremsstrahlung detection electronics, beam profile can be obtained by superharp at wide beam current range from 1 {mu}A to 100 {mu}A.

  12. Absolute phase retrieval for defocused fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dongliang; Da, Feipeng

    2014-02-01

    Defocused fringe projection three-dimensional technique based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) can generate high-quality sinusoidal fringe patterns. It only uses slightly defocused binary structured patterns which can eliminate the gamma problem (i.e. nonlinear response), and the phase error can be significantly reduced. However, when the projector is defocused, it is difficult to retrieve the absolute phase from the wrapped phase. A recently proposed phase coding method is efficient for absolute phase retrieval, but the gamma problem leads this method not so reliable. In this paper, we use the PWM technique to generate fringe patterns for the phase coding method. The gamma problem of the projector can be eliminated, and correct absolute phase can be retrieved. The proposed method only uses two grayscale values (0's and 255's), which can be used for real-time 3D shape measurement. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  13. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  14. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  15. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  16. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements for electronic materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements for non-contact temperature measurement capabilities for electronic materials processing in space are assessed. Non-contact methods are probably incapable of sufficient accuracy for the actual absolute measurement of temperatures in most such applications but would be useful for imaging in some applications.

  17. Absolute Neutron Fluence Measurements at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Anderson, E.; Snow, M.; Greene, G.; Laptev, A.

    2015-10-01

    Precise, absolute fluence measurements of cold and thermal neutron beams are of primary importance to beam-type determinations of the neutron lifetime, measurements of standard neutron cross sections, and the development of standards for neutron dosimetry. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a totally absorbing neutron detector based on absolute counting of the 10B(n,α1)7Li reaction 478 keV gamma ray has been used to perform fluence measurements with a precision of 0.06%. This detector has been used to improve the neutron fluence determination in the 2000 NIST beam neutron lifetime by a factor of five, significantly reducing the uncertainty in the lifetime result. Ongoing and possible future uses of the Alpha-Gamma device include 1) Calibration of the neutron fluence monitors that will be used in the upcoming NIST beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2; 2) The first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He neutron cross section at sub-thermal neutron energy; 3) Measurements of the 10B(n, γ)11B and 235U(n,f) neutron cross sections; 4) A re-calibration of the national neutron standard NBS-1. The apparatus, measurement technique, and applications will be discussed.

  18. Measuring the Absolute Distance to the Burster GS 1826-238

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Richard

    We have been awarded Chandra time (70 ks) to measure the absolute distance to the clocked thermonuclear flash generator GS 1826-238 by measuring the burst-induced temporal variability of the x-ray scattering halo. When combined with the bolometric flux measured simultaneously with Chandra and RXTE, this will yield the absolute bolometric luminosity from this object for both the persistent and burst emission. The simultaneous RXTE observations are essential to this task, since they allow for a precise definition of the continuum, extend the energy range of measurements of the persistent flux well above the 10 keV limit of Chandra, and will aid in understanding deadtime issues in the Chandra data.

  19. Frequency-scanning interferometry for dynamic absolute distance measurement using Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli

    2014-12-15

    We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for dynamic absolute distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The absolute distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity dynamic measurements. Experimental results of dynamic measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented. PMID:25503050

  20. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  1. Absolute equation of state measurements of iron using laser driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Huser, G.; Faral, B.; Batani, D.; Henry, E.; Tomasini, M.; Marchet, B.; Hall, T. A.; Boustie, M.; de Rességuier, Th.; Hallouin, M.; Guyot, F.; Andrault, D.; Charpin, Th.

    2002-06-01

    First absolute equation of state measurements obtained for iron with laser driven shock waves are presented. The shock velocity and the free surface velocity of compressed iron have been simultaneously measured by using a VISAR diagnostic, and step targets. The pressure range 1-8 Mbar has been investigated, which is directly relevant to planetary physics. The experiments have been performed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses of the Ecole Polytechnique.

  2. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  3. Laser induced deflection (LID) method for absolute absorption measurements of optical materials and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon; Paa, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    We use optimized concepts to measure directly low absorption in optical materials and thin films at various laser wavelengths by the laser induced deflection (LID) technique. An independent absolute calibration, using electrical heaters, is applied to obtain absolute absorption data without the actual knowledge of the photo-thermal material properties. Verification of the absolute calibration is obtained by measuring different silicon samples at 633 nm where all laser light, apart from the measured reflection/scattering, is absorbed. Various experimental results for bulk materials and thin films are presented including measurements of fused silica and CaF2 at 193 nm, nonlinear crystals (LBO) for frequency conversion and AR coated fused silica for high power material processing at 1030 nm and Yb-doped silica raw materials for high power fiber lasers at 1550 nm. In particular for LBO the need of an independent calibration is demonstrated since thermal lens generation is dominated by stress-induced refractive index change which is in contrast to most of the common optical materials. The measured results are proven by numerical simulations and their influence on the measurement strategy and the obtained accuracy are shown.

  4. In situ TDLAS measurement of absolute acetylene concentration profiles in a non-premixed laminar counter-flow flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Klein, M.; Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Kissel, T.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2012-06-01

    Acetylene (C2H2), as an important precursor for chemiluminescence species, is a key to understand, simulate and model the chemiluminescence and the related reaction paths. Hence we developed a high resolution spectrometer based on direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allowing the first quantitative, calibration-free and spatially resolved in situ C2H2 measurement in an atmospheric non-premixed counter-flow flame supported on a Tsuji burner. A fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode laser near 1535 nm was used to measure several absolute C2H2 concentration profiles (peak concentrations up to 9700 ppm) in a laminar non-premixed CH4/air flame ( T up to 1950 K) supported on a modified Tsuji counter-flow burner with N2 purge slots to minimize end flames. We achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 5×10-5 OD (1 σ) in the flame, resulting in temperature-dependent acetylene detection limits for the P17e line at 6513 cm-1 of up to 2.1 ppmṡm. Absolute C2H2 concentration profiles were obtained by translating the burner through the laser beam using a DC motor with 100 μm step widths. Intercomparisons of the experimental C2H2 profiles with simulations using our new hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms show excellent agreement in position, shape and in the absolute C2H2 values.

  5. Absolute frequency measurement at 10-16 level based on the international atomic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-06-01

    Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 level. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the absolute frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.

  6. Absolute intensity measurement of the 4-0 vibration-rotation band of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Valero, F. P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute intensity of the 4-0 vibration band of CO is measured in spectra obtained using a 25-m base-path multiple-traversal absorption cell and a 5-m scanning spectrometer. The intensities of individual vibration-rotation lines in this band are determined from measurements of their equivalent widths, and absolute values for the rotationless transition moment and the vibration-rotation interaction factor are derived from the measured line strengths. The experimentally obtained vibration-rotation function is compared with a theoretical curve; agreement between theory and experiment is found to be good for the P-branch but poor for the R-branch. It is noted that numerical solutions to the radial Schroedinger equation lead to vibration-rotation function values that are in good agreement with the experiment.

  7. Absolute frequency measurements and hyperfine structures of the molecular iodine transitions at 578 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Tanabe, Takehiko; Yasuda, Masami; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2016-04-01

    We report absolute frequency measurements of 81 hyperfine components of the rovibrational transitions of molecular iodine at 578 nm using the second harmonic generation of an 1156-nm external-cavity diode laser and a fiber-based optical frequency comb. The relative uncertainties of the measured absolute frequencies are typically $1.4\\times10^{-11}$. Accurate hyperfine constants of four rovibrational transitions are obtained by fitting the measured hyperfine splittings to a four-term effective Hamiltonian including the electric quadrupole, spin-rotation, tensor spin-spin, and scalar spin-spin interactions. The observed transitions can be good frequency references at 578 nm, and are especially useful for research using atomic ytterbium since the transitions are close to the $^{1}S_{0}-^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition of ytterbium.

  8. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  9. Full-field absolute phase measurements in the heterodyne interferometer with an electro-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Hsieh, H. C.; Wu, W. T.; Su, D. C.

    2009-06-01

    A novel method for full-field absolute phase measurements in the heterodyne interferometer with an electro-optic modulator is proposed in this paper. Instead of the commonly-used half-wave voltage to drive the electro-optic modulator, a saw-tooth voltage signal with the amplitude being lower than its half-wave voltage is used. The interference signals become a group of periodical sinusoidal segments. The initial phase of each sinusoidal segment depends on the phase difference induced by the test sample. In real measurements, each segment is taken by a fast camera and becomes discrete digital points. After a series of operations, the starting point of the sampled sinusoidal segment can be determined accurately. Next, the period of the sampled sinusoidal segments is lengthened and they can be modified to a continuous sinusoidal wave by using a least-square sine fitting algorithm. The initial phase of the continuous sinusoidal wave can also be estimated. Subtracting the characteristic phase of the modulator from the initial phase, the absolute phase measured at the pixel can be obtained without the conventional reference signals. These operations are applied to other pixels, and the full-field absolute phase measurements can be achieved. The phase retardation of a quarter-wave plate is measured to show the validity of this method.

  10. System for absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions based on van der Pauw's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Lin, Zhen; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Xiang; Wei, Jiali; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-05-01

    Based on an innovative application of van der Pauw's theory, a system was developed for the absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions. An electrolytic conductivity meter was designed that uses a four-electrode system with an axial-radial two-dimensional adjustment structure coupled to an ac voltage excitation source and signal collecting circuit. The measurement accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the measurement system were examined through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement system and a high-precision electrolytic conductivity meter were compared using some actual water samples.

  11. Absolute Frequency Measurements of the D1 and D2 Transitions in Aatomic Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Donal; Almaguer, Jose; Baron, Jacob; Elgee, Peter; Rowan, Michael; Stalnaker, Jason

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary results from our measurements of the D1 and D2 transitions in Li. The data were obtained from a collimated atomic beam excited by light from an extended cavity diode laser. The frequency of the diode laser was stabilized to an optical frequency comb, providing absolute frequency measurement and control of the excitation laser frequency. These measurements will provide a stringent test of atomic structure calculations and yield information about the nuclear structure. We also discuss plans to extend the technique to other high-lying states in lithium. Funded by the NIST Precision Measurements Grant and NSF Award #1305591.

  12. [Welding arc temperature field measurements based on Boltzmann spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Si, Hong; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Arc plasma, as non-uniform plasma, has complicated energy and mass transport processes in its internal, so plasma temperature measurement is of great significance. Compared with absolute spectral line intensity method and standard temperature method, Boltzmann plot measuring is more accurate and convenient. Based on the Boltzmann theory, the present paper calculates the temperature distribution of the plasma and analyzes the principle of lines selection by real time scanning the space of the TIG are measurements. PMID:23240385

  13. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D{sup +} Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, G.S.; Miller, D.H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Adams, G.S.; Chasse, M.; Cravey, M.; Cummings, J.P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C.S.; Park, W.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D{sup +} decays to K{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, K*{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and {rho}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D{sup +}{yields}{omega}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D{sup 0} and D{sup +} decays.

  14. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M.; Haan, S.; Hatchett, S.; Khater, H.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J.; Kilkenny, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T.; Meyerhofer, D.; Magoon, J.; Fletcher, K.; Leeper, R.

    2010-11-01

    Proper assembly of capsule mass, as manifested through evolution of fuel areal density (ρR), is fundamentally important for achieving hot-spot ignition planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental information about ρR and ρR asymmetries, Ti and yield is therefore essential for understanding how this assembly occurs. To obtain this information, a neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic-Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been implemented on the NIF. Its primary objective is to measure the absolute neutron spectrum in the range 5 to 30 MeV, from which ρR, Ti and yield can be directly inferred for both low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and high-yield DT implosions. In this talk, the results from the first measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum produced in exploding pusher and THD implosions will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  15. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) Reactor Characterization Program: Absolute Fission-rate Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.L.; Gilliam, D.M.; Grundl, J.A.; Rawlins, J.A.; Daughtry, J.W.

    1981-05-01

    Absolute fission rate measurements using modified National Bureau of Standards fission chambers were performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility at two core locations for isotopic deposits of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. Monitor chamber results at a third location were analyzed to support other experiments involving passive dosimeter fission rate determinations.

  16. FFTF (FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY) REACTOR CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM ABSOLUTE FISSION RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER JL; GILLIAM DM; GRUNDL JA; RAWLINS JA; DAUGHTRY JW

    1981-05-01

    Absolute fission rate measurements using modified National Bureau of Standards fission chambers were performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility at two core locations for isotopic deposits of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. Monitor chamber results at a third location were analyzed to support other experiments involving passive dosimeter fission rate determinations.

  17. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Luis, P.Facal San; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Horandel, J.R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  18. Development of explicit diffraction corrections for absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters in the quasilinear regime.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing

    2016-08-01

    In absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters, amplitudes of harmonics must be corrected for diffraction effects. In this study, we develop explicit multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model-based diffraction corrections for the first three harmonics in weakly nonlinear, axisymmetric sound beams. The effects of making diffraction corrections on nonlinearity parameter estimation are investigated by defining "total diffraction correction (TDC)". The results demonstrate that TDC cannot be neglected even for harmonic generation experiments in the nearfield region. PMID:27186964

  19. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Filippetto, D.; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2008-01-24

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  20. A new absolute reference for atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements with traceability to SI units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, J.; Reda, I.; Wacker, S.; Nyeki, S.; Behrens, K.; Gorman, J.

    2014-06-01

    Two independently designed and calibrated absolute radiometers measuring downwelling longwave irradiance were compared during two field campaigns in February and October 2013 at Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). One absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP) developed by NREL and up to four Integrating Sphere Infrared Radiometers (IRIS) developed by PMOD/WRC took part in these intercomparisons. The internal consistency of the IRIS radiometers and the agreement with the ACP were within ±1 W m-2, providing traceability of atmospheric longwave irradiance to the international system of units with unprecedented accuracy. Measurements performed during the two field campaigns and over the past 4 years have shown that the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG) of pyrgeometers is underestimating clear-sky atmospheric longwave irradiance by 2 to 6 W m-2, depending on the amount of integrated water vapor (IWV). This behavior is an instrument-dependent feature and requires an individual sensitivity calibration of each pyrgeometer with respect to an absolute reference such as IRIS or ACP. For IWV larger than 10 mm, an average sensitivity correction of +6.5% should be applied to the WISG in order to be consistent with the longwave reference represented by the ACP and IRIS radiometers. A concerted effort at international level will need to be implemented in order to correct measurements of atmospheric downwelling longwave irradiance traceable to the WISG.

  1. Radio frequency controlled synthetic wavelength sweep for absolute distance measurement by optical interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    We present a new technique applied to the variable optical synthetic wavelength generation in optical interferometry. It consists of a chain of optical injection locking among three lasers: first a distributed-feedback laser is used as a master to injection lock an intensity-modulated laser that is directly modulated around 15 GHz by a radio frequency generator on a sideband. A second distributed-feedback laser is injection locked on another sideband of the intensity-modulated laser. The variable synthetic wavelength for absolute distance measurement is simply generated by sweeping the radio frequency over a range of several hundred megahertz, which corresponds to the locking range of the two slave lasers. In this condition, the uncertainty of the variable synthetic wavelength is equivalent to the radio frequency uncertainty. This latter has a relative accuracy of 10{sup -7} or better, resulting in a resolution of {+-}25 {mu}m for distances exceeding tens of meters. The radio frequency generator produces a linear frequency sweep of 1 ms duration (i.e., exactly equal to one absolute distance measurement acquisition time), with frequency steps of about 1 MHz. Finally, results of absolute distance measurements for ranges up to 10 m are presented.

  2. Radio frequency controlled synthetic wavelength sweep for absolute distance measurement by optical interferometry.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Salvadé, Yves; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    We present a new technique applied to the variable optical synthetic wavelength generation in optical interferometry. It consists of a chain of optical injection locking among three lasers: first a distributed-feedback laser is used as a master to injection lock an intensity-modulated laser that is directly modulated around 15 GHz by a radio frequency generator on a sideband. A second distributed-feedback laser is injection locked on another sideband of the intensity-modulated laser. The variable synthetic wavelength for absolute distance measurement is simply generated by sweeping the radio frequency over a range of several hundred megahertz, which corresponds to the locking range of the two slave lasers. In this condition, the uncertainty of the variable synthetic wavelength is equivalent to the radio frequency uncertainty. This latter has a relative accuracy of 10(-7) or better, resulting in a resolution of +/-25 microm for distances exceeding tens of meters. The radio frequency generator produces a linear frequency sweep of 1 ms duration (i.e., exactly equal to one absolute distance measurement acquisition time), with frequency steps of about 1 MHz. Finally, results of absolute distance measurements for ranges up to 10 m are presented. PMID:18516123

  3. A New Measurement of the Absolute Spectral Reflectance of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Lau, E.; Steutel, D.; Stopar, J. D.; Wilcox, B. B.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of the Moon is an important property for studies of lunar geology, quantitative physical modeling of the moon, and in-flight calibration of spacecraft sensors. Previous studies have claimed that telescopic absolute reflectance values for the Moon are greater than laboratory reflectance measurements by a factor of two. In order to confirm these results, we performed ground-based observations of the lunar surface using a visible/near-infrared spectroradiometer and compared the measured lunar surface radiance to solar radiance corrected for atmospheric scattering and absorption. These data were compared to previously obtained laboratory reflectance measurements from Apollo soil samples.

  4. Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boyer, John-Christopher; van Veggel, Frank C J M

    2010-08-01

    In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF(4): 2% Er(3+), 20% Yb(3+) nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample. PMID:20820726

  5. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  6. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Tiedtke, K; Sorokin, A A; Jastrow, U; Juranić, P; Kreis, S; Gerken, N; Richter, M; Arp, U; Feng, Y; Nordlund, D; Soufli, R; Fernández-Perea, M; Juha, L; Heimann, P; Nagler, B; Lee, H J; Mack, S; Cammarata, M; Krupin, O; Messerschmidt, M; Holmes, M; Rowen, M; Schlotter, W; Moeller, S; Turner, J J

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports novel measurements of x-ray optical radiation on an absolute scale from the intense and ultra-short radiation generated in the soft x-ray regime of a free electron laser. We give a brief description of the detection principle for radiation measurements which was specifically adapted for this photon energy range. We present data characterizing the soft x-ray instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with respect to the radiant power output and transmission by using an absolute detector temporarily placed at the downstream end of the instrument. This provides an estimation of the reflectivity of all x-ray optical elements in the beamline and provides the absolute photon number per bandwidth per pulse. This parameter is important for many experiments that need to understand the trade-offs between high energy resolution and high flux, such as experiments focused on studying materials via resonant processes. Furthermore, the results are compared with the LCLS diagnostic gas detectors to test the limits of linearity, and observations are reported on radiation contamination from spontaneous undulator radiation and higher harmonic content. PMID:25321502

  7. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match. PMID:27410104

  8. Experimental feasibility of the airborne measurement of absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne lidar oil spill experiments carried out to determine the practicability of the AOFSCE (absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency) computational model are described. The results reveal that the model is suitable over a considerable range of oil film thicknesses provided the fluorescence efficiency of the oil does not approach the minimum detection sensitivity limitations of the lidar system. Separate airborne lidar experiments to demonstrate measurement of the water column Raman conversion efficiency are also conducted to ascertain the ultimate feasibility of converting such relative oil fluorescence to absolute values. Whereas the AOFSCE model is seen as highly promising, further airborne water column Raman conversion efficiency experiments with improved temporal or depth-resolved waveform calibration and software deconvolution techniques are thought necessary for a final determination of suitability.

  9. Measurements of absolute concentrations of NADH in cells using the phasor FLIM method

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Digman, Michelle A.; Malacrida, Leonel; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We propose a graphical method using the phasor representation of the fluorescence decay to derive the absolute concentration of NADH in cells. The method requires the measurement of a solution of NADH at a known concentration. The phasor representation of the fluorescence decay accounts for the differences in quantum yield of the free and bound form of NADH, pixel by pixel of an image. The concentration of NADH in every pixel in a cell is obtained after adding to each pixel in the phasor plot a given amount of unmodulated light which causes a shift of the phasor towards the origin by an amount that depends on the intensity at the pixel and the fluorescence lifetime at the pixel. The absolute concentration of NADH is obtained by comparison of the shift obtained at each pixel of an image with the shift of the calibrated solution. PMID:27446681

  10. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  11. Absolute silicon molar mass measurements, the Avogadro constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.; Turk, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    The results of an absolute silicon molar mass determination of two independent sets of samples from the highly 28Si-enriched crystal (AVO28) produced by the International Avogadro Coordination are presented and compared with results published by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany), the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ, Japan). This study developed and describes significant changes to the published protocols for producing absolute silicon isotope ratios. The measurements were made at very high resolution on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to dissolve and dilute all samples. The various changes in the measurement protocol and the use of TMAH resulted in significant improvements to the silicon isotope ratio precision over previously reported measurements and in particular, the robustness of the 29Si/30Si ratio of the AVO28 material. These new results suggest that a limited isotopic variability is present in the AVO28 material. The presence of this variability is at present singular and therefore its significance is not well understood. Fortunately, its magnitude is small enough so as to have an insignificant effect on the overall uncertainty of an Avogadro constant derived from the average molar mass of all four AVO28 silicon samples measured in this study. The NIST results confirm the AVO28 molar mass values reported by PTB and NMIJ and confirm that the virtual element-isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach to calibrated absolute isotope ratio measurements developed by PTB is capable of very high precision as well as accuracy. The Avogadro constant NA and derived Planck constant h based on these measurements, together with their associated standard uncertainties, are 6.02214076(19) × 1023 mol-1 and 6.62607017(21) × 10-34 Js, respectively.

  12. Absolute measurements of total peroxy nitrate mixing ratios by thermal dissociation blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dipayan; Osthoff, Hans D

    2010-08-01

    Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) have long been recognized as important trace gas constituents of the troposphere. Here, we describe a blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer for rapid and absolute measurements of total peroxyacyl nitrate (SigmaPAN) abundances at ambient concentration levels. The PANs are thermally dissociated and detected as NO2, whose mixing ratios are quantified by optical absorption at 405 nm relative to a reference channel kept at ambient temperature. The effective NO2 absorption cross-section at the diode laser emission wavelength was measured to be 6.1 x 10(-19) cm2 molecule(-1), in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a projection of a high-resolution literature absorption spectrum onto the laser line width. The performance, i.e., accuracy and precision of measurement and matrix effects, of the new 405 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer was evaluated and compared to that of a 532 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer using laboratory-generated air samples. The new 405 nm spectrometer was considerably more sensitive and compact than the previously constructed version. The key advantage of laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy is that the measurement can be considered absolute and does not need to rely on external calibration. PMID:20698583

  13. Absolute frequency measurement of the neutral 40Ca optical frequency standard at 657 nm based on microkelvin atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilpers, G.; Oates, C. W.; Diddams, S. A.; Bartels, A.; Fortier, T. M.; Oskay, W. H.; Bergquist, J. C.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Hollberg, L.

    2007-04-01

    We report an absolute frequency measurement of the optical clock transition at 657 nm in 40Ca with a relative uncertainty of 7.5 × 10-15, one of the most accurate frequency measurements of a neutral atom optical transition to date. The frequency (455 986 240 494 135.8 ± 3.4) Hz was measured by stabilizing a diode laser system to a spectroscopic signal derived from an ensemble of 106 atoms cooled in two stages to a temperature of 10 µK. The measurement used a femtosecond-laser-based frequency comb to compare the Ca transition frequency with that of the single-ion 199Hg+ optical frequency standard at NIST. The Hg+ frequency was simultaneously calibrated relative to the NIST Cs fountain via the NIST time scale to yield an absolute value for the Ca transition frequency. The relative fractional instability between the two optical standards was 2 × 10-15 for 10 s of averaging time and 2 × 10-16 for 2000 s.

  14. Absolute velocity measurement using three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Verma, Y.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography setup that allows single interferometer-based measurement of absolute flow velocity. The setup makes use of galvo-based phase shifting to remove complex conjugate mirror artifact and a beam displacer in the sample arm to avoid cross talk image. The results show that the developed approach allows efficient utilization of the imaging range of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography setup for three-beam-based velocity measurement.

  15. Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Noninvasive ICP Absolute Value Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krakauskaite, Solventa; Petkus, Vytautas; Bartusis, Laimonas; Zakelis, Rolandas; Chomskis, Romanas; Preiksaitis, Aidanas; Ragauskas, Arminas; Matijosaitis, Vaidas; Petrikonis, Kestutis; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    An innovative absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) value measurement method has been validated by multicenter comparative clinical studies. The method is based on two-depth transcranial Doppler (TCD) technology and uses intracranial and extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery as pressure sensors. The ophthalmic artery is used as a natural pair of "scales" that compares ICP with controlled pressure Pe, which is externally applied to the orbit. To balance the scales, ICP = Pe a special two-depth TCD device was used as a pressure balance indicator. The proposed method is the only noninvasive ICP measurement method that does not need patient-specific calibration. PMID:27165929

  16. Characterization of Fricke-gel layers for absolute dose measurements in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Carrara, M.; Rrushi, B.; Guilizzoni, R.; Borroni, M.; Tomatis, S.; Pirola, L.; Battistoni, G.

    2011-07-01

    Fricke-gel layer dosimeters (FGLDs) have shown promising features for attaining absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in radiotherapy. Good precision of results (within 3%) is achieved by means of calibration of each single dosimeter before measurement. The calibration is performed irradiating the dosimeter at a uniform and precisely known dose, in order to get a calibration matrix that must be used, with pixel-to-pixel manipulation, to obtain the dose image. A study of the trend in time of dosimeter response after one or more exposures was carried out and calibration protocols were suitably established and verified. (authors)

  17. Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, John-Christopher; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.

    2010-08-01

    In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 20% Yb3+ nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample.In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 20% Yb3+ nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, powder XRDs and TEM micrographs of the samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00253d

  18. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  19. Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merle, Cormic; Wick, Eric; Hayden, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This system was one of the test methods considered for measuring the radius of curvature of one or more of the 18 segmented mirrors that form the 6.5 m diameter primary mirror (PM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The assembled telescope will be tested at cryogenic temperatures in a 17-m diameter by 27-m high vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center. This system uses a Leica Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), at a wavelength of 780 nm, combined with beam-steering and beam-shaping optics to make a differential distance measurement between a ring mirror on the reflective null assembly and individual PM segments. The ADM is located inside the same Pressure-Tight Enclosure (PTE) that houses the test interferometer. The PTE maintains the ADM and interferometer at ambient temperature and pressure so that they are not directly exposed to the telescope s harsh cryogenic and vacuum environment. This system takes advantage of the existing achromatic objective and reflective null assembly used by the test interferometer to direct four ADM beamlets to four PM segments through an optical path that is coincident with the interferometer beam. A mask, positioned on a linear slide, contains an array of 1.25 mm diameter circular subapertures that map to each of the 18 PM segments as well as six positions around the ring mirror. A down-collimated 4 mm ADM beam simultaneously covers 4 adjacent PM segment beamlets and one ring mirror beamlet. The radius, or spacing, of all 18 segments can be measured with the addition of two orthogonally-oriented scanning pentaprisms used to steer the ADM beam to any one of six different sub-aperture configurations at the plane of the ring mirror. The interferometer beam, at a wavelength of 687 nm, and the ADM beamlets, at a wavelength of 780 nm, pass through the objective and null so that the rays are normally incident on the parabolic PM surface. After reflecting off the PM, both the ADM and interferometer beams return to their respective

  20. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Adler, D. P.; Best, F. A.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has embedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity. We present the details of a demonstration experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station later this year. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. The planned microgravity demonstration will compare melt signatures obtained pre-flight on the ground with those obtained on the ISS for three phase change materials (water, gallium-tin, and gallium). With a successful demonstration experiment the phase transition cells in a microgravity environment will have cleared the last hurdle before being ready for

  1. A Novel Portable Absolute Transient Hot-Wire Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assael, Marc J.; Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Metaxa, Ifigeneia N.; Mylona, Sofia K.; Assael, John-Alexander M.; Wu, Jiangtao; Hu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    A new portable absolute Transient Hot-Wire instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids over a range of 0.2 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} to 4 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} is presented. The new instrument is characterized by three novelties: (a) an innovative two-wires sensor which provides robustness and portability, while at the same time employs a soft silicone layer to eliminate the effect of the contact resistance between the wires and the sample, (b) a newly designed compact portable printed electronic board employing an FPGA architecture CPU to the control output voltage and data processing—the new board replaces the traditional, large in size Wheatstone-type bridge system required to perform the experimental measurements, and (c) a cutting-edge software suite, developed for the mesh describing the structure of the sensor, and utilizing the Finite Elements Method to model the heat flow. The estimation of thermal conductivity is modeled as a minimization problem and is solved using Bayesian Optimization. Our revolutionizing proposed methodology exhibits radical speedups of up to × 120, compared to previous approaches, and considerably reduces the number of simulations performed, achieving convergence only in a few minutes. The new instrument was successfully employed to measure, at room temperature, the thermal conductivity of two thermal conductivity reference materials, Pyroceram 9606 and Pyrex 7740, and two possible candidate glassy solids, PMMA and BK7, with an absolute low uncertainty of 2 %.

  2. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk <λrk > c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk <νrk > c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  3. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore. PMID:27410133

  4. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n ,γ ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n ,f ) resonance at En ,R=7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the cross section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section at the En ,R=2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4 % of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30 % lower than the evaluated data at En≈1 keV and are approximately 2 σ away from the previous measurement at En≈20 keV.

  5. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the crossmore » section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the En,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at En ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at En ≈ 20 keV.« less

  6. Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cuixia; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Hao F.; Puliafito, Carmen A.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the capability of a novel dual-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique for simultaneous in vivo measurement of the Doppler angle and, thus, the absolute retinal blood velocity and the retinal flow rate, without the influence of motion artifacts. Methods. A novel dual-beam Doppler spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) was developed. The two probing beams are separated with a controllable distance along an arbitrary direction, both of which are controlled by two independent 2D optical scanners. Two sets of optical Doppler tomography (ODT) images are acquired simultaneously. The Doppler angle of each blood vessel segment is calculated from the relative coordinates of the centers of the blood vessel in the two corresponding ODT images. The absolute blood flow velocity and the volumetric blood flow rate can then be calculated. To measure the total retinal blood flow, we used a circular scan pattern centered at the optic disc to obtain two sets of concentric OCT/ODT images simultaneously. Results. We imaged two normal human subjects at ages of 48 and 34 years. The total retinal blood flow rates of the two human subjects were calculated to be 47.01 μL/min (older subject) and 51.37 μL/min (younger subject), respectively. Results showed that the performance of this imaging system is immune to eye movement, since the two sets of ODT images were acquired simultaneously. Conclusions. The dual-beam OCT/ODT system is successful in measuring the absolute retinal blood velocity and the volumetric flow rate. The advantage of the technique is that the two sets of ODT images used for the calculation are acquired simultaneously, which eliminates the influence of eye motion and ensures the accuracy of the calculated hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24222303

  7. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  8. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  9. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D0-->K-pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2008-02-01

    We measure the absolute branching fraction for D(0)-->K(-)pi(+) using partial reconstruction of B(0)-->D(*+)Xl(-)nu(l) decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D(*+)-->D(0)pi(+) are used. Based on a data sample of 230 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we obtain B(D(0)-->K(-)pi(+)) = (4.007+/-0.037+/-0.072)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18352359

  10. Absolute beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.

    2011-04-01

    We report on an alternative way to measure the absolute beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical emission from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.

  11. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) < 3.2 x 10(-4) at 90% C.L. and the inferred lower limit beta(X(3872)J/psipi+ pi-) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872). PMID:16486923

  12. The absolute CBF response to activation is preserved during elevated perfusion: Implications for neurovascular coupling measures

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Joseph R.; Driver, Ian D.; Bright, Molly G.; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in which the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to a neural stimulus are measured, can be used to estimate the fractional increase in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) that accompanies evoked neural activity. A measure of neurovascular coupling is obtained from the ratio of fractional CBF and CMRO2 responses, defined as n, with the implicit assumption that relative rather than absolute changes in CBF and CMRO2 adequately characterise the flow-metabolism response to neural activity. The coupling parameter n is important in terms of its effect on the BOLD response, and as potential insight into the flow-metabolism relationship in both normal and pathological brain function. In 10 healthy human subjects, BOLD and CBF responses were measured to test the effect of baseline perfusion (modulated by a hypercapnia challenge) on the coupling parameter n during graded visual stimulation. A dual-echo pulsed arterial spin labelling (PASL) sequence provided absolute quantification of CBF in baseline and active states as well as relative BOLD signal changes, which were used to estimate CMRO2 responses to the graded visual stimulus. The absolute CBF response to the visual stimuli were constant across different baseline CBF levels, meaning the fractional CBF responses were reduced at the hyperperfused baseline state. For the graded visual stimuli, values of n were significantly reduced during hypercapnia induced hyperperfusion. Assuming the evoked neural responses to the visual stimuli are the same for both baseline CBF states, this result has implications for fMRI studies that aim to measure neurovascular coupling using relative changes in CBF. The coupling parameter n is sensitive to baseline CBF, which would confound its interpretation in fMRI studies where there may be significant differences in baseline perfusion between groups. The absolute change in

  13. Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles.

    PubMed

    Leong, Andrew F T; Paganin, David M; Hooper, Stuart B; Siew, Melissa L; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-11-18

    Propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBX) imaging yields high contrast images of the lung where airways that overlap in projection coherently scatter the x-rays, giving rise to a speckled intensity due to interference effects. Our previous works have shown that total and regional changes in lung air volumes can be accurately measured from two-dimensional (2D) absorption or phase contrast images when the subject is immersed in a water-filled container. In this paper we demonstrate how the phase contrast speckle patterns can be used to directly measure absolute regional lung air volumes from 2D PBX images without the need for a water-filled container. We justify this technique analytically and via simulation using the transport-of-intensity equation and calibrate the technique using our existing methods for measuring lung air volume. Finally, we show the full capabilities of this technique for measuring regional differences in lung aeration. PMID:24514306

  14. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  15. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  16. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  17. Utilization of coincidence criteria in absolute length measurements by optical interferometry in vacuum and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.

    2015-08-01

    Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.

  18. High-resolution measurement of absolute {alpha}-decay widths in {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2011-06-15

    By using a large-acceptance position-sensitive silicon detector array in coincidence with the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph, unambiguous measurements have been made of the absolute {alpha}-particle decay widths from excited states in {sup 16}O* in the energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV. Carbon targets have been bombarded with 42-MeV {sup 6}Li beams to induce {sub 6}{sup 12}C({sub 3}{sup 6}Li, d){sub 8}{sup 16}O* reactions. The deuteron ejectiles were measured in the Q3D and the results gated by {sup 4}He+{sup 12}C breakup products detected in the silicon array, the efficiency of which was modeled using Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing total population and breakup-gated spectra, the following absolute {alpha}-decay widths have been measured with high resolution: {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}0/{Gamma}{sub tot} = 0.87{+-}0.11 (13.980 MeV), 1.04{+-}0.15 (14.302 MeV), 0.92{+-}0.10 (14.399 MeV), 0.59{+-}0.04 (14.815 MeV), 0.88{+-}0.18 (15.785 MeV), and {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}1/{Gamma}{sub tot}=1.14{+-}0.08 (14.660 MeV), 0.46{+-}0.06 (14.815 MeV).

  19. Absolutely referenced distance measurement by combination of time-of-flight and digital holographic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratz, Markus; Weimann, Claudius; Wölfelschneider, Harald; Koos, Christian; Höfler, Heinrich

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel optical system for distance measurement based on the combination of optical time-of-flight metrology and digital holography. In addition absolute calibration of the measurement results is performed by a sideband modulation technique. For the time-of-flight technique a diode laser (1470 nm) is modulated sinusoidally (128 MHz). The light reflected and scattered by an object is detected by an avalanche-photo-diode. The phase difference between the sent and detected modulation is a measure for the distance between the sensor and the object. This allows for distance measurements up to 1.17 m with resolutions of ~2 mm. The interferometric setup uses 4 whispering-gallery-mode lasers to perform multiwavelengths-holographic distance measurements. The four wavelengths span the range from 1547 nm to 1554 nm. The unambiguous measurement measurement-range of the interferometric setup is approx. 7 mm while resolutions of 0.6 μm are observed. Both setups are integrated into one setup and perform measurements synchronously. Exact knowledge of the frequency differences of hundreds of GHz between the four lasers is crucial for the interferometric fine scale measurement. For this aim the light of the lasers is phase-modulated with frequencies of 36 GHz and 40 GHz to produce optical sidebands of higher order, thus generating beat signals in the hundreds-of-MHz regime, which can be measured electronically. The setup shows a way to measure distances in the meter range with sub-micron resolution.

  20. PREMOS Absolute Radiometer Calibration and Implications to on-orbit Measurements of the Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.; Schmutz, W. K.; Winkler, R.; Finsterle, W.; Fox, N.

    2011-12-01

    On orbit measurements starting in the late 1970's, have revealed the 11 year cycle of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). However, the absolute results from individual experiments differ although all instrument teams claim to measure an absolute value. Especially the data from the TIM/SORCE experiment confused the community as it measures 0.3 % lower than the other instruments, e.g. VIRGO/SOHO by PMOD/WRC, which clearly exceeds the uncertainty stated for the absolute characterization of the experiments. The PREMOS package on the PICARD platform launched in June 2010 is the latest space experiment by PMOD/WRC measuring the TSI. We have put great effort in the calibration and characterization of this instrument in order to resolve the inter-instrument differences. We performed calibrations at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in London and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder against national SI standards for radiant power using a laser beam with a diameter being smaller than the aperture of the instrument. These measurements together with the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) calibration in Davos allowed to compare the WRR and the SI radiant power scale. We found that the WRR lies 0.18 % above the SI radiant power scale which explains a part of the VIRGO-TIM difference. The Total solar irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) at the LASP allows to generate a beam that over fills the apertures of our instruments, giving the presently best available representation of solar irradiance in a laboratory. These irradiance calibrations revealed a stray light contribution between 0.09 and 0.3 % to the measurements which had been underestimated in the characterization of our instruments. Using the irradiance calibrations, we found that the WRR lies 0.32 % above the TRF scale which in turn explains the full VIRGO-TIM difference. The first light PREMOS measurements in space confirmed our findings. If we use the WRR calibration, PREMOS yields a TSI

  1. Measurement of the absolute wavefront curvature radius in a heterodyne interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2010-09-01

    We present an analytical derivation of the coupling parameter relating the angle between two interfering beams in a heterodyne interferometer to the differential phase signals detected by a quadrant photodiode. This technique, also referred to as differential wavefront sensing, is commonly used in space-based gravitational wave detectors to determine the attitude of a test mass in one of the interferometer arms from the quadrant diode signals. Successive approximations to the analytical expression are made to simplify the investigation of parameter dependencies. Motivated by our findings, we propose what we believe to be a new measurement method to accurately determine the absolute wavefront curvature of a single measurement beam. We also investigate the change in the coupling parameter when the interferometer "test mirror" is moved from its nominal position, an effect which mediates the coupling of mirror displacement noise into differential phase measurements. PMID:20808419

  2. Intensity evaluation using a femtosecond pulse laser for absolute distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Li, Jianshuang; Cao, Shiying; Meng, Xiangsong; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a method of intensity evaluation based on different pulse models using a femtosecond pulse laser, which enables long-range absolute distance measurement with nanometer precision and large non-ambiguity range. The pulse cross-correlation is analyzed based on different pulse models, including Gaussian, Sech(2), and Lorenz. The DC intensity and the amplitude of the cross-correlation patterns are also demonstrated theoretically. In the experiments, we develop a new combined system and perform the distance measurements on an underground granite rail system. The DC intensity and amplitude of the interference fringes are measured and show a good agreement with the theory, and the distance to be determined can be up to 25 m using intensity evaluation, within 64 nm deviation compared with a He-Ne incremental interferometer, and corresponds to a relative precision of 2.7×10(-9). PMID:26192864

  3. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  4. Absolute wavelength measurement of the Lyman-{alpha} transitions of hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, G.; Foerster, E.; Kloepfel, D.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Widmann, K.

    1998-02-01

    The wavelengths of the 1s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 1/2} and 1s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} Lyman-{alpha} transitions have been measured in hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+} with an accuracy as high as 24 ppm. The measurement was carried out on an electron-beam ion trap and utilized a quasimonolithic crystal setup absolutely calibrated relative to optical standards. The resulting values for the two transitions were 0.84250{plus_minus}0.00004 and 0.84190{plus_minus}0.00002nm, respectively. The measurement confirms calculations of the 1s-2p wavelengths and tests the size of the 1s Lamb shift to within 13{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Superharp — A wire scanner with absolute position readout for beam energy measurement at CEBAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, C.; Adderley, P.; Barker, D.; Beaufait, J.; Capek, K.; Carlini, R.; Dahlberg, J.; Feldl, E.; Jordan, K.; Kross, B.; Oren, W.; Wojcik, R.; VanDyke, J.

    1995-02-01

    The CEBAF superharp is an upgraded beam wire scanner which provides absolute beam position readout using a shaft encoder. Superharps allow for high precision measurements of the beam's profile and position ( Δx ˜ 10 μm). The Hall C endstation at CEBAF will use three pairs of superharps to perform beam energy measurements with 10 -3 accuracy. The three pairs are installed at the beginning, the mid-point and the end of the Hall C arc beamline. Using superharps in conjunction with a dual sensor system: the direct current pick-up and the bremsstrahlung detectors, beam profile measurements can be obtained over a wide beam current range of 1 ˜ 200 μA.

  6. A novel electrochemical approach for prolonged measurement of absolute levels of extracellular dopamine in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Mark H; Atcherley, Christopher W; Heien, Michael L; Lipski, Janusz

    2015-11-18

    Tonic dopamine (DA) levels influence the activity of dopaminergic neurons and the dynamics of fast dopaminergic transmission. Although carbon fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) have been extensively used to quantify stimulus-induced release and uptake of DA in vivo and in vitro, this technique relies on background subtraction and thus cannot provide information about absolute extracellular concentrations. It is also generally not suitable for prolonged (>90 s) recordings due to drift of the background current. A recently reported, modified FSCV approach called fast-scan controlled-adsorption voltammetry (FSCAV) has been used to assess tonic DA levels in solution and in the anesthetized mouse brain. Here we describe a novel extension of FSCAV to investigate pharmacologically induced, slowly occurring changes in tonic (background) extracellular DA concentration, and phasic (stimulated) DA release in brain slices. FSCAV was used to measure adsorption dynamics and changes in DA concentration (for up to 1.5 h, sampling interval 30 s, detection threshold < 10 nM) evoked by drugs affecting DA release and uptake (amphetamine, l-DOPA, pargyline, cocaine, Ro4-1284) in submerged striatal slices obtained from rats. We also show that combined FSCAV-FSCV recordings can be used for concurrent study of stimulated release and changes in tonic DA concentration. Our results demonstrate that FSCAV can be effectively used in brain slices to measure prolonged changes in extracellular level of endogenous DA expressed as absolute values, complementing studies conducted in vivo with microdialysis. PMID:26322962

  7. Measurement of Absolute Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume in Human Brain Without Using a Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jun; Qin, Qin; Pekar, James J.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVa) is a vital indicator of tissue perfusion and vascular reactivity. We extended the recently developed inflow vascular-space-occupancy (iVASO) MRI technique, which uses spatially selective inversion to suppress the signal from blood flowing into a slice, with a control scan to measure absolute CBVa using CSF for signal normalization. Images were acquired at multiple blood nulling times to account for the heterogeneity of arterial transit times across the brain, from which both CBVa and arterial transit times were quantified. Arteriolar CBVa was determined separately by incorporating velocity-dependent bipolar crusher gradients. Gray matter CBVa values (n = 11) were 2.04 ± 0.27 and 0.76 ± 0.17 ml blood/100 ml tissue without and with crusher gradients (b = 1.8 s/mm2), respectively. Arterial transit times were 671 ± 43 and 785 ± 69 ms, respectively. The arterial origin of the signal was validated by measuring its T2, which was within arterial range. The proposed approach does not require exogenous contrast agent administration, and provides a noninvasive alternative to existing blood volume techniques for mapping absolute CBVa in studies of brain physiology and neurovascular diseases. PMID:21608057

  8. Relative vs. absolute physiological measures as predictors of mountain bike cross-country race performance.

    PubMed

    Gregory, John; Johns, David P; Walls, Justin T

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to document the effect terrain has on the physiological responses and work demands (power output) of riding a typical mountain bike cross-country course under race conditions. We were particularly interested in determining whether physiological measures relative to mass were better predictors of race performance than absolute measures. Eleven A-grade male cross-country mountain bike riders (VO2max 67.1 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 2 tests: a laboratory-based maximum progressive exercise test, and a 15.5-km (six 2.58-km laps) mountain bike cross-country time trial. There were significant differences among the speed, cadence, and power output measured in each of 8 different terrain types found in the cross-country time trial course. The highest average speed was measured during the 10-15% downhill section (22.7 +/- 2.6 km x h(-1)), whereas the cadence was highest in the posttechnical flat sections (74.3 +/- 5.6 rpm) and lowest on the 15-20% downhill sections (6.4 +/- 12.1 rpm). The highest mean heart rate (HR) was obtained during the steepest (15-20% incline) section of the course (179 +/- 8 b x min(-1)), when the power output was greatest (419.8 +/- 39.7 W). However, HR remained elevated relative to power output in the downhill sections of the course. Physiological measures relative to total rider mass correlated more strongly to average course speed than did absolute measures (peak power relative to mass r = 0.93, p < 0.01, vs. peak power r = 0.64, p < 0.05; relative VO2max r = 0.80, p < 0.05, vs. VO2max r = 0.66, p < 0.05; power at anaerobic threshold relative to mass r = 0.78, p < 0.05, vs. power at anaerobic threshold r = 0.5, p < 0.05). This suggests that mountain bike cross-country training programs should focus upon improving relative physiological values rather than focusing upon maximizing absolute values to improve performance. PMID:17313256

  9. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  10. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  11. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  12. Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit.

    PubMed

    Mizouri, Arin; Deng, L Z; Eardley, Jack S; Nahler, N Hendrik; Wrede, Eckart; Carty, David

    2013-12-01

    The absolute density of SD radicals in a supersonic jet has been measured down to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(5) cm(-3) in a modestly specified apparatus that uses a cross-correlated combination of cavity ring-down and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Such a density corresponds to 215 ± 21 molecules in the probe volume at any given time. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient was quantum-noise-limited and measured to be (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) cm(-1), in 200 s of acquisition time, corresponding to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity for the apparatus of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(-9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2). PMID:24145480

  13. Absolute reflectivity measurements at 44.79 A of sputter deposited multilayer x-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, M; Barchewitz, R; Sella, C; Youn, K B

    1990-02-01

    Multilayer x-ray mirrors have been deposited using a dc triode sputtering system, which incorporates an accurate method of thickness monitoring based on the dependence of the deposition rate on the target current. Thickness can be controlled with an accuracy of better than 0.1 A. High efficiency W-C and Ni-C multilayer mirrors have been synthesized and tested at 1.54-A (CuKoalpha) and 44.79-A (CKalpha). Absolute reflectivity measurements at lambda = 44.79-A (CKalpha) have been carried out. In this case the incident beam is previously polarized by a premonochromator equipped with a pair of parallel-plane multilayer mirrors fixed at an angle close to the Brewster (theta ? 45 degrees ). Thus the measured reflectivities are not affected by a progressive variation of the P-component. PMID:20556133

  14. Absolute ultrasonic displacement amplitude measurements with a submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental technique for absolute measurement of ultrasonic wave particle displacement amplitudes in liquids is reported. The technique is capable of measurements over a frequency range of two decades with a sensitivity less than one angstrom. The technique utilizes a previously reported submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) featuring a conductive membrane stretched over a recessed electrode. An uncertainty analysis shows that the displacement amplitude of an ultrasonic plane wave incident on the ESAT can be experimentally determined to better than 2.3-4 percent, depending on frequency, in the frequency range of 0.5-15 MHz. Membranes with lower and more uniform areal densities can improve the accuracy and extend the operation to higher frequencies.

  15. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  16. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmore » ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.« less

  17. Using a dose-area product for absolute measurements in small fields: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dufreneix, S; Ostrowsky, A; Le Roy, M; Sommier, L; Gouriou, J; Delaunay, F; Rapp, B; Daures, J; Bordy, J-M

    2016-01-21

    To extend the dosimetric reference system to field sizes smaller than 2 cm × 2 cm, the LNE-LNHB laboratory is studying an approach based on a new dosimetric quantity named the dose-area product instead of the commonly used absorbed dose at a point. A graphite calorimeter and a plane parallel ion chamber with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter were designed and built for measurements in fields of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter. The detector surface being larger than the beam section, most of the issues linked with absolute dose measurements at a point could be avoided. Calibration factors of the plane parallel ionization chamber were established in terms of dose-area product in water for small fields with an uncertainty smaller than 0.9%. PMID:26690271

  18. Comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar for absolute distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Sinclair, Laura C; Knabe, Kevin; Swann, William C; Newbury, Nathan R

    2013-06-15

    We demonstrate a comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) system for absolute distance measurements. The FMCW ladar uses a compact external cavity laser that is swept quasi-sinusoidally over 1 THz at a 1 kHz rate. The system simultaneously records the heterodyne FMCW ladar signal and the instantaneous laser frequency at sweep rates up to 3400 THz/s, as measured against a free-running frequency comb (femtosecond fiber laser). Demodulation of the ladar signal against the instantaneous laser frequency yields the range to the target with 1 ms update rates, bandwidth-limited 130 μm resolution and a ~100 nm accuracy that is directly linked to the counted repetition rate of the comb. The precision is <100 nm at the 1 ms update rate and reaches ~6 nm for a 100 ms average. PMID:23938965

  19. Diagnostics principle of microwave cut-off probe for measuring absolute electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyun-Su

    2014-08-15

    A generalized diagnostics principle of microwave cut-off probe is presented with a full analytical solution. In previous studies on the microwave cut-off measurement of weakly ionized plasmas, the cut-off frequency ω{sub c} of a given electron density is assumed to be equal to the plasma frequency ω{sub p} and is predicted using electromagnetic simulation or electric circuit model analysis. However, for specific plasma conditions such as highly collisional plasma and a very narrow probe tip gap, it has been found that ω{sub c} and ω{sub p} are not equal. To resolve this problem, a generalized diagnostics principle is proposed by analytically solving the microwave cut-off condition Re[ε{sub r,eff}(ω = ω{sub c})] = 0. In addition, characteristics of the microwave cut-off condition are theoretically tested for correct measurement of the absolute electron density.

  20. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  1. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV-vis measurements of scattered sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Penning de Vries, M.; Remmers, J.; Rozanov, A.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2015-10-01

    Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds, and the shortwave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV-vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, for example zenith sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments or multi-axis (MAX)-DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method, clear-sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about < 7 %. For wavelengths below about 330 nm it is essential that the ozone column density during the measurements be constant and known.

  2. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  3. Correcting horsepower measurements to a standard temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W

    1925-01-01

    This report discusses the relation between the temperature of the air at the entrance to the carburetor and the power developed by the engine. Its scope is limited to a consideration of the range of temperatures likely to result from changes of season, locality, or altitude, since its primary aim is the finding of a satisfactory basis for correcting power measurements to a standard temperature. The tests upon which this report is based were made upon aviation engines in the Altitude Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. From the results of over 1,600 tests it is concluded that if calculations be based on the assumption that the indicated horsepower of an engine varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature of the carburetor air the values obtained will check closely experimental measurements. The extent to which this relationship would be expected from theoretical considerations is discussed and some suggestions are given relative to the use of this relationship in correcting horsepower measurements. (author)

  4. The brightness temperature of Venus and the absolute flux-density scale at 608 MHz.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Berge, G. L.; Orton, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    The disk temperature of Venus was measured at 608 MHz near the inferior conjunction of 1972, and a value of 498 plus or minus 33 K was obtained using a nominal CKL flux-density scale. The result is consistent with earlier measurements, but has a much smaller uncertainty. Our theoretical model prediction is larger by a factor of 1.21 plus or minus 0.09. This discrepancy has been noticed previously for frequencies below 1400 MHz, but was generally disregarded because of the large observational uncertainties. No way could be found to change the model to produce agreement without causing a conflict with well-established properties of Venus. Thus it is suggested that the flux-density scale may require an upward revision, at least near this frequency, in excess of what has previously been considered likely.

  5. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and were further refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has imbedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium, providing calibration from 233K to 303K. One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration will make use of an Experiment Support Package developed by Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory to continuously run melt cycles on miniature phase change cells containing gallium, a gallium-tin eutectic, and water. The phase change cells will be mounted in a small aluminum block along with a thermistor temperature sensor. A thermoelectric cooler will be used to change the temperature of the block. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. Melt signatures

  6. Absolute and relative reliability of lumbar interspinous process ultrasound imaging measurements

    PubMed Central

    Tozawa, Ryosuke; Katoh, Munenori; Aramaki, Hidefumi; Kawasaki, Tsubasa; Nishikawa, Yuichi; Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Fujinawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities of lumbar interspinous process distances measured by ultrasound imaging were examined. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 males who had no history of orthopedic diseases or dysfunctions. Ten lumbar interspinous images from 360 images captured from 10 subjects were selected. The 10 images were measured by nine examiners. The lumbar interspinous process distance measurements were performed five times by each examiner. In addition, four of the nine examiners measured the distances again after 4 days for test-retest analysis. In statistical analysis, the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to investigate relative reliability, and Bland-Altman analysis was used to investigate absolute reliability. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients (1, 1) for intra-examiner reliability ranged from 0.985 to 0.998. For inter-rater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (2, 1) was 0.969. The intraclass correlation coefficients (1, 2) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.991 to 0.999. The Bland-Altman analysis results indicated no systematic error. [Conclusion] The results indicate that ultrasound measurements of interspinous process distance are highly reliable even when measured only once by a single person.

  7. Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  8. A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement by detecting absolute light intensity.

    PubMed

    Snelling, David R; Smallwood, Gregory J; Liu, Fengshan; Gülder, Omer L; Bachalo, William D

    2005-11-01

    Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool for spatially and temporally resolved measurement of particulate (soot) volume fraction and primary particle size in a wide range of applications, such as steady flames, flickering flames, and Diesel engine exhausts. We present a novel LII technique for the determination of soot volume fraction by measuring the absolute incandescence intensity, avoiding the need for ex situ calibration that typically uses a source of particles with known soot volume fraction. The technique developed in this study further extends the capabilities of existing LII for making practical quantitative measurements of soot. The spectral sensitivity of the detection system is determined by calibrating with an extended source of known radiance, and this sensitivity is then used to interpret the measured LII signals. Although it requires knowledge of the soot temperature, either from a numerical model of soot particle heating or experimentally determined by detecting LII signals at two different wavelengths, this technique offers a calibration-independent procedure for measuring soot volume fraction. Application of this technique to soot concentration measurements is demonstrated in a laminar diffusion flame. PMID:16270566

  9. Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV emission. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the absolute efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.

  10. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  11. Absolute spectral response measurements of different photodiodes useful for applications in the UV spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, Maria G.; Ceccherini, Paolo; Garoli, Denis; Masut, Pietro; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio

    2004-09-01

    Long UV radiation exposure can result in damages of biological tissues, as burns, skin aging, erythema and even melanoma cancer. In the past years an increase of melanoma cancer has been observed and associated to the atmospheric ozone deployment. Attendance of sun tanning unit centers has become a huge social phenomena, and the maximum UV radiation dose that a human being can receive is regulated by law. On the other side, UV radiation is largely used for therapeutic and germicidal purposes. In all these areas, spectroradiometer and radiomenter are needed for monitoring UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm) and UVC (100-280 nm) irradiance. We have selected some commercial photodiodes which can be used as solid state detectors in these instruments. We have characterized them by measuring their absolute spectral response in the 200 - 400 nm spectral range.

  12. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D{sub s}{sup +} Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.

    2008-04-25

    The branching fractions of D{sub s}{sup {+-}} meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D{sub s}{sup {+-}} decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=(5.50{+-}0.23{+-}0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decay mode.

  13. Absolute molecular transition frequencies measured by three cavity-enhanced spectroscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Cygan, A; Wójtewicz, S; Kowzan, G; Zaborowski, M; Wcisło, P; Nawrocki, J; Krehlik, P; Śliwczyński, Ł; Lipiński, M; Masłowski, P; Ciuryło, R; Lisak, D

    2016-06-01

    Absolute frequencies of unperturbed (12)C(16)O transitions from the near-infrared (3-0) band were measured with uncertainties five-fold lower than previously available data. The frequency axis of spectra was linked to the primary frequency standard. Three different cavity enhanced absorption and dispersion spectroscopic methods and various approaches to data analysis were used to estimate potential systematic instrumental errors. Except for a well established frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we applied the cavity mode-width spectroscopy and the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for measurement of absorption and dispersion spectra, respectively. We demonstrated the highest quality of the dispersion line shape measured in optical spectroscopy so far. We obtained line positions of the Doppler-broadened R24 and R28 transitions with relative uncertainties at the level of 10(-10). The pressure shifting coefficients were measured and the influence of the line asymmetry on unperturbed line positions was analyzed. Our dispersion spectra are the first demonstration of molecular spectroscopy with both axes of the spectra directly linked to the primary frequency standard, which is particularly desirable for the future reference-grade measurements of molecular spectra. PMID:27276950

  14. Absolute molecular transition frequencies measured by three cavity-enhanced spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygan, A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Kowzan, G.; Zaborowski, M.; Wcisło, P.; Nawrocki, J.; Krehlik, P.; Śliwczyński, Ł.; Lipiński, M.; Masłowski, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Lisak, D.

    2016-06-01

    Absolute frequencies of unperturbed 12C16O transitions from the near-infrared (3-0) band were measured with uncertainties five-fold lower than previously available data. The frequency axis of spectra was linked to the primary frequency standard. Three different cavity enhanced absorption and dispersion spectroscopic methods and various approaches to data analysis were used to estimate potential systematic instrumental errors. Except for a well established frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we applied the cavity mode-width spectroscopy and the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for measurement of absorption and dispersion spectra, respectively. We demonstrated the highest quality of the dispersion line shape measured in optical spectroscopy so far. We obtained line positions of the Doppler-broadened R24 and R28 transitions with relative uncertainties at the level of 10-10. The pressure shifting coefficients were measured and the influence of the line asymmetry on unperturbed line positions was analyzed. Our dispersion spectra are the first demonstration of molecular spectroscopy with both axes of the spectra directly linked to the primary frequency standard, which is particularly desirable for the future reference-grade measurements of molecular spectra.

  15. Absolute height measurement of specular surfaces with modified active fringe reflection photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongyu; Jiang, Xiangqian; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-07-01

    Deflectometric methods have been studied for more than a decade for slope measurement of specular freeform surfaces through utilization of the deformation of a sample pattern after reflection from a tested sample surface. Usually, these approaches require two-directional fringe patterns to be projected on a LCD screen or ground glass and require slope integration, which leads to some complexity for the whole measuring process. This paper proposes a new mathematical measurement model for measuring topography information of freeform specular surfaces, which integrates a virtual reference specular surface into the method of active fringe reflection photogrammetry and presents a straight-forward relation between height of the tested surface and phase signals. This method only requires one direction of horizontal or vertical sinusoidal fringe patterns to be projected from a LCD screen, resulting in a significant reduction in capture time over established methods. Assuming the whole system has been precalibrated during the measurement process, the fringe patterns are captured separately via the virtual reference and detected freeform surfaces by a CCD camera. The reference phase can be solved according to the spatial geometric relation between the LCD screen and the CCD camera. The captured phases can be unwrapped with a heterodyne technique and optimum frequency selection method. Based on this calculated unwrapped-phase and that proposed mathematical model, absolute height of the inspected surface can be computed. Simulated and experimental results show that this methodology can conveniently calculate topography information for freeform and structured specular surfaces without integration and reconstruction processes.

  16. An Absolute Index (Ab-index) to Measure a Researcher’s Useful Contributions and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Akshaya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author’s scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index), has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s) in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index), which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute. PMID:24391941

  17. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Landoas, Olivier; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range. PMID:21806179

  18. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

  19. Comparison of methods and achievable uncertainties for the relative and absolute measurement of photoluminescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Würth, Christian; Grabolle, Markus; Pauli, Jutta; Spieles, Monika; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2011-05-01

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ(f)) that presents a direct measure for the efficiency of the conversion of absorbed photons into emitted photons is one of the spectroscopic key parameters of functional fluorophores. It determines the suitability of such materials for applications in, for example, (bio)analysis, biosensing, and fluorescence imaging as well as as active components in optical devices. The reborn interest in accurate Φ(f) measurements in conjunction with the controversial reliability of reported Φ(f) values of many common organic dyes encouraged us to compare two relative and one absolute fluorometric method for the determination of the fluorescence quantum yields of quinine sulfate dihydrate, coumarin 153, fluorescein, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine 101. The relative methods include the use of a chain of Φ(f) transfer standards consisting of several "standard dye" versus "reference dye" pairs linked to a golden Φ(f) standard that covers the ultraviolet and visible spectral region, and the use of different excitation wavelengths for standard and sample, respectively. Based upon these measurements and the calibration of the instruments employed, complete uncertainty budgets for the resulting Φ(f) values are derived for each method, thereby providing evaluated standard operation procedures for Φ(f) measurements and, simultaneously, a set of assessed Φ(f) standards. PMID:21473570

  20. Measurement of absolute optical thickness distribution of a mask-glass by wavelength tuning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Kenichi; Yangjin, Kim; Bitou, Youichi; Ohsawa, Sonko; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2008-08-01

    The surface flatness and the uniformity in thickness and refractive index of a mask-blank glass have been requested in semiconductor industry. The absolute optical thickness of a mask-blank glass of seven-inch square and 3mm thickness was measured by three-surface interferometry in a wavelength tuning Fizeau interferometer. Wavelength-tuning interferometry can separate in frequency space the three interference signals of the surface shape and the optical thickness. The wavelength of a tunable laser diode source was scanned linearly from 632 nm to 642 nm and a CCD detector recorded two thousand interference images. The number of phase variation of the interference fringes during the wavelength scanning was counted by a temporal discrete Fourier transform. The initial and final phases of the interferograms before and after the scanning were measured by a phase shifting technique with fine tunings of the wavelengths at 632 nm and 642 nm. The optical thickness defined by the group refractive index at the central wavelength of 337 nm can be measured by this technique. Experimental results show that the cross talk in multiple-surface interferometry caused a systematic error of 2.0 microns in the measured optical thickness.

  1. Validation of the absolute extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Craig M.; Nelson, Drew V.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of experiments performed to verify the performance of the fiber-optic absolute extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (AEFPI) for strain measurements. In these experiments, AEFPI sensors are surface mounted and embedded in various materials and subjected to mechanical and thermal strains. Strains measured by the AEFPI are compared to analytical predictions and to metallic foil strain gage measurements where possible. The AEFPI sensors and demodulation equipment were purchased from Fiber and Sensor Technologies (F&S) in Virginia, and all experiments were performed at the Composites Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California. The results of the tests indicate that these sensors are suitable for static and quasi-static strain measurements in both surface mounted and embedded configurations; however, they have a resolution of 100 (mu) (epsilon) , which limits their potential applications. A brief explanation of the theory behind the operation of the AEFPI sensor is presented along with the manufacturer's specifications for the particular model used in thee experiments. The details of the experiments are then described, and a summary of the results presented. Finally, conclusions regarding the accuracy, resolution, linearity, and repeatability of the AEFPI are extracted from the data.

  2. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λc+ Baryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λc+ baryon at the Λc+Λ¯c - production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λc+ discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λc+ hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567 pb-1 of e+e- collisions at √{s }=4.599 GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λc+ decay modes, the branching fraction for Λc+→p K-π+ is determined to be (5.84 ±0.27 ±0.23 )%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  3. A portable system for measuring the absolute geographic location of distant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuscer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2010-10-01

    This contribution presents the development of a lightweight, man-portable system for measuring the absolute geographic location of distant objects. The system is built entirely from COTS (Commercial Of-The-Shelf) components that are controlled using custom software and hardware solutions. It consists of a laser rangefinder, an electronic compass and inclinometer, an optical incremental encoder, a GPS receiver, a CMOS camera, an LCOS viewfinder and an FPGA module that serves as a system controller. With the use of the FPGA, low power consumption and high processing power was achieved. The user interface comprises the viewfinder and a multidirectional button. While performing measurements, the live image of the target, sensor data and calculated coordinates are displayed in the viewfinder. The measuring system also features an SD card slot for data storage and WLAN connectivity to transfer the acquired data to a geographic information system. The contribution also presents the results of field tests used to verify the system operation and Monte Carlo simulations employed to evaluate its measuring characteristics.

  4. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λ_{c}^{+} Baryon.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λ_{c}^{+} baryon at the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λ_{c}^{+} discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λ_{c}^{+} hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λ_{c}^{+} decay modes, the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→pK^{-}π^{+} is determined to be (5.84±0.27±0.23)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved. PMID:26894702

  5. The reaction H + C4H2 - Absolute rate constant measurement and implication for atmospheric modeling of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, D. F.; Mitchell, M. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-04-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction H + C4H2 has been measured over the temperature (T) interval 210-423 K, using the technique of flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence. At each of the five temperatures employed, the results were independent of variations in C4H2 concentration, total pressure of Ar or N2, and flash intensity (i.e., the initial H concentration). The rate constant, k, was found to be equal to 1.39 x 10 to the -10th exp (-1184/T) cu cm/s, with an error of one standard deviation. The Arrhenius parameters at the high pressure limit determined here for the H + C4H2 reaction are consistent with those for the corresponding reactions of H with C2H2 and C3H4. Implications of the kinetic carbon chemistry results, particularly those at low temperature, are considered for models of the atmospheric carbon chemistry of Titan. The rate of this reaction, relative to that of the analogous, but slower, reaction of H + C2H2, appears to make H + C4H2 a very feasible reaction pathway for effective conversion of H atoms to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere of Titan.

  6. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (Inventor); Allen, J. L. (Inventor); Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  7. Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

  8. The Cosmological Impact of AGN Outflows: Measuring Absolute Abundances and Kinetic Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2009-07-01

    AGN outflows are increasingly invoked as a major contributor to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes, their host galaxies, the surrounding IGM, and cluster cooling flows. Our HST/COS proposal will determine reliable absolute chemical abundances in six AGN outflows, which influences several of the processes mentioned above. To date there is only one such determination, done by our team on Mrk 279 using 16 HST/STIS orbits and 100 ksec of FUSE time. The advent of COS and its high sensitivity allows us to choose among fainter objects at redshifts high enough to preclude the need for FUSE. This will allow us to determine the absolute abundances for six AGN {all fainter than Mrk 279} using only 40 HST COS orbits. This will put abundances studies in AGN on a firm footing, an elusive goal for the past four decades. In addition, prior FUSE observations of four of these targets indicate that it is probable that the COS observations will detect troughs from excited levels of C III. These will allow us to measure the distances of the outflows and thereby determine their kinetic luminosity, a major goal in AGN feedback research. We will use our state of the art column density extraction methods and velocity-dependent photoionization models to determine the abundances and kinetic luminosity. Previous AGN outflow projects suffered from the constraints of deciding what science we could do using ONE of the handful of bright targets that were observable. With COS we can choose the best sample for our experiment. As an added bonus, most of the spectral range of our targets has not been observed previously, greatly increasing the discovery phase space.

  9. Absolute measurement of the effective nonlinearities of KTP and BBO crystals by optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D J; Alford, W J; Raymond, T D; Smith, A V

    1996-04-20

    Absolute magnitudes of the effective nonlinearity, deff, were measured for seven KTP and six BBO crystals. The d(eff), were derived from the parametric gain of an 800-nm signal wave in the sample crystals when they were pumped by the frequency-doubled, spatially filtered light from an injectionseeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The KTP crystals, all type II phase matched with propagation in the X-Z plane, had d(eff) values ranging from 1.97 to 3.50 pm/V. Measurements of gain as a function of phase velocity mismatch indicate that two of the KTP crystals clearly contain multiple ferroelectric domains. For five type I phase-matched BBO crystals, d(eff) ranged from 1.76 to 1.83 pm/V, and a single type II phase-matched BBO crystal had a d(eff) of 1.56 pm/V. The uncertainty in our measurements of d(eff) values is ±5% for KTP and ±10% for BBO. PMID:21085331

  10. Direct and absolute absorption measurements in optical materials and coatings by laser induced deflection (LID) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Ch.

    2011-11-01

    Different strategies of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique for direct and absolute absorption measurements are presented. Besides selected strategies for bulk and coating absorption measurements, respectively, a new strategy is introduced allowing the transfer of the LID technique to very small samples and to significantly increase the sensitivity for materials with a very weak photo-thermal response. Additionally, an emphasis is placed on the importance of the calibration procedure. The electrical calibration of the LID setup is compared to two other approaches that use either doped samples or highly absorptive reference samples in combination with numerical simulations. Applying the LID technique, we report on the characterization of AR coated LBO crystals used in high power NIR/VIS laser applications. The comparison of different LBO crystals shows that there are significant differences in both, the AR coating and the LBO bulk absorption. These differences are much larger at 515 nm than at 1030 nm. Absorption spectroscopy measurements combining LID technique with a high power OPO laser system indicate that the coating process affects the LBO bulk absorption properties. Furthermore, the change of the absorption upon 1030 nm laser irradiation of a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal is investigated and compared to recent results. Finally, Ytterbium doped silica raw materials for high power fiber lasers are characterized with respect to the absorption induced attenuation at 1550 nm in order to compare these data with the total attenuation obtained for the subsequently manufactured laser active fibers.

  11. Direct and absolute absorption measurements in optical materials and coatings by laser induced deflection (LID) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Different strategies of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique for direct and absolute absorption measurements are presented. Besides selected strategies for bulk and coating absorption measurements, respectively, a new strategy is introduced allowing the transfer of the LID technique to very small samples and to significantly increase the sensitivity for materials with a very weak photo-thermal response. Additionally, an emphasis is placed on the importance of the calibration procedure. The electrical calibration of the LID setup is compared to two other approaches that use either doped samples or highly absorptive reference samples in combination with numerical simulations. Applying the LID technique, we report on the characterization of AR coated LBO crystals used in high power NIR/VIS laser applications. The comparison of different LBO crystals shows that there are significant differences in both, the AR coating and the LBO bulk absorption. These differences are much larger at 515 nm than at 1030 nm. Absorption spectroscopy measurements combining LID technique with a high power OPO laser system indicate that the coating process affects the LBO bulk absorption properties. Furthermore, the change of the absorption upon 1030 nm laser irradiation of a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal is investigated and compared to recent results. Finally, Ytterbium doped silica raw materials for high power fiber lasers are characterized with respect to the absorption induced attenuation at 1550 nm in order to compare these data with the total attenuation obtained for the subsequently manufactured laser active fibers.

  12. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  13. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  14. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  15. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  16. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  17. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions for $D^-_s\\!\\rightarrow\\!\\ell^-\\bar{\

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2010-10-27

    The absolute branching fractions for the decays D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} ({ell} = e, {mu}, or {tau}) are measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 521 fb{sup -1} collected at center of mass energies near 10.58 GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The number of D{sub s}{sup -} mesons is determined by reconstructing the recoiling system DKX{gamma} in events of the type e{sup +}e{sup -}DKXD*{sub s}{sup -}, where D*{sub s}{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{gamma} and X represents additional pions from fragmentation. The D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {ell}} events are detected by full or partial reconstruction of the recoiling system DKX{gamma}{ell}. The branching fraction measurements are combined to determine the D{sub s}{sup -} decay constant f{sub D{sub s}} = (258.6 {+-} 6.4 {+-} 7.5) MeV, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  18. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  19. Gravity change from repeated absolute measurements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1994-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Falk, R.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Lapushka, K.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Petroškevičius, P.; Timmen, L.

    2009-04-01

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania belong to the margin of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area. Vertical rates predicted by PGR models are in the range 0 to +3 mm/yr. Our first absolute gravity campaigns in the area were performed with the JILAg-5 gravimeter in 1994-1995 when three stations were measured in each country. All three stations in Lithuania were repeated with the JILAg-5 in 2002 and one of them (Vilnius) with the FG5#221 gravimeter in 2007. In Latvia one station (Riga) was remeasured with the FG5#101 and FG5#107 (D. Stizza, NIMA) in 1986 and with the FG5#221 in 2007. In Estonia two of the stations (Suurupi and Töravere) were remeasured with the FG5#220 in 2007 and with the FG5#221 in 2008, the third (Kuressaare) was only remeasured in 2008 with the FG5#221. This amounts to seven repeated stations with time spans of 8-13 years. In interpreting gravity change, special attention must be paid to subsurface water storage, as (due to inaccessibility of crystalline bedrock) many stations are on thick sediments, the repeat measurements were partly made in different seasons, and in some cases there is evidence of strong interannual variation in hydrology. We discuss the constraints to PGR implied by the observed gravity change and compare it with PGR models and with available observations of vertical motion.

  20. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  1. On the use of the thermal lens effect for measuring absolute luminescence quantum yields of transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Joachim; Reinecke, Klaus; Schmidtke, Hans-Herbert

    1992-05-01

    The thermal lens effect or thermal blooming of a laser beam passing through an absorbing medium is used to determine the fraction of absorbed laser power which is converted into heat. By this photocaloric method absolute luminescence quantum yields Φ can be evaluated covering the full range of possible Φ values. A check with organic standards for which quantum yields of 1, 0.52 and 0 are reported, supplies values of 0.99, 0.52 and 0.04, respectively. The sample of compounds [Ru(bipy) 3]X 2, X  Cl, ClO 4, and bipy  bipyridine, were studied using different concentrations in water and methanol solution at room temperature. The results strongly depend on the counter ion: for the Cl -- and (ClO 4) --salts quantum yields of Φ = 0.31 and 0.79, respectively, are obtained, which may be explained by different polarization conditions. The yields are, on the other hand, independent from the solvent and from the concentration, which was considered ranging from 10 -4 to 2.5 × 10 -5 M. Thermal blooming was also observed from [Ru(bipy) 3]Cl 2 contained in KBr pellets, measuring at various temperatures.

  2. Improved Absolute Frequency Measurement of the 171Yb Optical Lattice Clock towards a Candidate for the Redefinition of the Second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Kohno, Takuya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Onae, Atsushi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate an improved absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition at 578 nm in 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The clock laser linewidth is reduced to ≈2 Hz by phase-locking the laser to an ultrastable neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nm through an optical frequency comb with an intracavity electrooptic modulator to achieve a high servo bandwidth. The absolute frequency is determined as 518 295 836 590 863.1(2.0) Hz relative to the SI second, and will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures.

  3. Low-cost, robust, filtered spectrometer for absolute intensity measurements in the soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, N.E.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    2000-06-22

    We have developed a low-cost, robust, multifoil-filtered spectrometer to provide absolute measurements of low-z impurity concentrations in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. The spectrometer utilizes an array of six thin-film coated soft x-ray diodes. Each multilayered coating is specifically tailored to isolate the K-shell emission lines of H- and He-like oxygen, carbon and aluminum. With calibrations obtained via a synchrotron source absolute measurements of photon flux have been made. We address the technical aspects of this diagnostic and present impurity data from both standard and high-confinement plasma discharges.

  4. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  5. Absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50 from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on Space Transportation System (STS)-50 have been examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels have been derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. During the interval, the tri-axial OARE raw telemetered acceleration measurements have been filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval have been analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z-axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process using orbiter maneuvers and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axis. Results indicate that there is a force being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces have been reexamined, but none produces the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the orbiter is creating the environment observed. At least part of this force is thought to be due to the Flash Evaporator System.

  6. Comparison of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity measurement techniques using wavelength-tunable lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahtee, Ville; Brown, Steven W.; Larason, Thomas C.; Lykke, Keith R.; Ikonen, Erkki; Noorma, Mart

    2007-07-10

    Independent methods for measuring the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of detectors have been compared between the calibration facilities at two national metrology institutes, the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Finland, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The emphasis is on the comparison of two different techniques for generating a uniform irradiance at a reference plane using wavelength-tunable lasers. At TKK's Laser Scanning Facility (LSF) the irradiance is generated by raster scanning a single collimated laser beam, while at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS), lasers are introduced into integrating spheres to generate a uniform irradiance at a reference plane. The laser-based irradiance responsivity results are compared to a traditional lamp-monochromator-based irradiance responsivity calibration obtained at the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF). A narrowband filter radiometer with a24 nm bandwidth and an effective band-center wavelength of 801 nm was used as the artifact. The results of the comparison between the different facilities, reported for the first time in the near-infrared wavelength range, demonstrate agreement at the uncertainty level of less than 0.1%. This result has significant implications in radiation thermometry and in photometry as well as in radiometry.

  7. Absolute flatness measurements of silicon mirrors by a three-intersection method by near-infrared interferometry.

    PubMed

    Uchikoshi, Junichi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Ajari, Noritaka; Kawai, Kentaro; Arima, Kenta; Morita, Mizuho

    2013-01-01

    Absolute flatness of three silicon plane mirrors have been measured by a three-intersection method based on the three-flat method using a near-infrared interferometer. The interferometer was constructed using a near-infrared laser diode with a 1,310-nm wavelength light where the silicon plane mirror is transparent. The height differences at the coordinate values between the absolute line profiles by the three-intersection method have been evaluated. The height differences of the three flats were 4.5 nm or less. The three-intersection method using the near-infrared interferometer was useful for measuring the absolute flatness of the silicon plane mirrors. PMID:23758916

  8. Common rectifier diodes in temperature measurement applications below 50 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvelä, J.; Stenvall, A.; Mikkonen, R.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we studied the use of common electronic semiconductor diodes in temperature measurements at cryogenic atmosphere. The motivation for this is the high price of calibrated cryogenic temperature sensors since there are some applications, like quench detection, in which a cheaper and a less accurate sensor would suffice. We measured the forward voltage as a function of temperature, Vf(T), of several silicon rectifier diodes to determine the accuracy and interchangeability of the diodes. The experimental results confimed that Vf(T) of common rectifier diodes are similar to cryogenic sensor diodes, but the variability between two samples is much larger. The interchangeability of the diodes proved to be poor if absolute temperatures are to be measured. However for sensing changes in temperature they proved to be adequate and thus can be used to measure e.g. quench propagation or sense quench ignition at multiple locations with cheap price.

  9. Extraction of the global absolute temperature for Northern Hemisphere using a set of 6190 meteorological stations from 1800 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Demetris T.

    2015-06-01

    Starting from a set of 6190 meteorological stations we are choosing 6130 of them and only for Northern Hemisphere we are computing average values for absolute annual Mean, Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum temperature plus their standard deviations for years 1800-2013, while we use 4887 stations and 389 467 rows of complete yearly data. The data quality and the seasonal bias indices are defined and used in order to evaluate our dataset. After the year 1969 the data quality is monotonically decreasing while the seasonal bias is positive in most of the cases. An Extreme Value Distribution estimation is performed for minimum and maximum values, giving some upper bounds for both of them and indicating a big magnitude for temperature changes. Finally suggestions for improving the quality of meteorological data are presented.

  10. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  11. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  12. Some triple-filament lead isotope ratio measurements and an absolute growth curve for single-stage leads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Delevaux, M.E.; Ulrych, T.J.

    1969-01-01

    Triple-filament analyses of three standard lead samples are used to calibrate a mass spectrometer in an absolute sense. The bias we measure is 0.0155 percent per mass unit, and the precision (for 95% confidence limits) is ??0.13% or less for all ratios relative to 204Pb. Although its precision is not quite so good as that of the lead-tetramethyl method in the analysis of large samples, the triple-filament method is less complex and is an attractive alternative for smaller sample sizes down to 500 ??g. Triple-filament data are presented for six possibly single-stage lead ores and one feldspar. These new data for ores are combined with corrected tetramethyl data for stratiform lead deposits to compute absolute parameters for a universal single-stage lead isotope growth curve. Absolute isotopic ratios for primeval lead have been determined by Oversby and because all the previous data for both meteorites and lead ores were similarly fractionated, the absolute value of 238U 204Pb = 9.09 ?? 0.06 for stratiform leads is little different from the value 8.99 ?? 0.05 originally computed by Ostic, Russell and Stanton. Absolute values for lead isotope ratios for all interlaboratory standard samples presently available from the literature are tabulated. ?? 1969.

  13. Absolute spectral irradiance measurements of lightning from 375 to 880 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orville, R. E.; Henderson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The time-integrated emissions from cloud-to-ground lightning have been recorded in the 375-880 nm region, using a spectrometer-detector and multichannel analyzer system capable of absolute spectral irradiance measurements. A schematic drawing of the detector-analyzer system is presented, and the experimental setup is described. A total of ten flashes containing 46 individual strikes were recorded and compared to recordings of 500 flashes from 1981. The average spectral irradiance from 375 to 695 nm for flashes at about 15 km was 3.5 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke with a standard deviation of 2.0 x 10 to the -5th and a range from 0.7 x 10 to the 0.7-6.8 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke. The average stroke spectra irradiance from 650 to 880 nm for the same strokes was 1.2 x 10 to the -5th, with a standard deviation of 0.7 x 10 to the -5th and a range from 0.5 to 3.2 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke. A summary table of spectral irradiance values in 50 nm increment is presented. Analysis of the spectral emission data show that unresolved neutral hydrogen lines (NI) at 744.2 nm were more intense than H-alpha emission at 656.3 nm. The strong emission of a flash with a continuing current was identified as cyanogen (CN) emission.

  14. Reduced Haemodynamic Response in the Ageing Visual Cortex Measured by Absolute fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Laura McKernan; Aitchison, Ross Thomas; Tawse, Melisa; Simmers, Anita Jane; Shahani, Uma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of healthy ageing on visual cortical activation is still to be fully explored. This study aimed to elucidate whether the haemodynamic response (HDR) of the visual cortex altered as a result of ageing. Visually normal (healthy) participants were presented with a simple visual stimulus (reversing checkerboard). Full optometric screening was implemented to identify two age groups: younger adults (n = 12, mean age 21) and older adults (n = 13, mean age 71). Frequency-domain Multi-distance (FD-MD) functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure absolute changes in oxygenated [HbO] and deoxygenated [HbR] haemoglobin concentrations in the occipital cortices. Utilising a slow event-related design, subjects viewed a full field reversing checkerboard with contrast and check size manipulations (15 and 30 minutes of arc, 50% and 100% contrast). Both groups showed the characteristic response of increased [HbO] and decreased [HbR] during stimulus presentation. However, older adults produced a more varied HDR and often had comparable levels of [HbO] and [HbR] during both stimulus presentation and baseline resting state. Younger adults had significantly greater concentrations of both [HbO] and [HbR] in every investigation regardless of the type of stimulus displayed (p<0.05). The average variance associated with this age-related effect for [HbO] was 88% and [HbR] 91%. Passive viewing of a visual stimulus, without any cognitive input, showed a marked age-related decline in the cortical HDR. Moreover, regardless of stimulus parameters such as check size, the HDR was characterised by age. In concurrence with present neuroimaging literature, we conclude that the visual HDR decreases as healthy ageing proceeds. PMID:25909849

  15. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

  16. Field Measurement of Sand Dune Bidirectional Reflectance Characteristics for Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Optical Remote Sensing Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, C. A.; Logie, G.; Beaver, J.; Helder, D.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or cross-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving absolute calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish absolute radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for absolute sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents the field data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. These BRDF data are part of a larger study that is seeking to evaluate and quantify all aspects of this dune system (from regional effects to the micro scale optical properties of the sand) in order to provide an absolute radiometric calibration PICS. This paper presents the results of a dense temporal measurement sequence (several measurements per hour with high angular resolution), to yield detailed information on the nature of the surface reflectance properties. The BRDF data were collected covering typical view geometry of space borne sensors and will be used to close the loop on the calibration to create an absolute calibration target for optical satellite absolute radiometric calibration.

  17. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Haugen, Gilbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  18. Room-temperature instability of TRM and the problem of estimating absolute paleointensity from non single domain materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute paleointensity data are essential for understanding Earth's deep interior, climatic modeling, and geochronology applications, among others. Paleointensity data are derived from experiments in which the ancient TRM is replaced by a laboratory controlled TRM. This procedure is built on the assumption that the process of ancient TRM acquisition is entirely reproducible in the lab. Here we show experimental results violating this assumption in a manner not expected from standard theory. We prepared 118 pairs of nearly identical specimens. One specimen from each pair was given laboratory TRM and allowed to "age" in a controlled fixed field, identical and parallel to the laboratory TRM field, for two years. After two years the second specimen was given a "fresh" TRM. Thus, the two specimens in each pair differ in only one significant respect: the time elapsed from the TRM acquisition. We carried out IZZI-type absolute paleointensity experiments on the two groups. Under the assumption of TRM stability we expect that the behavior of the twin specimens in the experiment would be exactly the same. Yet, we found a small but systematic difference between the "aged" and the "fresh" TRM. The "aged" TRM yield more curved and zigzaggy Arai plots, and exhibit a shift in the blocking/unblocking spectra. This effect leads to a systematic bias in paleointensity estimates caused only by room-temperature instability of TRM. The change in TRM properties is likely caused by irreversible changes in micromagnetic structures of non single domains.

  19. Absolute gravity measurements in Southeast Alaska and continuous gravity observation in Juneau by ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazama, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Okubo, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Kaufman, M.; Herreid, S. J.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that Southeast Alaska (SE-AK) shows a large uplift rates exceeding 32 mm/year at the maximum mainly due to the three ice changes in ages, i.e. in the Large Glacier Maximum, the Little Ice Age and the present day. Comparisons between rates of change obtained from GPS and absolute gravimeter (AG) observations and the rates predicted by model computations based on independently estimated ice mass changes indicate the existence of a very thin lithosphere (on the order of 60 km) and a low viscousity upper mantle (on the order of 1.E18 Pa s) beneath SE-AK (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al, 2011; Sato et al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also known that there are very large oceanic tidal loading effects in SE-AK, i.e. exceeding 2.7 cm and 8 microGals for the M2 constituent of the vertical displacement and gravity, respectively (Sato et al., 2008; Inazu et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012). These regional large loading and unloading effects provide good signals to study the viscoelastic structure beneath SE-AK. A joint observation project (ISEA2) between Japan and USA groups has restarted as a five years project beginning in 2012. In June 2012, we conducted the AG measurements at the 6 sites in SE-AK at where the AG measurements were conducted by the previous ISEA1 project (Sun et al., 2010). Continuous gravity observation started also on June 2012 with a portable super conducting gravimeter (iGrav) at the EGAN library of UAS. We will introduce the results for these observations and comparisons with the previous observations and model computations. It is noted that the precipitation during the period from the winter in 2011 to the spring in 2012 was very large compared with the usual amount. We evaluate this effect on our gravity observations with a hydrological model computation (Kazama and Okubo, 2009) using the observed precipitation data as an input data. The observation with the iGrav super conducting gravimeter shall give us a useful data

  20. Design of a quasi-zero-stiffness based sensor system for the measurement of absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xingjian; Wang, Yu; Li, Quankun; Sun, Xiuting

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the analysis and design of a novel sensor system for measuring the absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms based on the concept of quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS). The sensor system is constructed using positive- and negative-stiffness springs, which make it possible to achieve an equivalent QZS and consequently to create a broadband vibration-free point for absolute vibration displacement measurement in moving platforms. Theoretical analysis is conducted for the analysis and design of the influence of structure parameters on system measurement performance. A prototype is designed which can avoid the drawback of instability in existing QZS systems with negative stiffness, and corresponding data-processing software is developed to fulfill time domain measurements. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of this novel sensor system.

  1. High-accuracy interferometer with a prism pair for measurement of the absolute refractive index of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2009-04-10

    We propose a variable-path interferometric technique for the measurement of the absolute refractive index of optical glasses. We use two interferometers to decide the ratio between changes in the optical path in a prism-shaped sample glass and in air resulting from displacement of the sample. The method allows precise measurements to be made without prior knowledge of the properties of the sample. The combined standard uncertainty of the proposed method is 1.6x10{sup -6}.

  2. A system for measuring absolute frequencies of up to 4.25 THz using a Josephson point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mild, Yukinobu; Onae, Atsushi; Kurosawa, Tomizo; Sakuma, Eiichi

    1993-11-01

    A system for measuring the absolute frequency of a far-infrared (FIR) laser is described. Josephson point contacts have been utilized in the system as a frequency harmonic mixer connecting microwaves and optically pumped CH3OH laser lines. The Josephson point contacts are capable of generating beat signals of 90 GHz microwaves and FIR waves of up to 4.25 THz. To measure the frequency of the beat signals from the Josephson junction with a frequency counter, tracking oscillators have been developed, which tracks the beat signals by phase locking and regenerate clean signals for frequency counting. It is shown that the absolute frequency can be measured to an accuracy of about 100 Hz by using the tracking oscillators.

  3. Usability of a Fourier transform spectroradiometer for absolute surface spectral solar UV irradiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Meindl, Peter; Wähmer, Martin; Monte, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The suitability of a commercially available Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a fiber-coupled global entrance optic as a reference spectroradiometer for the measurement of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance at ground level has been investigated. The instrument has been characterized with respect to the wavelength uncertainty, and a calibration of the spectral irradiance responsivity has been performed by using the calculable irradiance of a high temperature black-body radiator and by using a secondary irradiance standard lamp. The relative standard uncertainty of solar irradiance measurements in the wavelength range from 310 nm to 400 nm with this spectroradiometer, based on the described methodology, is 1.6% for solar zenith angles of less than 60°. PMID:25401540

  4. Absolute measurement of thermal noise in a resonant short-range force experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Housworth, E. A.; Meyer, H. O.; Visser, G.; Weisman, E.; Long, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    Planar, double-torsional oscillators are especially suitable for short-range macroscopic force search experiments, since they can be operated at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. As a study of this limit, we report a measurement of the noise kinetic energy of a polycrystalline tungsten oscillator in thermal equilibrium at room temperature. The fluctuations of the oscillator in a high-Q torsional mode with a resonance frequency near 1 kHz are detected with capacitive transducers coupled to a sensitive differential amplifier. The electronic processing is calibrated by means of a known electrostatic force and input from a finite-element model. The measured average kinetic energy, Eexp = (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-21 J, is in agreement with the expected value of 1/2{{k}B}T.

  5. Role of Absolute Humidity in the Inactivation of Influenza Viruses on Stainless Steel Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James; Rudnick, Stephen; First, Melvin; Spengler, John

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus has been found to persist in the environment for hours to days, allowing for secondary transmission of influenza via inanimate objects known as fomites. We evaluated the efficacy of heat and moisture for the decontamination of surfaces for the purpose of preventing of the spread of influenza. Aqueous suspensions of influenza A virus were deposited onto stainless steel coupons, allowed to dry under ambient conditions, and exposed to temperatures of 55°C, 60°C, or 65°C and relative humidity (RH) of 25%, 50%, or 75% for up to 1 h. Quantitative virus assays were performed on the solution used to wash the viruses from these coupons, and results were compared with the solution used to wash coupons treated similarly but left under ambient conditions. Inactivation of influenza virus on surfaces increased with increasing temperature, RH, and exposure time. Reductions of greater than 5 logs of influenza virus on surfaces were achieved at temperatures of 60 and 65°C, exposure times of 30 and 60 min, and RH of 50 and 75%. Our data also suggest that absolute humidity is a better predictor of surface inactivation than RH and allows the prediction of survival using two parameters rather than three. Modest amounts of heat and adequate moisture can provide effective disinfection of surfaces while not harming surfaces, electrical systems, or mechanical components, leaving no harmful residues behind after treatment and requiring a relatively short amount of time. PMID:20435770

  6. Absolute high spectral resolution measurements of surface solar radiation for detection of water vapour continuum absorption.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, T D; Coleman, M; Browning, H; Tallis, L; Ptashnik, I V; Shine, K P

    2012-06-13

    Solar-pointing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy offers the capability to measure both the fine scale and broadband spectral structure of atmospheric transmission simultaneously across wide spectral regions. It is therefore suited to the study of both water vapour monomer and continuum absorption behaviours. However, in order to properly address this issue, it is necessary to radiatively calibrate the FTIR instrument response. A solar-pointing high-resolution FTIR spectrometer was deployed as part of the 'Continuum Absorption by Visible and Infrared radiation and its Atmospheric Relevance' (CAVIAR) consortium project. This paper describes the radiative calibration process using an ultra-high-temperature blackbody and the consideration of the related influence factors. The result is a radiatively calibrated measurement of the solar irradiation at the ground across the IR region from 2000 to 10 000 cm(-1) with an uncertainty of between 3.3 and 5.9 per cent. This measurement is shown to be in good general agreement with a radiative-transfer model. The results from the CAVIAR field measurements are being used in ongoing studies of atmospheric absorbers, in particular the water vapour continuum. PMID:22547234

  7. Separating climate-induced mass transfers and instrumental effects from tectonic signal in repeated absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.

  8. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  9. Measurements of Starspot Area and Temperature on II Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Douglas; Neff, James E.; Saar, Steven H.

    1993-12-01

    We are developing an empirical technique that yields independent measurements of starspot area and starspot temperature on active stars. Our technique involves fitting observed spectra near TiO absorption bands with synthetic spectra derived for various combinations of starspot and non-spot temperatures and starspot filling factors. Our comparison grid is generated from observed spectra of inactive G and K stars and of M dwarfs and giants. The absolute depth of the TiO bands in the spectra of active stars is a measure of the starspot filling factor, while the relative strength of different bands constrains the starspot temperature. We have analyzed a series of spectra of the single-lined spectroscopic binary system II Pegasi (HD 224085), K2 IV-V, P=6.7d. We find that cool starspots (Teff ~ 3400K) are always visible, covering from 35% to 50% as the star rotates. However, the absolute and relative depths of TiO bands are not by themselves sufficient to establish the temperature of the non-spot photosphere. When coupled with a temperature difference provided by multi-color photometry, this technique will enable us to uniquely determine temperatures and relative filling factors of both the spot and non-spot components of spotted stars.

  10. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  11. Student Award Finalist: Reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasmas with water admixtures for biomedical applications: Absolute measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Sandra; Bredin, J.; West, A.; Niemi, K.; Dedrick, J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Foucher, M.; Booth, J.-P.; Wagenaars, E.; Gans, T.; O'Connell, D.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the production of atomic oxygen (O), hydroxyl (OH) and atomic hydrogen (H) in an rf atmospheric-pressure plasma operated in helium with water admixtures. These species, and their longer-lived products, are known to influence biological systems. Absolute measurements of species densities are required to develop these plasmas for therapeutics. Accurate determination of radical densities is challenging at elevated pressures in complex gas mixtures due to collisional quenching. We measure radical densities using VUV high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, UV broadband absorption spectroscopy, and picosecond two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (ps-TALIF). These diagnostics are the most suitable techniques allowing direct, absolute and 2-dimensional spatial resolution measurements at atmospheric pressure. Ps-TALIF also enables measurements of the lifetimes of laser-excited states of O and H, providing insight into the chemical kinetics and ambient air diffusion into the plasma jet region. Good agreement has been found between the measurements and a numerical chemical-kinetic simulation. Funding from the UK EPSRC (EP/K018388/1 & EP/H003797/1), the York-Paris Low Temperature Plasma Collaborative Research Centre and financial state aid managed by the laboratory of excellence Plas@Par (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).

  12. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  13. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (3) Absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schiel, A.

    2006-12-01

    The southeast Alaska is undergoing a rapid ice-melting and land uplift due to the effect of global warming in the last three hundred years. The corresponding crustal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound has been clearly detected by modern geodetic techniques, e.g., GPS and tidal gauge measurements (Larsen et al., 2004; Sato et al., 2005). The geodetic deformation provides us useful information in evaluating ice-melting rate, effect of global warming, and even the viscosity beneath the crust. For this purpose, however, integrated geodetic observation, especially including gravity measurement, is considered very important (Miura et al., a separate presentation at the same AGU conference; Wahr et al., 1995). Therefore, to detect the crutal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound and to study the viscoelastic structure of the earth in the southeast Alaska, a joint team of Japanese and U.S. researchers has begun a three year project of GPS, earth tide, and absolute gravity measurements. In this presentation, results of the absolute gravity observation carried out between June 3 and June 18, 2006 are reported. During the 2006 observation campaign, a network of absolute gravity was for the first time established which is composed of five sites about 100 km around of Juneau: Bartlett Cove at Gustavus, Russell Island, Hains Fairground at Hains, UAS Egan Library at Juneau and Mendenhall Glacier Visitors Center at Juneau, Alaska. Absolute gravity data were acquired at the five sites using a Micro-LaCoste absolute gravimeter, serial number 111. A typical occupation recorded a set of 100 single measurements every half hour. At each site data were collected over a 48~62 hour period. Due to the bad ocean model in this area, ocean loading correction seems not efficient because large tidal residuals remain in the observed results. To carry out an accurate tidal correction, on site tidal observation was also performed. Detail discussions on tidal observation and

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Absolute wind measurements in the lower thermosphere of Venus using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey J.

    1990-01-01

    The first absolute wind velocities above the Venusian cloud-tops were obtained using NASA/Goddard infrared heterodyne spectrometers at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the McMath Solar Telescope. Beam-integrated Doppler displacements in the non-thermal emission core of (12)C(16)O2 10.33 micron R(8) sampled the line of sight projection of the lower thermospheric wind field (100 to 120 km). A field-usable Lamb-dip laser stabilization system, developed for spectrometer absolute frequency calibration to less than + or - 0.1 MHz, allowed S/N-limited line of sight velocity resolution at the 1 m/s level. The spectrometer's diffraction-limited beam (1.7 arc-second HPBW at McMath, 0.9 arc-second HPBW at IRTF), and 1 to 2 arc-second seeing, provided the spatial resolution necessary for circulation model discrimination. Qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds provided definitive evidence of a dominant subsolar-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere. Beam-integrated winds were modelled with a 100x100 grid over the beam, incorporating beam spatial rolloff and across-the-beam gradients in non-thermal emission intensity, line of sight projection geometry, and horizontal wind velocity. Horizontal wind velocity was derived from a 2-parameter model wind field comprised of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. Best-fit models indicated a dominant subsolar-antisolar flow with 120 m/s cross-terminator winds and a retrograde zonal component with a 25 m/s equatorial velocity. A review of all dynamical indicators above the cloud-tops allowed development of an integrated and self-consistent picture of circulation in the 70 to 200 km range.

  17. Absolute distance measurement by multi-heterodyne interferometry using a frequency comb and a cavity-stabilized tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Balling, Petr; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a multi-heterodyne system capable of absolute distance measurement using a frequency comb and a tunable diode laser locked to a Fabry-Perot cavity. In a series of subsequent measurements, numerous beat components can be obtained by downconverting the optical frequency into the RF region with multi-heterodyne interferometry. The distances can be measured via the mode phases with a series of synthetic wavelengths. The comparison with the reference interferometer shows an agreement within 1.5 μm for the averages of five measurements and 2.5 μm for the single measurement, which is at the 10-8 relative precision level. PMID:27411152

  18. Method based on chirp decomposition for dispersion mismatch compensation in precision absolute distance measurement using swept-wavelength interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Hu, Tao; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-12-14

    We establish a theoretical model of dispersion mismatch in absolute distance measurements using swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) and propose a novel dispersion mismatch compensation method called chirp decomposition. This method separates the dispersion coefficient and distance under test, which ensures dispersion mismatch compensation without introducing additional random errors. In the measurement of a target located at 3.9 m, a measurement resolution of 45.9 μm is obtained, which is close to the theoretical resolution, and a standard deviation of 0.74 μm is obtained, which is better than the traditional method. The measurement results are compared to a single-frequency laser interferometer. The target moves from 1 m to 3.7 m, and the measurement precision using the new method is less than 0.81 μm. PMID:26698959

  19. Characterization and Absolute QE Measurements of Delta-Doped N-Channel and P-Channel CCDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquot, Blake C.; Monacos, Steve P.; Jones, Todd J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Hoenk, Michael E.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the methodology for making absolute quantum efficiency (QE) measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) through the near infrared (NIR) on delta-doped silicon CCDs. Delta-doped detectors provide an excellent platform to validate measurements through the VUV due to their enhanced UV response. The requirements for measuring QE through the VUV are more strenuous than measurements in the near UV and necessitate, among other things, the use of a vacuum monochromator, and good camera vacuum to prevent chip condensation, and more stringent handling requirements. The system used for these measurements was originally designed for deep UV characterization of CCDs for the WF/PC instrument on Hubble and later for Cassini CCDs.

  20. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  1. Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of (223)Ra and decay progeny in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-08-01

    Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the (223)Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of (223)Ra, (219)Rn, (215)Po, (211)Pb, (211)Bi and (207)Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides (223)Ra, (219)Rn and (211)Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the (223)Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. PMID:25933406

  2. Absolute optical extinction measurements of single nano-objects by spatial modulation spectroscopy using a white lamp.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Pierre; Marhaba, Salem; Grillet, Nadia; Cottancin, Emmanuel; Bonnet, Christophe; Lermé, Jean; Vialle, Jean-Louis; Broyer, Michel; Pellarin, Michel

    2010-04-01

    This article describes a high sensitivity spectrophotometer designed to detect the overall extinction of light by a single nanoparticle (NP) in the 10(-4)-10(-5) relative range, using a transmission measurement configuration. We focus here on the simple and low cost scheme where a white lamp is used as a light source, permitting easy and broadband extinction measurements (300-900 nm). Using a microscope, in a confocal geometry, an increased sensitivity is reached thanks to a modulation of the NP position under the light spot combined with lock-in detection. Moreover, it is shown that this technique gives access to the absolute extinction cross-sections of the single NP provided that the incident electromagnetic field distribution experienced by the NP is accurately characterized. In this respect, an experimental procedure to characterize the light spot profile in the focal plane, using a reference NP as a probe, is also laid out. The validity of this approach is discussed and confirmed by comparing experimental intensity distributions to theoretical calculations taking into account the vector character of the tightly focused beam. The calibration procedure permitting to obtain the absolute extinction cross-section of the probed NP is then fully described. Finally, the force of the present technique is illustrated through selected examples concerning spherical and slightly elongated gold and silver NPs. Absolute extinction measurements are found to be in good consistency with the NP size and shape independently obtained from transmission electron microscopy, showing that spatial modulation spectroscopy is a powerful tool to get an optical fingerprint of the NP. PMID:20441319

  3. Accurate radiocarbon age estimation using "early" measurements: a new approach to reconstructing the Paleolithic absolute chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Takayuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new correction approaches for "early" radiocarbon ages to reconstruct the Paleolithic absolute chronology. In order to discuss time-space distribution about the replacement of archaic humans, including Neanderthals in Europe, by the modern humans, a massive data, which covers a wide-area, would be needed. Today, some radiocarbon databases focused on the Paleolithic have been published and used for chronological studies. From a viewpoint of current analytical technology, however, the any database have unreliable results that make interpretation of radiocarbon dates difficult. Most of these unreliable ages had been published in the early days of radiocarbon analysis. In recent years, new analytical methods to determine highly-accurate dates have been developed. Ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC methods, as new sample pretreatments for bone and charcoal respectively, have attracted attention because they could remove imperceptible contaminates and derive reliable accurately ages. In order to evaluate the reliability of "early" data, we investigated the differences and variabilities of radiocarbon ages on different pretreatments, and attempted to develop correction functions for the assessment of the reliability. It can be expected that reliability of the corrected age is increased and the age applied to chronological research together with recent ages. Here, we introduce the methodological frameworks and archaeological applications.

  4. Absolute intensity measurements of the CO2 bands 401-III /backward arrow/ 000 and 411-III /backward arrow/ 010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute intensities of the studied transitions of CO2 have been measured from spectra obtained under high resolution. Vibration-rotation line intensities and integrated band intensities are reported. The studied bands are characterized by origins at 7593.5 and 7584 cm to the minus 1. Spectra were obtained by an Ames' 25-m base path White-type absorption cell equipped with silver-coated mirrors together with a 5-m focal length Czerny-Turner scanning spectrometer. The procedures for calculating the widths and intensities are explained, and uncertainty limits of the reported values are considered.

  5. 3D absolute shape measurement of live rabbit hearts with a superfast two-frequency phase-shifting technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Laughner, Jacob I; Efimov, Igor R; Zhang, Song

    2013-03-11

    This paper presents a two-frequency binary phase-shifting technique to measure three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape of beating rabbit hearts. Due to the low contrast of the cardiac surface, the projector and the camera must remain focused, which poses challenges for any existing binary method where the measurement accuracy is low. To conquer this challenge, this paper proposes to utilize the optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique to generate high-frequency fringe patterns, and the error-diffusion dithering technique to produce low-frequency fringe patterns. Furthermore, this paper will show that fringe patterns produced with blue light provide the best quality measurements compared to fringe patterns generated with red or green light; and the minimum data acquisition speed for high quality measurements is around 800 Hz for a rabbit heart beating at 180 beats per minute. PMID:23482151

  6. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  7. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution: Experimental methods and measurements for helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.F.; Cooper, G.; Brion, C.E. )

    1991-07-01

    An alternative method is described for the measurement of absolute optical oscillator strengths (cross sections) for electronic excitation of free atoms and molecules throughout the discrete region of the valence-shell spectrum at high energy resolution (full width at half maximum of 0.048 eV). The technique, utilizing the virtual-photon field of a fast electron inelastically scattered at negligible momentum transfer, avoids many of the difficulties associated with the various direct optical techniques that have traditionally been used for absolute optical oscillator strength measurements. The method is also free of the bandwidth (line saturation) effects that can seriously limit the accuracy of photoabsorption cross-section measurements for discrete transitions of narrow linewidth obtained using the Beer-Lambert law ({ital I}{sub 0}/{ital I}=exp({ital nl}{sigma}{sub {ital p}})). Since the line-saturation effects are not widely appreciated and are only usually considered in the context of peak heights, a detailed analysis of this problem is presented, with consideration of the integrated cross section (oscillator strength) over the profile of each discrete peak.

  8. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  9. Atmospheric Temperature Profile Measurements Using Mobile High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razenkov, Ilya I.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-06-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discriminates between Mie and Rayleigh backscattering [1]. It exploits the Doppler effect caused by thermal motion of molecules, which broadens the spectrum of the transmitted laser light. That allows for absolute calibration of the lidar and measurements of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient. Two iodine absorption filters with different absorption line widths (a regular iodine vapor filter and Argon buffered iodine filter) allow for atmospheric temperature profile measurements. The sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio is around 0.14%/K. The instrument uses a shared telescope transmitter-receiver design and operates in eyesafe mode (the product of laser average power and telescope aperture equals 0.1 Wm2 at 532 nm).

  10. Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

  11. Cerebral perfusion and oxygenation are impaired by folate deficiency in rat: absolute measurements with noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Troen, Aron M

    2011-01-01

    Brain microvascular pathology is a common finding in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. However, the extent to which microvascular abnormalities cause or contribute to cognitive impairment is unclear. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can address this question, but its use for clarifying the role of microvascular dysfunction in dementia has been limited due to theoretical and practical considerations. We developed a new noninvasive NIRS method to obtain quantitative, dynamic measurements of absolute brain hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation and used it to show significant cerebrovascular impairments in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. We fed young rats folate-deficient (FD) and control diets and measured absolute brain hemoglobin and hemodynamic parameters at rest and during transient mild hypoxia and hypercapnia. With respect to control animals, FD rats featured significantly lower brain hemoglobin concentration (72±4 μmol/L versus 95±6 μmol/L) and oxygen saturation (54%±3% versus 65%±2%). By contrast, resting arterial oxygen saturation was the same for both groups (96%±4%), indicating that decrements in brain hemoglobin oxygenation were independent of blood oxygen carrying capacity. Vasomotor reactivity in response to hypercapnia was also impaired in FD rats. Our results implicate microvascular abnormality and diminished oxygen delivery as a mechanism of cognitive impairment. PMID:21386853

  12. Absolute prompt-gamma yield measurements for ion beam therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Bajard, M; Brons, S; Chevallier, M; Dauvergne, D; Dedes, G; De Rydt, M; Freud, N; Krimmer, J; La Tessa, C; Létang, J M; Parodi, K; Pleskač, R; Prieels, D; Ray, C; Rinaldi, I; Roellinghoff, F; Schardt, D; Testa, E; Testa, M

    2015-01-21

    Prompt-gamma emission detection is a promising technique for hadrontherapy monitoring purposes. In this regard, obtaining prompt-gamma yields that can be used to develop monitoring systems based on this principle is of utmost importance since any camera design must cope with the available signal. Herein, a comprehensive study of the data from ten single-slit experiments is presented, five consisting in the irradiation of either PMMA or water targets with lower and higher energy carbon ions, and another five experiments using PMMA targets and proton beams. Analysis techniques such as background subtraction methods, geometrical normalization, and systematic uncertainty estimation were applied to the data in order to obtain absolute prompt-gamma yields in units of prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, unit of field of view, and unit of solid angle. At the entrance of a PMMA target, where the contribution of secondary nuclear reactions is negligible, prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, per millimetre and per steradian equal to (124 ± 0.7stat ± 30sys) × 10(-6) for 95 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, (79 ± 2stat ± 23sys) × 10(-6) for 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, and (16 ± 0.07stat ± 1sys) × 10(-6) for 160 MeV protons were found for prompt gammas with energies higher than 1 MeV. This shows a factor 5 between the yields of two different ions species with the same range in water (160 MeV protons and 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions). The target composition was also found to influence the prompt-gamma yield since, for 300/310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, a 42% greater yield ((112 ± 1stat ± 22sys) × 10(-6) counts ion(-1) mm(-1) sr(-1)) was obtained with a water target compared to a PMMA one. PMID:25548833

  13. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  14. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  15. Precision absolute measurement and alignment of laser beam direction and position.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Daniel; Müller, Vitali; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    For the construction of high-precision optical assemblies, direction and position measurement and control of the involved laser beams are essential. While optical components such as beamsplitters and mirrors can be positioned and oriented accurately using coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), the position and direction control of laser beams is a much more intriguing task since the beams cannot be physically contacted. We present an easy-to-implement method to both align and measure the direction and position of a laser beam using a CMM in conjunction with a position-sensitive quadrant photodiode. By comparing our results to calibrated angular and positional measurements we can conclude that with the proposed method, a laser beam can be both measured and aligned to the desired direction and position with 10 μrad angular and 3 μm positional accuracy. PMID:25322238

  16. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  17. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  18. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  19. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  20. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result. PMID:23464200

  1. Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zilio, Valery Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh

    2006-06-15

    Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an {sup 192}Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

  2. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  3. Establishment of a force balanced piston gauge for very low gauge and absolute pressure measurements at NPL, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, D. Arun; Prakash, Om; Sharma, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    National Physical Laboratory, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of India is maintaining Primary standards of pressure that cover several decades of pressure, starting from 3.0E-06 Pa to 1.0 GPa. Among which a recent addition is a Force Balanced Piston Gauge, the non-rotating piston type, having better resolution and zero stability compared to any other primary pressure standards commercially available in the range 1.0 Pa to 15.0 kPa (abs and gauge). The characterization of this FPG is done against Ultrasonic Interferometer Manometer (UIM), the National Primary pressure standard, working in the range 1.0 Pa to 130.0 kPa (abs and diff) and Air Piston Gauge (APG), a Transfer Pressure Standard, working in the range 6.5 kPa to 360 kPa (abs and gauge), in their overlapping pressure regions covering both absolute and gauge pressures. As NPL being one of the signatories to the CIPM MRA, the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMC) of both the reference standards (UIM & APG), are Peer reviewed and notified in the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) of BIPM. The estimated mean effective area of the Piston Cylinder assembly of this FPG against UIM (980.457 mm2) and APG (980.463 mm2) are well within 4 ppm and 10 ppm agreement respectively, with the manufacturer's reported value (980.453 mm2). The expanded uncertainty of this FPG, Q(0.012 Pa, 0.0025% of reading), evaluated against UIM as reference standard, is well within the reported value of the manufacturer, Q(0.008 Pa, 0.003% of reading) at k = 2. The results of the characterization along with experimental setup & measurement conditions (for gauge and absolute pressure measurements), uncertainty budget preparation and evaluation of measurement uncertainty are discussed in detail in this paper.

  4. TU-A-12A-09: Absolute Blood Flow Measurement in a Cardiac Phantom Using Low Dose CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a first pass analysis technique to measure absolute flow from low dose CT images in a cardiac phantom. This technique can be combined with a myocardial mass assignment to yield absolute perfusion using only two volume scans and reduce the radiation dose to the patient. Methods: A four-chamber cardiac phantom and perfusion chamber were constructed from poly-acrylic and connected with tubing to approximate anatomical features. The system was connected to a pulsatile pump, input/output reservoirs and power contrast injector. Flow was varied in the range of 1-2.67 mL/s with the pump operating at 60 beats/min. The system was imaged once a second for 14 seconds with a 320-row scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems) using a contrast-enhanced, prospective-gated cardiac perfusion protocol. Flow was calculated by the following steps: subsequent images of the perfusion volume were subtracted to find the contrast entering the volume; this was normalized by an upstream, known volume region to convert Hounsfield (HU) values to concentration; this was divided by the subtracted images time difference. The technique requires a relatively stable input contrast concentration and no contrast can leave the perfusion volume before the flow measurement is completed. Results: The flow calculated from the images showed an excellent correlation with the known rates. The data was fit to a linear function with slope 1.03, intercept 0.02 and an R{sup 2} value of 0.99. The average root mean square (RMS) error was 0.15 mL/s and the average standard deviation was 0.14 mL/s. The flow rate was stable within 7.7% across the full scan and served to validate model assumptions. Conclusion: Accurate, absolute flow rates were measured from CT images using a conservation of mass model. Measurements can be made using two volume scans which can substantially reduce the radiation dose compared with current dynamic perfusion techniques.

  5. Development of a vector-tensor system to measure the absolute magnetic flux density and its gradient in magnetically shielded rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, J.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S.; Gutkelch, D.; Neuber, S.; Schnabel, A.; Burghoff, M.; Haueisen, J.

    2015-05-15

    Several experiments in fundamental physics demand an environment of very low, homogeneous, and stable magnetic fields. For the magnetic characterization of such environments, we present a portable SQUID system that measures the absolute magnetic flux density vector and the gradient tensor. This vector-tensor system contains 13 integrated low-critical temperature (LTc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) inside a small cylindrical liquid helium Dewar with a height of 31 cm and 37 cm in diameter. The achievable resolution depends on the flux density of the field under investigation and its temporal drift. Inside a seven-layer mu-metal shield, an accuracy better than ±23 pT for the components of the static magnetic field vector and ±2 pT/cm for each of the nine components of the gradient tensor is reached by using the shifting method.

  6. Absolute perfusion measurements and associated iodinated contrast agent time course in brain metastasis: a study for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Layal; Deman, Pierre; Tessier, Alexandre; Balosso, Jacques; Estève, François; Adam, Jean- François

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment that combines the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using medium energy X-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the absolute amount of iodine reached in the tumor and its time course. Quantitative, postinfusion iodine biodistribution and associated brain perfusion parameters were studied in human brain metastasis as key parameters for treatment feasibility and quality. Twelve patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (40 mL, 4 mL/s), followed by a steady-state infusion (160 mL, 0.5 mL/s) to ensure stable intratumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations and quantitative perfusion maps were derived from 40 multislice dynamic computed tomography (CT) images of the brain. The postinfusion mean intratumoral iodine concentration (over 30 minutes) reached 1.94±0.12 mg/mL. Reasonable correlations were obtained between these concentrations and the permeability surface area product and the cerebral blood volume. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study of CA biodistribution versus time in brain metastasis. The study shows that suitable and stable amounts of iodine can be reached for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy. Moreover, the associated perfusion measurements provide useful information for the patient recruitment and management processes. PMID:24447951

  7. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  8. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  9. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV/vis measurements of scattered sun light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Penning de Vries, M.; Remmers, J.; Rozanov, A.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2015-05-01

    Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds and the short wave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV/vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, like for example zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS-) instruments or Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method clear sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about <7%. For wavelengths below about 330 nm it is essential that the ozone column density during the measurements is constant and known.

  10. Laser-excitation technique for the measurement of absolute transition probabilities of weak atomic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, H. S.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is presented for the measurement of transition probabilities for weak allowed, intersystem, and forbidden lines. The method exploits the fact that oscillator strength is proportional to the number of stimulated absorptions and emissions produced by a narrow-band laser pulse of known energy which is in resonance with an atomic transition. The method is tested for a particular transition of Mg I with a known oscillator strength value and of appropriate magnitude. The number densities are measured using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the hook method for the lower level population and by measuring an absorption-equivalent width for the other. The apparatus consisted of a high-power tunable laser and a magnesium oven to produce excited Mg vapor, and a laser-plasma background continuum. The results are in good agreement with theoretical and other experimental data.

  11. Absolute Measurement of Lattice Spacing d(220) in Floating Zone Silicon Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Kan; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Misawa, Guento

    1995-09-01

    The lattice spacing d220 of a silicon crystal of National Research Laboratory of Metrology has been measured with a new combined X-ray and optical interferometer, with relative uncertainty of 0.16 ppm. This value is in good agreement with other reported values, whereas the ratio of molar mass M to density ρ measured for this crystal shows discrepancy of around 3 ppm from previously reported ratios. It seems that the conventional route to determining the Avogadro constant from M, ρ and d220 will require a new characterization technique to estimate the number of silicon atoms in a unit cell volume.

  12. Validation of short-pulse-laser-based measurement setup for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity calibration.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michaela; Nevas, Saulius; Sperling, Armin

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the validation process of mode-locked lasers in the "tunable lasers in photometry" (TULIP) setup at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) regarding spectral irradiance responsivity calibrations. Validation has been carried out in the visible spectral range, 400-700 nm, with two different photometer heads and in the long wavelength range, 690-780 nm, with a filtered radiometer. A comparison of the results against those from two different validated measurement setups has been carried out for validation. For the visible spectral range, the comparison is conducted against the data obtained from a lamp-based monochromator setup for spectral irradiance responsivity calibrations and against the photometric values (integral quantity) measured at the photometric bench setup of PTB. For the long wavelength range, comparisons against results from two different lamp-based monochromator measurement setups were made. Additionally, the effect of different radiation bandwidths on interference oscillations has been determined for a filter radiometer without a diffuser. A procedure for the determination of the optimum bandwidth of the setup for the respective measurement device is presented. PMID:24921865

  13. Improved determination of seafloor absolute magnetization from uneven, near-seafloor magnetic measurements and high-resolution bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Fouquet, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Vector magnetometers installed on deep-sea submersibles offer a unique opportunity to achieve high resolution magnetic investigations at the scale of hundred to thousand meters. Once corrected for the vehicle induced and remanent magnetization, the measurements mostly reflect variations of the topography and the submersible path - i.e. the distance between the sources and the observation points. The interesting parameter, however, is the seafloor magnetization that can be interpreted in terms of geological processes. Here we present methods to compute absolute magnetization of the seafloor by taking advantage of the uneven track of the submersible. In these methods, synthetic anomalies are computed for a unit magnetization assuming the geometry of the experiment, i.e. the source and the submersible path. The absolute magnetization is determined by a comparison between the observed anomalies and the synthetic ones along sliding windows. The coherency between the two signals gives an estimation of the quality of the determination, and the phase provides information on the magnetic polarity, and therefore the age of volcanic features. Such a method has been developed by Honsho et al. (JGR, 2009) using deep-sea submersible data only, i.e. magnetic anomaly, depth and altitude of the submersible. The synthetic anomalies are computed using 2D forward modeling, i.e. assuming the structures to be infinite in the direction perpendicular to the submersible path. The method has been applied with success to linear profiles crossing elongated structures such as mid-ocean ridges, but may fail for structures departing from the 2D assumption. The adaptation of improving multibeam systems to autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has opened the way to the collection of very high resolution bathymetric data (around 2m between each measurement). This development has triggered a new strategy to explore the seafloor using manned submersibles: an AUV is operated during night time to

  14. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  15. How to Measure the Thermal Expansion Coefficient at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    Thermal expansion measurements in the high temperature range have been thoroughly explored, and various experimental methods are available even as commercial instrumentation, measurements at cryogenic temperatures have been confined to the field of high-precision laboratory experiments, needing large experimental efforts and expenses, and often also suffering from intrinsic limitations. All techniques used for the measurements of thermal expansion can be divided into two categories, namely: absolute methods and relative methods. While in the former the linear changes of dimension of the sample are directly measured at various temperature, in the latter the coefficient of thermal expansion is determined through comparison with a reference materials of known thermal expansion. A lot of experimental set-ups are described in Sect. 2.1 , while Sect. 2.2 some examples of measurements performed at very low temperatures are listed.

  16. Absolute Cross sections of Fe XVII x-ray transitions measured with the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M.; Scofield, J.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-04-01

    We have used the NASA/GSFC engineering model Astro-E microcalorimeter 6x6 array with the LLNL electron beam ion trap uc(ebit-i) to measure absolute excitation cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell x-ray transitions by normalizing to radiative recombination (RR). In the past, normalizing Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitions to RR has not been possible because it is approximately 1000 times weaker than direct excitation, its emission often blends with emission from other charge states, and it is separated from direct excitation by greater than 500 eV. However, because of its large effective area, high resolution, large bandwidth, and long-time gain stability, the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter coupled with uc(ebit-i) has made measurement of absolute cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitons possible. We present the measured cross sections of two of the strongest lines observed in a plethora of astrophysical sources, the Fe uc(xvii) resonance and intercombination lines, located at 15.01 Å and 15.26 Årespectively. Our results provide stringent tests for atomic data present in spectral modeling packages and can be used to interpret high-resolution spectra provided by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and, in the near future, Astro-E2. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under auspices of DOE under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Columbia University.

  17. A new method for measuring absolute total electron-impact cross sections with forward scattering corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.; Liescheski, P.B.; Bonham, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    In this article we describe an experimental technique to measure the total electron-impact cross section by measurement of the attenuation of an electron beam passing through a gas at constant pressure with the unwanted forward scattering contribution removed. The technique is based on the different spatial propagation properties of scattered and unscattered electrons. The correction is accomplished by measuring the electron beam attenuation dependence on both the target gas pressure (number density) and transmission length. Two extended forms of the Beer--Lambert law which approximately include the contributions for forward scattering and for forward scattering plus multiple scattering from the gas outside the electron beam were developed. It is argued that the dependence of the forward scattering on the path length through the gas is approximately independent of the model used to describe it. The proposed methods were used to determine the total cross section and forward scattering contribution from argon (Ar) with 300-eV electrons. Our results are compared with those in the literature and the predictions of theory and experiment for the forward scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed as a further test of the method.

  18. Absolute frequency measurements of the lithium D lines using an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simien, Clayton; Brewer, Samuel; Tan, Joseph; Gillaspy, John; Sansonetti, Craig

    2010-03-01

    High precision spectroscopic measurements of the isotope shift of low-lying lithium transitions can be combined with precise theory to probe the relative nuclear charge radii of various lithium isotopes. This technique is of particular interest for exotic isotopes for which scattering experiments are not feasible. But recently measured isotope shifts for the D1 and D2 lines of the stable isotopes ^6Li and ^7Li remain in strong disagreement with each other and with theory. Experimental values for the splitting isotope shift (SIS), believed to be the most reliable prediction, are not even consistent as to sign and disagree with theory by as much as 16 standard deviations. We will report results from a new experiment in progress at the NIST. We observe the D lines by crossing a highly collimated lithium beam with a very stable tunable laser. Unlike previous experiments, we directly measure the optical frequency of the laser at every data point by using an optical frequency comb referenced to a cesium clock. Initial results suggest that fully resolved lithium hyperfine components will be determined with an uncertainty of a few tens of kilohertz. We expect to obtain precise new values for the fine structure, hyperfine structure, and isotope shifts of the lithium D lines and a definitive test of the calculated SIS.

  19. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  20. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  1. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  2. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  3. Regularity of absolutely continuous invariant measures for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Fabián; Dolgopyat, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Let f:[0,1]\\to [0,1] be a piecewise expanding unimodal map of class C  k+1, with k≥slant 1 , and μ =ρ \\text{d}x the (unique) SRB measure associated to it. We study the regularity of ρ. In particular, points N where ρ is not differentiable has zero Hausdorff dimension, but is uncountable if the critical orbit of f is dense. This improves on a work of Szewc (1984). We also obtain results about higher orders of differentiability of ρ in the sense of Whitney.

  4. Hot spot temperature measurements in DT layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Ma, T.; Macphee, A.; Callahan, D.; Chen, H.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edgell, D.; Hurricane, O.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Jarrott, L.; Kritcher, A.; Springer, P.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature of the burning DT hot spot in an ICF implosion is a crucial parameter in understanding the thermodynamic conditions of the fuel at stagnation and and the performance of the implosion in terms of alpha-particle self-heating and energy balance. The continuum radiation spectrum emitted from the hot spot provides an accurate measure of the emissivity-weighted electron temperature. Absolute measurements of the emitted radiation are made with several independent instruments including spatially-resolved broadband imagers, and space- and time-integrated monochromatic detectors. We present estimates of the electron temperature in DT layered implosions derived from the radiation spectrum most consistent with the available measurements. The emissivity-weighted electron temperatures are compared to the neutron-averaged apparent ion temperatures inferred from neutron time-of-flight detectors. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  6. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  7. Effect of ambient temperature and attachment method on surface temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Niedermann, Reto; Rossi, René M.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate measurement of skin surface temperature is essential in both thermo-physiological and clinical applications. However, a literature review of the last two decades of physiological or clinical research revealed an inconsistency or a lack of information on how temperature sensors were attached to the skin surface. The purpose of this study was to systematically compare and quantify the performance of different commercially available temperature sensors and their typical attachment methods, and, secondly, to provide a time-efficient and reliable method for testing any sensor-tape combination. In conclusion, both the sensor type and the attachment method influenced the results of temperature measurements (both its absolute and relative dimensions). The sensor shape and the contact of its sensing area to the surface, as well as the conductance of the tape were the most important parameters to minimise the influence of environmental conditions on surface temperature measurement. These results suggest that temperature sensors and attachment methods for human subject and manikin trials should be selected carefully, with a systematic evaluation of the sensor-tape system under conditions of use, and emphasise the need to report these parameters in publications.

  8. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions of$B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm X_{c\\bar c}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U. /Basilicata U., Potenza

    2005-11-02

    We study the two-body decays of B{sup {+-}} mesons to K{sup {+-}} and a charmonium state, X{sub c{bar c}}, in a sample of 210.5 fb{sup -1} of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}} X{sub c{bar c}}) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}(3872)) < 3.2 x 10{sup -4} at 90% CL and the inferred lower limit {Beta}(X(3872) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  9. Absolute neutron fluence measurements between 0.5 and 3MeV and their intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. W.; Guung, T. C.; Pei, C. C.; Yang, T. N.; Hwang, W. S.; Thomas, D. J.

    1999-02-01

    Primary standards of monoenergetic neutron fluences for 0.565, 1.5 and 2.5MeV neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction have been developed for the calibration of neutron dosimeters and spectrometers. The fluences for 0.565MeV neutrons were measured using both H2 and CH4 proton recoil proportional counters with the measured spectra fitted to the modified SPEC-4 Monte Carlo simulations for the subtraction of gamma and recoil carbons. The fluences for 1.5 and 2.5MeV neutrons were determined with vacuum-type proton recoil telescopes. Various uncertainties for each detector are analyzed and its overall uncertainty is 3.1% for gas counter and less than 3% for the telescope. These neutron fluence standards have been intercompared with those of the National Physical Laboratory of the United Kingdom by the use of two transfer instruments: a long counter and a 3He detector. The comparison results will be presented and discussed.

  10. Absolute equation of state and opacity measurements of CH plastic to 40 TPa using the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeppner, T.; Swift, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Kritcher, A.; Collins, G.; Glenzer, S.; Rothman, S.; Chapman, D.; Gaffney, J.; Rose, S.; Falcone, R.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed an experimental configuration using a hohlraum-driven spherically-convergent shock to induce pressures into the gigabar range, measuring the Hugoniot radiographically. The shock pressure increases with convergence, so a range of Hugoniot states is obtained from a single experiment. The opacity along the Hugoniot is also deduced, which is essential in gigabar experiments as it changes significantly from its initial value. We are focusing initially on plastics, as we can reliably obtain spherical samples with the desired design of ablator, and the radiographic signal is reasonable. Our initial measurements on NIF used a conservative timing of the x-ray backlighter to allow for uncertainty in the EOS, and probed only part of the pressure range. The shock speed and compression, obtained from radiographic analysis, gave absolute Hugoniot states from 12-41 TPa, which is an order of magnitude greater than previously measured in CH. The measured EOS locus was consistent with the previous measurements, and significantly stiffer than the theoretical EOS used for comparison. Our analysis also gave the variation of opacity along the Hugoniot, which showed a decrease of an order of magnitude, as expected from atomic physics calculations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  12. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton-proton elastic scattering at small angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Khoukaz, A.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Macharashvili, G.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Schroer, D.; Shmakova, V.; Stassen, R.; Stein, H. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Täschner, A.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Workman, R. L.; Wüstner, P.

    2016-04-01

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis. After extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.

  13. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton–proton elastic scattering at small angles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis.more » Furthermore, after extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.« less

  14. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements for D+ and D0 Inclusive Semileptonic Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Meyer, T. O.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Weinberger, M.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Potlia, V.; Stoeck, H.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Naik, P.; Sedlack, C.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Gong, D. T.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Zweber, P.; Ernst, J.; Severini, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Aquines, O.; Li, Z.; Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Coan, T. E.; Gao, Y. S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K.; Csorna, S. E.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We present measurements of the inclusive branching fractions for the decays D+→Xe+νe and D0→Xe+νe, using 281pb-1 of data collected on the ψ(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector. We find B(D0→Xe+νe)=(6.46±0.17±0.13)% and B(D+→Xe+νe)=(16.13±0.20±0.33)%. Using the known D meson lifetimes, we obtain the ratio ΓD+sl/ΓD0sl=0.985±0.028±0.015, confirming isospin invariance at the level of 3%. The positron momentum spectra from D+ and D0 have consistent shapes.

  15. Absolute linearity measurements on a PV HgCdTe detector in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2012-04-01

    The linearity-of-response characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detector were investigated at a number of wavelengths in the infrared, using the NPL linearity of detector response characterization facility. The measurements were performed with the test detector operating under conditions identical to those in which the detectors will be used in typical infrared radiometric applications. The deviation from linearity in the generated photocurrent was shown to be strongly dependent on the area of the detector being illuminated. Plots of the linearity factor versus generated photocurrent for different illuminated wavelengths were shown to overlap. The linearity factor was shown to be a function of the photon irradiance of the illuminating beam. This behaviour was similar to that exhibited by photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detectors, indicating that Auger recombination was the dominant source of the deviation from linearity observed in the test detector.

  16. Absolute Linearity Measurements on HgCdTe Detectors in the Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharous, Evangelos; Ishii, Juntaro; Fox, Nigel P.

    2004-07-01

    The nonlinearity characteristics of photoconductive and photovoltaic HgCdTe detectors were experimentally investigated in the infrared wavelength region by use of the National Physical Laboratory detector linearity measurement facility. The nonlinearity of photoconductive HgCdTe detectors was shown to be a function of irradiance rather than the total radiant power incident on the detector. Photoconductive HgCdTe detectors supplied by different vendors were shown to have similar linearity characteristics for wavelengths around 10 µm. However, the nonlinearity of response of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector was shown to be significantly lower than the corresponding value for photoconductive HgCdTe detectors at the same wavelength.

  17. Measurement of absolute branching fractions of inclusive semileptonic decays of charm and charmed-strange mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the inclusive semileptonic branching fractions of D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons. For these measurements, we have used the full CLEO-c open-charm data samples, 818 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=3.774 GeV, giving D{sup 0}D{sup 0} and D{sup +}D{sup -} events, and 602 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=4.170 GeV, giving D{sub s}*{sup {+-}D}{sub s}{sup {+-}}events. We obtain B(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.46{+-}0.09{+-}0.11)%, B(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(16.13{+-}0.10{+-}0.29)%, and B(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.52{+-}0.39{+-}0.15)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. From these and lifetimes obtained elsewhere, we obtain the ratios of semileptonic decay widths {Gamma}(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.985{+-}0.015{+-}0.024 and {Gamma}(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.828{+-}0.051{+-}0.025. The ratio of D{sup +} and D{sup 0} is consistent with the isospin symmetry prediction of unity, and the ratio of D{sub s}{sup +} and D{sup 0} differs from unity, as expected.

  18. Accurate temperature measurements with a degrading thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Skripnik, Y.A.; Khimicheva, A.I.

    1995-04-01

    Ways are considered of enhancing the accuracy of thermoelectric measurement of temperature. The high accuracy method proposed for monitoring the temperature of an aggressive medium can determine the temperature, irrespective of the instantaneous values of the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, i.e., irrespective of the uncontrolled thermocouple sensitivity, which varies during use.

  19. Minimizing noise-temperature measurement errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of noise-temperature measurement errors of low-noise amplifiers was performed. Results of this analysis can be used to optimize measurement schemes for minimum errors. For the cases evaluated, the effective noise temperature (Te) of a Ka-band maser can be measured most accurately by switching between an ambient and a 2-K cooled load without an isolation attenuator. A measurement accuracy of 0.3 K was obtained for this example.

  20. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature. PMID:27410109

  1. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  2. Ultrasonic temperature measurements with fiber optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jingcheng; Ma, Tong; Liu, Yuqian; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic temperature measurements have been developed and widely applied in non-contact temperature tests in many industries. However, using optical fibers to build ultrasound generators are novel. This paper reports this new fiber optic ultrasonic system based on the generator of gold nanoparticles/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The optical acoustic system was designed to test the change of temperature on the aluminum plate and the temperature of the torch in the air. This paper explores the relationship between the ultrasonic transmission and the change of temperature. From the experimental results, the trend of ultrasonic speed was different in the aluminum plate and air with the change of temperature. Since the system can measure the average temperature of the transmission path, it will have significant influence on simulating the temperature distribution.

  3. Laser Spectroscopic Measurement Of Temperature And Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.; Laufer, Gabriel

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses research on use of laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen and Raman scattering in air for simultaneous measurement of temperature and density of air. Major application of laser spectroscopic techniques, measurement of fluctuations of temperature and density in hypersonic flows in wind tunnels.

  4. Simple, accurate temperature-measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Fadin, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Compact instrument, composed of integrated circuits and a temperature-sensitive platinum resistor, measures temperature over a wide dynamic range. Ultimate accuracy is limited by nonlinearity of the platinum resistor. With proper calibration and current regulation to within 0.01 percent, a measurement accuracy of 0.05 percent can be achieved.

  5. Linearization of Pt resistance temperature measurement circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-xiang

    2001-09-01

    A correction method for non-linear Pt resistance temperature measurement based on the principle of A/D conversion is introduced. The design principle of Pt resistance linear temperature measurement is analyzed and a new method for interfacing A/D converter with single chip computer 89c52 is provided together with the experimental data.

  6. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  7. Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

  8. Leptin in whales: validation and measurement of mRNA expression by absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ball, Hope C; Holmes, Robert K; Londraville, Richard L; Thewissen, Johannes G M; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: "relative" and "absolute". To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR "background" material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and that the use of

  9. Investigation of 10-Stage Axial-Flow X24C-2 Compressor. 1; Performance at Inlet Pressure of 21 Inches Mercury Absolute and Inlet Temperature of 538 R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    The performance at inlet pressure of 21 inches mercury absolute and inlet temperature of 538 R for the 10-stage axial-flow X24C-2 compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was investigated. the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency for a given speed generally occurred at values of pressure coefficient fairly close to 0.35.For this compressor, the efficiency data at various speeds could be correlated on two converging curves by the use of a polytropic loss factor derived.

  10. A reference radiance-meter system for thermodynamic temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S. G. R.; Briaudeau, S.; Bourson, F.; Rougié, B.; Truong, D.; Kozlova, O.; Coutin, J.-M.; Sadli, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the radiometric performance of a radiance-meter system which has been built at the LNE-Cnam to determine the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature fixed points. The work comes as an integral part of the ‘implementing the new Kelvin’ (INK) project in which nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) strive to assign the thermodynamic temperatures to the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points with the lowest possible uncertainty. The method used in this research is based on the radiance approach. It exploits a system based on a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source whose radiance is absolutely measured by a trap detector through a well-defined geometry. The trap detector is calibrated traceable to the LNE-Cnam’s cryogenic radiometer. Once the radiance of the sphere is defined, a single grating-based spectroradiometer is used to measure the radiance of the fixed point source at the laser wavelength through direct comparison with the sphere radiance. This allows the thermodynamic temperature of the fixed point to be determined using Planck’s radiation law. The work provides a thorough evaluation of the system along with a detailed study of all related systematic effects and their corresponding uncertainties.

  11. Uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Matyszkiel, Robert; Fischer, Joachim; Barela, Jaroslaw

    2001-06-01

    All main international metrological organizations are proposing a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of the accuracy of measurements. A mathematical model that enables the calculations of uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras is presented. The standard uncertainty or the expanded uncertainty of temperature measurement of the tested object can be calculated when the bounds within which the real object effective emissivity (epsilon) r, the real effective background temperature Tba(r), and the real effective atmospheric transmittance (tau) a(r) are located and can be estimated; and when the intrinsic uncertainty of the thermal camera and the relative spectral sensitivity of the thermal camera are known.

  12. A Technique to Measure Energy Partitioning and Absolute Gas Pressures of Strombolian Explosions Using Doppler Radar at Erebus Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, A.; Hort, M.; Kyle, P. R.; Voege, M.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005/06 we deployed three 24GHz (K-Band) continuous wave Doppler radar instruments at the crater rim of Erebus volcano in Antarctica. At the time there was a ~40 m wide, ~1000°C hot convecting phonolite lava lake, which was the source of ~0-6 Strombolian gas bubble explosions per day. We measured the velocities of ~50 explosions using a sample rate of 1-15 Hz. Data were downloaded in real-time through a wireless network. The measurements provide new insights into the still largely unknown mechanism of Strombolian eruptions, and help improve existing eruption models. We present a technique for a quasi in-situ measurement of the absolute pressure inside an eruption gas bubble. Pressures were derived using a simple eruption model and measured high resolution bubble surface velocities during explosions. Additionally, this technique allows us to present a comprehensive energy budget of a volcanic explosion as a time series of all important energy terms (i.e. potential, kinetic, dissipative, infrasonic, surface, seismic and thermal energy output). The absolute gas pressure inside rising expanding gas bubbles rapidly drops from ~3-10 atm (at the time when the lake starts to bulge) to ~1 atm before the bubble bursts, which usually occurs at radii of ~15-20m. These pressures are significantly lower than previously assumed for such explosions. The according internal energy of the gas agrees well with the observed total energy output. The results show that large explosions released about 109 to 1010 J each (equivalent to about 200-2000 kg of TNT), at a peak discharge rate frequently exceeding 109 W (the power output of a typical nuclear power plant). This dynamic output is mainly controlled by the kinetic and potential energy of the exploding magma shell, while other energy types were found to be much smaller (with the exception of thermal energy). Remarkably, most explosions at Erebus show two distinct surface acceleration peaks separated by ~0.3 seconds. This suggests

  13. Continuous, online measurement of the absolute plasma refill rate during hemodialysis using feedback regulated ultrafiltration: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brummelhuis, Walter J; van Schelven, Leonard J; Boer, Walther H

    2008-01-01

    Methods to continuously measure absolute refill during dialysis are not available. It would be useful to have such a method because it would allow investigating the mechanism of refill the effect of interventions. We designed a feedback algorithm that adjusts ultrafiltration rate (QUF) according to hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in such a way that relative blood volume (BV) remains constant within a narrow target range. In this situation, the generated QUF quantitatively reflects refill. Refill patterns were studied in five hypotension prone patients. In addition, on separate occasions, we studied the effect of antiembolism stockings (AES) and infusion of hydroxy-ethylated starch (HAES) on refill in these patients. Refill during the first hour fell significantly from 21 +/- 3 ml/min to 9 +/- 2 ml/min (p < 0.05). In the second hour, refill decreased further and became zero in four out of five patients. Neither AES nor HAES measurably affected refill. The marked and rapid fall in refill in the early stages of dialysis suggests untimely depletion of the interstitial compartment and underestimation of dry weight. We propose that continuous, online measurement of refill patterns may be of value for accurate estimation of dry weight in dialysis patients. PMID:18204322

  14. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb^{-1} of data collected at √{s}=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=(8.72 ± 0.07_stat. ± 0.18_sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ ), B(D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e), and the lifetimes of the D^0 and D^+ mesons with the value of B(D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }) measured in this work, we determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ (D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ )/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=0.963± 0.044 and Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ })/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e)=0.988± 0.033.

  15. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  16. Measuring global temperatures: Their analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    2011-07-01

    This book documents how global surface temperature anomalies (GSTAs) and multidecadal trends are obtained. While ocean heat content change is a more robust metric with which to diagnose global warming, GSTAs have become a primary icon in the climate change debate. The book begins with a brief overview chapter of the Earth's radiative energy budget followed by two chapters on measurement approaches to monitoring temperature, including an interesting discussion of temperature scales. Chapters 4-6 concern measuring land and ocean temperatures. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss global networks and how point measurements are converted to obtain global averages. Chapter 9 focuses on changes in time of temperatures, including maximum and minimum values. This is followed by a short chapter on temperature profiles through the atmosphere and a final chapter of recommendations for future observations of this metric.

  17. Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W.

    1992-12-31

    A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

  18. Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

  19. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  20. Absolute measurements of the electronic transition moments of seven band systems of the C2 molecule. Ph.D. Thesis - York Univ., Toronto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Electronic transition moments of seven C2 singlet and triplet band systems in the 0.2-1.2 micron spectral region were measured. The measurements were made in emission behind incident shock waves in C2H2-argon mixtures. Narrow bandpass radiometers were used to obtain absolute measurements of shock-excited C2 radiation from which absolute electronic transition moments are derived by a synthetic spectrum analysis. New results are reported for the Ballik-Ramsay, Phillips, Swan, Deslandres-d'Azambuja, Fox-Herzberg, Mulliken, and Freymark systems.

  1. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  2. Traceability of a CCD-Camera System for High-Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünger, L.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.; Krüger, U.; Schmidt, F.

    2015-08-01

    A CCD camera, which has been specially equipped with narrow-band interference filters in the visible spectral range for temperature measurements above 1200 K, was characterized with respect to its temperature response traceable to ITS-90 and with respect to absolute spectral radiance responsivity. The calibration traceable to ITS-90 was performed at a high-temperature blackbody source using a radiation thermometer as a transfer standard. Use of Planck's law and the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the camera system allows the determination of the thermodynamic temperature. For the determination of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, a monochromator-based setup with a supercontinuum white-light laser source was developed. The CCD-camera system was characterized with respect to the dark-signal-non-uniformity, the photo-response-non-uniformity, the non-linearity, and the size-of-source effect. The influence of these parameters on the calibration and measurement was evaluated and is considered for the uncertainty budget. The results of the two different calibration schemes for the investigated temperature range from 1200 K to 1800 K are in good agreement considering the expanded uncertainty . The uncertainty for the absolute spectral responsivity of the camera is 0.56 %.

  3. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  4. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development. PMID:26524781

  5. Atmospheric temperature measurements, using Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, J. A.; Coney, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Raman-shifted return of a lidar system had been used to make atmospheric temperature measurements. The measurements were made along a horizontal path at temperatures ranging from -30 to 30 C and at ranges of about 100 meters. The temperature data were acquired by recording the intensity ratio of two portions of the rotational Raman spectrum, which were simultaneously sampled from a preset range. These tests verified that the theoretical predictions formulated in the design of the system were adequate. Measurements were made to an accuracy of + or - 4 C with 1-minute temporal resolution.

  6. Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

  7. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  8. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  9. High-temperature capacitive strain measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E. J.; Egger, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Capacitive strain gage and signal conditioning system measures stress-induced strain and cancels thermal expansion strain at temperatures to 1,500 F (815 C). Gage does not significantly restrain or reinforce specimen.

  10. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  11. Gravity change in Finland from comparison of new measurements using the outdoor absolute gravimeter A10 with legacy relative measurements - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jaakko; Sekowski, Marcin; Krynski, Jan; Ruotsalainen, Hannu

    2010-05-01

    Finland belongs to the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area, with vertical velocities of up to 1 cm/yr and corresponding surface gravity rates as large as -2 microgal/yr. Knowledge of the secular gravity change in Finland comes so far from three sources: (i) repeated absolute gravity measurements at a limited number of indoor laboratory-type sites, made by various teams and instruments (1976-), (ii) repeated relative measurements on the Fennoscandian Land Uplift Gravity Lines (1966-2003) which run in East-West direction along the approximate latitudes 61, 63 and 65 degrees N, (iii) satellite gravimetry with the GRACE (2002-). We are about to add a fourth source: In 2009 the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) together with the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK) started the re-measurement of the Finnish First Order Absolute Gravity Network (FOGN), using the A10 No. 020 outdoor absolute gravimeter of the IGiK. The FOGN consists of 50 outdoor stations, typically on the stairs of churches and other monumental buildings. The purpose of the FOGN (or its re-measurement) is not geodynamic research but the provision of easily-accessible reference sites for tasks of practical relative gravimetry, say gravity mapping for geodesy, geology and applied geophysics. However, as the FOGN was first measured in 1962-63 (with a Worden gravimeter) and re-surveyed in 1988 (with two LCR gravimeters), the time span of more than 45 years to 2009 provides the opportunity to extract a signal of gravity change from the comparison of the three campaigns. While the accuracy of the 1962-63 measurements is limited, at some FOGN stations additional data is provided by North-South traverses measured from 1966 onwards for calibration of LCR gravimeters. During the 2009 campaign with the A10-020 altogether 19 stations in the FOGN were occupied, and about 10 of them are sufficiently well-preserved from 1962-63 to make a gravity comparison meaningful. The experience with the A10 and the

  12. Absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from six operational radiosonde types launched during AWEX-G and implications for AIRS validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloshevich, Larry M.; VöMel, Holger; Whiteman, David N.; Lesht, Barry M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Russo, Felicita

    2006-05-01

    A detailed assessment of radiosonde water vapor measurement accuracy throughout the tropospheric column is needed for assessing the impact of observational error on applications that use the radiosonde data as input, such as forecast modeling, radiative transfer calculations, remote sensor retrieval validation, climate trend studies, and development of climatologies and cloud and radiation parameterizations. Six operational radiosonde types were flown together in various combinations with a reference-quality hygrometer during the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G), while simultaneous measurements were acquired from Raman lidar and microwave radiometers. This study determines the mean accuracy and variability of the radiosonde water vapor measurements relative to simultaneous measurements from the University of Colorado (CU) Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH), a reference-quality standard of known absolute accuracy. The accuracy and performance characteristics of the following radiosonde types are evaluated: Vaisala RS80-H, RS90, and RS92; Sippican Mark IIa; Modem GL98; and the Meteolabor Snow White hygrometer. A validated correction for sensor time lag error is found to improve the accuracy and reduce the variability of upper tropospheric water vapor measurements from the Vaisala radiosondes. The AWEX data set is also used to derive and validate a new empirical correction that improves the mean calibration accuracy of Vaisala measurements by an amount that depends on the temperature, relative humidity, and sensor type. Fully corrected Vaisala radiosonde measurements are found to be suitably accurate for AIRS validation throughout the troposphere, whereas the other radiosonde types are suitably accurate under only a subset of tropospheric conditions. Although this study focuses on the accuracy of nighttime radiosonde measurements, comparison of Vaisala RS90 measurements to water vapor retrievals from a microwave radiometer

  13. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z(eff) measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangyu; Cui, Zhengying; Morita, Shigeru; Fu, Bingzhong; Goto, Motoshi; Sun, Ping; Dong, Chunfeng; Gao, Yadong; Xu, Yuan; Lu, Ping; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2012-10-01

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 Å-500 Å. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z(eff). The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 Å-500 Å by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions. PMID:23126850

  14. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z{sub eff} measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hangyu; Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 A-500 A. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z{sub eff}. The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 A-500 A by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions.

  15. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

    2011-11-01

    A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

  16. Measuring temperature rise during orthopaedic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C

    2016-09-01

    A reliable means for measuring temperatures generated during surgical procedures is needed to recommend best practices for inserting fixation devices and minimizing the risk of osteonecrosis. Twenty four screw tests for three surgical procedures were conducted using the four thermocouples in the bone and one thermocouple in the screw. The maximum temperature rise recorded from the thermocouple in the screw (92.7±8.9°C, 158.7±20.9°C, 204.4±35.2°C) was consistently higher than the average temperature rise recorded in the bone (31.8±9.3°C, 44.9±12.4°C, 77.3±12.7°C). The same overall trend between the temperatures that resulted from three screw insertion procedures was recorded with significant statistical analyses using either the thermocouple in the screw or the average of several in-bone thermocouples. Placing a single thermocouple in the bone was determined to have limitations in accurately comparing temperatures from different external fixation screw insertion procedures. Using the preferred measurement techniques, a standard screw with a predrilled hole was found to have the lowest maximum temperatures for the shortest duration compared to the other two insertion procedures. Future studies evaluating bone temperature increase need to use reliable temperature measurements for recommending best practices to surgeons. PMID:27246667

  17. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  18. Microwave temperature measurement in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Yesiloz, Gurkan; Boybay, Muhammed S; Ren, Carolyn L

    2016-06-21

    In spite of various existing thermometry methods for microfluidic applications, it remains challenging to measure the temperature of individual droplets in segmented flow since fast moving droplets do not allow sufficient exposure time demanded by both fluorescence based techniques and resistance temperature detectors. In this contribution, we present a microwave thermometry method that is non-intrusive and requires minimal external equipment. This technique relies on the correlation of fluid temperature with the resonance frequency of a microwave sensor that operates at a GHz frequency range. It is a remote yet direct sensing technique, eliminating the need for mixing fluorescent dyes with the working fluid. We demonstrated that the sensor operates reliably over multiple tests and is capable of both heating and sensing. It measures temperature to within ±1.2 °C accuracy and can detect the temperature of individual droplets. PMID:27199210

  19. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  20. Quantitative measurements of one-dimensional OH absolute concentration profiles in a methane/air flat flame by bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Yang, Zhen; Peng, Jiang-Bo; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yu-Fei; Yang, Chao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Rui

    2015-11-01

    The one-dimensional (1D) spatial distributions of OH absolute concentration in methane/air laminar premixed flat flame under different equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure are investigated by using bi-directional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection scheme combined with the direct absorption spectroscopy. The effective peak absorption cross section and the average temperature at a height of 2 mm above the burner are obtained by exciting absorption on the Q1(8) rotational line in the A2Σ+ (ʋ‧ = 0) ← X2Π (ʋ″ = 0) at 309.240 nm. The measured values are 1.86×10-15 cm2 and 1719 K, respectively. Spatial filtering and frequency filtering methods of reducing noise are used to deal with the experimental data, and the smoothing effects are also compared using the two methods. The spatial distribution regularities of OH concentration are obtained with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.3. The spatial resolution of the measured result is 84 μm. Finally, a comparison is made between the experimental result of this paper and other relevant study results. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Projects of China (Grant No. 2012YQ040164), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275127 and 91441130), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560262), and the Postdoctoral Fellowship in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBH-Z14074).

  1. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  2. Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-06-01

    As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

  3. Measurement of absolute E2 transition strengths in {sup 176}W: Signatures for a rapid shape change

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Friessner, G.; Hackstein, M.; Jolie, J.; Pissulla, T.; Rother, W.; Zell, K.-O.; Moeller, O.

    2011-10-28

    The X(5) symmetry describes nuclei at the critical point of the shape phase transition from axially deformed rotor nuclei to spherical vibrators. {sup 150}Nd, {sup 152}Sm, and {sup 154}Gd were the first nuclei where the predicted characteristics of the X(5) symmetry were observed. Later it was shown that also {sup 176,178,180}Os can be successfully described with the X(5) symmetry.In the close vicinity of shape phase transitions one expects strongly changing nuclear shapes. In the X(5) region around A = 150 this was observed for nuclei with different neutron numbers, whereas in the X(5) region around A = 180 this is to be expected for different proton numbers. The aim of the work presented here is the confirmation of a rapid shape change for nuclei close to {sup 178}Os. Besides the knowledge on the level scheme of the nuclei of interest, especially absolute E2 transition strengths are crucial for the interpretation of nuclear structure. Prolate deformation is expected for {sup 176}W. Thus we performed a recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) measurement on {sup 176}W to measure E2 transition strengths from level lifetimes. The experiment was performed at the Cologne FN TANDEM accelerator with the Cologne coincidence plunger with the reaction {sup 169}Dy({sup 16}O,4n){sup 176}W and a beam energy of 80 MeV. We will present our experimental results and relate them to data on the neighboring nuclei {sup 178}Os and {sup 182}Pt. The results will be discussed in the framework of nuclear shape transitions in this mass region and compared to calculations with both the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) and the GCM.

  4. Absolute Total Cross Section Measurements for Electron Scattering on GeH4 and SiH4 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejko, Pawel. Mo.; Kasperski, Grzegorz; Szmytkowski, Czeslaw

    1996-10-01

    We have measured absolute grand total electron--scattering cross section for GeH4 and SiH4 molecules in the energy range of 0.75--250 eV and 0.6--250 eV, respectively, using the linear transmission experimental setup(A.M. Krzysztofowicz and Cz. Szmytkowski 1995 J. Phys. B 28) 1593. The general character of both obtained total cross section (TCS) functions is similar. For germane TCS dramatically increases from 12× 10-20 m^2 at 0.8 eV up to nearly 59× 10-20 m^2 at the 3.8 eV maximum. For silane the maximum (57× 10-20 m^2) is localized near 2.9 eV. These structures are partly attributable to the existence of short-lived negative-ion resonant states. From 10 eV to the highest applied energy TCS' decrease monotonically with increasing impact energy E, and above 50 eV the total cross sections change like E-0.5. None low-energy e^--GeH4 experiment is available for comparison. Above 75 eV our results are in good agreement with the recent intermediate-energy TCS measurements of Karwasz(G.P. Karwasz 1995 J. Phys. B 28) 1301 and with calculations of Baluja et al(K.L. Baluja et al) 1992 Europhys. Lett. 17 139. There is also reasonably agreement of present e^--SiH4 data with available experimental results.

  5. Passive Acoustic Tomography Tested for Measuring Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Kleppe, John

    2004-01-01

    The requirements of higher performance, better fuel economy, and lower emissions place an increasing premium on knowing the internal operating parameters of jet engines. One of the most important is the gas temperature in the post combustor section of the engine. Typically the gas temperature is measured with a thermocouple probe or by some optical technique such as Rayleigh scattering. Probes, while providing valuable information, have several limitations. The probe signal must be corrected for radiation and conduction losses, probes provide only a point measurement, and probes must be constructed of materials whose melting points are lower than the temperature of the environment into which they are inserted. Some of the disadvantages of probes are overcome by various optical techniques. Nothing needs to be inserted into the flow, and the temperature can be directly related to the signal by known physical laws. However, optical techniques require optical access (i.e., a window) and a light source (such as a laser), and they are very sensitive to the presence of particles in the flow. To overcome these problems, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center and The University of Nevada are developing a technique that uses sound instead of light to measure gas temperature. Like optical techniques, it is nonintrusive--no probe need be exposed to the combustion environment--and the temperature is directly related to a measured quantity--the speed of sound, which is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature. The temperature profile inside the engine is constructed from the differences in arrival time between correlated signals from an array of microphones placed around the circumference of the engine. In much the same way as a complete picture of the inside of your body can be constructed from an array of x-ray photographs taken at different angles, the temperature profile in the engine is constructed from the angular array of microphones. It is

  6. Containerless measurements on liquids at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The application of containerless techniques for measurements of the thermophysical properties of high temperature liquids is reviewed. Recent results obtained in the materials research laboratories at Intersonics are also presented. Work to measure high temperature liquid properties is motivated by both the need for reliable property data for modeling of industrial processes involving molten materials and generation of data form basic modeling of materials behavior. The motivation for this work and examples of variations in thermophysical property values from the literature are presented. The variations may be attributed to changes in the specimen properties caused by chemical changes in the specimen and/or to measurement errors. The two methods used to achieve containerless conditions were aeroacoustic levitation and electromagnetic levitation. Their qualities are presented. The accompanying slides show the layout of levitation equipment and present examples of levitated metallic and ceramic specimens. Containerless techniques provide a high degree of control over specimen chemistry, nucleation and allow precise control of liquid composition to be achieved. Effects of minor additions can thus be measured in a systematic way. Operation in reduced gravity enables enhanced control of liquid motion which can allow measurement of liquid transport properties. Examples of nucleation control, the thermodynamics of oxide contamination removal, and control of the chromium content of liquid aluminum oxide by high temperature containerless processes are presented. The feasibility of measuring temperature, emissivity, liquidus temperature, enthalpy, surface tension, density, viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  7. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    PubMed

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

  8. Optical Instrumentation for Temperature and Velocity Measurements in Rig Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceyhan, I.; dHoop, E. M.; Guenette, G. R.; Epstein, A. H.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical measurement techniques have been examined in the context of developing robust instruments which can routinely yield data of engineering utility in high speed turbomachinery test rigs. The engineering requirements of such a measurement are presented. Of particular interest were approaches that provide both velocity and state-variable information in order to be able to completely characterize transonic flowfields. Consideration of all of the requirements lead to the selection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the approach to velocity measurement while laser induced fluorescence of oxygen (O2 LIF) appeared to offer the most promise for gas temperature measurement. A PIV system was developed and demonstrated on a transonic turbine stage in the MIT blowdown turbine facility. A comprehensive data set has been taken at one flow condition. Extensive calibration established the absolute accuracy of the velocity measurements to be 3-5 %. The O2 LIF proved less successful. Although accurate for low speed flows, vibrational freezing of O2 prevented useful measurements in the transonic, 300-600 K operating range of interest here.

  9. Intensity measurements in the nu4-fundamental of (C-13)H4 at planetary atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Giver, L. P.; Valero, F. P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of spectral transmittance have been performed in the nu4-fundamental band of (C-13)H4 at low temperatures of planetary atmospheric interest with spectral resolution of 0.06 per cm. Comparison of observed and computed spectral transmittance on a line-by-line basis has yielded line strengths. Best agreement between measured and computed spectra was obtained when the absolute intensity of the band was taken as 123 per (sq cm atm) at 296 K.

  10. Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68 eV in petawatt laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J. A.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B.

    2006-11-15

    A 68 eV extreme-ultraviolet light imaging diagnostic measures short pulse isochoric heating by electrons and protons in petawatt laser experiments. Temperatures are deduced from the absolute intensities and comparison with modeling using a radiation hydrodynamics code.

  11. Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F.; Leong, K.H.; Gartner, M.

    1997-10-01

    Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

  12. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  13. Emissivities of ceramics for temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Moldenhauer, Alexander

    2004-04-01

    Ceramics are used as construction materials for buildings and thermal technical plants. Depending on the fields of its application between ambient temperature and more than 1000 °C there are different ceramic materials in use. For the temperature measurements with pyrometers and infrared cameras band emissivities are needed as settings. Pyrometers and infrared cameras have different spectral work ranges. Therefore, for different devices different emissivities are needed for one and the same material. Selectivity of the spectral emissivities like with ceramic materials can lead thereby to larger differences between the emissivities of a material, and furthermore to temperature dependence of the band emissivities of a material. Examples of different temperature-dependent spectral, band, and total emissivities are shown. These emissivities for different work ranges of pyrometers and infrared cameras were computed based on measured spectral emissivities. The investigation leads to a selection of suitable band emissivities for radiation thermometry of ceramics.

  14. Leptin in Whales: Validation and Measurement of mRNA Expression by Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Hope C.; Holmes, Robert K.; Londraville, Richard L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: “relative” and “absolute”. To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR “background” material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and

  15. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  16. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Kenneth G.

    1989-05-01

    Thin film thermocouples have unique capabilities for measuring surface temperatures at high temperatures (above 800 K) under harsh conditions. Their low mass, approximately 2 x 10(-5) g/mm permits very rapid response and very little disturbance of heat transfer to the surface being measured. This has led to applications inside gas turbine engines and diesel engines measuring the surface temperature of first stage turbine blades and vanes and ceramic liners in diesel cylinders. The most successful high temperature (up to 1300 K) thin film thermocouples are sputter deposited from platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium targets although results using base metal alloys, gold, and platinel will also be presented. The fabrication techniques used to form the thermocouples, approaches used to solve the high temperature insulation and adherence problems, current applications, and test results using the thin film thermocouples are reviewed. In addition a discussion will be presented on the current problems and future trends related to applications of thin film thermocouples at higher temperatures up to 1900 K.

  17. Temperature measurement of sputtered metal dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Fayet, P.; Wolf, J.P.; Woeste, L.

    1986-05-15

    The temperatures of sputtered alkali-metal dimers have been measured using one- and two-photon ionization spectroscopy. They are estimated to be 1470 +- 300 K, 1025 +- 200 K, and 1000 +- 200 K for Cs/sub 2/, K/sub 2/, and Na/sub 2/, respectively. The vibrational and rotational temperatures are found to be very similar. No dependence of the dimer excitation is found, neither on target temperature nor on the primary-ion energy. The results are compared with some currently used models to explain cluster formation in sputtering experiments.

  18. Gravity change in Finland 1962-2010 from the comparison of new measurements using the outdoor absolute gravimeter A10-020 with legacy relative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jaakko; Sękowski, Marcin; Kryński, Jan; Kuokkanen, Jaakko; Näränen, Jyri; Raja-Halli, Arttu; Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Virtanen, Heikki

    2013-04-01

    Finland belongs to the Fennoscandian Postglacial Rebound (PGR) area, with vertical velocities of up to 1 cm/yr and corresponding surface gravity rates as large as -2 microgal/yr. Knowledge of the secular gravity change in Finland comes so far from three sources: (i) repeated absolute gravity measurements at a limited number of indoor laboratory-type sites, made by various teams and instruments (1976-), (ii) repeated relative measurements on the Fennoscandian Land Uplift Gravity Lines (1966-2003) which run in East-West direction along the approximate latitudes 61, 63 and 65 degrees N, (iii) satellite gravimetry with the GRACE (2002-). We are adding a new source: In 2009-2010 the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) together with the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK) re-measured the Finnish First Order Gravity Network (FOGN), using the A10 No. 020 outdoor absolute gravimeter of the IGiK. The FOGN consists of 50 outdoor stations, typically on the stairs of churches and other monumental buildings. The purpose of the FOGN (or its re-measurement) is not geodynamic research but the provision of easily-accessible reference sites for tasks of practical relative gravimetry, like gravity mapping for geodesy, geology and applied geophysics. However, as the FOGN was first measured in 1962 (with a Worden gravimeter) and re-surveyed in 1988 (with two LCR gravimeters), the time span 1962-2010 provides the opportunity to extract a signal of gravity change from the comparison of the three campaigns. While the accuracy of the 1962 measurements is limited, at some FOGN stations additional data is provided by North-South traverses measured from 1966 onwards for calibrating LCR gravimeters. During the 2009-2010 campaign with the A10-020 altogether 50 old and new stations in the FOGN were occupied. Some original stations had been destroyed or were not accessible with the A10, e.g. for lack of mounting space. In 2010-11 relative ties were established to connect original and new

  19. Two-temperature method for measuring emissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral emissivity can be uniquely determined from radiance measurements if the object can be observed at two different temperatures. The advantage of this approach is that the spectral emissivity is determined without a priori assumptions about spectral shape. Because the different temperatures are obtained by observing the scene at two times in the diurnal cycle (optimally after midday and midnight), the method assumes that emissivity is temporally invariant. This is valid for rocks and dry soils, not well established for vegetation, and not true when changes in soil moisture occur between the measurements. Accurate image registration and satisfactory signal:noise are critical factors that limit extensive use of this method. ?? 1992.

  20. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  1. A Method of Measuring Piston Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Mangniello, Eugene J

    1940-01-01

    A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.

  2. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

  3. Measuring Titan's mesospheric temperatures by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Griffith, C.; Greathouse, T.; Roe, H.; Yelle, R.

    2005-08-01

    Titan's temperature profile is an indicator of the atmospheric energy transport, by radiation, convection and conduction. From the surface up to ˜250 km altitude, the temperature profile was measured by the Voyager 1 radio occultations and infrared spectra. In the troposphere, heating by the surface and low atmosphere by solar radiation absorption and cooling by emission to space are the dominant processes that establish the temperature profile, which decreases from ˜94 K at the surface, to ˜70 K at 200 km. Between 200 and 350 km, the atmosphere radiative absorption and emission balance, and the temperature is approximately constante. At 250-500 km altitudes, observations of stellar occultations reveal oscillations between 170 and 150 K. Atmospheric models predict the existence of a mesosphere, in the region 350-550 km, with the temperature decreasing from ethane and other hydrocarbons' emissions. In this work we analyze emission lines of methane's ν 4 band (8.1 μ m, 1230 cm-1) with high resolution spectra. The line profiles of different intensities allow us to determine the vertical temperature profile for the region 100-600 km, which was not possible with previously available data. We present the first infrared observation that can measure independently the temperatures for the regions 100-200 km, 200-400 km, and 400-600 km. These measurements show the existence of a mesosphere, with a temperature drop of at least 15 K from 380+50-100 km altitude. Paulo Penteado is sponsored by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and the Brazilian Government through CAPES.

  4. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

  5. Material parameter measurements at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A.; Park, A.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Alternate fixtures of techniques for the measurement of the constitutive material parameters at elevated temperatures are presented. The technique utilizes scattered field data from material coated cylinders between parallel plates or material coated hemispheres over a finite size groundplane. The data acquisition is centered around the HP 8510B Network Analyzer. The parameters are then found from a numerical search algorithm using the Newton-Ralphson technique with the measured and calculated fields from these canonical scatters. Numerical and experimental results are shown.

  6. Absolute absorption coefficient of C6H2 in the mid-UV range at low temperature; implications for the interpretation of Titan atmospheric spectra.

    PubMed

    Bénilan, Y; Bruston, P; Raulin, F; Courtin, R; Guillemin, J C

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of mid-UV albedo spectra of planetary atmospheres, especially that of Titan, is the main goal of the SIPAT (Spectroscopie uv d'Interet Prebiologique dans l'Atmosphere de Titan) research program. This laboratory experiment has been developed in order to systematically determine the absorption coefficients of molecular compounds which are potential absorbers of scattered sunlight in planetary atmospheres, with high spectral resolution, and at various temperatures below room temperature. From photochemical modelling and experimental simulations, we may expect triacetylene (C6H2) to be present in the atmosphere of Titan, even though it has not yet been detected. We present here the first determination of the absolute absorption coefficient of that compound in the 200-300 nm range and at two temperatures (296 K and 233 K). The temperature dependence of the C6H2 absorption coefficient in that wavelength range is compared to that previously observed in the case of cyanoacetylene (HC3N). We then discuss the implications of the present results for the interpretation of Titan UV spectra, where it appears that large uncertainities can be introduced either by the presence of trace impurities in laboratory samples or by the variations of absorption coefficients with temperature. PMID:11538441

  7. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  8. Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

  9. Techniques for improving the accuracy of cyrogenic temperature measurement in ground test programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Fabik, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a sensor is often evaluated by determining to what degree of accuracy a measurement can be made using this sensor. The absolute accuracy of a sensor is an important parameter considered when choosing the type of sensor to use in research experiments. Tests were performed to improve the accuracy of cryogenic temperature measurements by calibration of the temperature sensors when installed in their experimental operating environment. The calibration information was then used to correct for temperature sensor measurement errors by adjusting the data acquisition system software. This paper describes a method to improve the accuracy of cryogenic temperature measurements using corrections in the data acquisition system software such that the uncertainty of an individual temperature sensor is improved from plus or minus 0.90 deg R to plus or minus 0.20 deg R over a specified range.

  10. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  11. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  12. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A.; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  14. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; et al

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s correspondingmore » to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.« less

  15. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

  16. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

  17. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  18. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  19. Simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements in a mechanical ventilator using an optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. U.; Correia, R.; Morgan, S. P.; Hayes-Gill, B.; Evans, D.; Sinha, R.; Norris, A.; Harvey, D.; Hardman, J. G.; Korposh, S.

    2016-05-01

    An optical fibre sensor for simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements consisting of one fibre Bragg grating (FBG) to measure temperature and a mesoporous film of bilayers of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH) and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles deposited onto the tip of the same fibre to measure humidity is reported. The hygroscopic film was created using the layer-by-layer (LbL) method and the optical reflection spectra were measured up to a maximum of 23 bilayers. The temperature sensitivity of the FBG was 10 pm/°C while the sensitivity to humidity was (-1.4x10-12 W / %RH) using 23 bilayers. The developed sensor was tested in the mechanical ventilator and temperature and humidity of the delivered artificial air was simultaneously measured. Once calibrated, the optical fibre sensor has the potential to control the absolute humidity as an essential part of critical respiratory care.

  20. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  1. Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

  2. Improved absolute calibration of LOPES measurements and its impact on the comparison with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hiller, R.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array detecting the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. The calibration of the absolute amplitude scale of the measurements was done using an external, commercial reference source, which emits a frequency comb with defined amplitudes. Recently, we obtained improved reference values by the manufacturer of the reference source, which significantly changed the absolute calibration of LOPES. We reanalyzed previously published LOPES measurements, studying the impact of the changed calibration. The main effect is an overall decrease of the LOPES amplitude scale by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.2, affecting all previously published values for measurements of the electric-field strength. This results in a major change in the conclusion of the paper 'Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations' published by Apel et al. (2013) : With the revised calibration, LOPES measurements now are compatible with CoREAS simulations, but in tension with REAS 3.11 simulations. Since CoREAS is the latest version of the simulation code incorporating the current state of knowledge on the radio emission of air showers, this new result indicates that the absolute amplitude prediction of current simulations now is in agreement with experimental data.

  3. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  4. OH kinetic in high-pressure plasmas of atmospheric gases containing C2H6 studied by absolute measurement of the radical density in a pulsed homogeneous discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Gadonna, K.; Jeanney, P.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Jorand, F.; Postel, C.

    2009-08-01

    The absolute value of the hydroxyl radical was measured in the afterglow of an homogeneous photo-triggered discharge generated in N2/O2/H2O/C2H6 mixtures, using a UV absorption diagnostic synchronized with the discharge current pulse. Measurements show that OH is efficiently produced even in the absence of water vapour in the mixture, and that the radical production is closely linked to the degradation kinetic of the hydrocarbon. Experimental results for dry mixtures, both for OH and for the removal of ethane in the discharge volume, are compared with predictions of a self-consistent 0D discharge and the kinetic model. It appears that the oxidation reaction of the ethane molecule by O(3P) atoms plays a minor role. Dissociation of the hydrocarbon through quenching collisions of the nitrogen metastable states are of great importance for a low oxygen concentration value. Also, the oxidation of ethane by O(1D) cannot be neglected at high oxygen concentration. The most probable exit channel for N2 states quenching collisions by ethane is the production of ethene and hydrogen molecules. Afterwards C2H4 should be dissociated to produce H and H2. As previously suggested from the study of the OH density time evolution in relative value, the recombination of H and O atoms appears as a main process for the production of OH in transient low temperature plasmas generated in atmospheric gases at high pressure. Another important reaction is the reduction of the HO2 radical by O, this radical coming from the addition of H on the oxygen molecule. H atoms come from numerous kinetic processes, amongst which is the dissociation of ethene.

  5. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (Δ E < kT) is violated for the nuclear Zeeman interaction Δ E = γB0h/(2 π) of most isotopes. Provided that, after rapid dissolution and transfer to an NMR or MRI system, the hyperpolarized molecules contain at least two nuclear spins I and S with a scalar coupling JIS, the polarization of spin I (short for 'investigated') can be determined from the asymmetry AS of the multiplet of spin S (short for 'spy'), provided perturbations due to second-order (strong coupling) effects are properly taken into account. If spin S is suitably discreet and does not affect the relaxation of spin I, this provides an elegant way of measuring spin polarizations 'on the fly' in a broad range of molecules, thus obviating the need for laborious measurements of signal intensities at thermal equilibrium. The method, dubbed Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of 13 C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate.

  6. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    PubMed

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (ΔEmeasuring spin polarizations 'on the fly' in a broad range of molecules, thus obviating the need for laborious measurements of signal intensities at thermal equilibrium. The method, dubbed Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of (13)C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate. PMID:26454350

  7. Inelastic mean-free paths and surface excitation parameters by absolute reflection electron-energy loss measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2007-06-01

    An analytical approach is proposed for simultaneously determining the inelastic mean-free path (IMFP), the surface excitation parameter (SEP), and the differential SEP (DSEP) in absolute units from an absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum under the assumption that the normalized differential inelastic mean-free path for bulk excitations and the elastic scattering cross section are known. This approach was applied to an analysis of REELS spectra for Ni, and the IMFP, SEP, and DSEP in Ni for 300-3000eV electrons were determined. The resulting IMFPs showed good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M predictive equations and with those calculated from optical data. The deduced DSEPs show a reasonable agreement with those theoretically predicted. The obtained SEPs were compared with those calculated using several predictive equations. The present SEP results agreed well with the Chen formula with a material parameter proposed for Ni. The present approach has high potential for the experimental determination of IMFPs, SEPs, and DSEPs in absolute units.

  8. Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses.

    PubMed

    Manfred, Michael E; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Talghader, Joseph J

    2010-06-01

    A measurement technique, pulsed thermoluminescence, is described which uses short thermal pulses to excite trapped carriers leading to radiative recombination. The pulses are obtained using microstructures with approximately 500 micros thermal time constants. The technique has many of the advantages of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence without the need for optical sources and filters to isolate the luminescent signal. Charge carrier traps in alpha-Al(2)O(3):C particles on microheaters were filled using 205 nm light. Temperature pulses of 10 and 50 ms were applied to the heaters and compared with a standard thermoluminescence curve taken at a ramp rate of 5 K s(-1). This produced curves of intensity verses temperature similar to standard thermoluminescence except shifted to higher temperatures. The luminescence of single particles was read multiple times with negligible loss of population. The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. PMID:20522565

  9. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  10. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  11. Cryogenic Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of CaF2 and Infrasil 301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, TImothy J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable high quality lens design using calcium fluoride (CaF2) and Heraeus Infrasil 30 (Infrasil) at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For CaF2, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 5.6 micrometers; for Infrasil we cover temperatures ranging from 35 to 300K and wavelengths from 0.4 to 3.6 micrometers. We investigate the interspecimen variability between measurements of two unrelated samples of CaF2, and we also compare our results for Infrasil to previous measurements fo Corning 7980 fused silica. Finally, we provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures and compare those results to other data found in the literature.

  12. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Davis, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a four-year effort to study the high voltage dielectric behavior of various materials at cryogenic temperatures are described. Dissipation factors at 60 Hz were measured for polymer tapes and epoxy samples at 4.2 K, atmospheric pressure. Multi-layer polymer samples in coaxial geometries at temperatures from 7 K to 10 K and helium pressures up to 1.5 megapascals were also studied. The measurements were performed at stresses up to 40 MV/m. Since partial discharges were major source of losses at the higher stresses and their presence was possibly detrimental to the integrity of the insulation, instrumentation was developed and implemented to study these discharges under conditions found in proposed ac superconducting power-transmission lines.

  13. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  14. Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqwi, Amir A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

  15. Measured Absolute Cross Section of Charge Transfer in H + H2+ at Low Energy: Signature of vi = 2 and Trajectory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, R. A.; Bacani, K. G.; Chi, R. M.; Heczko, S. L.; Singh, B. N.; Tobar, J. A.; Vassantachart, A. K.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of absolute cross sections of charge transfer (CT) in H + H2+--> H+ + H2 were conducted at the merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which can reliably create and access collision energies as low as 0.1 eV/u. The measured absolute cross section shows evidence of trajectory effects at low energy. Also, the comparison to state-to-state calculations (PRA 67 022708 (2003) suggests a strong contribution from vi = 2 of the H2+that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The data analysis will be presented here. Research supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-1068877.

  16. Measurements of absolute K-shell ionization cross sections and L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Ge by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Merlet, C.; Llovet, X.; Salvat, F.

    2004-03-01

    Results from measurements of absolute K-shell ionization cross sections and L{alpha} x-ray production cross sections of Ge by impact of electrons with kinetic energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 40 keV are presented. The cross sections were obtained by measuring K{alpha} and L{alpha} x-ray intensities emitted from ultrathin Ge films deposited onto self-supporting carbon backing films. Recorded x-ray intensities were converted to absolute cross sections by using estimated values of the sample thicknesses, the number of incident electrons, and the detector efficiency. Experimental data are compared with the results of widely used simple analytical formulas, with calculated cross sections obtained from the plane-wave and distorted-wave Born approximations and with experimental data from the literature.

  17. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  18. Electron temperature measurement in an ultracold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrousheh, K.; Bohlouli, P. Z.; Fedorov, M.; Mugford, A.; Martin, J. D. D.

    2004-05-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in studying ultracold plasmas. These cold plasmas are produced by photoionizing a sample of cold atoms in a MOT. Of interest is the evolution of electron temperature in these plasmas. Strong correlation due to low initial temperature, as well as lack of correlation due to rapid heating are two possible scenarios. We will present a unique experimental method for measuring electron temperature in a cold plasma, as well as our calculation of the feasibility of the proposed method. In this process, which we call stimulated photoattachment, we stimulate the transition of free electrons from the continuum to bound states of nearby atoms by a laser beam. The negative ions produced can be observed with a microchannel plate detector. For electrons with well-defined energy this is a resonant process. The width of the resonance indicates the electron temperature. This technique has advantage of high temporal resolution of the evolution of electron temperature after the plasma is formed.

  19. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    SciTech Connect

    Pradere, C. Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C.; Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S.

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  20. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na Between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Sigillito, A. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions have been measured from 23Na for incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV at the University of Kentucky using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The cross sections obtained are important for applications in nuclear reactor development and other areas, and they are an energy region in which existing data are very sparse. Absolute cross sections were obtained by normalizing Na angular distributions to the well-known np cross sections.

  1. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-03-10

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10{sup -6}. The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1x10{sup -6}.

  2. Absolute measurement of the photoionization cross section of atomic hydrogen with a shock tube for the extreme ultraviolet. [for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palenius, H. P.; Kohl, J. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports an experiment which is part of a program to measure the absolute values of the atomic photoionization cross sections of astrophysically abundant elements, particularly in stars and planetary atmospheres. An aerodynamic pressure-driven shock tube constructed from stainless steel with a quadratic cross section was used to measure the photoionization cross section of H I at 19 wavelength points from 910 to 609 A with experimental uncertainties between 7 and 20%. The shock tube was used to produce fully dissociated hydrogen and neon mixtures for the photoabsorption measurements.

  3. Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-dienes: Laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and translational energy distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, A.; Volpp, H.-R.; Sharma, P.; Mittal, J. P.; Vatsa, R. K.

    2010-07-14

    Using pulsed H-atom Lyman-{alpha} laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product quantum yields of {phi}{sub H-b13d}=(0.32{+-}0.04) and {phi}{sub H-b12d}=(0.36{+-}0.04) were measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction, f{sub T-b13d}=(0.22{+-}0.03) and f{sub T-b12d}=(0.13{+-}0.01), released as H+C{sub 4}H{sub 5} product translational energy with results of impulsive and statistical energy partitioning modeling calculations indicates that for both, buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene, H-atom formation is preceded by internal conversion to the respective electronic ground state (S{sub 0}) potential energy surfaces. In addition, values of {sigma}{sub b-1,3-d-L{alpha}=}(3.5{+-}0.2)x10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub b-1,2-d-L{alpha}=}(4.4{+-}0.2)x10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} for the previously unknown Lyman-{alpha} (121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene in the gas-phase were determined.

  4. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  5. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  6. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons.

  7. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  8. Measurement of Xenon Viscosity as a Function of Low Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisnik, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of xenon gas viscosity at low temperatures (175-298 K) and low pressures (350 torr-760 torr) has been performed in support of Hall Thruster testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. The measurements were taken using the capillary flow technique. Viscosity measurements were repeatable to within 3%. The results in this paper are in agreement with data from Hanley and Childs and suggest that the data from Clarke and Smith is approximately 2% low. There are no noticeable pressure effects on xenon absolute viscosity for the pressure range from 350 torr to 760 torr.

  9. Tunable diode laser measurements of absolute line strengths in the 2nu2 band of N2O near 8 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Lai-Wa; Daunt, Stephen J.; Nadler, Shachar

    1989-01-01

    The absolute intensities of five rotational transitions in the 2nu2 band of N2O near 8 microns have been measured with a tunable-diode laser-spectrometer. Measurements were reproducible within an average deviation of about 3 percent, and the experimental and calculated line strengths differed by only 1.5 percent. An analysis of the line strengths has yielded a band strength of S(v) = 6.98 + or - 0.26/sq cm per atm at 296 K. The band and line strengths are in excellent agreement with two recently reported values obtained by using Fourier transform-IR spectroscopy.

  10. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  11. Remote measurement of ground temperature and emissivity

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    TAISIR, Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed, is a nominally satellite based platform for remote sensing of the earth. One of its design features is to acquire atmospheric data simultaneous with ground data, resulting in minimal dependence on external atmospheric models for data correction. Extensive modeling of the rms error of determining a ground temperature and emissivity for a gray body has been performed as a function of integration time, spectroscopic resolution of the system, ground emissivity, atmospheric variables, and atmospheric data accuracy. We find that increased resolution improves measurement accuracy by emphasizing those regions where the atmospheric transmission is highest and atmospheric emission/absorption lowest. We find rms temperature errors {le}1K and rms emissivity errors <0.01 are obtainable for reasonable seeing and with sufficient information about the atmosphere. A new method is developed for modeling the dependence of the band-averaged transmission and emission. Monte Carlo simulations of satellite data taken using a multi-angle technique are used to derive signal-to-noise requirements. The applicability of those results to the TAISIR system requirements are discussed.

  12. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105

  13. Delineating the major KREEP-bearing terranes on the moon with global measurements of absolute thorium abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Elphic, R.C.; Prettyman, T.H.; Binder, A.B.; Maurice, S.; Miller, M.C.

    1999-03-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has been used to map the global composition of thorium on the lunar surface. Previous LP results of relative thorium abundances demonstrated that thorium is highly concentrated in and around the nearside western maria and less so in the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin. Using new detector modeling results and a larger data set, the authors present here a global map of absolute thorium abundances on a 2{degree} by 2{degree} equal-area pixel scale. Because thorium is a tracer of KREEP-rich material, these data provide fundamental information regarding the locations and importance of terranes that are rich in KREEP bearing materials.

  14. Spontaneous Anti-Stokes Raman Probe for Gas Temperature Measurements in Industrial Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikratov, George; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; Norton, O. Perry; Kumar, R. Arun; Cook, Robert L.

    1999-03-01

    A compact, pulsed Nd:YAG laser-based instrument has been built to measure in situ absolute gas temperatures in large industrial furnaces by use of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The backscattering configuration was used to simplify the optics alignment and increase signal-to-noise ratios. Gated signal detection significantly reduced the background emission that is found in combustion environments. The anti-Stokes instead of the Stokes component was used to eliminate contributions to spectra from cold atmospheric nitrogen. The system was evaluated in a methane air flame and in a bench-top oven, and the technique was found to be a reliable tool for nonintrusive absolute temperature measurements with relatively clean gas streams. A water-cooled insertion probe was integrated with the Raman system for measurement of the temperature profiles inside an industrial furnace. Gas temperatures near 1500 1800 K at atmospheric pressure in an industrial furnace were inferred by fitting calculated profiles to experimental spectra with a standard deviation of less than 1% for averaging times of 200 s. The temperatures inferred from Raman spectra are in good agreement with data recorded with a thermocouple probe.

  15. Absolute ν 2 Line Intensities of HOCl by Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared with a Tunable Diode Laser and Far-Infrared Region Using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Auwera, J.; Kleffmann, J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Pawelke, G.; Bürger, H.; Hurtmans, D.; Pétrisse, R.

    2000-11-01

    We have measured absolute line intensities in the ν2 fundamental band at 1238 cm-1 of both isotopomers of hypochlorous acid, HOCl. To obtain the partial pressure of the species in the sample mixture, unavailable through direct measurement since HOCl exists only in equilibrium with H2O and Cl2O and may decay by secondary reactions, we relied on known absolute line intensities in the pure rotational far-infrared (FIR) spectrum determined from Stark effect measurements. We have thus recorded simultaneously the FIR pure rotation spectrum of HOCl using a Bruker IFS120HR interferometer and the spectrum of a few vibration-rotation lines in the infrared (IR) ν2 band using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The absolute intensities of these IR lines thus determined allowed us to 'calibrate' the intensities of vibration-rotation lines in the whole ν2 band, measured previously using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The treatment of the data took into account the blackbody emission contribution in the FIR and the evolution of the HOCl amount during the recording of the spectra. The latter was found to be almost constant over hours after conditioning of the cell. The square of the ν2 band vibrational transition dipole moment was determined to be 0.013947(23) D2 and 0.013870(51) D2 for HO35Cl and HO37Cl, respectively, that is, 29 to 73% lower than previous measurements. A linear Herman-Wallis factor was also determined for both isotopomers. Finally, the line intensities were least-squares fitted using a model that takes into account a weak resonance between the (010) and (002) levels.

  16. Measuring the configurational temperature of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Twenty years ago Edwards and Oakeshott suggested developing a statistical mechanics of static granular media based on the idea that the logarithm of the number of mechanically stable states of a specific sample constitutes the relevant entropy [1]. From this entropy then, a configurational temperature, named compactivity, could be derived. However, in the absence of an appropriate thermometer to measure compactivity, the question if it is indeed a relevant state variable remained untested. Only recently it was shown that the steady state volume fluctuations of a periodically driven sample can be used to measure the compactivity of a granular sample including its dependence on volume fraction and surface friction of the particles [2]. This opens up the possibility of studying questions like the existence of a zeroth law of granular thermodynamics or the relationship between compactivity and other forms of granular temperature. [1] Edwards and Oakeshott, Physica A 157, 1080 (1989). [2] M. Schr"oter, D. Goldman, and H. L. Swinney Phys. Rev. E 71, 030301(R) (2005)

  17. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  18. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  19. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  20. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp.

    PubMed

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30,000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen