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Sample records for absolute temperature scale

  1. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk <λrk > c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk <νrk > c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  2. The brightness temperature of Venus and the absolute flux-density scale at 608 MHz.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Berge, G. L.; Orton, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    The disk temperature of Venus was measured at 608 MHz near the inferior conjunction of 1972, and a value of 498 plus or minus 33 K was obtained using a nominal CKL flux-density scale. The result is consistent with earlier measurements, but has a much smaller uncertainty. Our theoretical model prediction is larger by a factor of 1.21 plus or minus 0.09. This discrepancy has been noticed previously for frequencies below 1400 MHz, but was generally disregarded because of the large observational uncertainties. No way could be found to change the model to produce agreement without causing a conflict with well-established properties of Venus. Thus it is suggested that the flux-density scale may require an upward revision, at least near this frequency, in excess of what has previously been considered likely.

  3. Winter Mesopause Region Scale Height derived from VHF Meteor Radar Temperatures and LF absolute Reflection Heights measured at Collm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Ch.; Kürschner, D.

    The change of ionospheric absolute reflection heights h of low-frequency LF radio waves at oblique incidence in the course of the day is measured at Collm Observatory 51 3 r N 13 0 r E using 1 8 kHz sideband phase comparisons on sporadic oscillation bursts between the sky wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz transmitter Zehlendorf reflection point 52 1 r N 13 2 r E Plasma scale height H estimates are calculated from the decrease increase of h in the morning evening during winter months The day-to-day variations of H are compared with those of daily mean temperatures at 90 km measured with a VHF meteor radar 36 2 MHz at Collm utilising the amplitude decay of meteor reflections A good qualitative correspondence is found between the two data sets Since mesospheric long-period temperature variations are generally accepted to be the signature of atmospheric planetary waves this shows that LF reflection height measurements can be used for monitoring the dynamics of the upper middle atmosphere

  4. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  5. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  6. Long-period upper mesosphere temperature and plasma scale height variations derived from VHF meteor radar and LF absolute reflection height measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, C.; Kürschner, D.

    2006-09-01

    The change of ionospheric absolute reflection heights h of low-frequency (LF) radio waves at oblique incidence in the course of the day is measured at Collm Observatory (51.3° N, 13.0° E) using 1.8 kHz sideband phase comparisons between the sky-wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz transmitter (Zehlendorf, reflection point at 52.1° N, 13.2° E). Plasma scale height estimates H are calculated from the decrease/increase of h in the morning/evening. The day-to-day variations of H are compared with those of daily mean temperatures at 90 km, measured with a VHF meteor radar (36.2 MHz) at Collm and using the amplitude decay of meteor reflections. A good qualitative correspondence is found between the two data sets. Since mesospheric long-period temperature variations are generally accepted to be the signature of atmospheric planetary waves, this shows that LF reflection height measurements can be used for monitoring the dynamics of the upper middle atmosphere.

  7. The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, Gavin D.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes an analogy which may be used to illustrate the principles that underlie the establishment of non-absolute scales of measurements that are evaluated relative to a chosen reference point. The analogy is interwoven with the establishment of the electromotive series, but may be extended to other parameters such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, potential energies, formation and reaction enthalpies, etc.

  8. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  9. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  10. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  11. Disconnected skeleton: shape at its absolute scale.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Cagri; Erdem, Aykut; Erdem, Erkut; Tari, Sibel

    2008-12-01

    We present a new skeletal representation along with a matching framework to address the deformable shape recognition problem. The disconnectedness arises as a result of excessive regularization that we use to describe a shape at an attainably coarse scale. Our motivation is to rely on stable properties the shape instead of inaccurately measured secondary details. The new representation does not suffer from the common instability problems of the traditional connected skeletons, and the matching process gives quite successful results on a diverse database of 2D shapes. An important difference of our approach from the conventional use of skeleton is that we replace the local coordinate frame with a global Euclidean frame supported by additional mechanisms to handle articulations and local boundary deformations. As a result, we can produce descriptions that are sensitive to any combination of changes in scale, position, orientation and articulation, as well as invariant ones. PMID:18988951

  12. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  13. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  14. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  15. Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Fischer, Joachim; Matyszkiel, Robert

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these parameters are known, then it is possible to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurement due to only the internal errors of these cameras. Values of this uncertainty can be used as an objective criterion for comparisons of different thermal measurement cameras.

  16. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  17. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  18. An absolute interval scale of order for point patterns

    PubMed Central

    Protonotarios, Emmanouil D.; Baum, Buzz; Johnston, Alan; Hunter, Ginger L.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers readily make judgements about the degree of order in planar arrangements of points (point patterns). Here, based on pairwise ranking of 20 point patterns by degree of order, we have been able to show that judgements of order are highly consistent across individuals and the dimension of order has an interval scale structure spanning roughly 10 just-notable-differences (jnd) between disorder and order. We describe a geometric algorithm that estimates order to an accuracy of half a jnd by quantifying the variability of the size and shape of spaces between points. The algorithm is 70% more accurate than the best available measures. By anchoring the output of the algorithm so that Poisson point processes score on average 0, perfect lattices score 10 and unit steps correspond closely to jnds, we construct an absolute interval scale of order. We demonstrate its utility in biology by using this scale to quantify order during the development of the pattern of bristles on the dorsal thorax of the fruit fly. PMID:25079866

  19. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  20. A New Approach For Absolute Temperature Calibration: Application to the CLARREO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    A novel scheme to provide on-orbit absolute calibration of blackbody temperature sensors (on-demand) has been demonstrated using a copy of the engineering model version of a space flight hardware blackbody design (GIFTS). The scheme uses the phase change signature of reference materials to assign an absolute temperatures scale to the blackbody sensors over a large temperature range. Uncertainties of better than 0.020 K have been demonstrated over the temperature range from 234 to 303 K. Thermal modeling has been conducted to optimize the design, and to show that accuracies comparable to those measured in the laboratory should be obtainable in the less-controlled on-orbit temperature environment. The implementation if this scheme is very attractive due to its simplicity and relatively low mass. In addition, all aspects of the electronics (control and temperature readout) needed to support this scheme have been developed and demonstrated in the as-delivered GIFTS Engineering Model blackbody calibration system developed by the University of Wisconsin. NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly absolute standards that can provide the basis to meet stringent requirements on measurement accuracy. For example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies having absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.020 K (3 sigma). The novel blackbody temperature calibration scheme described here is very well suited for the CLARREO mission because if its low mass, high accuracy, and ease of implementation into a demonstrated flight blackbody design.

  1. Measurement of statistical evidence on an absolute scale following thermodynamic principles.

    PubMed

    Vieland, V J; Das, J; Hodge, S E; Seok, S-C

    2013-09-01

    Statistical analysis is used throughout biomedical research and elsewhere to assess strength of evidence. We have previously argued that typical outcome statistics (including p values and maximum likelihood ratios) have poor measure-theoretic properties: they can erroneously indicate decreasing evidence as data supporting an hypothesis accumulate; and they are not amenable to calibration, necessary for meaningful comparison of evidence across different study designs, data types, and levels of analysis. We have also previously proposed that thermodynamic theory, which allowed for the first time derivation of an absolute measurement scale for temperature (T), could be used to derive an absolute scale for evidence (E). Here we present a novel thermodynamically based framework in which measurement of E on an absolute scale, for which "one degree" always means the same thing, becomes possible for the first time. The new framework invites us to think about statistical analyses in terms of the flow of (evidential) information, placing this work in the context of a growing literature on connections among physics, information theory, and statistics. PMID:23463577

  2. Strong thermal leptogenesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Sophie E.; Fiorentin, Michele Re E-mail: sk1806@soton.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We show that successful strong thermal leptogenesis, where the final asymmetry is independent of the initial conditions and in particular a large pre-existing asymmetry is efficiently washed-out, favours values of the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1}∼>10 meV for normal ordering (NO) and m{sub 1}∼>3 meV for inverted ordering (IO) for models with orthogonal matrix entries respecting |Ω{sub ij}{sup 2}|∼<2. We show analytically why lower values of m{sub 1} require a higher level of fine tuning in the seesaw formula and/or in the flavoured decay parameters (in the electronic for NO, in the muonic for IO). We also show how this constraint exists thanks to the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles and could be tightened by a future determination of the Dirac phase. Our analysis also allows us to place a more stringent constraint for a specific model or class of models, such as SO(10)-inspired models, and shows that some models cannot realise strong thermal leptogenesis for any value of m{sub 1}. A scatter plot analysis fully supports the analytical results. We also briefly discuss the interplay with absolute neutrino mass scale experiments concluding that they will be able in the coming years to either corner strong thermal leptogenesis or find positive signals pointing to a non-vanishing m{sub 1}. Since the constraint is much stronger for NO than for IO, it is very important that new data from planned neutrino oscillation experiments will be able to solve the ambiguity.

  3. The cepheid temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teays, Terry John

    The temperatures of Cepheid variable stars are determined from their energy distributions, using the technique of spectrum scanning. The observations were obtained with Kitt Peak National Observatory's intensified Reticon Scanner and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's two-channel scanner. Six well-observed Cepheids in galactic open clusters were examined at various phases of their pulsation cycles. Recently determined color excesses, based on the uvby photometry of Schmidt, were used to scale the reddening curves of Nandy and thereby correct the scans for the effects of interstellar reddening. The temperature of each energy distribution was found by matching them to the emergent flux calculated from Kurucz's model atmospheres. B-V color curves, taken from the literature, were used to establish the color index of the Cepheids at the phases for which temperatures were measured. A linear least-squares fit to these data yielded the color temperature relation. Teff = 3.904x0.23 (B-V)0. King et al. discussed the Cepheid mass anomaly (i.e., the discrepancy between masses derived from pulsation theory and those obtained from evolutionary theory) and concluded that a temperature scale as cool as the the one above would resolve this long, standing problem. However, the use of this temperature scale, along with Schmidt's PLC relation and color excesses, normal solar abundances, and Faulkner's formula for the pulsation constant, Q lead to pulsation masses that are still lower than the evolutionary masses.

  4. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J L; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    2014-02-01

    Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 to April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is nonlinear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). Absolute humidity exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  5. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%–2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%–3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%–6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  6. Extension of the absolute flux density scale to 22.285 GHz. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Golden, L. M.; Welch, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Extending the absolute flux density scale at microwave wavelengths, the absolute flux densities at 22.285 GHz of several standard sources were determined using the absolute calibrations of the 6.1 meter antenna of the Hat Creek Observatory. Interpolation formulas for each nonthermal standard source have been derived by combining these data with those determined at lower frequencies. The suitability of employing the standard sources for calibrating other antennas is discussed.

  7. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  8. Cold spots in quantum systems far from equilibrium: Local entropies and temperatures near absolute zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a question motivated by the third law of thermodynamics: Can there be a local temperature arbitrarily close to absolute zero in a nonequilibrium quantum system? We consider nanoscale quantum conductors with the source reservoir held at finite temperature and the drain held at or near absolute zero, a problem outside the scope of linear response theory. We obtain local temperatures close to absolute zero when electrons originating from the finite temperature reservoir undergo destructive quantum interference. The local temperature is computed by numerically solving a nonlinear system of equations describing equilibration of a scanning thermoelectric probe with the system, and we obtain excellent agreement with analytic results derived using the Sommerfeld expansion. A local entropy for a nonequilibrium quantum system is introduced and used as a metric quantifying the departure from local equilibrium. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the probe temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  9. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  10. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  11. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  12. Global-Scale Location and Distance Estimates: Common Representations and Strategies in Absolute and Relative Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although…

  13. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Erdmann, M.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Krause, R.; Link, K.; Norden, M. J.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Anderson, J.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR.

  14. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  15. Introducing Temperature Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIldowie, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Ignoring the interpretive problems of temperature measurement deprives students of a beneficial, positive educational experience. Suggests experimenting with different thermometers including a copper resistance thermometer, a thermistor, a thermocouple, and a constant-volume air thermometer. Provides guidance for the classroom discussion of…

  16. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  17. In situ thermal imaging and absolute temperature monitoring by luminescent diphenylalanine nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhixing; Wu, Xinglong; Zhang, Jinlei; Zhu, Xiaobin; Chu, Paul K

    2013-06-10

    The temperature sensing capability of diphenylalanine nanotubes is investigated. The materials can detect local rapid temperature changes and measure the absolute temperature in situ with a precision of 1 °C by monitoring the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) intensity and lifetime, respectively. The PL lifetime is independent of ion concentrations in the medium as well as pH in the physiological range. This biocompatible thermal sensing platform has immense potential in the in situ mapping of microenvironmental temperature fluctuations in biological systems for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:23679829

  18. Method to calibrate the absolute energy scale of air showers with ultrahigh energy photons.

    PubMed

    Homola, Piotr; Risse, Markus

    2014-04-18

    Calibrating the absolute energy scale of air showers initiated by ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic rays is an important experimental issue. Currently, the corresponding systematic uncertainty amounts to 14%-21% using the fluorescence technique. Here, we describe a new, independent method which can be applied if ultrahigh energy photons are observed. While such photon-initiated showers have not yet been identified, the capabilities of present and future cosmic-ray detectors may allow their discovery. The method makes use of the geomagnetic conversion of UHE photons (preshower effect), which significantly affects the subsequent longitudinal shower development. The conversion probability depends on photon energy and can be calculated accurately by QED. The comparison of the observed fraction of converted photon events to the expected one allows the determination of the absolute energy scale of the observed photon air showers and, thus, an energy calibration of the air shower experiment. We provide details of the method and estimate the accuracy that can be reached as a function of the number of observed photon showers. Already a very small number of UHE photons may help to test and fix the absolute energy scale. PMID:24785024

  19. Temperature-dependent Absolute Refractive Index Measurements of Synthetic Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have measured the absolute refractive index of five specimens taken from a very large boule of Corning 7980 fused silica from temperatures ranging from 30 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.6 microns with an absolute uncertainty of plus or minus 1 x 10 (exp -5). Statistical variations in derived values of the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) are at the plus or minus 2 x 10 (exp -8)/K level. Graphical and tabulated data for absolute refractive index, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient are presented for selected wavelengths and temperatures along with estimates of uncertainty in index. Coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of measured refractive index are also presented to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our results to those from an independent investigation (which used an interferometric technique for measuring index changes as a function of temperature) whose samples were prepared from the same slugs of material from which our prisms were prepared in support of the Kepler mission. We also compare our results with sparse cryogenic index data from measurements of this material from the literature.

  20. On-orbit absolute temperature calibration using multiple phase change materials: overview of recent technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Perepezko, John H.

    2010-11-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors onorbit, that uses the transient melt signatures from multiple phase change materials, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and is now undergoing technology advancement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  1. Absolutely Exponential Stability and Temperature Control for Gas Chromatograph System Under Dwell Time Switching Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi-Ming; Wang, Xue-Fang; Tan, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a design strategy for temperature control of the gas chromatograph. Usually gas chromatograph is modeled by a simple first order system with a time-delay, and a proportion integration (PI) controller is widely used to regulate the output of the gas chromatograph to the desired temperature. As the characteristics of the gas chromatograph varies at the different temperature range, the single-model based PI controller cannot work well when output temperature varies from one range to another. Moreover, the presence of various disturbance will further deteriorate the performance. In order to improve the accuracy of the temperature control, multiple models are used at the different temperature ranges. With a PI controller designed for each model accordingly, a delay-dependent switching control scheme using the dwell time technique is proposed to ensure the absolute exponential stability of the closed loop. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed switching technique. PMID:26316283

  2. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt temperature, the transient temperature signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase change materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.

  3. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through the melt point of each reference material, the transient temperature signature from the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.

  4. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained. PMID:23282107

  5. Study of absolute detection technique with the rotational Raman lidar for atmospheric temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shichun; Wei, Pengpeng; Gong, Xin; Hua, Dengxin

    2015-10-01

    The rotational Raman lidar is a valid tool to profile atmospheric temperature. But the fact that its proper operation generally needs a certain collocated device for calibration seriously restricts application in the meteorology and environment fields. We propose an absolute detection technique of atmospheric temperature with the rotational Raman lidar, which is based on the dependence of rotational Raman spectral envelope on temperature. To retrieve atmospheric temperature without calibration, six rotational Raman spectra of nitrogen molecule are chosen from the anti-Strokes branch. A temperature retrieval algorithm is presented and analyzed based on the least square principle. A two-cascade Raman spectroscopic filter is constructed by one first-order diffraction grating, one convex lens, one linear fiber array and 6 groups of fiber Bragg gratings. This lidar is configured with a 300-mJ pulse energy laser and a 250-mm clear aperture telescope. Simulation results show that it can extract the nitrogen molecules rotational Raman spectral lines, and that atmospheric temperature profile obtained through absolute retrieval algorithm can be up to 3.5 km with less than 0.5-K deviation within 17 minutes interval.

  6. Time-series modeling and prediction of global monthly absolute temperature for environmental decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Van Ranst, Eric; Tang, Huajun

    2013-03-01

    A generalized, structural, time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature, one of the most important environmental parameters, using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach. Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset, the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record. Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal, involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method, respectively, while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal, involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models. A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years. The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors, suggesting that DSC models, when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models, can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (˜10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  7. Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Esser, Axel T.; Gowrishankar, T. R.; Weaver, James C.

    2006-08-01

    The recent applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show striking cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects and revive the interest in the biophysical mechanism of electroporation. We first show that the absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with membrane pore creation on a nanosecond time scale. Secondly we use a Smoluchowski equation-based model to formulate a self-consistent theoretical approach. The analysis is carried out for a planar cell membrane patch exposed to a 10ns trapezoidal pulse with 1.5ns rise and fall times. Results demonstrate reversible supraelectroporation behavior in terms of transmembrane voltage, pore density, membrane conductance, fractional aqueous area, pore distribution, and average pore radius. We further motivate and justify the use of Krassowska’s asymptotic electroporation model for analyzing nanosecond pulses, showing that pore creation dominates the electrical response and that pore expansion is a negligible effect on this time scale.

  8. Review of deformation behavior of tungsten at temperature less than 0.2 absolute melting temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures 0.2 T sub m is reviewed, with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition temperature. It appears that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research is discussed which suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. It is concluded that future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of tungsten alloys and other transition metal alloys.

  9. Absolute temperature measurements using a two-color QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundas, Jason; Dennis, Richard; Patnaude, Kelly; Burrows, Douglas; Faska, Ross; Sundaram, Mani; Reisinger, Axel; Manitakos, Dan

    2010-04-01

    The infrared photon flux emitted by an object depends not only on its temperature but also on a proportionality factor referred to as its emissivity. Since the latter parameter is usually not known quantitatively a priori, any temperature determination based on single-band radiometric measurements suffers from an inherent uncertainty. Recording photon fluxes in two separate spectral bands can in principle circumvent this limitation. The technique amounts to solving a system of two equations in two unknowns, namely, temperature and emissivity. The temperature derived in this manner can be considered absolute in the sense that it is independent of the emissivity, as long as that emissivity is the same in both bands. QmagiQ has previously developed a 320x256 midwave/longwave staring focal plane array which has been packaged into a dual-band laboratory camera. The camera in question constitutes a natural tool to generate simultaneous and independent emissivity maps and temperature maps of entire two-dimensional scenes, rather than at a single point on an object of interest. We describe a series of measurements we have performed on a variety of targets of different emissivities and temperatures. We examine various factors that affect the accuracy of the technique. They include the influence of the ambient radiation reflected off the target, which must be properly accounted for and subtracted from the collected signal in order to lead to the true target temperature. We also quantify the consequences of spectrally varying emissivities.

  10. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Weyland, M; Sang, X; Xu, W; Dycus, J H; LeBeau, J M; D'Alfonso, A J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. PMID:27258645

  11. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  12. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  13. The impact of water temperature on the measurement of absolute dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed Mehdi

    To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar

  14. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  15. The Measurement of Temperature; Part i: Temperature Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the inter-relationships between some important temperature scales such as the Celsius scale, the Kelvin Thermodynamic scale, and the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS). Included is a description of the 1968 IPTS with emphasis on innovations introduced in the range below 273.15 k. (CC)

  16. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  17. The protoelectric potential map (PPM): an absolute two-dimensional chemical potential scale for a global understanding of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Valentin; Himmel, Daniel; Pütz, Katharina; Goll, Sascha K; Krossing, Ingo

    2014-04-01

    We introduce the protoelectric potential map (PPM) as a novel, two-dimensional plot of the absolute reduction potential (peabs scale) combined with the absolute protochemical potential (Brønsted acidity: pHabs scale). The validity of this thermodynamically derived PPM is solvent-independent due to the scale zero points, which were chosen as the ideal electron gas and the ideal proton gas at standard conditions. To tie a chemical environment to these reference states, the standard Gibbs energies for the transfer of the gaseous electrons/protons to the medium are needed as anchor points. Thereby, the thermodynamics of any redox, acid-base or combined system in any medium can be related to any other, resulting in a predictability of reactions even over different media or phase boundaries. Instruction is given on how to construct the PPM from the anchor points derived and tabulated with this work. Since efforts to establish "absolute" reduction potential scales and also "absolute" pH scales already exist, a short review in this field is given and brought into relation to the PPM. Some comments on the electrochemical validation and realization conclude this concept article. PMID:24615801

  18. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  19. NMR absolute shielding scale and nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb.

    PubMed

    Adrjan, Bożena; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Jackowski, Karol; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth; Antušek, Andrej; Jaszuński, Michał

    2016-06-28

    An absolute shielding scale is proposed for (207)Pb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is based on ab initio calculations performed on an isolated tetramethyllead Pb(CH3)4 molecule and the assignment of the experimental resonance frequency from the gas-phase NMR spectra of Pb(CH3)4, extrapolated to zero density of the buffer gas to obtain the result for an isolated molecule. The computed (207)Pb shielding constant is 10 790 ppm for the isolated molecule, leading to a shielding of 10799.7 ppm for liquid Pb(CH3)4 which is the accepted reference standard for (207)Pb NMR spectra. The new experimental and theoretical data are used to determine μ((207)Pb), the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb, by applying the standard relationship between NMR frequencies, shielding constants and nuclear moments of two nuclei in the same external magnetic field. Using the gas-phase (207)Pb and (reference) proton results and the theoretical value of the Pb shielding in Pb(CH3)4, we find μ((207)Pb) = 0.59064 μN. The analysis of new experimental and theoretical data obtained for the Pb(2+) ion in water solutions provides similar values of μ((207)Pb), in the range of 0.59000-0.59131 μN. PMID:27265668

  20. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  1. Absolute Measurements of Starspot Area and Temperature: II Pegasi in 1989 October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, James E.; O'Neal, Douglas; Saar, Steven H.

    1995-10-01

    We are developing an empirical spectrum synthesis technique that yields independent measurements of starspot filling factor, f5, and starspot temperature, TS, by fitting TiO bands of differing temperature sensitivity. The absolute depth of the TiO bands constrains fS, while the ratio of their depths is a function only of TS. One strength of this technique is its ability to determine the spot parameters in traditionally difficult cases: slowly rotating stars, uniformly spotted stars, and stars that always have spots. For this initial study, we have used a simpler procedure of measuring the band depths in the most spotted star in our survey (the single-lined RS CVn binary system II Pegasi) and for a full grid of comparison stars (inactive G, K, and M dwarfs and giants). This yields TS and fS for a given assumed temperature of the nonspotted photosphere, TQ. The latter was further constrained by the use of simultaneous photometry. We have analyzed a series of spectra of II Peg obtained throughout a single 6.7 day rotational cycle in 1989 October. We find that starspots on II Peg are better modeled by comparison spectra of giants than by dwarfs. Combining TiO analysis with contemporaneous photometry, we find that cool starspots (TS ≍ 3500 K) are always visible, with a fractional projected coverage of the visible hemisphere varying from 54% to 64% as the star rotates. The nonspotted photosphere has a temperature TQ ≍ 4800 K. Our results imply that even at the historical light maximum of V = 7.2, at least 34% of II Peg was covered by starspots.

  2. Measurement of absolute minority species concentration and temperature in a flame by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunjing; Gupta, Rajendra

    2003-04-20

    It is experimentally demonstrated that absolute concentrations of minority species in flames can be measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PTDS) technique. In addition, the PTDS signal simultaneously yields the flame temperature the measurement point. Absolute concentration profiles of OH have been measured in a flat-flame burner with methane as fuel. The PTDS measurements agree well with those obtained independently by the absorption technique. The flame temperature measurements by PTDS are also in good agreement with those obtained by the Boltzmann distribution among the rotational levels of OH. PMID:12716166

  3. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  4. Absolute absorption spectra of batho- and photorhodopsins at room temperature. Picosecond laser photolysis of rhodopsin in polyacrylamide.

    PubMed Central

    Kandori, H; Shichida, Y; Yoshizawa, T

    1989-01-01

    Picosecond laser photolysis of rhodopsin in 15% polyacrylamide gel was performed for estimating absolute absorption spectra of the primary intermediates of cattle rhodopsin (bathorhodopsin and photorhodopsin). Using a rhodopsin digitonin extract embedded in 15% polyacrylamide gel, a precise percentage of bleaching of rhodopsin after excitation of a picosecond laser pulse was measured. Using this value, the absolute absorption spectrum of bathorhodopsin was calculated from the spectral change before and 1 ns after the picosecond laser excitation (corresponding to the difference spectrum between rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin). The absorption spectrum of bathorhodopsin thus obtained displayed a lambda max at 535 nm, which was shorter than that at low temperature (543 nm) and a half band-width broader than that measured at low temperature. The oscillator strength of bathorhodopsin at room temperature was smaller than that at low temperature. The absolute absorption spectrum of photorhodopsin was also estimated from the difference spectrum measured at 15 ps after the excitation of rhodopsin (Shichida, Y., S. Matuoka, and T. Yoshizawa. 1984. Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 7:221-228), assuming a sequential conversion of photorhodopsin to bathorhodopsin. Its lambda max was located at approximately 570 nm, and the oscillator strength was smaller than those of rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin. PMID:2790133

  5. Investigation of Absolute and Relative Scaling Conceptions of Students in Introductory College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Karrie; Trate, Jaclyn; Blecking, Anja; Geissinger, Peter; Murphy, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Scale as a theme in science instruction is not a new idea. As early as the mid-1980s, scale was identified as an important component of a student's overall science literacy. However, the study of scale and the scale literacy of students in varying levels of education have received less attention than other science-literacy components.…

  6. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  7. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  8. Scaling temperature dependent rheology of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Powell, Louise A.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are suspensions of micron-scale magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid. When field is applied, MR fluids develop a field controllable yield stress and a field independent post-yield viscosity. However, this viscosity has substantial temperature dependence, varying by up to an order of magnitude over the operating temperature range of MR fluid devices. We apply non-Brownian suspension theory to explain this result and find that the majority of this effect should be caused by the temperature dependent behavior of the carrier fluid. Thus, if two fluids share the same carrier fluid, then their fluid properties should scale in temperature similarly. This result is first validated by measuring viscosity across temperature for custom model fluids designed to conform to theory, showing temperature scaling within 5% for both the MR fluids and their carrier fluid. Then, on a series of related commercially available fluids with unknown additive content, we show that the MR fluids exhibit common scaling to within 4%. We also investigate the effects of magnetic hysteresis and find that it induces a negligible increase in yield stress and no measurable change in viscosity. We conclude that our non-dimensional analysis enables the temperature dependence of novel MR fluids to be characterized with fewer experiments.

  9. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  10. Toward an absolute NMR shielding scale using the spin-rotation tensor within a relativistic framework.

    PubMed

    Aucar, I Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S; Giribet, Claudia G; Aucar, Gustavo A

    2016-08-24

    One of the most influential articles showing the best way to get the absolute values of NMR magnetic shieldings, σ (non-measurables) from both accurate measurements and theoretical calculations, was published a long time ago by Flygare. His model was shown to break down when heavy atoms are involved. This fact motivated the development of new theories of nuclear spin-rotation (SR) tensors, which consider electronic relativistic effects. One was published recently by some of us. In this article we take another step further and propose three different models that generalize Flygare's model. All of them are written using four-component relativistic expressions, though the two-component relativistic SO-S term also appears in one. The first clues for these developments were built from the relationship among σ and the SR tensors within the two-component relativistic LRESC model. Besides, we had to introduce a few other well defined assumptions: (i) relativistic corrections must be included in a way to best reproduce the relationship among the (e-e) term (called "paramagnetic" within the non-relativistic domain) of σ and its equivalent part of the SR tensor, (ii) as happens in Flygare's rule, the shielding of free atoms shall be included to improve accuracy. In the highest accurate model, a new term known as Spin-orbit due to spin, SO-S (in this mechanism the spin-Zeeman Hamiltonian replaces the orbital-Zeeman Hamiltonian), is included. We show the results of the application of those models to halogen containing linear molecules. PMID:27506822

  11. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  12. The NBS scale of radiance temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, William R.; Walker, James H.; Hattenburg, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement methods and instrumentation used in the realization and transfer of the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-68) above the temperature of freezing gold are described. The determination of the ratios of spectral radiance of tungsten-strip lamps to a gold-point blackbody at a wavelength of 654.6 nm is detailed. The response linearity, spectral responsivity, scattering error, and polarization properties of the instrumentation are described. The analysis of the sources of error and estimates of uncertainty are presented. The assigned uncertainties (three standard deviations) in radiance temperature range from + or - 2 K at 2573 K to + or - 0.5 K at 1073 K.

  13. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  14. Extraction of the global absolute temperature for Northern Hemisphere using a set of 6190 meteorological stations from 1800 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Demetris T.

    2015-06-01

    Starting from a set of 6190 meteorological stations we are choosing 6130 of them and only for Northern Hemisphere we are computing average values for absolute annual Mean, Minimum, Q1, Median, Q3, Maximum temperature plus their standard deviations for years 1800-2013, while we use 4887 stations and 389 467 rows of complete yearly data. The data quality and the seasonal bias indices are defined and used in order to evaluate our dataset. After the year 1969 the data quality is monotonically decreasing while the seasonal bias is positive in most of the cases. An Extreme Value Distribution estimation is performed for minimum and maximum values, giving some upper bounds for both of them and indicating a big magnitude for temperature changes. Finally suggestions for improving the quality of meteorological data are presented.

  15. Research on temperature measurement technology for graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Lu, Fei; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhou, Shan; Xu, De

    2015-02-01

    The nonlinear effect of materials and sensors in high-energy laser calorimeters is especially obvious—due to the steep temperature gradients of their absorbers. Significant measurement errors occur when traditional integral temperature sensors and methods are utilized. In an effort to remedy this, a method is proposed in this paper in which an absorption cavity is divided into many parts and multiple discrete thermocouple sensors are used to measure the temperature rise of the absorbers. The temperature distribution in the absorbers is theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and verified through experimentation. Energy measurement results are compared according to the temperature distribution for different layouts of thermocouples. A high-accuracy calorimeter is developed by setting and optimizing thermocouple layout, as well as correcting various elements such as the specific heat of graphite and responsivity of thermocouples. The calorimeter employing this measurement method is calibrated against a standard energy meter, resulting in correction coefficient of 1.027 and relative standard deviation of the correction coefficient of only 0.8%. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental verification all prove that the proposed method successfully improves measurement accuracy.

  16. Research on temperature measurement technology for graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Lu, Fei; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhou, Shan; Xu, De

    2015-02-01

    The nonlinear effect of materials and sensors in high-energy laser calorimeters is especially obvious-due to the steep temperature gradients of their absorbers. Significant measurement errors occur when traditional integral temperature sensors and methods are utilized. In an effort to remedy this, a method is proposed in this paper in which an absorption cavity is divided into many parts and multiple discrete thermocouple sensors are used to measure the temperature rise of the absorbers. The temperature distribution in the absorbers is theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and verified through experimentation. Energy measurement results are compared according to the temperature distribution for different layouts of thermocouples. A high-accuracy calorimeter is developed by setting and optimizing thermocouple layout, as well as correcting various elements such as the specific heat of graphite and responsivity of thermocouples. The calorimeter employing this measurement method is calibrated against a standard energy meter, resulting in correction coefficient of 1.027 and relative standard deviation of the correction coefficient of only 0.8%. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental verification all prove that the proposed method successfully improves measurement accuracy. PMID:25725875

  17. Energy Decomposition Analysis Based on Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbitals for Large-Scale Density Functional Theory Calculations in Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Phipps, M J S; Fox, T; Tautermann, C S; Skylaris, C-K

    2016-07-12

    We report the development and implementation of an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme in the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package. Our approach is hybrid as it combines the localized molecular orbital EDA (Su, P.; Li, H. J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 014102) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital EDA (Khaliullin, R. Z.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 8753-8765) to partition the intermolecular interaction energy into chemically distinct components (electrostatic, exchange, correlation, Pauli repulsion, polarization, and charge transfer). Limitations shared in EDA approaches such as the issue of basis set dependence in polarization and charge transfer are discussed, and a remedy to this problem is proposed that exploits the strictly localized property of the ONETEP orbitals. Our method is validated on a range of complexes with interactions relevant to drug design. We demonstrate the capabilities for large-scale calculations with our approach on complexes of thrombin with an inhibitor comprised of up to 4975 atoms. Given the capability of ONETEP for large-scale calculations, such as on entire proteins, we expect that our EDA scheme can be applied in a large range of biomolecular problems, especially in the context of drug design. PMID:27248370

  18. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  19. Influence of spatial and temporal scales in identifying temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Mulder, Vera L.; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    Extreme heat events are becoming more frequent. Notable are severe heatwaves such as the European heatwave of 2003, the Russian heat wave of 2010 and the Australian heatwave of 2013. Surface temperature is attaining new maxima not only during the summer but also during the winter. The year of 2015 is reported to be a temperature record breaking year for both summer and winter. These extreme temperatures are taking their human and environmental toll, emphasizing the need for an accurate method to define a heat extreme in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal spread of an extreme and its impact. This research aims to explore how the use of different spatial and temporal scales influences the identification of a heat extreme. For this purpose, two near-surface temperature datasets of different temporal scale and spatial scale are being used. First, the daily ERA-Interim dataset of 0.25 degree and a time span of 32 years (1979-2010). Second, the daily Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset of 0.5 degree and a time span of 63 years (1948-2010). A temperature is considered extreme anomalous when it is surpassing the 90th, 95th, or the 99th percentile threshold based on the aforementioned pre-processed datasets. The analysis is conducted on a global scale, dividing the world in IPCC's so-called SREX regions developed for the analysis of extreme climate events. Pre-processing is done by detrending and/or subtracting the monthly climatology based on 32 years of data for both datasets and on 63 years of data for only the Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset. This results in 6 datasets of temperature anomalies from which the location in time and space of the anomalous warm days are identified. Comparison of the differences between these 6 datasets in terms of absolute threshold temperatures for extremes and the temporal and spatial spread of the extreme anomalous warm days show a dependence of the results on the datasets and methodology used. This stresses

  20. Room-temperature instability of TRM and the problem of estimating absolute paleointensity from non single domain materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute paleointensity data are essential for understanding Earth's deep interior, climatic modeling, and geochronology applications, among others. Paleointensity data are derived from experiments in which the ancient TRM is replaced by a laboratory controlled TRM. This procedure is built on the assumption that the process of ancient TRM acquisition is entirely reproducible in the lab. Here we show experimental results violating this assumption in a manner not expected from standard theory. We prepared 118 pairs of nearly identical specimens. One specimen from each pair was given laboratory TRM and allowed to "age" in a controlled fixed field, identical and parallel to the laboratory TRM field, for two years. After two years the second specimen was given a "fresh" TRM. Thus, the two specimens in each pair differ in only one significant respect: the time elapsed from the TRM acquisition. We carried out IZZI-type absolute paleointensity experiments on the two groups. Under the assumption of TRM stability we expect that the behavior of the twin specimens in the experiment would be exactly the same. Yet, we found a small but systematic difference between the "aged" and the "fresh" TRM. The "aged" TRM yield more curved and zigzaggy Arai plots, and exhibit a shift in the blocking/unblocking spectra. This effect leads to a systematic bias in paleointensity estimates caused only by room-temperature instability of TRM. The change in TRM properties is likely caused by irreversible changes in micromagnetic structures of non single domains.

  1. Medium-scale surface temperature mission: MUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthil, Philippe; Vidal, Alain; Dubet, Dominique

    1997-12-01

    The medium scale surface temperature (MUST) mission, studied in the frame of a European Commission (DG XII) contract, is a large swath (1200 Km), medium resolution (250 m) thermal infra-red imager mission devoted to retrieve the land surface temperature in order to serve various applications. These applications are firstly those concerned with the soil and vegetation water status (agriculture, irrigation and water resources management) as evapotranspiration and soil moisture can be inferred from surface temperature through relevant models. The other applications are either directly using the surface temperature (some frosts conditions assessment) or the air temperature that is itself derived from surface temperature extrapolation (urban heat island, some air frosts conditions). The project basically aimed to demonstrate the relevance and efficiency of the MUST mission products in the relevant application fields and to assess the economical benefits of the mission. Also in the course of the study the design of a medium resolution, large swath thermal imager, providing the appropriate performance required by the users while compact and affordable, was produced. Finally the operational implementation of the system and especially the ground segment was considered.

  2. Temperature Scale of Central Stars Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffry

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain new insight into both the true temperatures of the central stars of planetary nebulae and their evolutionary histories. The temperature scale of the hottest central stars of planetary nebulae is poorly known. The temperature diagnostics available at visible wavelengths are not useful for these very hot stars, or suffer from as-yet unresolved systematic uncertainties. However, the combination of FUSE FUV spectra and HST NUV spectra allows precise temperature determinations by utilizing ionization balances of C III, C IV and O V, O VI lines. The sample comprises hot hydrogen-rich central stars covering the hottest phase of post-AGB evolution (T_eff greater than 70,000K). The spectra were analyzed with fully metal line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres in order to determine T_eff, surface gravity, and chemical composition. In addition to the temperature scale, the spectra help address the question of metal abundances at the surface of these stars. Depending on the particular star, the metal abundances are either dominated by ongoing diffusion processes or they originate from dredge-up phases during previous AGB evolution. The sample was selected so as to include objects that were expected to exhibit both processes, in order to assess their relative importance and to gain insight into the evolutionary history of the stars. The objects that show qualitatively a metal abundance pattern which points at dredge-up phases, can be used to quantitatively check against abundance predictions of stellar evolution theory. The other objects, where gravitational diffusion and radiative acceleration determine the photospheric metal abundances, will be used to check our NLTE models which for the first time include diffusion processes self-consistently.

  3. Role of Absolute Humidity in the Inactivation of Influenza Viruses on Stainless Steel Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James; Rudnick, Stephen; First, Melvin; Spengler, John

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus has been found to persist in the environment for hours to days, allowing for secondary transmission of influenza via inanimate objects known as fomites. We evaluated the efficacy of heat and moisture for the decontamination of surfaces for the purpose of preventing of the spread of influenza. Aqueous suspensions of influenza A virus were deposited onto stainless steel coupons, allowed to dry under ambient conditions, and exposed to temperatures of 55°C, 60°C, or 65°C and relative humidity (RH) of 25%, 50%, or 75% for up to 1 h. Quantitative virus assays were performed on the solution used to wash the viruses from these coupons, and results were compared with the solution used to wash coupons treated similarly but left under ambient conditions. Inactivation of influenza virus on surfaces increased with increasing temperature, RH, and exposure time. Reductions of greater than 5 logs of influenza virus on surfaces were achieved at temperatures of 60 and 65°C, exposure times of 30 and 60 min, and RH of 50 and 75%. Our data also suggest that absolute humidity is a better predictor of surface inactivation than RH and allows the prediction of survival using two parameters rather than three. Modest amounts of heat and adequate moisture can provide effective disinfection of surfaces while not harming surfaces, electrical systems, or mechanical components, leaving no harmful residues behind after treatment and requiring a relatively short amount of time. PMID:20435770

  4. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  5. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments. PMID:24180794

  6. Contributing to a precise and accurate chronostratigraphic time scale for climatic records: Absolute dating and paleomagnetism in lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasco, Romain; Guillou, Herve; Kissel, Catherine; Wandres, Camille; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez Torrado, Francisco Jose

    2014-05-01

    Understanding climatic mechanisms requires a robust and precise timescale allowing long-distance and multi-archives correlations. A unique tool to construct such time scales is provided by the Earth magnetic field (EMF), which is independent from climatic variations and the past evolution of which is recorded in most of the geological/climatic archives. Sedimentary sequences provide continuous records of relative intensities of the EMF on stratigraphic time scales, usually based on orbital tuning. They are transferred onto absolute intensity scale and chronological time scale using robust tie points available for the past ~40 ka. However, for older periods this calibration remains poorly constrained. Our study reports on new tie points over the last 200 ka by combining paleomagnetic and geochronological (K/Ar and 40Ar-39Ar dating) studies on lavas. Based on the K-Ar LSCE age database, a set of 18 lava flows corresponding to potential geomagnetic excursions and/or highs and lows in the paleomagnetic intensity as observed from sediments and occurring in the studied time-window were selected in the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Palma and Gran Canaria). A total of 205 oriented cores were taken from these 18 lava flows. Rock magnetic experiments include thermomagnetic analyses on each core, hysteresis loop and First Order Reversal Curves. Stepwise thermal demagnetizations in zero-field provided reliable mean-site paleomagnetic direction of the EMF for 15 of the flows. Paleointensity values were determined using the original Thellier and Thellier method. Based on previous experiments, 170 samples were analyzed, among which 51% provided reliable paleointensity values (determined using PICRIT-03 criteria). The geochronological study focused on 40Ar-39Ar dating. Based on preliminary paleomagnetic results, 13 flows were analyzed and 11 provided ages consistent at the 2 sigma level with the already available K-Ar ages. This coupled K/Ar - 40Ar-39Ar results strongly constrain

  7. The effective temperature scale of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Schultheis, M.; Bessell, M. S.; Robin, A. C.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Despite their large number in the Galaxy, M dwarfs remain elusive objects and the modeling of their photosphere has long remained a challenge (molecular opacities, dust cloud formation). Aims: Our objectives are to validate the BT-Settl model atmospheres, update the M dwarf Teff-spectral type relation, and find the atmospheric parameters of the stars in our sample. Methods: We compare two samples of optical spectra covering the whole M dwarf sequence with the most recent BT-Settl synthetic spectra and use a χ2 minimization technique to determine Teff. The first sample consists of 97 low-resolution spectra obtained with New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla Observatory. The second sample contains 55 medium-resolution spectra obtained at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). The spectral typing is realized by comparison with already classified M dwarfs. Results: We show that the BT-Settl synthetic spectra reproduce the slope of the spectral energy distribution and most of its features. Only the CaOH band at 5570 Å and AlH and NaH hydrides in the blue part of the spectra are still missing in the models. The Teff scale obtained with the higher resolved SSO 2.3 m spectra is consistent with that obtained with the NTT spectra. We compare our Teff scale with those of other authors and with published isochrones using the BT-Settl colors. We also present relations between effective temperature, spectral type, and colors of the M dwarfs. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-17

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000 deg. C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  9. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Adler, D. P.; Best, F. A.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has embedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity. We present the details of a demonstration experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station later this year. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. The planned microgravity demonstration will compare melt signatures obtained pre-flight on the ground with those obtained on the ISS for three phase change materials (water, gallium-tin, and gallium). With a successful demonstration experiment the phase transition cells in a microgravity environment will have cleared the last hurdle before being ready for

  10. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  11. Temperature sensing and real-time two-dimensional mapping at the micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaoye; Li, Gang; Wang, Zhenhai; Mao, Xinyu; Xu, Shengyong

    To sense temperature at micro/nano scales and obtain its detailed distribution in space and in time remains a technical challenge in many cases. We observed an unexpected thermoelectric size effect, where the absolute Seebeck coefficient of metallic thin film stripes (e.g. Ni, Cr, Pd, W, Bi, Sc, etc.) decreased with the stripe width from 100 μm down to 100nm. This phenomenon was utilized in micro/nano-stripe-based thin film temperature sensors. By using an array of such sensors, two-dimensional temperature distribution at the micro-scale could be precisely mapped. Small temperature sensors with a total width less than 1 μm and a sensitivity of 0.5-2.2 μV/K were fabricated, showing a potential for monitoring temperatures at submicro-scales. By using a special multiplexer and software, nearly real-time 2D temperature mapping was performed, demonstrating 2D thermal history of target surface with a delay of less than one minute. These thin film sensors were also fabricated on flexible Parylene-C substrates for application in flexible electronic devices, temperature monitoring of cell culturing, and heat transfer between Au nanoparticles and metallic stripes due to plasmonic excitation under laser radiation.

  12. Investigation of 10-Stage Axial-Flow X24C-2 Compressor. 1; Performance at Inlet Pressure of 21 Inches Mercury Absolute and Inlet Temperature of 538 R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    The performance at inlet pressure of 21 inches mercury absolute and inlet temperature of 538 R for the 10-stage axial-flow X24C-2 compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was investigated. the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency for a given speed generally occurred at values of pressure coefficient fairly close to 0.35.For this compressor, the efficiency data at various speeds could be correlated on two converging curves by the use of a polytropic loss factor derived.

  13. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and were further refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has imbedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium, providing calibration from 233K to 303K. One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration will make use of an Experiment Support Package developed by Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory to continuously run melt cycles on miniature phase change cells containing gallium, a gallium-tin eutectic, and water. The phase change cells will be mounted in a small aluminum block along with a thermistor temperature sensor. A thermoelectric cooler will be used to change the temperature of the block. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. Melt signatures

  14. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  15. Critical role of nitrogen during high temperature scaling of zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, E. B.; Tsangarakis, N.; Probst, H. B.; Garibotti, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanisms of scale cracking, scale color changes, and scale growth, and their interrelations, were studied in zirconium specimens at elevated temperatures in air, oxygen and nitrogen. Nitrogen was found to be responsible for monoclinic-to-cubic ZrO2 conversion, for scale cracking and breakaway on zirconium nitride, and for the formation of ZrN on the metal interface underneath an outer oxide layer.

  16. EROSION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CORROSION SCALES ON METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Maasberg, J.A.; Levy, A.V.

    1981-05-01

    Combined erosion-corrosion poses a considerable problem to the design of long lifetime metallic components in energy conversion systems. To gain some insight into this problem, scales were formed on stainless steel at elevated temperature and subsequently were eroded at room temperature to determine the nature of the erosion rates and the mechanism of scale removal. Thin corrosion scales were formed on 310 stainless steel and an experimental Fe-18Cr-5Al-1Hf alloy at high temperatures (9ooo and 980°C) in gas mixtures with various levels of oxygen and combined oxygen-sulfur. The corroded specimens were eroded at room temperature in an air-solid particle stream using 50{micro}m SiC at 60 ms{sup -1}. The conditions of the corrosive exposures, the rates of erosion of these scales and the microscopic appearance of the eroded surface were correlated to determine the mechanism of thin scale erosion.

  17. A REVISED EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE SCALE FOR THE KEPLER INPUT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; An, Deokkeun; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Chaplin, William J.; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Bruntt, Hans

    2012-04-01

    We present a catalog of revised effective temperatures for stars observed in long-cadence mode in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) griz filters tied to the fundamental temperature scale. Polynomials for griz color-temperature relations are presented, along with correction terms for surface gravity effects, metallicity, and statistical corrections for binary companions or blending. We compare our temperature scale to the published infrared flux method (IRFM) scale for V{sub T}JK{sub s} in both open clusters and the Kepler fields. We find good agreement overall, with some deviations between (J - K{sub s} )-based temperatures from the IRFM and both SDSS filter and other diagnostic IRFM color-temperature relationships above 6000 K. For field dwarfs, we find a mean shift toward hotter temperatures relative to the KIC, of order 215 K, in the regime where the IRFM scale is well defined (4000 K to 6500 K). This change is of comparable magnitude in both color systems and in spectroscopy for stars with T{sub eff} below 6000 K. Systematic differences between temperature estimators appear for hotter stars, and we define corrections to put the SDSS temperatures on the IRFM scale for them. When the theoretical dependence on gravity is accounted for, we find a similar temperature scale offset between the fundamental and KIC scales for giants. We demonstrate that statistical corrections to color-based temperatures from binaries are significant. Typical errors, mostly from uncertainties in extinction, are of order 100 K. Implications for other applications of the KIC are discussed.

  18. Absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale in methanol determined by the lithium cluster-continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Josefredo R; Miguel, Elizabeth L M

    2013-05-01

    Absolute solvation free energy of the lithium cation in methanol was calculated by the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory of solvation. Clusters with up to five methanol molecules were investigated using X3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with DZVP, 6-311+G(2df,2p), TZVPP+diff, and QZVPP+diff basis sets and including the cluster solvation through the PCM and SMD continuum models. Our calculations have determined a value of -118.1 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the lithium, in close agreement with a value of -116.6 kcal mol(-1) consistent with the TATB assumption. Using data of solvation and transfer free energy of a pair of ions, electrode potentials and pKa, we have obtained the solvation free energy of 25 ions in methanol. Our analysis leads to a value of -253.6 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the proton, which can be compared with the value of -263.5 kcal mol(-1) obtained by Kelly et al. using the cluster pair approximation. Considering that this difference is due to the methanol surface potential, we have estimated that it corresponds to -0.429 V. PMID:23570440

  19. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  20. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice.

  1. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice. PMID:26581975

  2. Elasticity of MgO to 11 GPa with an independent absolute pressure scale: Implications for pressure calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Woody, K; Kung, J

    2006-01-01

    P and S wave velocities and unit cell parameters (density) of MgO are measured simultaneously up to 11 GPa using combined ultrasonic interferometry and in situ X-ray diffraction techniques. The elastic bulk and shear moduli as well as their pressure derivatives are obtained by fitting the measured velocity and density data to the third-order finite strain equations, yielding K0S = 163.5(11) GPa, K'0S = 4.20(10), G0 = 129.8(6) GPa, and G'0 = 2.42(6), independent of pressure. These properties are subsequently used in a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to determine the sample pressures at the observed strains. Comparison of the 300K isothermal compression of MgO indicates that current pressure scales from recent studies are in better than 1.5% agreement. We find that pressures derived from secondary pressure standards (NaCl, ruby fluorescence) at 300K are lower than those from current MgO scales by 5-8% ({approx}6% on average) in the entire pressure range of the current experiment. If this is taken into account, discrepancy in previous static compression studies on MgO at 300K can be reconciled, and a better agreement with the present study can be achieved.

  3. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  4. Dynamic scaling and temperature effects in thin film roughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, T. A.; Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic scaling of mesoscopically thick films (up to 104 atomic layers) grown with the Clarke-Vvedensky model is investigated numerically in 2 + 1 dimensions for broad ranges of values of the diffusion-to-deposition ratio R and lateral neighbor detachment probability ɛ, but with no barrier at step edges. The global roughness scales with the film thickness t as W ˜ tβ/[R3/2(ɛ + a)], where β ≈ 0.2 is the growth exponent consistent with Villain-Lai-Das Sarma (VLDS) scaling and a = 0.025. This general dependence on R and ɛ is inferred from renormalization studies and shows a remarkable effect of the former but a small effect of the latter, for ɛ ⩽ 0.1. For R ⩾ 104, very smooth surfaces are always produced. The local roughness shows apparent anomalous scaling for very low temperatures (R ⩽ 102), which is a consequence of large scaling corrections to asymptotic normal scaling. The scaling variable R3/2(ɛ + a) also represents the temperature effects in the scaling of the correlation length and appears in the dynamic scaling relation of the local roughness, which gives dynamic exponent z ≈ 3.3 also consistent with the VLDS class.

  5. Are there multiple scaling regimes in Holocene temperature records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tine; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2016-04-01

    The concept of multiple scaling regimes in temperature time series is examined, with emphasis on the question whether or not a monoscaling model with one single scaling regime can be rejected from observation data from the Holocene. A model for internal variability with only one regime is simpler and allows more certain predictions on timescales of centuries when combined with existing knowledge of radiative forcing. Our analysis of spectra from stable isotope ratios from Greenland and Antarctica ice cores shows that a scale break around centennial timescales is evident for the last glacial period, but not for the Holocene. Spectra from a number of late Holocene multiproxy temperature reconstructions, and one from the entire Holocene, have also been analysed, without identifying a significant scale break. Our results indicate that a single-regime scaling climate noise, with some non-scaling fluctuations on a millennial timescale superposed, cannot be rejected as a null model for the Holocene climate. The scale break observed from the glacial time ice-core records is likely caused by the influence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events and teleconnections to the Southern Hemisphere on centennial timescales. From our analysis we conclude that the two-regime model is not sufficiently justified for the Holocene to be used for temperature prediction on centennial timescales.

  6. Absolute absorption coefficient of C6H2 in the mid-UV range at low temperature; implications for the interpretation of Titan atmospheric spectra.

    PubMed

    Bénilan, Y; Bruston, P; Raulin, F; Courtin, R; Guillemin, J C

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of mid-UV albedo spectra of planetary atmospheres, especially that of Titan, is the main goal of the SIPAT (Spectroscopie uv d'Interet Prebiologique dans l'Atmosphere de Titan) research program. This laboratory experiment has been developed in order to systematically determine the absorption coefficients of molecular compounds which are potential absorbers of scattered sunlight in planetary atmospheres, with high spectral resolution, and at various temperatures below room temperature. From photochemical modelling and experimental simulations, we may expect triacetylene (C6H2) to be present in the atmosphere of Titan, even though it has not yet been detected. We present here the first determination of the absolute absorption coefficient of that compound in the 200-300 nm range and at two temperatures (296 K and 233 K). The temperature dependence of the C6H2 absorption coefficient in that wavelength range is compared to that previously observed in the case of cyanoacetylene (HC3N). We then discuss the implications of the present results for the interpretation of Titan UV spectra, where it appears that large uncertainities can be introduced either by the presence of trace impurities in laboratory samples or by the variations of absorption coefficients with temperature. PMID:11538441

  7. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since the early 1960s. Together with a digital data logger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the wide use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported regarding their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effects of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were considered in this study. The pressure transducers were tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  8. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2014-09-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since early 1960s. Together with a digital datalogger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the widely use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported for their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were discussed in this study. The pressure transducer was tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effect in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  9. Scalings of energetic particle transport by ion temperature gradient microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wenlu; Decyk, Viktor; Holod, Ihor; Xiao Yong; Lin Zhihong; Chen Liu

    2010-05-15

    Transport scaling of energetic particles by ion temperature gradient microturbulence in magnetized plasmas is studied in massively paralleled gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the diffusivity decreases drastically at high particles energy (E) to plasma temperature (T) ratio because of the averaging effects of the large gyroradius and drift-orbit width, and the fast wave-particle decorrelation. At high energy, the diffusivity follows a (E/T){sup -1} scaling for purely passing particles, a (E/T){sup -2} scaling for deeply trapped particles and a (E/T){sup -1} scaling for particles with an isotropic velocity distribution since the diffusivity therein is contributed mostly by the passing particles.

  10. Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

  11. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  12. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models. PMID:26395146

  13. Temperature Scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, Reamur, and Romer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of temperature scales which began with the 17th-century invention of the liquid-in-glass thermometer. Focuses on the work of Olaf Romer, Daniel Fahrenheit, Rene-Antoine de Reamur, Anders Celsius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). Includes experimental work and consideration of high/low fixed points on the…

  14. Improved scaling of temperature-accelerated dynamics using localization.

    PubMed

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G

    2016-07-01

    While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) is a powerful method for carrying out non-equilibrium simulations of systems over extended time scales, the computational cost of serial TAD increases approximately as N(3) where N is the number of atoms. In addition, although a parallel TAD method based on domain decomposition [Y. Shim et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] has been shown to provide significantly improved scaling, the dynamics in such an approach is only approximate while the size of activated events is limited by the spatial decomposition size. Accordingly, it is of interest to develop methods to improve the scaling of serial TAD. As a first step in understanding the factors which determine the scaling behavior, we first present results for the overall scaling of serial TAD and its components, which were obtained from simulations of Ag/Ag(100) growth and Ag/Ag(100) annealing, and compare with theoretical predictions. We then discuss two methods based on localization which may be used to address two of the primary "bottlenecks" to the scaling of serial TAD with system size. By implementing both of these methods, we find that for intermediate system-sizes, the scaling is improved by almost a factor of N(1/2). Some additional possible methods to improve the scaling of TAD are also discussed. PMID:27394097

  15. Improved scaling of temperature-accelerated dynamics using localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G.

    2016-07-01

    While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) is a powerful method for carrying out non-equilibrium simulations of systems over extended time scales, the computational cost of serial TAD increases approximately as N3 where N is the number of atoms. In addition, although a parallel TAD method based on domain decomposition [Y. Shim et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] has been shown to provide significantly improved scaling, the dynamics in such an approach is only approximate while the size of activated events is limited by the spatial decomposition size. Accordingly, it is of interest to develop methods to improve the scaling of serial TAD. As a first step in understanding the factors which determine the scaling behavior, we first present results for the overall scaling of serial TAD and its components, which were obtained from simulations of Ag/Ag(100) growth and Ag/Ag(100) annealing, and compare with theoretical predictions. We then discuss two methods based on localization which may be used to address two of the primary "bottlenecks" to the scaling of serial TAD with system size. By implementing both of these methods, we find that for intermediate system-sizes, the scaling is improved by almost a factor of N1/2. Some additional possible methods to improve the scaling of TAD are also discussed.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Flare Fluence Scaling Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares result in an increase of the solar irradiance at all wavelengths. While the distribution of the flare fluence observed in coronal emission has been widely studied and found to scale as f(E)˜ E^{-α}, with α slightly below 2, the distribution of the flare fluence in chromospheric lines is poorly known. We used the solar irradiance measurements observed by the SDO/EVE instrument at a 10 s cadence to investigate the dependency of the scaling exponent on the formation region of the lines (or temperature). We analyzed all flares above the C1 level since the start of the EVE observations (May 2010) to determine the flare fluence distribution in 16 lines covering a wide range of temperatures, several of which were not studied before. Our results show a weak downward trend with temperature of the scaling exponent of the PDF that reaches from above 2 at lower temperature (a few 104 K) to {˜ }1.8 for hot coronal emission (several 106 K). However, because colder lines also have fainter contrast, we cannot exclude that this behavior is caused by including more noise for smaller flares for these lines. We discuss the method and its limitations and tentatively associate this possible trend with the different mechanisms responsible for the heating of the chromosphere and corona during flares.

  17. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    PubMed

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) < q < 5.6 nm(-1), giving an almost continuous SANS curve over a range of scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules. PMID:23377745

  18. Anomalous scaling of temperature structure functions in turbulent thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Penger; He, Xiaozhou; Shang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    The scaling properties of the temperature structure function (SF) are investigated in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. The measured SFs are found to exhibit good scaling in space and time and the resulting SF exponent is obtained both at the center of the convection cell and near the sidewall. It is found that the difference in the functional form of the measured SF exponents at the two locations in the cell is caused by the change of the geometry of the most dissipative structures in the (inhomogeneous) temperature field from being sheet-like at the cell center to filament-like near the sidewall. The experiment thus provides direct evidence showing that the universality features of turbulent cascade are linked to the degree of anisotropy and inhomogeneity of turbulent statistics. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR.

  19. Optical investigation of oxide scales on high-temperature alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uran, Serif

    Non-destructive optical techniques have been used to study the oxidation of low-index crystal faces of single crystal β-NiAl as a function of temperature. With these techniques residual stress, phase composition and thickness of the scales were determined after various oxidation temperatures. The oxidation of the three low- index surfaces, (001), (110) and (111) exhibit differences in residual stress and phase composition. All surfaces exhibit a stress anomaly between 1200 and 1250°C. Using micro-fluorescence and optical microscopy we have investigated the deformation and stresses that develop in the vicinity of edges (i.e. the intersection of two crystallographic faces) in single crystal β-NiAl as it is thermally oxidized at temperatures in the range 1100-1450°C. We find that the edges, initially with a radius of curvature of ~2 microns, develop a significant rounding. The radius of curvature of this rounding appears to be constant at temperatures above 1250°C, suggesting that the rounding takes place below this temperature. Stresses in the oxide scale show a very large decrease close to the edges and the distances over which this decrease occurs is comparable to the rounding discussed above. Data for both the deformation and stress are presented for the following pair of orientations: (001) and (011), (110) and (11¯0), (111) and (11¯0). The effects of reactive element (i.e., Zr) doping on oxidation of single crystal β-NiAl is studied as a function of temperature. The results are compared with the results obtained from an undoped counterpart. Interesting differences in scale stress, thickness and phase composition have been observed. Initial lower stress levels in the doped crystal convert to higher stresses at higher oxidation temperatures. The orientation dependence and the stress anomaly observed with the undoped single crystal β-NiAl are still present on the doped sample. Fluorescence and Raman results indicate a higher concentration of θ- Al2O3 on

  20. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  1. A theoretical analysis of basin-scale groundwater temperature distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ran; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong

    2015-03-01

    The theory of regional groundwater flow is critical for explaining heat transport by moving groundwater in basins. Domenico and Palciauskas's (1973) pioneering study on convective heat transport in a simple basin assumed that convection has a small influence on redistributing groundwater temperature. Moreover, there has been no research focused on the temperature distribution around stagnation zones among flow systems. In this paper, the temperature distribution in the simple basin is reexamined and that in a complex basin with nested flow systems is explored. In both basins, compared to the temperature distribution due to conduction, convection leads to a lower temperature in most parts of the basin except for a small part near the discharge area. There is a high-temperature anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems converge due to a low degree of convection and a long travel distance, but there is no anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems diverge. In the complex basin, there are also high-temperature anomalies around internal stagnation points. Temperature around internal stagnation points could be very high when they are close to the basin bottom, for example, due to the small permeability anisotropy ratio. The temperature distribution revealed in this study could be valuable when using heat as a tracer to identify the pattern of groundwater flow in large-scale basins. Domenico PA, Palciauskas VV (1973) Theoretical analysis of forced convective heat transfer in regional groundwater flow. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84:3803-3814

  2. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  3. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  4. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp.

    PubMed

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30,000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  5. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  6. Scaling of granular temperature in vibro-fluidized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant K.

    2016-04-01

    Granular temperature quantifies velocity fluctuations in fluidized granular materials. There is ongoing effort to understand granular temperature T in vibro-fluidized grains through the power law T ∝ Vp α , where Vp is peak vibrational velocity. However, the present literature disagrees on the value of α. We utilize dimensional analysis and discrete element simulations to show that granular temperature, and therefore the exponent α, depends crucially on a non-dimensional number W representing the competition between vibrational and gravitational energies but is much less sensitive to other system parameters. Furthermore, change in the barycentric height Δhcm of the vibrated grains, and their temperature T, typically behaves differently with Vp. Thus, Δhcm cannot generally be used as a surrogate for T, as is often done at present. Our computations help explain the currently contradictory results on how granular temperature scales with peak vibrational velocity. Finally, we also briefly investigate the dependence of the temperature on system parameters, as well as its spatial variation.

  7. Greater absolute rates of N2O production and consumption with soil warming dwarf variations in denitrification enzyme temperature sensitivities across seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    denitrification (i.e. consumption of gross N2O production into N2) to a greater degree, and permit release of a relatively smaller proportion of the nitrate they consumed as N2O; b) the suite of enzymes responsible for N2O production and the one enzyme responsible for its consumption exhibit differential temperature sensitivities in their production and expression during winter months, but the sensitivity of these processes converges during warmer seasons; c) in spite of the smaller proportion of NO3- released as N2O with warming, warming’s positive influence on the amount of NO3- transformed by denitrifying organisms resulted in far greater absolute quantities of N2O released with incubation and seasonal warming. Continuing work explores the influence that temperature may exert on the relative abundances of denitrifying populations and their gene expression, and links these microbial characteristics to denitrification processes with warming. These data signify the importance of understanding enzyme kinetics in concert with microbial adaptation and acclimation as a factor governing the net fluxes of N2O from soil vs. its transformation into N2 with warming.

  8. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  9. A full-dimensional model of ozone forming reaction: the absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2016-07-28

    Rigorous calculations of scattering resonances in ozone are carried out for a broad range of rotational excitations. The accurate potential energy surface of Dawes is adopted, and a new efficient method for calculations of ro-vibrational energies, wave functions and resonance lifetimes is employed (which uses hyper-spherical coordinates, the sequential diagonalization/truncation approach, grid optimization and complex absorbing potential). A detailed analysis is carried out to characterize distributions of resonance energies and lifetimes, their rotational/vibrational content and their positions with respect to the centrifugal barrier. Emphasis is on the contribution of these resonances to the recombination process that forms ozone. It is found that major contributions come from localized resonances at energies near the top of the barrier. Delocalized resonances at higher energies should also be taken into account, while very narrow resonances at low energies (trapped far behind the centrifugal barrier) should be treated as bound states. The absolute value of the recombination rate coefficient, its pressure and temperature dependencies are obtained using the energy-transfer model developed in the earlier work. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained if one follows the suggestion of Troe, who argued that the energy transfer mechanism of recombination is responsible only for 55% of the recombination rate (with the remaining 45% coming from the competing chaperon mechanism). PMID:27364351

  10. A New Effective Temperature Scale for M Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. A.; Houdashelt, M. L.

    1997-12-01

    M giants play a significant role in determining the shape of the spectral energy distribution of elliptical galaxies, producing the TiO bands seen at optical wavelengths and contributing the majority of the flux in the infrared. However, these stars have proven to be notoriously difficult to model. Previous measurements of angular diameters by Ridgway et al. (1980), Dyck et al. (1996) and di Benedetto & Rabbia (1987) have produced very similar relations between spectral type and effective temperature for K and M giants. We present here an alternative temperature scale for these stars which is based upon recent angular diameter measurements of Mozurkewich. This new relation is in reasonable agreement with the older ones for K giants but differs from them in being sytematically cooler at a given spectral type for the M giants. In this poster, we contrast models based upon this new effective temperature scale and that of Dyck et al. (1996). We examine the effects on the synthetic spectra which we use in our galaxy population synthesis program, concentrating upon the TiO and CO molecular absorption features. We estimate the spectral types of our synthetic spectra using three methods - the strengths of the TiO bands, the equivalent width of the CO bandhead near 2.3 mu m and the eight-color photometric system of Wing - and check the agreement of the three.

  11. Scaling laws for the upper ocean temperature dissipation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Darek J.; Huguenard, K.; Haus, B. K.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Reniers, A.; Laxague, N. J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Our understanding of temperature dissipation rate χ within the upper ocean boundary layer, which is critical for climate forecasts, is very limited. Near-surface turbulence also affects dispersion of contaminants and biogeochemical tracers. Using high-resolution optical turbulence measurements, scaling laws for χ are investigated under forcing states where either the daytime heat flux or the wind stress forcing is dominant. We find that χ remains constant over 1.5 times the significant wave height, while over a layer below, χ decays based on the local surface forcing. When the heat flux is dominant, traditional scaling based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory remains valid; χ ∝ z-1. When the wind stress dominates, we observe the emergence of a new scaling, χ ∝ z-1/2, which is explained by invoking the effect of small-scale coherent structures on vertical heat transport. These results have implications for improved modeling of the ocean's heat and CO2 intake.

  12. Scaling law for topologically ordered systems at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Iblisdir, S.; Perez-Garcia, D.; Aguado, M.; Pachos, J.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the behavior of topologically ordered lattice systems at finite temperature is a way of assessing their potential as fault-tolerant quantum memories. We compute the natural extension of the topological entanglement entropy for T>0, namely, the subleading correction I{sub topo} to the area law for mutual information. Its dependence on T can be written, for Abelian Kitaev models, in terms of information-theoretical functions and readily identifiable scaling behavior, from which the interplay between volume, temperature, and topological order, can be read. These arguments are extended to non-Abelian quantum double models, and numerical results are given for the D(S{sub 3}) model, showing qualitative agreement with the Abelian case.

  13. New solar twins and the metallicity and temperature scales of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We search for 'solar twins' in the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We initially select Sun-like stars from the GCS by absolute magnitude, (b - y) colour and metallicity close to the solar values. Our aim is to find the stars which are spectroscopically very close to the Sun using line depth ratios and the median equivalent widths and depths of selected lines with a range of excitation potentials. We present the 10 best stars fulfilling combined photometric and spectroscopic criteria, of which six are new twins. We use our full sample of Sun-like stars to examine the calibration of the metallicity and temperature scale in the GCS. Our results give rise to the conclusion that the GCS may be offset from the solar temperature and metallicity for Sun-like stars by 100 K and 0.1 dex, respectively. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D-0525 and from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number JDATSHCCCA119545 and following.

  14. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  15. Is Current CMBR Temperature: The Scale Independent Quantum Gravitational Result of Black Hole Cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshavatharam, U. V. S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole (universe that constitutes dynamic space-time and exhibits quantum behavior) automatically general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a `scale independent' true unified model of quantum gravity. By considering the `Planck mass' as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Current rate of cosmic black hole expansion is being stopped by the microscopic quantum mechanical lengths. In this new direction authors observed 5 important quantum mechanical methods for understanding the current cosmic deceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of `whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy's excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of high cosmic back ground temperature. Need of new mathematical methods & techniques, computer simulations, advanced engineering skills seem to be essential

  16. Is there a break in scaling on centennial time scale in Holocene temperature records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tine; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    A variety of paleoclimatic records have been used to study scaling properties of past climate, including ice core paleotemperature records and multi-proxy reconstructions. Records extending further back in time than the Holocene are divided into glacial/interglacial segments before analysis. The methods used to infer the scaling include the power spectral density (Lomb-Scargle periodogram and standard periodogram), detrended fluctuation analysis, wavelet variance analysis and the Haar fluctuation function. All the methods have individual strengths, weaknesses, uncertainties and biases, and for this reason it is useful to compare results from different methods when possible. Proxy-based reconstructions have limited spatial and temporal coverage, and must be used and interpreted with great care due to uncertainties. By elaborating on physical mechanisms for the actual climate fluctuations seen in the paleoclimatic temperature records as well as uncertainties in both data and methods, we demonstrate the possible pitfalls that may lead to the conclusion that the variability in temperature time series can be separated into different scaling regimes. Categorizing the Earth's surface temperature variability into a «macroweather» and "climate" regime has little or no practical meaning since the different components in the climate system are connected and interact on all time scales. Our most important result is that a break between two different scaling regimes at time scales around one century cannot be identified in Holocene climate. We do, however, observe departures from scaling, which can be attributed to variability such as a single internal quasi-periodic oscillation, an externally forced trend, or a combination of factors. If two scaling regimes are claimed to be present in one single time series, both regimes must be persistent. We show that the limited temporal resolution/length of the records significantly lowers the confidence for such persistence. A total of

  17. Interpreting Temperature Strain Data from Meso-Scale Clathrate Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leeman, John R; Rawn, Claudia J; Ulrich, Shannon M; Elwood Madden, Megan; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2012-01-01

    Gas hydrates are important in global climate change, carbon sequestra- tion, and seafloor stability. Currently, formation and dissociation pathways are poorly defined. We present a new approach for processing large amounts of data from meso-scale experiments, such as the LUNA distributed sensing system (DSS) in the seafloor process simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DSS provides a proxy for temperature measurement with a high spatial resolution allowing the heat of reaction during gas hydrate formation/dissociation to aid in locating clathrates in the vessel. The DSS fibers are placed in the sediment following an Archimedean spiral design and then the position of each sensor is solved by iterating over the arc length formula with Newtons method. The data is then gridded with 1 a natural neighbor interpolation algorithm to allow contouring of the data. The solution of the sensor locations is verified with hot and cold stimulus in known locations. An experiment was preformed with a vertically split column of sand and silt. The DSS system clearly showed hydrate forming in the sand first, then slowly creeping into the silt. Similar systems and data processing techniques could be used for monitoring of hydrates in natural environments or in any situation where a hybrid temperature/strain index is useful. Further ad- vances in fiber technology allow the fiber to be applied in any configuration and the position of each sensor to be precisely determined making practical applications easier.

  18. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  19. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  20. Analysis and modeling for fiber-optic gyroscope scale factor based on environment temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Chen, Xiyuan

    2012-05-10

    To explore and reduce the nonlinear error and temperature dependency of fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) scale factor, a scale factor modeling method based on temperature is presented in this paper. A hyperbolic curve fitting is proposed according to the characteristic of scale factor under stable temperature at first. Compared to traditional modeling methods, it shows that a higher precision model of scale factor can be obtained. Then the influence of temperature on scale factor is analyzed and then the hyperbolic curve fitting method is extended based on temperature, making it possible to work over the whole potential temperature range of the FOG without degrading the performance. This paper also provides the experimental and verification results. It can be seen that a high precision model of scale factor has been established, the temperature dependency of scale factor has been reduced effectively, and the error due to environment temperature is reduced by one order at least. PMID:22614471

  1. A hybrid downscaling procedure for estimating the vertical distribution of ambient temperature in local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannikopoulou, I.; Philippopoulos, K.; Deligiorgi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere is defined by a combination of dynamic and radiation transfer processes and plays an important role in describing the meteorological conditions at local scales. The scope of this work is to develop and quantify the predictive ability of a hybrid dynamic-statistical downscaling procedure to estimate the vertical profile of ambient temperature at finer spatial scales. The study focuses on the warm period of the year (June - August) and the method is applied to an urban coastal site (Hellinikon), located in eastern Mediterranean. The two-step methodology initially involves the dynamic downscaling of coarse resolution climate data via the RegCM4.0 regional climate model and subsequently the statistical downscaling of the modeled outputs by developing and training site-specific artificial neural networks (ANN). The 2.5ox2.5o gridded NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset is used as initial and boundary conditions for the dynamic downscaling element of the methodology, which enhances the regional representivity of the dataset to 20km and provides modeled fields in 18 vertical levels. The regional climate modeling results are compared versus the upper-air Hellinikon radiosonde observations and the mean absolute error (MAE) is calculated between the four grid point values nearest to the station and the ambient temperature at the standard and significant pressure levels. The statistical downscaling element of the methodology consists of an ensemble of ANN models, one for each pressure level, which are trained separately and employ the regional scale RegCM4.0 output. The ANN models are theoretically capable of estimating any measurable input-output function to any desired degree of accuracy. In this study they are used as non-linear function approximators for identifying the relationship between a number of predictor variables and the ambient temperature at the various vertical levels. An insight of the statistically derived input

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Large-scale behaviour of local and entanglement entropy of the free Fermi gas at any temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschke, Hajo; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Spitzer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The leading asymptotic large-scale behaviour of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensional Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T = 0, is by now well understood. Here, we present and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T\\gt 0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the first-order finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the interface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated integral derived from a semiclassical trace formula for a certain operator on the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. But in the zero-temperature limit T\\downarrow 0, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a {ln}(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic enhancement at T = 0 of the so-called area-law scaling. birthday of the ideal Fermi gas.

  5. Absolute shielding scales for Al, Ga, and In and revised nuclear magnetic dipole moments of {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antušek, A. Holka, F.

    2015-08-21

    We present coupled cluster calculations of NMR shielding constants of aluminum, gallium, and indium in water-ion clusters. In addition, relativistic and dynamical corrections and the influence of the second solvation shell are evaluated. The final NMR shielding constants define new absolute shielding scales, 600.0 ± 4.1 ppm, 2044.4 ± 31.4 ppm, and 4507.7 ± 63.7 ppm for aluminum, gallium, and indium, respectively. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments for {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 113}In, and {sup 115}In isotopes are corrected by combining the computed shielding constants with experimental NMR frequencies. The absolute magnitude of the correction increases along the series and for indium isotopes it reaches approximately −8.0 × 10{sup −3} of the nuclear magneton.

  6. The clinical absolute and relative scoring system-a quantitative scale measuring myasthenia gravis severity and outcome used in the traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Chao; Gao, Bu-Lang; Yang, Hong-Qi; Qi, Guo-Yan; Liu, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by autoantigen against the nicotine acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. With modern treatment facilities, the treatment effect and outcome for MG has been greatly improved with MG and non-MG patients enjoying the same life expectancy. Many classifications of disease distribution and severity have been set up and tested all over the world, mainly in the western world. However, the absolute and relative scoring system for evaluating the severity and treatment effect of MG in China where traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years has not been introduced worldwide. The TCM has achieved a great success in the treatment of MG in the country with a huge population. This article serves to introduce this scoring system to the world. PMID:25440379

  7. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size.

    PubMed

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; French, Jon R; Livingstone, David M; Monteith, Donald T; Simpson, Gavin L; Thackeray, Stephen J; Andersen, Mikkel R; Battarbee, Richard W; DeGasperi, Curtis L; Evans, Christopher D; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C; Rusak, James A; Ryves, David B; Scott, Daniel R; Shilland, Ewan M; Smyth, Robyn L; Staehr, Peter A; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  8. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

    PubMed Central

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D.; Maberly, Stephen C.; French, Jon R.; Livingstone, David M.; Monteith, Donald T.; Simpson, Gavin L.; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Battarbee, Richard W.; DeGasperi, Curtis L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P.; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C.; Rusak, James A.; Ryves, David B.; Scott, Daniel R.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Smyth, Robyn L.; Staehr, Peter A.; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  9. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  10. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  11. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF REMOTELY SENSED SURFACE TEMPERATURE AT FIELD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bare soil surface temperatures (BST) and crop canopy temperatures (CCT) were collected from a 1-ha field in central Arizona using an infrared thermometer to determine whether they were spatially correlated. The measurements were taken from a two-dimensional random sampling patter...

  12. Drosophila Embryogenesis Scales Uniformly across Temperature in Developmentally Diverse Species

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Steven G.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature affects both the timing and outcome of animal development, but the detailed effects of temperature on the progress of early development have been poorly characterized. To determine the impact of temperature on the order and timing of events during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis, we used time-lapse imaging to track the progress of embryos from shortly after egg laying through hatching at seven precisely maintained temperatures between 17.5°C and 32.5°C. We employed a combination of automated and manual annotation to determine when 36 milestones occurred in each embryo. D. melanogaster embryogenesis takes 33 hours at 17.5°C, and accelerates with increasing temperature to a low of 16 hours at 27.5°C, above which embryogenesis slows slightly. Remarkably, while the total time of embryogenesis varies over two fold, the relative timing of events from cellularization through hatching is constant across temperatures. To further explore the relationship between temperature and embryogenesis, we expanded our analysis to cover ten additional Drosophila species of varying climatic origins. Six of these species, like D. melanogaster, are of tropical origin, and embryogenesis time at different temperatures was similar for them all. D. mojavensis, a sub-tropical fly, develops slower than the tropical species at lower temperatures, while D. virilis, a temperate fly, exhibits slower development at all temperatures. The alpine sister species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura develop as rapidly as tropical flies at cooler temperatures, but exhibit diminished acceleration above 22.5°C and have drastically slowed development by 30°C. Despite ranging from 13 hours for D. erecta at 30°C to 46 hours for D. virilis at 17.5°C, the relative timing of events from cellularization through hatching is constant across all species and temperatures examined here, suggesting the existence of a previously unrecognized timer controlling the progress of embryogenesis that has

  13. Temperature dependence of atomic-scale stick-slip friction.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lars; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

    2010-06-25

    We report experiments of atomic stick-slip friction on graphite as an explicit function of surface temperature between 100 and 300 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A statistical analysis of the individual stick-slip events as a function of the velocity reveals an agreement with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model at all temperatures. Taking into account an explicit temperature-dependence of the attempt frequency all data points collapse onto one single master curve. PMID:20867399

  14. Repeat temperature measurements in boreholes from northwestern Utah link ground and air temperature changes at the decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael G.; Harris, Robert N.; Chapman, David S.

    2010-05-01

    Borehole temperature profiles provide a record of ground surface temperature (GST) change at the decadal to centennial time scale. GST histories reconstructed from boreholes are particularly useful in climate reconstruction if changes in GST and surface air temperature (SAT) are effectively coupled at decadal and longer time periods and it can be shown that borehole temperatures respond faithfully to surface temperature changes. We test these assumptions using three boreholes in northwestern Utah that have been repeatedly logged for temperature over a time span of 29 years. We report 13 temperature-depth logs at the Emigrant Pass Observatory borehole GC-1, eight at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, acquired between 1978 and 2007. Systematic subsurface temperature changes of up to 0.6°C are observed over this time span in the upper sections of the boreholes; below approximately 100 m any temperature transients are within observational noise. We difference the temperature logs to highlight subsurface transients and to remove any ambiguity resulting from steady state source of curvature. Synthetic temperature profiles computed from SAT data at nearby meteorological stations reproduce both the amplitude and pattern of the transient temperature observations, fitting the observations to within 0.03°C or better. This observational confirmation of the strong coupling between surface temperature change and borehole temperature transients lends further support to the use of borehole temperatures to complement SAT and multiproxy reconstructions of climate change.

  15. Pressing Temperature and Enzyme Treatment Effects on Small Scale Blueberry Juice Recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making blueberry juice has multiple steps, and to evaluate how these steps influence juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In lab scale trials, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberries were pressed at varying temperatures. Temperatures included fresh, frozen then ...

  16. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  17. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  18. Spatial scales of temperature and salinity variability estimated from Argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninove, F.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Remy, E.; Guinehut, S.

    2016-01-01

    Argo observations from 2005 to 2013 are used to characterize spatial scales of temperature and salinity variations from the surface down to 1300 m. Simulations are first performed to analyze the sensitivity of results to Argo sampling; they show that several years of Argo observations are required to estimate spatial scales of ocean variability over 20° × 20° boxes. Spatial scales are then computed over several large-scale areas. Zonal and meridional spatial scales (Lx and Ly which are zero crossing of covariance functions) vary as expected with latitudes. Scales are of about 100 km at high latitudes and more of 700 km in the Indian and Pacific equatorial-tropical regions. Zonal and meridional scales are similar except in tropical-equatorial regions where zonal scales are much larger (by a factor of 2 to 3) than meridional scales. Spatial scales are the largest close to the surface and have a general tendency for temperature to increase in deeper layers. There are significant differences between temperature and salinity scales, in particular, in the deep ocean. Results are consistent with previous studies based on sparse in situ observations or satellite altimetry. They provide, however, for the first time a global description of temperature and salinity scales of variability and a characterization of their variations according to depths.

  19. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}←X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}Δ−X{sup 2}Π system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100 K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200 K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  20. Scaled down glass transition temperature in confined polymer nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Chang, Tongxin; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Weidong; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M

    2016-08-11

    Arrays of polymer nanostructures have been widely used in many novel devices and nanofabrication methods. The glass transition temperature, which is a key parameter influencing the long-term stability of polymer nanostructures, has not yet been systematically studied and well understood. Here we study this technological and fundamental issue with polymers of different values of molar mass M confined in nanocylinders of a varying diameter D. The glass transition temperature Tg loses its dependence on the molar mass for D ≲ 100 nm, a range in which the relative depression of Tg varies as D(-0.44). For higher cylinder diameters, Tg progressively recovers its dependence on the molar mass. This is quantitatively reproduced by a model based on an equilibrium interfacial excess of free volume, which needs to be created unless provided by the chain ends. Our findings suggest that the structural perturbations during nanofabrication may strongly affect the long-term stability of arrays of polymer nanostructures. PMID:27476991

  1. The Effective Temperature Scale of M Dwarfs from Spectral Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reylé, C.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Schultheis, M.; Allard, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparison of low-resolution spectra of 60 stars covering the whole M-dwarf sequence. Using the most recent PHOENIX BT-Settl stellar model atmospheres (see paper by F. Allard, in this book) we do a first quantitative comparison to our observed spectra in the wavelength range 550-950 nm. We perform a first confrontation between models and observations and we assign an effective temperatures to the observed M-dwarfs. Teff-spectral type relations are then compared with the published ones. This comparison also aims at improving the models' opacities.

  2. Scaling and optimization of the radiation temperature in dynamic hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; DOUGLAS,MELISSA R.; LASH,JOEL S.; VESEY,ROGER A.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; NASH,THOMAS J.; DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-04-13

    The authors have constructed a quasi-analytic model of the dynamic hohlraum. Solutions only require a numerical root solve, which can be done very quickly. Results of the model are compared to both experiments and full numerical simulations with good agreement. The computational simplicity of the model allows one to find the behavior of the hohlraum temperature as a function the various parameters of the system and thus find optimum parameters as a function of the driving current. The model is used to investigate the benefits of ablative standoff and axial convergence.

  3. Studies relating to temperature control of a large scale telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed for estimating the circumferential and longitudinal temperature distributions in a large space telescope, idealized as a simple insulated tube with a flat mirror across one end. The effects of wall conduction, multilayer insulation, thermal coatings, heat pipes, and heated collars are analyzed, with numerical examples. For most of the study, the only thermal input to the tube was assumed to be from steady solar irradiation from one side, as in a geosynchronous orbit. Unsteady heat flow through the insulation, as in alternating sunlight and shadow of a low orbit, is briefly discussed.

  4. CMB all-scale blackbody distortions induced by linearizing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notari, Alessio; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, such as WMAP and Planck, measure intensity anisotropies and build maps using a linearized formula for relating them to the temperature blackbody fluctuations. However, this procedure also generates a signal in the maps in the form of y -type distortions which is degenerate with the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. These are small effects that arise at second order in the temperature fluctuations not from primordial physics but from such a limitation of the map-making procedure. They constitute a contaminant for measurements of our peculiar velocity, the tSZ and primordial y -distortions. They can nevertheless be well modeled and accounted for. We show that the distortions arise from a leakage of the CMB dipole into the y -channel which couples to all multipoles, mostly affecting the range ℓ≲400 . This should be visible in Planck's y -maps with an estimated signal-to-noise ratio of about 12. We note however that such frequency-dependent terms carry no new information on the nature of the CMB dipole. This implies that the real significance of Planck's Doppler coupling measurements is actually lower than reported by the collaboration. Finally, we quantify the level of contamination in tSZ and primordial y -type distortions and show that it is above the sensitivity of proposed next-generation CMB experiments.

  5. Small-Scale High-Temperature Structures in Flare Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Chernov, G. P.; Hanaoka, I.

    2001-04-01

    When analyzing YOHKOH/SXT, HXT (soft and hard X-ray) images of solar flares against the background of plasma with a temperature T ~ 6 MK, we detected localized (with minimum observed sizes of approximately 2000 km) high-temperature structures (HTSs) with T = (20-50) MK with a complex spatial-temporal dynamics. Quasi-stationary, stable HTSs form a chain of hot cores that encircles the flare region and coincides with the magnetic loop. No structures are seen in the emission measure. We reached conclusions about the reduced heat conductivity (a factor of ~10^3 lower than the classical isotropic one) and high thermal insulation of HTSs. The flare plasma becomes collisionless in the hottest HTSs (T > 20 MK). We confirm the previously investigated idea of spatial heat localization in the solar atmosphere in the form of HTSs during flare heating with a volume nonlocalized source. Based on localized soliton solutions of a nonlinear heat conduction equation with a generalized flare-heating source of a potential form including radiative cooling, we discuss the nature of HTSs.

  6. Plasma size and power scaling of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki

    2014-02-15

    The transport scaling with respect to plasma size and heating power is studied for ion temperature gradient driven turbulence using a fixed-flux full-f gyrokinetic Eulerian code. It is found that when heating power is scaled with plasma size, the ion heat diffusivity increases with plasma size in a local limit regime, where fixed-gradient δf simulations predict a gyro-Bohm scaling. In the local limit regime, the transport scaling is strongly affected by the stiffness of ion temperature profiles, which is related to the power degradation of confinement.

  7. Lipase-catalyzed resolution of (2R*,3S*)- and (2R*,3R*)-3-methyl-3-phenyl-2-aziridinemethanol at low temperatures and determination of the absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takashi; Liu, Yu; Ohta, Hiroshi; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Ema, Tadashi

    2005-02-18

    [reaction: see text] Lipase-catalyzed resolution of (2R*,3S*)-3-methyl-3-phenyl-2-aziridinemethanol, (+/-)-2, at low temperatures gave synthetically useful (2R,3S)-2 and its acetate (2S,3R)-2a with (2S)-selectivity (E = 55 at -40 degrees C), while a similar reaction of (2R*,3R*)-3-methyl-3-phenyl-2-aziridinemethanol, (+/-)-3, gave (2S,3S)-3 and its acetate (2R,3R)-3a with (2R)-selectivity (E = 73 at -20 degrees C). Compound (+/-)-2 was prepared conveniently via diastereoselective addition of MeMgBr to tert-butyl 3-phenyl-2H-azirine-2-carboxylate, (+/-)-1a, which was successfully prepared by the Neber reaction of oxime tosylate of tert-butyl benzoyl acetate 7a. The tert-butyl ester was requisite to promote this reaction. For determination of the absolute configuration of (2S,3R)-2a, enantiopure (2S,3R)-2 was independently prepared in three steps involving diastereoselective methylation of 3-phenyl-2H-azirine-2-methanol, (S)-10, with MeMgBr. The absolute configuration of (2S,3S)-3 was determined by X-ray analysis of the corresponding N-(S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propanoyl derivative (S,S,S)-13. PMID:15704972

  8. Absolute OH and O radical densities in effluent of a He/H2O micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Schröder, D.; Schneider, S.; Willems, G.; Pajdarová, A.; Vlček, J.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

    2016-08-01

    The effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium with admixtures of water vapor (≲ {{10}4} ppm) has been analyzed by means of cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to measure hydroxyl (OH) radical densities, and by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to measure atomic oxygen (O) densities. Additionally, the performance of the bubbler as a source of water vapor in the helium feed gas has been carefully characterized and calibrated. The largest OH and O densities in the effluent of 2× {{10}14}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} and 3.2× {{10}13}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , respectively, have been measured at around 6000 ppm. The highest selectivity is reached around 1500 ppm, where the OH density is at  ∼63% of its maximum value and is 14 times larger than the O density. The measured density profiles and distance variations are compared to the results of a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and reaction kinetics in the plasma effluent. It is shown that the main loss of OH radicals in the effluent is their mutual reaction. In the case of O, reactions with other species than OH also have to be considered to explain the density decay in the effluent. The results presented here provide additional information for understanding the plasma-chemical processes in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas. They also open the way to applying μ-APPJ with He/H2O as a selective source of OH radicals.

  9. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriyana, Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H2 for increasing H2/CO ratio. CO2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  10. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri Subagjo

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  11. Temperature influences on intense UK hourly precipitation and dependency on large-scale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, S.; Chan, S. C.; Kendon, E. J.; Roberts, N. M.; Fowler, H. J.

    2015-05-01

    Short periods of intense rainfall may be associated with significant impacts on society, particularly urban flooding. Climate model projections have suggested an intensification of precipitation under scenarios of climate change. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that precipitation intensities will increase with temperature according to the thermodynamic Clausius-Clapyeron (CC) relation (a rate of ˜6-7% °C-1)—a warmer atmosphere being capable of holding more moisture. Consequently, CC scaling between temperature and extreme precipitation has been demonstrated in numerous studies and in different locations, with higher than CC scaling (so-called super CC scaling) observed for sub-daily extremes. Here we use a new dataset of UK hourly precipitation to identify seasonal scaling relationships between mean daily temperature and 99th percentile hourly precipitation intensities. Pooling the data for the whole UK indicates only slightly higher than CC scaling in spring and summer at higher temperatures, notably less than the 2xCC scaling observed in other regions. Both the highest hourly intensities and the highest scaling in the UK occur in summer and so for this season the dependency of the scaling relationship on large scale circulation conditions is examined using a set of air flow indices. A shear vorticity index (indicative of large-scale flow cyclonicity) is noted to have the greatest influence on the relationship, approaching 2xCC at higher temperatures when shear vorticity is negative (anticyclonic rotation). An examination of the occurrence of intense events indicates that these can occur under cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions but that in the south-east of England the latter conditions disproportionately favour their occurrence. These results suggest that changes in circulation regimes could modify the expected changes in precipitation intensities prescribed by CC scaling and arising as a consequence of future warming.

  12. Estimating soil moisture on a spatial and temporal scale beginning with temperature signals collected via Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, L.; Hatch, C. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Selker, J. S.; Sayde, C.

    2011-12-01

    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) allows for the nearly continuous measurement of temperature over both a spatial and temporal scale by use of standard fiber optic cables. Theoretically, measurement of temperature progression throughout a soil column can lead to estimates of bulk soil thermal properties. From these thermal properties, soil moisture estimates can then be achieved. In Yerington, Nevada, three fiber optic cables in a vertical profile have been plowed into the shallow subsurface. Passive temperature measurements were made every meter along the cable, and from these measurements thermal properties of the soil have been estimated. Soil samples co-located with the fiber optic cables were used in the lab to derive a relationship between water content and thermal conductivity, as well as to determine the bulk soil heat capacity. By combining these measurements, efforts have been made to accurately predict soil moisture on the spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary data shows the thermal response of the soil to change in accordance with both wetting and drying periods. The use of distributed temperature sensing allows for the assessment of soil moisture and soil thermal properties on scales otherwise very difficult to achieve with current techniques.

  13. Absolute rate constant for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide vapor over the temperature range 265-400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Whytock, D. A.; Lee, J. H.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of atomic chlorine with hydrogen peroxide were measured from 265-400 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Analytical techniques were developed to measure H2O2 under reaction conditions. Due to ambiguity in the interpretation of the analytical results, the data combine to give two equally acceptable representations of the temperature dependence. The results are compared to previous work at 298 K and are theoretically discussed in terms of the mechanism of the reaction. Additional experiments on the H + H2O2 reaction at 298 and 359 K are compared with earlier results from this laboratory and give a slightly revised bimolecular rate constant.

  14. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  15. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  16. Long-Term Formaldehyde Emissions from Medium-Density Fiberboard in a Full-Scale Experimental Room: Emission Characteristics and the Effects of Temperature and Humidity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weihui; Yang, Shen; Yang, Xudong

    2015-09-01

    We studied formaldehyde emissions from the medium-density fiberboard (MDF) in a full-scale experimental room to approximate emissions in actual buildings. Detailed indoor formaldehyde concentrations and temperature and humidity data were obtained for about 29 months. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) ranged over -10.9-31.4 °C, 46.5-83.6%, and 1.1-23.1 g/kgair, respectively. Annual cyclical seasonal variations were observed for indoor formaldehyde concentrations and emission rates, exhibiting entirely different characteristics than those in an environmental chamber under constant environmental conditions. The maximum concentration occurred in summer rather than at initial introduction of the material. The concentrations in summer could be a few up to 20 times higher than that in winter, depending on the indoor temperature and humidity conditions. Concentrations decreased by 20-65% in corresponding months of the second year. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations were positively correlated with temperature and AH but were poorly correlated with RH. The combined effects of temperature and AH on formaldehyde emissions from MDF in actual buildings were verified. These detailed long-term experimental results could be used with environmental chamber measurement data to scale up and validate emission models from chambers held at constant conditions to actual buildings. PMID:26263171

  17. Scaling precipitation extremes with temperature in the Mediterranean: past climate assessment and projection in anthropogenic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Silva, Nicolas Da; Panthou, Gérémy; Bastin, Sophie; Muller, Caroline; Ahrens, Bodo; Borga, Marco; Conte, Dario; Fosser, Giorgia; Giorgi, Filippo; Güttler, Ivan; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Li, Laurent; Morin, Efrat; Önol, Bariş; Quintana-Segui, Pere; Romera, Raquel; Torma, Csaba Zsolt

    2016-03-01

    In this study we investigate the scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the Mediterranean region by assessing against observations the present day and future regional climate simulations performed in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs. Over the 1979-2008 period, despite differences in quantitative precipitation simulation across the various models, the change in precipitation extremes with respect to temperature is robust and consistent. The spatial variability of the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship displays a hook shape across the Mediterranean, with negative slope at high temperatures and a slope following Clausius-Clapeyron (CC)-scaling at low temperatures. The temperature at which the slope of the temperature-precipitation extreme relation sharply changes (or temperature break), ranges from about 20 °C in the western Mediterranean to <10 °C in Greece. In addition, this slope is always negative in the arid regions of the Mediterranean. The scaling of the simulated precipitation extremes is insensitive to ocean-atmosphere coupling, while it depends very weakly on the resolution at high temperatures for short precipitation accumulation times. In future climate scenario simulations covering the 2070-2100 period, the temperature break shifts to higher temperatures by a value which is on average the mean regional temperature change due to global warming. The slope of the simulated future temperature-precipitation extremes relationship is close to CC-scaling at temperatures below the temperature break, while at high temperatures, the negative slope is close, but somewhat flatter or steeper, than in the current climate depending on the model. Overall, models predict more intense precipitation extremes in the future. Adjusting the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship in the present climate using the CC law and the temperature shift in the future allows the recovery of the temperature-precipitation extremes

  18. Influence of microphysics on the scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Martin S.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2014-08-01

    Simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium with a cloud-system resolving model are used to investigate the scaling of high percentiles of the precipitation distribution (precipitation extremes) over a wide range of surface temperatures. At surface temperatures above roughly 295 K, precipitation extremes increase with warming in proportion to the increase in surface moisture, following what is termed Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. At lower temperatures, the rate of increase of precipitation extremes depends on the choice of cloud and precipitation microphysics scheme and the accumulation period, and it differs markedly from CC scaling in some cases. Precipitation extremes are found to be sensitive to the fall speeds of hydrometeors, and this partly explains the different scaling results obtained with different microphysics schemes. The results suggest that microphysics play an important role in determining the response of convective precipitation extremes to warming, particularly when ice- and mixed-phase processes are important.

  19. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  20. Density-temperature scaling of the fragility in a model glass-former.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Schrøder, Thomas B; Sastry, Srikanth

    2013-12-01

    Dynamical quantities e.g. diffusivity and relaxation time for some glass-formers may depend on density and temperature through a specific combination, rather than independently, allowing the representation of data over ranges of density and temperature as a function of a single scaling variable. Such a scaling, referred to as density-temperature (DT) scaling, is exact for liquids with inverse power law (IPL) interactions but has also been found to be approximately valid in many non-IPL liquids. We have analyzed the consequences of DT scaling on the density dependence of the fragility in a model glass-former. We find the density dependence of kinetic fragility to be weak, and show that it can be understood in terms of DT scaling and deviations of DT scaling at low densities. We also show that the Adam-Gibbs relation exhibits DT scaling and the scaling exponent computed from the density dependence of the activation free energy in the Adam-Gibbs relation, is consistent with the exponent values obtained by other means. PMID:24352249

  1. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  2. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  3. A universal scaling behavior in magnetic resonance peak in high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seung Joon; Salk, Sung-Ho Suck

    2015-08-01

    Eminent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of high temperature cuprates currently lacking theoretical interpretations are the observed temperature dependence of magnetic resonance peak and linear scaling relation between the resonance peak energy, Eres and the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. Using our slave-boson approach of the t-J Hamiltonian (Phys. Rev. 64, 052501 (2001)) for this study, we show that starting from the pseudogap temperature T∗, the magnetic resonance peak increases with decreasing temperature, revealing its inflection point at Tc and that spin pairing correlations are responsible for d-wave superconductivity. We find that there exists a universal linear scaling behavior of Eres/Tc = const., irrespective of the Heisenberg exchange coupling.

  4. On the '-1' scaling of air temperature spectra in atmospheric surface layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Katul, G. G.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral properties of scalar turbulence at high wavenumbers have been extensively studied in turbulent flows, and existing theories explaining the k-5/3 scaling within the inertial subrange appear satisfactory at high Reynolds numbers. Equivalent theories for the low wavenumber range have been comparatively lacking because boundary conditions prohibit attainment of such universal behavior. A number of atmospheric surface layer (ASL) experiments reported a k-1 scaling in air temperature spectra ETT(k) at low wavenumbers but other experiments did not. Here, the occurrence of a k-1 scaling in ETT(k) in an idealized ASL flow across a wide range of atmospheric stability regimes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Experiments reveal a k-1 scaling persisted across different atmospheric stability parameter values (ζ) ranging from mildly unstable to mildly stable conditions (-0.1< ζ < 0.2). As instability increases, the k-1 scaling vanishes. Based on a combined spectral and co-spectral budget models and upon using a Heisenberg eddy viscosity as a closure to the spectral flux transfer term, conditions promoting a k-1 scaling are identified. Existence of a k-1 scaling is shown to be primarily linked to an imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance. The role of the imbalance between the production and dissipation rates of half the temperature variance in controlling the existence of a '-1' scaling suggests that the '-1' scaling in ETT(k) does not necessarily concur with the '-1' scaling in the spectra of longitudinal velocity Euu(k). This finding explains why some ASL experiments reported k-1 in Euu(k) but not ETT(k). It also differs from prior arguments derived from directional-dimensional analysis that lead to simultaneous k-1 scaling in Euu(k) and ETT(k) at low wavenumbers in a neutral ASL.

  5. Clausius-Clapeyron temperature-precipitation scaling over the UK in high-resolution climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Steven; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Roberts, Malcolm; Roberts, Nigel; Ferro, Christopher; Blenkinsop, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Clausius-Clapyeron (C-C) temperature-precipitation scaling relationships for extreme hourly precipitation (99th quantile) are examined in observations and a set of 12-km parameterized-convection and 1.5-km convection-permitting regional climate model (RCM) simulations, over a domain covering England and Wales for the summer months (JJA). RCM simulations have been carried out driven by ERA-interim reanalysis, and also for control (1996-2009) and future (~2100) runs driven by a 60km resolution Met Office Unified Model using the Global Atmosphere GA3.0 configuration. Radar observations are found to give at least a 1xC-C scaling for UK hourly extreme precipitation at temperatures above 10°C. Despite sharing the same large-scale conditions, the 1.5km explicit-convection model shows very different C-C scaling relationships to the 12km model, whose C-C scaling is shown to be highly sensitive to the lateral boundary conditions - suggesting that the model physics play an important role in the scaling. In contrast, the 1.5km model shows consistent C-C scaling relationships for all present-day (ERA-interim and control) simulations and these are generally in line with observed C-C scaling relationships which sample temperatures mainly between 10°C and 20°C. The future simulations indicate the fallacy of extrapolating present-day scaling relationships to infer extreme precipitation in a future warmer climate. All future climate simulations show a sharp decline in the scaling relationship at high-temperatures (~>20°C), which are not well sampled in the current climate. This is consistent with observational studies in other regions which have also found declines in the scaling relationship at high temperatures. This suggests that there may be an upper temperature limit to super-Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of short-duration extreme precipitation which differs dependent on ambient climate conditions in the study location.

  6. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  7. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  8. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  9. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  10. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  11. Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet's response time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Patrick J.; Parizek, Byron R.; Nicholas, Robert E.; Alley, Richard B.; Keller, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.

  12. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.

    2016-04-01

    Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation extremes and temperature in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation extreme with temperature, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low temperatures (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high temperatures (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling temperature (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with temperature. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation extremes.

  13. Radiative scaling of the nocturnal boundary layer and the diurnal temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan K.

    2006-04-01

    A radiative scaling for the warm season nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is proposed, based on the daily mean surface net longwave radiation flux. Using this scaling, a conceptual model is proposed for the NBL, with parameters estimated from multiple linear regression of model data from the European Centre reanalysis, averaged over river basins from the tropics to high latitudes. A radiative temperature scale, computed from surface net longwave radiation flux and the slope of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, primarily determines the strength of the NBL and the amplitude of the diurnal temperature range, although the length of the nighttime period and the surface wind stress play important subsidiary roles. A related radiative velocity scale or radiative conductance, the duration of the nighttime period and the ratio of the scaled surface heat flux (which increases with wind stress) to the NBL strength determine the depth of the NBL. From an observational perspective, this suggests that the diurnal temperature range may give a useful estimate of surface net longwave radiation flux. From a modeling perspective, this provides a framework for relating model physical parameterizations, especially the coupling at night between the surface, the ground and the atmosphere, to observables, the diurnal temperature range and the strength and depth of the NBL. The model is then applied to estimate the nocturnal rise in concentration of gases such as CO2 and radon that are emitted at the surface.

  14. High Temperature In Situ Compression of Thermoplastically Formed Nano-scale Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Lefebvre, Joseph; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical behavior of nano-scale metallic glasses was investigated by in situ compression tests in a scanning electron microscope. Platinum-based metallic glass nano-pillars were fabricated by thermoplastic forming. The nano-pillars and corresponding bulk substrate were tested in compression over the range of room temperature to glass transition. Stress-strain curves of the nano-pillars were obtained along with in situ observation of their deformation behavior. The bulk substrate as well as nano-pillars showed an increase in elastic modulus with temperature which is explained by diffusive rearrangement of atomic-scale viscoelastic units.

  15. Temperature dynamics and velocity scaling laws for interchange driven, warm ion plasma filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jeppe; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The influence of electron and ion temperature dynamics on the radial convection of isolated structures in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by means of numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the maximum radial velocity of these plasma blobs roughly follows the inertial velocity scaling, which is proportional to the ion acoustic speed times the square root of the filament particle density times the sum of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Only for small blobs the cross field convection does not follow this scaling. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the cross-field blob convection is shown not to depend strongly on the dynamical ion temperature field. The blob dynamics of constant finite and dynamical ion temperature blobs is similar. When the blob size is on the order of 10 times the ion Larmor radius the blobs stay coherent and decelerate slowly compared to larger blobs which dissipate faster due to fragmentation and turbulent mixing.

  16. Finite-temperature scaling of quantum coherence near criticality in a spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiwen; Zhang, Zhijun; Gong, Longyan; Zhao, Shengmei

    2016-06-01

    We explore quantum coherence, inherited from Wigner-Yanase skew information, to analyze quantum criticality in the anisotropic XY chain model at finite temperature. Based on the exact solutions of the Hamiltonian, the quantum coherence contained in a nearest-neighbor spin pairs reduced density matrix ρ is obtained. The first-order derivative of the quantum coherence is non-analytic around the critical point at sufficient low temperature. The finite-temperature scaling behavior and the universality are verified numerically. In particular, the quantum coherence can also detect the factorization transition in such a model at sufficient low temperature. We also show that quantum coherence contained in distant spin pairs can characterize quantum criticality and factorization phenomena at finite temperature. Our results imply that quantum coherence can serve as an efficient indicator of quantum criticality in such a model and shed considerable light on the relationships between quantum phase transitions and quantum information theory at finite temperature.

  17. Scaling of the hysteresis in the glass transition of glycerol with the temperature scanning rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jin-Xiu

    2011-03-01

    By measuring the dependences of the temperature-dependent primary ("alpha") dielectric relaxation time behavior on the temperature scanning rate for the glass-forming glycerol, we study the scaling of hysteresis at the glass transition in glycerol. Based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) expression and the Angell's fragility concept, notable correlations of the systematic kinetic fragility, and of the hysteresis effect in the vitrification/fusion "alpha"-relaxation process of glycerol, with the temperature scanning rate, were reasonably analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the kinetic fragility m and the apparent glass-transition temperature hysteresis width Δ T_g^a, respectively, scaled the temperature scanning rate q as m ≈ αmq-γ and Δ T_g^a ≈ A0 + αqβ, at which the exponents, γ and β, were suggested to be characteristic of the resistance to the structure change or fragility change of the system during the glass transition. The observed scaling laws are quite similar to the scaling power law for the thermal hysteresis in the first-order phase transition (FOPT) of solids, providing a significant insight into the hysteresis effect in the glass transition of the glass-forming liquids.

  18. Small-scale variability of alpine snow packs from fiber-optic distributed temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Williams, S.; Higgins, C. W.; Nolin, A. W.; Drake, S. A.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Variations in small-scale surface roughness, snow density and in the snowpack microstructure influence the surface and internal snow temperature, being key quantities for various heat flux components of the surface energy balance. Detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of snow temperature is crucial to quantify spatial variability in the subsurface and surface heat fluxes of the snow pack. We present measurements of small-scale temperature variations in alpine snow packs using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) together with traditional sensors at spatial resolutions much smaller than most common distributed snow cover models to shed light on subgrid-scale physics. Fiber-optic cables of several 100m were installed in a fence-like configuration in in the Swiss Alps to obtain 2D information on subgrid-scale snow variability. The setup allowed for computation of subsurface heat fluxes at 1m spatial resolution along the measurement transect based on the Fourier heat equation using snow temperature and snow depth data, and an effective thermal conductivity of the snow derived from density measurements.

  19. Improving Shade Modelling in a Regional River Temperature Model Using Fine-Scale LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, D. M.; Loicq, P.; Moatar, F.; Beaufort, A.; Melin, E.; Jullian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Air temperature is often considered as a proxy of the stream temperature to model the distribution areas of aquatic species water temperature is not available at a regional scale. To simulate the water temperature at a regional scale (105 km²), a physically-based model using the equilibrium temperature concept and including upstream-downstream propagation of the thermal signal was developed and applied to the entire Loire basin (Beaufort et al., submitted). This model, called T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) is based on a hydrographical network topology. Computations are made hourly on 52,000 reaches which average 1.7 km long in the Loire drainage basin. The model gives a median Root Mean Square Error of 1.8°C at hourly time step on the basis of 128 water temperature stations (2008-2012). In that version of the model, tree shadings is modelled by a constant factor proportional to the vegetation cover on 10 meters sides the river reaches. According to sensitivity analysis, improving the shade representation would enhance T-NET accuracy, especially for the maximum daily temperatures, which are currently not very well modelized. This study evaluates the most efficient way (accuracy/computing time) to improve the shade model thanks to 1-m resolution LIDAR data available on tributary of the LoireRiver (317 km long and an area of 8280 km²). Two methods are tested and compared: the first one is a spatially explicit computation of the cast shadow for every LIDAR pixel. The second is based on averaged vegetation cover characteristics of buffers and reaches of variable size. Validation of the water temperature model is made against 4 temperature sensors well spread along the stream, as well as two airborne thermal infrared imageries acquired in summer 2014 and winter 2015 over a 80 km reach. The poster will present the optimal length- and crosswise scale to characterize the vegetation from LIDAR data.

  20. The influence of temperature on the fluorine and calcium composition of fish scales.

    PubMed

    Gauldie, R W; Coote, G; West, I F; Radtke, R L

    1990-01-01

    Proton microprobe studies of the scales of the kahawai (Arripis trutta) and the snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) showed non-linear changes in the fluorine to calcium ratio that increase with increasing temperature, but both species showed a different temperature sensitivity. Fluorine and calcium levels vary within years from summer to winter by up to 1000%, making fluorine and calcium levels good markers of seasonal events. PMID:18620324

  1. Alexandrite as a high-temperature pressure calibrant, and implications for the ruby-fluorescence scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahren, A. H.; Kruger, M. B.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    The wavelength shifts of the R1 and R2 fluorescence lines of alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr(+3)) have been experimentally calibrated against the ruby-fluorescence scale as a function of both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic pressures between 0 and 50 GPa, and simultaneously as a function of temperatures between 290 and 550 K. It is found that the pressure-temperature cross derivative of the fluorescence wavelength shifts are negligible for both ruby and alexandrite.

  2. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  3. Room temperature stretch forming of scale space shuttle external tank dome gores. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blunck, R. D.; Krantz, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    An account of activities and data gathered in the Room Temperature Stretch Forming of One-third Scale External Tank Bulkhead Gores for space shuttle study, and a tooling design and production cost study are reported. The following study phases are described: (1) the stretch forming of three approximately one-third scale external tank dome gores from single sheets of 2219-T37 aluminum alloy; (2) the designing of a full scale production die, including a determination of tooling requirements; and (3) the determination of cost per gore at the required production rates, including manufacturing, packaging, and shipping.

  4. Spatial scale dependence of the long-range memory properties of Earth surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, H.; Rypdal, K.; Rypdal, M.; Løvsletten, O.

    2013-12-01

    We present a study of the long-range memory properties of the Earth surface temperature. Different spatial scales are analyzed, and it is observed that the persistence of the time series increases with increasing spatial scale. It is also observed that sea surface temperatures are more persistent than land temperatures. The analysis is performed by coarse-graining gridded temperature data, starting out with boxes of 5 x 5 degrees, and then averaging them up to global scales. As a measure of the strength of persistence we have the Hurst exponent, which we have estimated using methods like wavelet variance and maximum likelihood. In the search of an explanation for the differences in the degree of persistence we have studied the strength of the cross-covariances between the temperatures at different locations. If this is strong it will have an impact on the autocovariance function for the average temperature within the area studied. In this way we can see that the spatial covariance is closely linked to the temporal covariance.

  5. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  6. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  7. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  8. Thermal equation of state of cubic boron nitride: Implications for a high-temperature pressure scale

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Dewhurst, John K.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sanloup, Chrystele; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Guignot, Nicolas; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2007-06-01

    The equation of state of cubic boron nitride (cBN) has been determined to a maximum temperature of 3300 K at a simultaneous static pressure of up to more than 70 GPa. Ab initio calculations to 80 GPa and 2000 K have also been performed. Our experimental data can be reconciled with theoretical results and with the known thermal expansion at 1 bar if we assume a small increase in pressure during heating relative to that measured at ambient temperature. The present data combined with the Raman measurements we presented earlier form the basis of a high-temperature pressure scale that is good to at least 3300 K.

  9. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  10. An exact thermodynamical model of power-law temperature time scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingales, Massimiliano

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a physical model for the anomalous temperature time evolution (decay) observed in complex thermodynamical system in presence of uniform heat source is provided. Measures involving temperatures T with power-law variation in time as T(t) ∝tβ with β ∈ R shows a different evolution of the temperature time rate T ˙ (t) with respect to the temperature time-dependence T(t) . Indeed the temperature evolution is a power-law increasing function whereas the temperature time rate is a power-law decreasing function of time. Such a behavior may be captured by a physical model that allows for a fast thermal energy diffusion close to the insulated location but must offer more resistance to the thermal energy flux as soon as the distance increases. In this paper this idea has been exploited showing that such thermodynamical system is represented by an heterogeneous one-dimensional distributed mass one with power-law spatial scaling of its physical properties. The model yields, exactly a power-law evolution (decay) of the temperature field in terms of a real exponent as T ∝tβ (or T ∝t-β) that is related to the power-law spatial scaling of the thermodynamical property of the system. The obtained relation yields a physical ground to the formulation of fractional-order generalization of the Fourier diffusion equation.

  11. Exploring the role of temperature in the ocean through metabolic scaling.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John F; Carr, Lindsey A; O'Connor, Mary I

    2015-12-01

    Temperature imposes a constraint on the rates and outcomes of ecological processes that determine community- and ecosystem-level patterns. The application of metabolic scaling theory has advanced our understanding of the influence of temperature on pattern and process in marine communities. Metabolic scaling theory uses the fundamental and ubiquitous patterns of temperature-dependent metabolism to predict how environmental temperature influences patterns and processes at higher levels of biological organization. Here, we outline some of these predictions to review recent advances and illustrate how scaling theory might be applied to new challenges. For example, warming can alter species interactions and food-web structure and can also reduce total animal biomass supportable by a given amount of primary production by increasing animal metabolism and energetic demand. Additionally, within a species, larval development is faster in warmer water, potentially influencing dispersal and other demographic processes like population connectivity and gene flow. These predictions can be extended further to address major questions in marine ecology, and present an opportunity for conceptual unification of marine ecological research across levels of biological organization. Drawing on work by ecologists and oceanographers over the last century, a metabolic scaling approach represents a promising way forward for applying ecological understanding to basic questions as well as conservation challenges. PMID:26909420

  12. STREAM TEMPERATURE SIMULATION OF FORESTED RIPARIAN AREAS: I. WATERSHED-SCALE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To simulate stream temperatures on a watershed scale, shading dynamics of topography and riparian vegetation must be computed for estimating the amount of solar radiation that is actually absorbed by water for each stream reach. A series of computational procedures identifying th...

  13. Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Sandra; McConville, Mikaela; Li, Guihua; Ossa, Alex; Arola, D

    2015-03-01

    In this investigation the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio was evaluated as a function of environmental temperature. Tear specimens were prepared from scales obtained from three characteristic regions (i.e. head, mid-length and tail) of multiple fish. The fracture resistance was characterized in Mode III loading and over temperatures ranging from -150°C to 21°C. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in tear resistance with decreasing temperature and the lowest resistance to fracture was obtained at -150°C. There was a significant difference in the relative tear toughness between scales from the three locations at ambient conditions (21°C), but not below freezing. Scales obtained near the head exhibited the largest resistance to fracture (energy ≈ 150 ± 25 kJm(-2)) overall. The fracture resistance was found to be primarily dependent on the thickness of the external mineralized layer and the number of external elasmodine plies, indicating that both the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure are important to the mechanical behavior of elasmoid fish scales. These variables may be exploited in the design of bioinspired armors and should be considered in future studies concerning the mechanical behavior of these interesting natural materials. PMID:25481741

  14. Rotating Pressure and Temperature Measurements on Scale Model Fans Using Luminescent Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure and temperature sensitive paint (PSP, TSP) technology is a rapidly developing measurement technique that is widely accepted in external aerodynamic wind tunnel measurements. Almost all quantitative full field measurements have been on stationary surfaces. Rotating pressure and temperature measurements were successfully acquired during scale-model fan tests in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9 foot by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel at speeds as high as 9500 RPM. The use of PSP and TSP on rotating surfaces presents additional challenges to data acquisition. This paper describes in detail the techniques used to acquire global rotating pressure and temperature measurements and overcome the problems associated with this type of measurement. These include illumination and detection problems associated with moving surfaces, temperature dependence of PSP and limited emitted light available from short duration illumination sources. Solutions to these problems as well as pressure and temperature results will be discussed.

  15. Ruby pressure scale in a low-temperature diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Zekko, Yumiko; Jarrige, Ignace; Lin, Jung-Fu; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2012-12-01

    Laser-excited N and R fluorescence lines of heavily doped ruby have been studied up to 26 GPa at low temperatures. While the intensity of the R lines at ambient pressure significantly decreases with decreasing temperature, the intensity of N lines originating from exchange-coupled Cr ion pairs is enhanced at low temperatures. The pressure induced wavelength shift of the N lines at 19 K is well fitted with an empirical formula similar to the equation for the R1 line, showing that the intense N line could be used as an alternative pressure scale at low temperatures. We also observe continuous increase in non-hydrostaticity with increasing pressure at low temperatures when silicone oil and 4:1 mixture of methanol and ethanol are used as pressure media.

  16. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-06-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and the collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings following the PMIP3 protocol are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high latitudes regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions which are based on fewer paleoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages 2k-Pmip3 Group

    2015-12-01

    Estimated external radiative forcings, model results, and proxy-based climate reconstructions have been used over the past several decades to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying observed climate variability and change over the past millennium. Here, the recent set of temperature reconstructions at the continental-scale generated by the PAGES 2k project and a collection of state-of-the-art model simulations driven by realistic external forcings are jointly analysed. The first aim is to estimate the consistency between model results and reconstructions for each continental-scale region over the time and frequency domains. Secondly, the links between regions are investigated to determine whether reconstructed global-scale covariability patterns are similar to those identified in model simulations. The third aim is to assess the role of external forcings in the observed temperature variations. From a large set of analyses, we conclude that models are in relatively good agreement with temperature reconstructions for Northern Hemisphere regions, particularly in the Arctic. This is likely due to the relatively large amplitude of the externally forced response across northern and high-latitude regions, which results in a clearly detectable signature in both reconstructions and simulations. Conversely, models disagree strongly with the reconstructions in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the simulations are more regionally coherent than the reconstructions, perhaps due to an underestimation of the magnitude of internal variability in models or to an overestimation of the response to the external forcing in the Southern Hemisphere. Part of the disagreement might also reflect large uncertainties in the reconstructions, specifically in some Southern Hemisphere regions, which are based on fewer palaeoclimate records than in the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity

  19. Initial Operation of the High Temperature Electrolysis Integrated Laboratory Scale Experiment at INL

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

    2008-06-01

    An integrated laboratory scale, 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other “integral” issues. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation.

  20. Small-Scale Mechanical Testing on Proton Beam-Irradiated 304 SS from Room Temperature to Reactor Operation Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, H.; Reichardt, A.; Howard, C.; Abad, M. D.; Kaoumi, D.; Chou, P.; Hosemann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are common structural components in light water reactors. Because reactor components are subjected to harsh conditions such as high operating temperatures and neutron radiation, they can undergo irradiation-induced embrittlement and related failure, which compromises reliable operation. Small-scale mechanical testing has seen widespread use as a testing method for both ion- and reactor-irradiated materials because it allows access to the mechanical properties of the ion beam-irradiated region, and for safe handling of a small amount of activated material. In this study, nanoindentation and microcompression testing were performed on unirradiated and 10 dpa proton-irradiated 304 SS, from 25°C to 300°C. Increases in yield stress (YS), critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and hardness ( H) were seen in the irradiated region relative to the unirradiated region. Relationships between H, YS, and CRSS of irradiated and unirradiated materials are discussed over this temperature range.

  1. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decrease in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decrease in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate in modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change; thus, warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Our analysis reveals that the latitudinal temperature change largely results from the climate conditions in which deforestation occurs and is less influenced by the magnitude of individual biophysical changes such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency.

  2. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Davin, E. L.; Zeng, N.; Motesharrei, S.; Li, S. C.; Kalnay, E.

    2015-10-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions, but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decreases in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decreases in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate on modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change, thus warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Further analysis on the contribution of individual biophysical factors (albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency) reveals that the latitudinal signature embodied in the temperature change probably result from the background climate conditions rather than the initial biophysical perturbation.

  3. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOEpatents

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  4. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  5. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  6. Extending temperature sum models to simulate onset of birch flowering on the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Biernath, Christian; Priesack, Eckart

    2015-04-01

    For human health issues a reliable forecast of the onset of flowering of different plants which produce allergenic pollen is important. Yet, there are numerous phenological models available with different degrees of model complexity. All models consider the effect of the air temperatures on plant development; but only few models also include other environmental factors and/or plant internal water and nutrient status. However, the more complex models often use empirical relations without physiological meaning and are often tested against small datasets derived from a limited amount of sites. Most models which are used to simulate plant phenology are based on the temporal integration of temperatures above a defined base temperature. A critical temperature sum then defines the onset of a new phenological stage. The use of models that base on temperatures only, is efficient as temperatures are the most frequently documented and available weather component on global, regional and local scales. These models score by their robustness over a wide range of environmental conditions. However, the simulations sometimes fail by more than 20 days compared to measurements, and thus are not adequate for their use in pollen forecast. We tested the ability of temperature sum models to simulate onset of flowering of wild (e.g. birch) and domestic plants in Bavaria. In a first step we therefore determined both, a regional averaged optimum base temperature and temperature sum for the examined plant species in Bavaria. In the second step, the base temperatures were optimized to each site for the simulation period 2001-2010. Our hypothesis is that domestic plants depend much less on the regional weather conditions than wild plants do, due to low and high genetic variability, respectively. If so, the observed base temperatures of wild plants are smaller for low annual average temperatures and higher for high annual average temperatures. In the cases of domestic plants the optimized base

  7. Using Oxygen Isotopes in Fish Scale Apatite to Reconstruct Past Temperatures and Water Isotope Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, T. D.; Paytan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of apatite phosphate in fish bones and teeth vary according to the temperature and δ18O of water during formation. Since isotope ratios in apatite are often well preserved over geologic timescales, fish bones and teeth have been used to determine past environmental conditions. Fish scales offer several advantages over bones and teeth: they are relatively common in certain sedimentary basins, and they are more easily identified to species level. Analysis of paired bone and scale samples will be presented. The data indicate that fish scale apatite similarly records environmental conditions during growth. Thus δ18O of apatite phosphate in fish scales may provide useful paleoecological information and also indicate past environmental conditions.

  8. [Start-up and process control of a pilot-scale Anammox bioreactor at ambient temperature].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chongjian; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Shangxing; Ding, Gesheng

    2009-03-01

    Start-up and process control of a pilot-scale anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) bioreactor were studied at ambient temperature. Inoculated with a mixture of nitrification-denitrification sludge, nitritation sludge, anaerobic floc sludge and anaerobic granular sludge, the pilot-scale Anammox bioreactor was successfully started up within 255 days at 5 degrees C-27 degrees C. The nitrogen removal rate reached 1.30 kg/(m3 x d). Three facets were taken into account to facilitate the process initiation. First, in terms of alkalization in Anammox, influent pH was kept at about 6.8. Besides, nitrite concentration was kept as low as 13-36 mg/L. Finally, 2% (volumetric ratio) of Anammox sludge from lab-scale bioreactors was supplemented to the pilot-scale one. PMID:19621582

  9. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  10. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  11. Temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel A; Andújar, José M; Enrique, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  12. Temperature Measurement in PV Facilities on a Per-Panel Scale

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Andújar, José M.; Enrique, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  13. {sup 3}He melting pressure temperature scale below 25 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E.D.; Ni, W.; Xia, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Using {sup 60}Co {gamma} ray anisotropy radiation as a primary thermometer, with a Pt NMR susceptibility secondary thermometer, the authors have made high precision measurements of the {sup 3}He melting pressure versus temperature from 500 {mu}K to 25 mK. Temperatures obtained for the fixed points on the melting curve are: the superfluid A transition T{sub A} = 2.505 mK, the A-B transition T{sub AB} = 1.948 mK, and the solid ordering temperature T{sub N} = 0.934 mK. The authors provide a functional form for P(T), which, with the fixed points, constitutes a convenient temperature scale, based on a primary thermometer, usable to well below 1 mK.

  14. Exploring the saturation levels of stimulated Raman scattering in the absolute regime.

    PubMed

    Michel, D T; Depierreux, S; Stenz, C; Tassin, V; Labaune, C

    2010-06-25

    This Letter reports new experimental results that evidence the transition between the absolute and convective growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Significant reflectivities were observed only when the instability grows in the absolute regime. In this case, saturation processes efficiently limit the SRS reflectivity that is shown to scale linearly with the laser intensity, and the electron density and temperature. Such a scaling agrees with the one established by T. Kolber et al. [Phys. Fluids B 5, 138 (1993)10.1063/1.860861] and B Bezzerides et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2569 (1993)10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2569], from numerical simulations where the Raman saturation is due to the coupling of electron plasma waves with ion waves dynamics. PMID:20867387

  15. On the Stress-Temperature Scaling for Steady-State Flow in Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Pengfei; Chen, Mingwei; Egami, T.

    2010-01-01

    Through computer simulation of steady-state flow in a Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass using a set of realistic potentials we found a simple scaling relationship between temperature and stress as they affect viscosity. The scaling relationship provides new insights for the microscopic mechanism of shear flow in the glassy state, in terms of the elastic energy of the applied stress modifying the local energy landscape. The results suggest that the plastic flow and mechanical failure in metallic glasses are consequences of stress-induced glass transition.

  16. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O-2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mis. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heal loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (T-es) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 mis decreased T-es by 3 degrees-5 degrees C.

  17. String tension scaling in high-temperature confined SU(N) gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Meisinger, Peter N.; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    2010-01-15

    SU(N) gauge theories, extended with adjoint fermions having periodic boundary conditions, are confining at high temperature for sufficiently light fermion mass m. In the high-temperature confining region, the one-loop effective potential for Polyakov loops has a Z(N)-symmetric confining minimum. String tensions associated with Polyakov loops are calculable in perturbation theory, and display a novel scaling behavior in which higher representations have smaller string tensions than the fundamental representation. In the magnetic sector, the Polyakov loop plays a role similar to a Higgs field, leading to an apparent breaking of SU(N) to U(1){sup N-1}. This in turn yields a dual effective theory where magnetic monopoles give rise to string tensions for spatial Wilson loops. The spatial string tensions arise semiclassically from kink solutions of the dual system. We prove that the spatial string tensions {sigma}{sub k}{sup (s)} associated with each N-ality k are constrained by a rigorous upper bound. This bound is saturated for N=2 and 3, but is insufficient to determine the spatial string tension scaling law for N{>=}4. Lattice simulations indicate that the high-temperature confining region is smoothly connected to the confining region of low-temperature pure SU(N) gauge theory. However, our results show that the string tension scaling behavior of the low-temperature region does not hold for the electric sector in the high-temperature region, and may not hold in the magnetic sector. The predicted change in the behavior of the electric sector should be readily distinguishable in lattice simulations.

  18. Temperature and zooplankton size structure: climate control and basin-scale comparison in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Sanae; Batten, Sonia D; Yoshiki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yuka; Sasaoka, Kosei; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi

    2015-02-01

    The global distribution of zooplankton community structure is known to follow latitudinal temperature gradients: larger species in cooler, higher latitudinal regions. However, interspecific relationships between temperature and size in zooplankton communities have not been fully examined in terms of temporal variation. To re-examine the relationship on a temporal scale and the effects of climate control thereon, we investigated the variation in copepod size structure in the eastern and western subarctic North Pacific in 2000-2011. This report presents the first basin-scale comparison of zooplankton community changes in the North Pacific based on a fully standardized data set obtained from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey. We found an increase in copepod community size (CCS) after 2006-2007 in the both regions because of the increased dominance of large cold-water species. Sea surface temperature varied in an east-west dipole manner, showing the typical Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern: cooling in the east and warming in the west after 2006-2007. The observed positive correlation between CCS and sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific was inconsistent with the conventional interspecific temperature-size relationship. We explained this discrepancy by the geographical shift of the upper boundary of the thermal niche, the 9°C isotherm, of large cold-water species. In the eastern North Pacific, the boundary stretched northeast, to cover a large part of the sampling area after 2006-2007. In contrast, in the western North Pacific, the isotherm location hardly changed and the sampling area remained within its thermal niche throughout the study period, despite the warming that occurred. Our study suggests that while a climate-induced basin-scale cool-warm cycle can alter copepod community size and might subsequently impact the functions of the marine ecosystem in the North Pacific, the interspecific temperature-size relationship is not

  19. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  20. Nanometer-scale temperature measurements of phase change memory and carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Kyle Lane

    This work investigates nanometer-scale thermometry and thermal transport in new electronic devices to mitigate future electronic energy consumption. Nanometer-scale thermal transport is integral to electronic energy consumption and limits current electronic performance. New electronic devices are required to improve future electronic performance and energy consumption, but heat generation is not well understood in these new technologies. Thermal transport deviates significantly at the nanometer-scale from macroscopic systems as low dimensional materials, grain structure, interfaces, and thermoelectric effects can dominate electronic performance. This work develops and implements an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanometer-scale thermometry technique, known as scanning Joule expansion microscopy (SJEM), to measure nanometer-scale heat generation in new graphene and phase change memory (PCM) devices, which have potential to improve performance and energy consumption of future electronics. Nanometer-scale thermometry of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene measured the heat generation at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs). Graphene is an atomically-thin, two dimensional (2D) carbon material with promising applications in new electronic devices. Comparing measurements and predictions of CVD graphene heating predicted the resistivity, voltage drop, and temperature rise across the one dimensional (1D) GB defects. This work measured the nanometer-scale temperature rise of thin film Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) based PCM due to Joule, thermoelectric, interface, and grain structure effects. PCM has potential to reduce energy consumption and improve performance of future electronic memory. A new nanometer-scale thermometry technique is developed for independent and direct observation of Joule and thermoelectric effects at the nanometer-scale, and the technique is demonstrated by SJEM measurements of GST devices. Uniform heating and GST properties are observed for

  1. Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of spatial turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature dependence of species richness increases with spatial scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity. PMID:19628692

  2. Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    G.K. Housley; K.G. Condie; J.E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

    2007-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830°C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10’ x 16’ skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.

  3. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhil, S. S. A.; Hasini, H.; Shuaib, N. H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential "ring-like" region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  4. Effect of six kinds of scale inhibitors on calcium carbonate precipitation in high salinity wastewater at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochen; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Ma, Defang; Rong, Hongyan; Zhao, Pin; Teng, Pengyou

    2015-03-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious and expensive problem widely occurring in numerous industrial processes. In this study, we compared the scale inhibition effect of six kinds of commercial scale inhibitors and screened out the best one (scale inhibitor SQ-1211) to investigate its scale inhibition performance in highly saline conditions at high temperature through static scale inhibition tests. The influences of scale inhibitor dosage, temperature, heating time and pH on the inhibition efficiency of the optimal scale inhibitor were investigated. The morphologies and crystal structures of the precipitates were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis. Results showed that the scale inhibition efficiency of the optimal scale inhibitor decreased with the increase of the reaction temperature. When the concentration of Ca2+ was 1600 mg/L, the scale inhibition rate could reach 90.7% at 80°C at pH8. The optimal scale inhibitor could effectively retard scaling at high temperature. In the presence of the optimal scale inhibitor, the main crystal structure of CaCO3 changed from calcite to aragonite. PMID:25766020

  5. Esimation of field-scale thermal conductivities of unsaturatedrocks from in-situ temperature data

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2006-06-26

    A general approach is presented here which allows estimationof field-scale thermal properties of unsaturated rock using temperaturedata collected from in situ heater tests. The approach developed here isused to determine the thermal conductivities of the unsaturated host rockof the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST wasdesigned to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC)data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticatednumerical models have been developed to analyze these THMC data. However,though the objective of those models was to analyze "field-scale" (of theorder of tens-of-meters) THMC data, thermal conductivities measured from"laboratory-scale" core samples have been used as input parameters.While, in the absence of a better alternative, using laboratory-scalethermal conductivity values in field-scale models can be justified, suchapplications introduce uncertainties in the outcome of the models. Thetemperature data collected from the DST provides a unique opportunity toresolve some of these uncertainties. These temperature data can be usedto estimate the thermal conductivity of the DST host rock and, given thelarge volume of rock affected by heating at the DST, such an estimatewill be a more reliable effective thermal conductivity value for fieldscale application. In this paper, thus, temperature data from the DST areused to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivityvalues of the unsaturated host rock of the DST. An analytical solution isdeveloped for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and usinga nonlinear fitting routine, a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermalconductivity for the DST host rock is obtained. Temperature data from theDST show evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling(wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). Estimates of thermal conductivityfor both the wet and dry zones are obtained in this paper. Sensitivity ofthese estimates

  6. Regional and Local Scale Modeling of Stream Temperatures and Spatio-Temporal Variation in Thermal Sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Kashiwagi, Michael T.; Prochaska, Anthony P.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding variation in stream thermal regimes becomes increasingly important as the climate changes and aquatic biota approach their thermal limits. We used data from paired air and water temperature loggers to develop region-scale and stream-specific models of average daily water temperature and to explore thermal sensitivities, the slopes of air-water temperature regressions, of mostly forested streams across Maryland, USA. The region-scale stream temperature model explained nearly 90 % of the variation (root mean square error = 0.957 °C), with the mostly flat coastal plain streams having significantly higher thermal sensitivities than the steeper highlands streams with piedmont streams intermediate. Model R 2 for stream-specific models was positively related to a stream's thermal sensitivity. Both the regional and the stream-specific air-water temperature regression models benefited from including mean daily discharge from regional gaging stations, but the degree of improvement declined as a stream's thermal sensitivity increased. Although catchment size had no relationship to thermal sensitivity, steeper streams or those with greater amounts of forest in their upstream watershed were less thermally sensitive. The subset of streams with three or more summers of temperature data exhibited a wide range of annual variation in thermal sensitivity at a site, with the variation not attributable to discharge, precipitation patterns, or physical attributes of streams or their watersheds. Our findings are a useful starting point to better understand patterns in stream thermal regimes. However, a more spatially and temporally comprehensive monitoring network should increase understanding of stream temperature variation and its controls as climatic patterns change.

  7. Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

    1999-02-01

    Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

  8. Parameter Measurement and Estimation at Variable Scales: Example of Soil Temperature in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The issue of matching measurement scale to application scale is long standing and frequently revisited with advances in instrumentation and computing power. In the past we have emphasized the importance of understanding the dominant processes and amount and nature of parameter variability when addressing these issues. Landscape-scale distribution of carbon and carbon fluxes is a primary focus of the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory (RC CZO). Soil temperature (Ts) is a critical parameter of generally unknown variability. Estimates of Ts are often based on air temperature (Ta), but it is understood that other factors control Ts, especially in complex terrain, where solar radiation may be a major driver. Data were collected at the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), which is 240 km2 in extent and covers a 1000 m elevation range. We used spatially extensive Ts data to evaluate correlations with Ta (915 m elevation gradient) on aspect neutral sites with similar vegetative cover. Effects of complex terrain were evaluated using a combination of fixed point measurements, fiber optic distributed temperature sensing and periodic, spatially distributed point measurements. We found that Ts over the elevation gradient followed Ta closely. However, within small subwatersheds with uniform Ta, Ts may be extremely variable, with a standard deviation of 8° C. This was strongly related to topographically associated land surface units (LSU's) and highly seasonal. Within LSU variability was generally low while there were seasonally significant differences between LSU's. The mean annual soil temperature difference between LSU's was greater than that associated with the 915 m elevation gradient. The seasonality of Ts variability was not directly related to solar radiation effects but rather to variations in cover. Scaling Ts requires high resolution accounting of topography in this environment. Spatial patterns of soil carbon at the RCEW are consistent with this.

  9. SCALING LAWS AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS WITH NON-UNIFORM HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, P. C. H.

    2010-05-10

    The bulk of solar coronal radiative loss consists of soft X-ray emission from quasi-static loops at the cores of active regions. In order to develop diagnostics for determining the heating mechanism of these loops from observations by coronal imaging instruments, I have developed analytical solutions for the temperature structure and scaling laws of loop strands for a set of temperature- and pressure-dependent heating functions that encompass heating concentrated at the footpoints, uniform heating, and heating concentrated at the loop apex. Key results are that the temperature profile depends only weakly on the heating distribution-not sufficiently to be of significant diagnostic value-and that the scaling laws survive for this wide range of heating distributions, but with the constant of proportionality in the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law (P{sub 0} L {approx} T {sup 3}{sub max}) depending on the specific heating function. Furthermore, quasi-static solutions do not exist for an excessive concentration of heating near the loop footpoints, a result in agreement with recent numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that a generalization of the results to a set of solutions for strands with a functionally prescribed variable diameter leads to only relatively small correction factors in the scaling laws and temperature profiles for constant diameter loop strands. A quintet of leading theoretical coronal heating mechanisms is shown to be captured by the formalism of this paper, and the differences in thermal structure between them may be verified through observations. Preliminary results from full numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the analytical solutions from this paper are accurate and stable.

  10. Patterns of species richness in relation to temperature, taxonomy and spatial scale in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Fan, Zhexuan; Deng, Jianming

    2011-07-01

    The species richness increases with area is well known in ecology. However, the Metabolic Theory of Biodiversity (MTB) is used to predict diversity patterns without taking account of the area covered by the community addressed. In this study, we developed a new model to integrate the temperature and community area based on the MTB. We collected plant species distribution information from 270 natural reserves and 11 floristic regions in eastern China, including that of three main plant divisions: pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, and five broadly distributed angiosperm families, to explore the patterns of species richness in relation to temperature and community area size at two spatial scales (floristic region and nature reserve). Our results show that at the floristic region scale, the species richness is independent of the area size of the community and the regression slopes of the natural logarithm of richness vs. the inverse transformed temperature are close to the theoretical value of -0.65 for the three main plant divisions as well as the five angiosperm families. However, at the nature reserve scale, the number of species depends significantly upon the area size of nature reserves, and the regression slopes deviate strongly from the expected slope for all the taxonomic groups, except the pteridophyte division. Therefore, the MTB would be fairly robust only under a presumption that the area size of the community addressed has no significant effect on species richness (e.g. at the floristic region scale). Otherwise, the predictions of diversity patterns by MTB tend to be inaccurate (e.g. at the nature reserve scale).

  11. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN peak intensity level at the sideline observer location is examined. The equivalent source within the framework of an acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. The sources and vector Green's function have arguments involving the steady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes solution of the jet. It is proposed that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplication of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.

  12. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  13. A space and time scale-dependent nonlinear geostatistical approach for downscaling daily precipitation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Evans, Jason; McCabe, Matthew F.; Sharma, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    A geostatistical framework is proposed to downscale daily precipitation and temperature. The methodology is based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS), where a multivariate training image is used to represent the spatial relationship between daily precipitation and daily temperature over several years. Here the training image consists of daily rainfall and temperature outputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 50 and 10 km resolution for a 20 year period ranging from 1985 to 2004. The data are used to predict downscaled climate variables for the year 2005. The result, for each downscaled pixel, is daily time series of precipitation and temperature that are spatially dependent. Comparison of predicted precipitation and temperature against a reference data set indicates that both the seasonal average climate response together with the temporal variability are well reproduced. The explicit inclusion of time dependence is explored by considering the climate properties of the previous day as an additional variable. Comparison of simulations with and without inclusion of time dependence shows that the temporal dependence only slightly improves the daily prediction because the temporal variability is already well represented in the conditioning data. Overall, the study shows that the multiple-point geostatistics approach is an efficient tool to be used for statistical downscaling to obtain local-scale estimates of precipitation and temperature from General Circulation Models.

  14. Precipitation scaling with temperature in warm and cold climates: An analysis of CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Harrison, Sandy P.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Izumi, Kenji; Colin Prentice, I.

    2013-08-01

    investigate the scaling between precipitation and temperature changes in warm and cold climates using six models that have simulated the response to both increased CO2 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) boundary conditions. Globally, precipitation increases in warm climates and decreases in cold climates by between 1.5%/°C and 3%/°C. Precipitation sensitivity to temperature changes is lower over the land than over the ocean and lower over the tropical land than over the extratropical land, reflecting the constraint of water availability. The wet tropics get wetter in warm climates and drier in cold climates, but the changes in dry areas differ among models. Seasonal changes of tropical precipitation in a warmer world also reflect this "rich get richer" syndrome. Precipitation seasonality is decreased in the cold-climate state. The simulated changes in precipitation per degree temperature change are comparable to the observed changes in both the historical period and the LGM.

  15. Millennial-scale temperature change velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate change into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate change during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space changed during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate change for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past temperatures. Derived temperature profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. Temperature estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (temperature change velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that temperature change velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high temperature change velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate change is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical

  16. Millennial-Scale Temperature Change Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate change into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate change during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space changed during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate change for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past temperatures. Derived temperature profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. Temperature estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (temperature change velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that temperature change velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high temperature change velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate change is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical

  17. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G.

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  18. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  19. Temperature and zooplankton size structure: climate control and basin-scale comparison in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Sanae; Batten, Sonia D; Yoshiki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yuka; Sasaoka, Kosei; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of zooplankton community structure is known to follow latitudinal temperature gradients: larger species in cooler, higher latitudinal regions. However, interspecific relationships between temperature and size in zooplankton communities have not been fully examined in terms of temporal variation. To re-examine the relationship on a temporal scale and the effects of climate control thereon, we investigated the variation in copepod size structure in the eastern and western subarctic North Pacific in 2000–2011. This report presents the first basin-scale comparison of zooplankton community changes in the North Pacific based on a fully standardized data set obtained from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey. We found an increase in copepod community size (CCS) after 2006–2007 in the both regions because of the increased dominance of large cold-water species. Sea surface temperature varied in an east–west dipole manner, showing the typical Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern: cooling in the east and warming in the west after 2006–2007. The observed positive correlation between CCS and sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific was inconsistent with the conventional interspecific temperature–size relationship. We explained this discrepancy by the geographical shift of the upper boundary of the thermal niche, the 9°C isotherm, of large cold-water species. In the eastern North Pacific, the boundary stretched northeast, to cover a large part of the sampling area after 2006–2007. In contrast, in the western North Pacific, the isotherm location hardly changed and the sampling area remained within its thermal niche throughout the study period, despite the warming that occurred. Our study suggests that while a climate-induced basin-scale cool–warm cycle can alter copepod community size and might subsequently impact the functions of the marine ecosystem in the North Pacific, the interspecific temperature–size relationship

  20. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  1. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  2. Effects of a temperature-dependent rheology on large scale continental extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonder, Leslie J.; England, Philip C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a temperature-dependent rheology on large-scale continental extension are investigated using a thin viscous sheet model. A vertically-averaged rheology is used that is consistent with laboratory experiments on power-law creep of olivine and that depends exponentially on temperature. Results of the calculations depend principally on two parameters: the Peclet number, which describes the relative rates of advection and diffusion of heat, and a dimensionless activation energy, which controls the temperature dependence of the rheology. At short times following the beginning of extension, deformation occurs with negligible change in temperature, so that only small changes in lithospheric strength occur due to attenuation of the lithosphere. However, after a certain critical time interval, thermal diffusion lowers temperatures in the lithosphere, strongly increasing lithospheric strength and slowing the rate of extension. This critical time depends principally on the Peclet number and is short compared with the thermal time constant of the lithosphere. The strength changes cause the locus of high extensional strain rates to shift with time from regions of high strain to regions of low strain. Results of the calculations are compared with observations from the Aegean, where maximum extensional strains are found in the south, near Crete, but maximum present-day strain rates are largest about 300 km further north.

  3. Effects of a temperature-dependent rheology on large-scale continental extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonder, Leslie J.; England, Philip C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a temperature-dependent rheology on large-scale continental extension are investigated using a thin viscous sheet model. A vertically-averaged rheology is used that is consistent with laboratory experiments on power-law creep of olivine and that depends exponentially on temperature. Results of the calculations depend principally on two parameters: the Peclet number, which describes the relative rates of advection and diffusion of heat, and a dimensionless activation energy, which controls the temperature dependence of the rheology. At short times following the beginning of extension, deformation occurs with negligible change in temperature, so that only small changes in lithospheric strength occur due to attenuation of the lithosphere. However, after a certain critical time interval, thermal diffusion lowers temperatures in the lithosphere, strongly increasing lithospheric strength and slowing the rate of extension. This critical time depends principally on the Peclet number and is short compared with the thermal time constant of the lithosphere. The strength changes cause the locus of high extensional strain rates to shift with time from regions of high strain to regions of low strain. Results of the calculations are compared with observations from the Aegean, where maximum extensional strains are found in the south, near Crete, but maximum present-day strain rates are largest about 300 km further north.

  4. Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Janghyuk; Lee, Geonyeop; Kim, Jihyun

    2015-07-20

    We report on the synthesis of wafer-scale (4 in. in diameter) high-quality multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on thin Ni films on a substrate of SiO{sub 2}/Si. Carbon ions were bombarded at 20 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} onto the surface of the Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate at a temperature of 500 °C. This was followed by high-temperature activation annealing (600–900 °C) to form a sp{sup 2}-bonded honeycomb structure. The effects of post-implantation activation annealing conditions were systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Carbon ion implantation at elevated temperatures allowed a lower activation annealing temperature for fabricating large-area graphene. Our results indicate that carbon-ion implantation provides a facile and direct route for integrating graphene with Si microelectronics.

  5. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Carmine; Barth, Christian; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer another. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, J c(T, B, θ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic fields of up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0°, 45° and 90°, in order to probe the angular anisotropy of J c. In spite of the large variability of the CCs’ performance, we show here that field and temperature dependences of J c at a given angle can be reproduced over wide ranges using a scaling relation based only on three parameters. Furthermore, we present and validate a new approach combining magnetic and transport measurements for the determination of the scaling parameters with minimal experimental effort.

  6. Extreme Temperature Regimes during the Cool Season and their Associated Large-Scale Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In the cool season (November-March), extreme temperature events (ETEs) always hit the continental United States (US) and provide significant societal impacts. According to the anomalous amplitudes of the surface air temperature (SAT), there are two typical types of ETEs, e.g. cold waves (CWs) and warm waves (WWs). This study used cluster analysis to categorize both CWs and WWs into four distinct regimes respectively and investigated their associated large-scale circulations on intra-seasonal time scale. Most of the CW regimes have large areal impact over the continental US. However, the distribution of cold SAT anomalies varies apparently in four regimes. In the sea level, the four CW regimes are characterized by anomalous high pressure over North America (near and to west of cold anomaly) with different extension and orientation. As a result, anomalous northerlies along east flank of anomalous high pressure convey cold air into the continental US. To the middle troposphere, the leading two groups feature large-scale and zonally-elongated circulation anomaly pattern, while the other two regimes exhibit synoptic wavetrain pattern with meridionally elongated features. As for the WW regimes, there are some patterns symmetry and anti-symmetry with respect to CW regimes. The WW regimes are characterized by anomalous low pressure and southerlies wind over North America. The first and fourth groups are affected by remote forcing emanating from North Pacific, while the others appear mainly locally forced.

  7. Modeling the impacts of climate change on stream water temperature across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, C.; Caldwell, P. V.; Cohen, E.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water temperature is a critical variable to aquatic ecosystems because it controls metabolic rates and the distribution of aquatic organisms. Therefore, understanding the impacts of future climate on stream water temperature is relevant to sustainable management of water resources. Empirical models based on the statistical relation between air and steam water temperature offer a powerful tool for prediction at large scales. We will demonstrate how simple linear regression models based on short-term historical stream temperature (ts) observations and readily available interpolated air temperature (ta) estimates can be used for rapid assessment of historical and future changes in ts. This methodology was applied to 61 sites in the Southeast region of the US. We found that between 2011 and 2060, all sites were projected to experience increases in ts under the three evaluated climate projections (mean of +0.41 °C per decade). We also developed continental scale models to predict mean and maximum ts in ungauged locations across the US. The models linearly describe site relationships between monthly mean and maximum ta and ts as a function of climatic, hydrologic, and land cover variables. The empirical models were derived using data from 171 reference sites. These sites drain areas spanning four orders of magnitude and are located in 32 states and 16 hydrologic regions. Model performances yielded average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients between 0.78 and 0.85. These models were incorporated into the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI) Ecosystem Services Model developed by the U.S. Forest Service to predict mean and maximum ts under different climatic projections and land cover changes at the USGS 8 digit hydrologic unit code watershed resolution across the US. The results identify regions in the country where significant increases in ts may occur, potentially causing stress to aquatic ecosystems as climate change progresses.

  8. Variation at range margins across multiple spatial scales: environmental temperature, population genetics and metabolomic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kunin, William E.; Vergeer, Philippine; Kenta, Tanaka; Davey, Matthew P.; Burke, Terry; Ian Woodward, F.; Quick, Paul; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Butlin, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Range margins are spatially complex, with environmental, genetic and phenotypic variations occurring across a range of spatial scales. We examine variation in temperature, genes and metabolomic profiles within and between populations of the subalpine perennial plant Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea from across its northwest European range. Our surveys cover a gradient of fragmentation from largely continuous populations in Iceland, through more fragmented Scandinavian populations, to increasingly widely scattered populations at the range margin in Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Temperature regimes vary substantially within some populations, but within-population variation represents a larger fraction of genetic and especially metabolomic variances. Both physical distance and temperature differences between sites are found to be associated with genetic profiles, but not metabolomic profiles, and no relationship was found between genetic and metabolomic population structures in any region. Genetic similarity between plants within populations is the highest in the fragmented populations at the range margin, but differentiation across space is the highest there as well, suggesting that regional patterns of genetic diversity may be scale dependent. PMID:19324821

  9. Mie-Grüneisen-Einstein Equation of State as a Practical High Temperature Pressure Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogokupets, P. I.; Oganov, A. R.; Dewaele, A.

    2008-12-01

    Over the years, various models have been used for smoothing experimental PVT data and parametrization of thermoelastic functions (see, e.g., Anderson et al., 1989, JAP, 65, 1534-1543; Saxena, Zhang, 1990, PCM, 17, 45-51; Jackson, Rigden, 1996, PEPI, 96, 85-112; Pavese, 2002, PCM, 29, 43-51). The Mie-Grüneisen- Debye formula for the thermal pressure can be obtained by differentiation of the Helmoholtz free energy, and is therefore a strictly thermodynamic formula. In the high-temperature limit it is easy to calculate the thermal part of the free energy by the Einstein model, keeping in mind that the Einstein temperature, TE, is related to the Debye temperature, TD, as TE = 0.775TD. Obtained by direct differentiation of the free energy, the bulk moduli, entropy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic functions, are by construction internally consistent. An important point is the choice of the analytical form of the volumetric dependence of the Einstein (or Debye) temperature, and correct account of intrinsic anharmonicity, which makes the Einstein temperature depend not only on volume, but also on temperature. Here we propose a simple analytical form for the pressure as a function of temperature and volume. This equation can be used for constructing a practical pressure scale, as has been verified on numerous examples (Dorogokupets, Oganov, 2007; Dorogokupets, Dewaele, 2007; Fei et al., 2007; Hirose et al., 2008; Matsui, 2008; Ueda et al., 2008; Sun et al., 2008; Ono et al., 2008; Wu et al., 2008; etc.).

  10. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  11. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  12. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, A.; Han, T. Y.

    2015-05-07

    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.

  13. Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Ilas, Dan; Kelly, Ryan P; Sunny, Eva E

    2012-08-01

    This report documents verification and validation studies carried out to assess the performance of the SCALE code system methods and nuclear data for modeling and analysis of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) configurations. Validation data were available from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhE Handbook), prepared by the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project, for two different HTGR designs: prismatic and pebble bed. SCALE models have been developed for HTTR, a prismatic fuel design reactor operated in Japan and HTR-10, a pebble bed reactor operated in China. The models were based on benchmark specifications included in the 2009, 2010, and 2011 releases of the IRPhE Handbook. SCALE models for the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed configuration at the PROTEUS critical facility in Switzerland have also been developed, based on benchmark specifications included in a 2009 IRPhE draft benchmark. The development of the SCALE models has involved a series of investigations to identify particular issues associated with modeling the physics of HTGRs and to understand and quantify the effect of particular modeling assumptions on calculation-to-experiment comparisons.

  14. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  15. Continuous high temperature gradient solidification of in situ Cu-Nb alloys for large scale development

    SciTech Connect

    LeHuy, H.; Fihey, J.L.; Foner, S.; Roberge, R.

    1982-01-01

    Several research groups are evaluating various scale-up approaches for the in situ technique of preparing multiply-connected Nb/sub 3/Sn composite superconducting wire. Previously, the authors developed an arrangement for continuous high temperature gradient solidification, and now have upgraded the process to permit the solidification of larger diameter (9.5 mm) rods in virtually unlimited lengths. The preparation, the microstructure, and the characteristics (solidification rate, dendrite branching, and dendrite size) are given for three directionally solidified in situ materials with a nominal composition of Cu-30 wt% Nb. Micrographs of variously extracted Nb filaments and various-order dendrites are provided. The HTGS technique offers several advantages over other scale-up production methods, such as the control over the microstructure, form, and size of the Nb dendrites. A critical current density of 10 kA/cm/sup 2/ at roughly 16.5 T has been measured for the fine dendrite materials.

  16. Temperature Dependent Dislocation Mobility in MgSiO3 Perovskite: An Atomic Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraych, A.; Hirel, P.; Carrez, P.; Cordier, P.

    2014-12-01

    Heat transfer through the mantle is carried by convection, which involves plastic flow of the mantle constituents. Among these constituents, (Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)O3 perovskite is known to be the most abundant. This material is deformed at very low strain rate (from 10-12 to 10-16 s-1), and under extreme pressure and temperature conditions (from 30 to 140GPa, 1500 to 4000°C). Its plastic behaviour is challenging to reproduce experimentally, but crucial for a better understanding of the Earth's dynamic. The recent progress in modelling the behaviours of materials, which until now have been mostly used on metals, are applied here on MgSiO3 perovskite (Mg-Pv). We characterize dislocations at the atomic scale, as the first step of a multi-scale modelling approach on Mg-Pv plastic deformation. We model dislocations with [100] and [010] Burgers vectors (described within the Pbnm space group), which are the shortest lattice parameters in the orthorhombic structure. Dislocation cores are determined to be described at various pressures. The resistance to glide of the dislocations is quantified indicating that [100](010) and [010](100) are the easiest slip systems in Mg-Pv over the full pressure range of the lower mantle. The effect of temperature is introduced by assimilating the thermal activation on dislocation lines to vibrations of a string lying into a potential valley. These vibrations allow the dislocation to overcome locally the energy barrier that represents the lattice friction, and then propagates under the effect of stress. With this model, by combining elastic theory of dislocations and calculations at the atomic scale, a first expression of the strain rate produced by dislocation glide is provided.Left figure : Thermally activated propagation of dislocation over the energy barrierRight figure : Shape of the crossing dislocation obtained from atomic scale modelling

  17. Growth strains and stress relaxation in alumina scales during high temperature oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2004-03-23

    A novel X-ray technique was used, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, to investigate the growth stresses in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In-situ measurements of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the scale were recorded during oxidation and cooling, and the elliptical distortion of the diffraction rings was analyzed to yield the in-plane strain. Fe-28Al, Fe-40Al, Fe-40Al-0.2Hf, Fe-20Cr-10Al and Ni-50Al (at. %) were studied. Data were acquired in air at temperatures between 950-1100 C and during cool down. In all cases, the steady stage growth strain was relatively low (<0.1%) and was either tensile or compressive depending on the alloy. A higher tensile strain often existed during the initial oxidation period when transition alumina was present. Thermal stresses imposed on NiAl by reducing the sample temperature to 950 C for a period of time showed noticeable stress relaxation by creep. Different degrees of relaxation were also found during cooling depending on alloy composition and scale microstructure. On all Fe-based alloys, the first formed {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was highly textured with the degree of texture decreasing with further oxidation. The relationships between stress development, scale wrinkling, oxide phase changes, and the effect of reactive element addition on growth stresses are discussed. Results are compared with other reports of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales.

  18. Black Sea temperature response to glacial millennial-scale climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Ganopolski, Andrey; Ménot, Guillemette; Kaiser, Jérôme; Dellwig, Olaf; Bard, Edouard; Lamy, Frank; Arz, Helge W.

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasian inland propagation of temperature anomalies during glacial millennial-scale climate variability is poorly understood, but this knowledge is crucial to understanding hemisphere-wide atmospheric teleconnection patterns and climate mechanisms. Based on biomarkers and geochemical paleothermometers, a pronounced continental temperature variability between 64,000 and 20,000 years ago, coinciding with the Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, was determined in a well-dated sediment record from the formerly enclosed Black Sea. Cooling during Heinrich events was not stronger than during other stadials in the Black Sea. This is corroborated by modeling results showing that regular Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles penetrated deeper into the Eurasian continent than Heinrich events. The pattern of coastal ice-rafted detritus suggests a strong dependence on the climate background state, with significantly milder winters during periods of reduced Eurasian ice sheets and an intensified meridional atmospheric circulation.

  19. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales

    PubMed Central

    Zaneveld, Jesse R.; Burkepile, Deron E.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Pritchard, Catharine E.; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P.; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Lemoine, Nathan P.; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-01-01

    Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral–algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollution. These stressors increase turf and macroalgal cover, destabilizing microbiomes, elevating putative pathogen loads, increasing disease more than twofold and increasing mortality up to eightfold. Above-average temperatures exacerbate these effects, further disrupting microbiomes of unhealthy corals and concentrating 80% of mortality in the warmest seasons. Surprisingly, nutrients also increase bacterial opportunism and mortality in corals bitten by parrotfish, turning normal trophic interactions deadly for corals. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution impact reefs down to microbial scales, killing corals by sensitizing them to predation, above-average temperatures and bacterial opportunism. PMID:27270557

  20. Magnetic field and temperature sensing with atomic-scale spin defects in silicon carbide

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, H.; Soltamov, V. A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Sperlich, A.; Baranov, P. G.; Astakhov, G. V.; Dyakonov, V.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum systems can provide outstanding performance in various sensing applications, ranging from bioscience to nanotechnology. Atomic-scale defects in silicon carbide are very attractive in this respect because of the technological advantages of this material and favorable optical and radio frequency spectral ranges to control these defects. We identified several, separately addressable spin-3/2 centers in the same silicon carbide crystal, which are immune to nonaxial strain fluctuations. Some of them are characterized by nearly temperature independent axial crystal fields, making these centers very attractive for vector magnetometry. Contrarily, the zero-field splitting of another center exhibits a giant thermal shift of −1.1 MHz/K at room temperature, which can be used for thermometry applications. We also discuss a synchronized composite clock exploiting spin centers with different thermal response. PMID:24993103

  1. Temperature Distribution in a Demonstration-Scale Filter Vessel With and Without Ash Bridging

    SciTech Connect

    Mazaheri, A.R.; Ahmadi, G.; Gamwo, I.K.

    2008-04-01

    The influence of ash bridging on the temperature distribution of the ceramic filters of a demonstration-scale filter vessel is analyzed. The Reynolds stress turbulence model of FLUENT™ code is used to study the gas flow behavior inside the filter vessel. Particle equations of motions are employed, and transport and deposition of the micron-size aerosols are studied. Computational results predict that ash bridging leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution along the ceramic candle filters in the bridging region. The analyses of ash bridging deposition on the internal surfaces of the filter show that the absence of ash bridging tends to promote the deposition of particles of 10 μm on the surfaces.

  2. Synthesis micro-scale boron nitride nanotubes at low substrate temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Makarov, Vladimir; Aldalbahi, Ali; Feng, Peter X.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    High temperature synthesis methods produce defects in 1D nanomaterials, which ultimately limit their applications. We report here the synthesis of micro-scale boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) at low substrate temperature (300 oC) using a pulsed CO2 laser deposition technique in the presence of catalyst. The electron microscopic analyses have shown the nanotubes distributed randomly on the surface of the substrate. The average diameter (˜0.25 μm) of a nanotube, which is the highest reported value to date, is estimated by SEM data and confirmed by TEM measurements. These nanotubes are promising for high response deep-UV photo-luminescent devices. A detailed synthesis mechanism is presented and correlated with the experimental results.

  3. Temporally controlled modulation of antihydrogen production and the temperature scaling of antiproton-positron recombination.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, M C; Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate temporally controlled modulation of cold antihydrogen production by periodic RF heating of a positron plasma during antiproton-positron mixing in a Penning trap. Our observations have established a pulsed source of atomic antimatter, with a rise time of about 1 s, and a pulse length ranging from 3 to 100 s. Time-sensitive antihydrogen detection and positron plasma diagnostics, both capabilities of the ATHENA apparatus, allowed detailed studies of the pulsing behavior, which in turn gave information on the dependence of the antihydrogen production process on the positron temperature T. Our data are consistent with power law scaling T (-1.1+/-0.5) for the production rate in the high temperature regime from approximately 100 meV up to 1.5 eV. This is not in accord with the behavior accepted for conventional three-body recombination. PMID:18764390

  4. Temperature drives the continental-scale distribution of key microbes in topsoil communities.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Loza, Virginia; Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Mateo, Pilar; Potrafka, Ruth M

    2013-06-28

    Global warming will likely force terrestrial plant and animal species to migrate toward cooler areas or sustain range losses; whether this is also true for microorganisms remains unknown. Through continental-scale compositional surveys of soil crust microbial communities across arid North America, we observed a latitudinal replacement in dominance between two key topsoil cyanobacteria that was driven largely by temperature. The responses to temperature of enrichment cultures and cultivated strains support this contention, with one cyanobacterium (Microcoleus vaginatus) being more psychrotolerant and less thermotolerant than the other (M. steenstrupii). In view of our data and regional climate predictions, the latter cyanobacterium may replace the former in much of the studied area within the next few decades, with unknown ecological consequences for soil fertility and erodibility. PMID:23812714

  5. Geometrical Scaling of an Ablative Bluff Body under Different Outer Flow Velocity and Temperature Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Michael; White, Christopher M.; Dubief, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results investigating the geometrical scaling and local properties of an eroding low temperature ablator (para-dichlorobenzene) are presented. The bluff body is placed in a heated open-circuit wind tunnel and the effects of incoming outer flow velocity (uniform and spatially varying) and temperature on the ablation process are investigated. Image sequencing of the projected area in the streamwise-spanwise and streamwise-wall normal flow direction are used to quantify the time evolution of the geometrical shape and compute local recession rates and curvature. The geometrical self-similarity and local recession rates are evaluated and compared to Moore et al. and Huang et al. who investigated erosion under the action of fluid shear force and dissolution, respectively. This work is supported by the NSF (CBET-0967224).

  6. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales.

    PubMed

    Zaneveld, Jesse R; Burkepile, Deron E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M S; Lemoine, Nathan P; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-01-01

    Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral-algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollution. These stressors increase turf and macroalgal cover, destabilizing microbiomes, elevating putative pathogen loads, increasing disease more than twofold and increasing mortality up to eightfold. Above-average temperatures exacerbate these effects, further disrupting microbiomes of unhealthy corals and concentrating 80% of mortality in the warmest seasons. Surprisingly, nutrients also increase bacterial opportunism and mortality in corals bitten by parrotfish, turning normal trophic interactions deadly for corals. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution impact reefs down to microbial scales, killing corals by sensitizing them to predation, above-average temperatures and bacterial opportunism. PMID:27270557

  7. Magnetic field and temperature sensing with atomic-scale spin defects in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, H.; Soltamov, V. A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Sperlich, A.; Baranov, P. G.; Astakhov, G. V.; Dyakonov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Quantum systems can provide outstanding performance in various sensing applications, ranging from bioscience to nanotechnology. Atomic-scale defects in silicon carbide are very attractive in this respect because of the technological advantages of this material and favorable optical and radio frequency spectral ranges to control these defects. We identified several, separately addressable spin-3/2 centers in the same silicon carbide crystal, which are immune to nonaxial strain fluctuations. Some of them are characterized by nearly temperature independent axial crystal fields, making these centers very attractive for vector magnetometry. Contrarily, the zero-field splitting of another center exhibits a giant thermal shift of -1.1 MHz/K at room temperature, which can be used for thermometry applications. We also discuss a synchronized composite clock exploiting spin centers with different thermal response.

  8. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  9. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides. PMID:26520517

  10. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  11. Large-scale effects on the regulation of tropical sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    The dominant terms in the surface energy budget of the tropical oceans are absorption of solar radiation and evaporative cooling. If it is assumed that relative humidity in the boundary layer remains constant, evaporative cooling will increase rapidly with sea surface temperature (SST) because of the strong temperature dependence of saturation water vapor pressure. The resulting stabilization of SST provided by evaporative cooling is sufficient to overcome positive feedback contributed by the decrease of surface net longwave cooling with increasing SST. Evaporative cooling is sensitive to small changes in boundary-layer relative humidity. Large and negative shortwave cloud forcing in the regions of highest SST are supported by the moisture convergence associated with largescale circulations. In the descending portions of these circulations the shortwave cloud forcing is suppressed. When the effect of these circulations is taken into account by spatial averaging, the area-averaged cloud forcing shows no sensitivity to area-averaged SST changes associated with the 1987 warming event in the tropical Pacific. While the shortwave cloud forcing is large and important in the convective regions, the importance of its role in regulating the average temperature of the tropics and in modulating temperature gradients within the tropics is less clear. A heuristic model of SST is used to illustrate the possible role of large-scale atmospheric circulations on SST in the tropics and the coupling between SST gradients and mean tropical SST. The intensity of large-scale circulations responds sensitivity to SST gradients and affects the mean tropical SST by supplying dry air to the planetary boundary layer. Large SST gradients generate vigorous circulations that increase evaporation and reduce the mean SST.

  12. From Snow Depth Distribution to Small-Scale Variability of Soil Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisnås, Kjersti; Westermann, Sebastian; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Schuler, Thomas V.

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is a temperature phenomenon on the local scale. Soil temperatures are not only influenced by atmospheric conditions varying on scales of kilometers, but are also determined by the land cover and soil properties, which display large variability on the meter-scale in many permafrost areas. In mountain areas the seasonal snow cover is crucial for the ground thermal regime, and the redistribution of snow by wind can create a pattern of different snow depths, which results in spatially variable permafrost temperatures. Existing permafrost models (CryoGRID1.0 and CryoGRID2.0) are implemented at 1x1km spatial resolution for Norway, and have proven to capture the regional distribution of permafrost. One of the principal uncertainties of these models is the effect of sub-grid variability in snow cover, and downscaling approaches for snow are therefore required to get a satisfactorily representation of the ground thermal regime. An extensive dataset including ground temperatures of 7 boreholes and data of 5 stations measuring snow depth and air/ground surface temperature is available from Juvflye, a high-mountain site in central southern Norway (1800-1900m a.s.l.). The area has a rough topography and a seasonal snow cover dominated by heavy wind redistribution. A Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) survey of snow depth was conducted in March 2012, covering an 8km2 area including the 7 boreholes. This GPR-survey will be repeated in 2013. The measured snow depths form the basis for probability density functions (PDFs) of snow cover within each 1x1km grid cell for this area. A 1-D numerical model including both a soil thermal model and snow pack scheme are calibrated for all 7 boreholes. Several model runs are performed for different snow depths, intended to cover the range of observed values. We present the effects of different snow depths on the thermal regime of the underlying permafrost, based on this model attempt. Furthermore, we outline a probabilistic approach for

  13. Local and large-scale influences on Swiss temperature trends 1959-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, P.; Scherrer, S. C.; Fischer, A.; Appenzeller, C.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature is a key variable for monitoring global climate change. Here we perform a trend analysis of Swiss temperatures from 1959-2008, using a new 2x2 km gridded data set based on carefully homogenized ground observations from MeteoSwiss. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to discuss the spatial and altitudinal temperature trend characteristics in detail and second, to quantify the contribution of global, large-scale and local-scale effects to these trends. The seasonal trends are all positive and mostly significant with an annual average warming rate of 0.35°C/decade (~1.6 times the global warming rate), ranging from 0.17 in autumn to 0.48°C/decade in summer. Altitude-dependent trends are found in autumn and early winter where the trends are stronger at low altitudes (<800 m asl), and in spring where slightly stronger trends are found at altitudes close to the snow line. The corresponding seasonal trends from the ENSEMBLES project regional climate models are weaker (~0.2°C/decade for all seasons) and show somewhat different patterns of altitude dependence. A large fraction of the trends can be explained by fluctuations in atmospheric circulation patterns, but with substantial differences from season to season. In winter, the magnitude and vertical distribution of the trends are reproduced accurately using large-scale and regional circulation dynamics effects only, while ~30-45% of the trends remain unexplained in spring and summer. In autumn, the mean trend is roughly reproduced but the altitudinal differences remain unexplained. This suggests that local effects are important to explain part of recent temperature trends in spring, summer and autumn. Snow-albedo feedback effects could be responsible for the 5-10% higher spring trends at altitudes close to the snow line. In autumn, the observed decrease in fog frequency might be a key process in explaining the stronger temperature trends at low altitudes.

  14. Multi-scale modeling to relate Be surface temperatures, concentrations and molecular sputtering yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasa, Ane; Safi, Elnaz; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations show erosion rates of Be exposed to deuterium (D) plasma varying with surface temperature and the correlated D concentration. Little is understood how these three parameters relate for Be surfaces, despite being essential for reliable prediction of impurity transport and plasma facing material lifetime in current (JET) and future (ITER) devices. A multi-scale exercise is presented here to relate Be surface temperatures, concentrations and sputtering yields. Kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) code MMonCa is used to estimate equilibrium D concentrations in Be at different temperatures. Then, mixed Be-D surfaces - that correspond to the KMC profiles - are generated in MD, to calculate Be-D molecular erosion yields due to D irradiation. With this new database implemented in the 3D MC impurity transport code ERO, modeling scenarios studying wall erosion, such as RF-induced enhanced limiter erosion or main wall surface temperature scans run at JET, can be revisited with higher confidence. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  15. Bilateral Comparison Between CMI and CEM in Radiance Temperature Scale Realization from to

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. J.; Kňazovická, L.; del Campo, D.; Strnad, R.

    2014-04-01

    A bilateral comparison between the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) and the Český Metrologický Institut (CMI) of radiance temperature scale realizations in the range from to was carried out during 2012 to support the calibration measurements capabilities of CMI in radiation thermometry. The CEM capabilities were demonstrated previously in a recent comparison of European laboratories over the range from to . A CMI KE-LP5 radiation thermometer, working at 1568 nm, was used as a traveling standard. CEM measurements were done at the fixed-points (FPs) of Zn, Ag, and Cu and, for the rest of the temperatures, variable temperature blackbodies (VTBBs) were used. CMI measurements were done at the FPs of Sn, Al, and Cu, and the rest of the temperatures were measured with VTBBs. The size-of-source effect was measured at CEM to decide whether or not the measurements from both laboratories should be corrected by this effect (when the diameter of the sources was different at each laboratory). CMI performed the measurement of the Al FP before and after CEM to evaluate the stability of the radiation thermometer. The results for both laboratories are summarized, and they agree within their expanded uncertainties.

  16. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters. PMID:26101200

  17. Global-scale modes of surface temperature variability on interannual to century timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Using 100 years of global temperature anomaly data, we have performed a singluar value decomposition of temperature variations in narrow frequency bands to isolate coherent spatio-temporal modes of global climate variability. Statistical significance is determined from confidence limits obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Secular variance is dominated by a globally coherent trend; with nearly all grid points warming in phase at varying amplitude. A smaller, but significant, share of the secular variance corresponds to a pattern dominated by warming and subsequent cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic with a roughly centennial timescale. Spatial patterns associated with significant peaks in variance within a broad period range from 2.8 to 5.7 years exhibit characteristic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns. A recent transition to a regime of higher ENSO frequency is suggested by our analysis. An interdecadal mode in the 15-to-18 years period and a mode centered at 7-to-8 years period both exhibit predominantly a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) temperature pattern. A potentially significant decadal mode centered on 11-to-12 years period also exhibits an NAO temperature pattern and may be modulated by the century-scale North Atlantic variability.

  18. The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.A.; Stansbury, J.S.; Zhang, T.C.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in constructed wetlands was studied by running a synthetic wastewater through a model, laboratory-scale gravel-filled constructed wetland (in which no plants were grown). The wetland was operated at temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C in an environmentally controlled chamber. An influent ammonia concentration of 45 mg/L as nitrogen was used to simulate typical domestic wastewater. For temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C, the wetland model achieved ammonia removal and nitrification of 45, 44, 56, and 65%, respectively. Thus, over the 18 C temperature range ammonia-nitrogen removal and nitrification rates varied only 20%. There was a net decrease in nitrogen as water passed through the wetland; this could be the result of cell growth or denitrification. Measurements were taken at the inlet, outlet, and four additional locations along the length of the reactor. Measurements were also taken at three different depths. Along the length of the reactor, nearly all nitrification was achieved in the first half of the reactor, then stopped because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Nitrification occurred slightly faster at the top of the reactor than at the bottom.

  19. An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconescu, Bogdan; Nenchev, Georgi; de la Figuera, Juan; Pohl, Karsten

    2007-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating from 80to700K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which routinely achieves large scale atomically resolved imaging of compact metallic surfaces. An efficient in-vacuum vibration isolation and cryogenic system allows for no external vibration isolation of the UHV chamber. The design of the sample holder and STM head permits imaging of the same nanometer-size area of the sample before and after sample preparation outside the STM base. Refractory metal samples are frequently annealed up to 2000K and their cooldown time from room temperature to 80K is 15min. The vertical resolution of the instrument was found to be about 2 pm at room temperature. The coarse motor design allows both translation and rotation of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8×8μm2. The sample temperature can be adjusted by a few tens of degrees while scanning over the same sample area.

  20. Heat capacity and absolute entropy of iron phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and absolute entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the absolute entropy.

  1. Madden-Julian oscillation and sea surface temperature interactions in a multi-scale framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-12-01

    The ocean-atmosphere coupling can play a role in initiating and sustaining the Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs), which are the major intraseasonal oscillations in the atmosphere. In this thesis, the oceanic influence on MJOs is studied with reanalysis products, numerical models, and idealized theoretical models. The energy sources for MJOs are calculated with NCEP reanalysis. The perturbed potential energy is found to be the most important energy source for most MJO events. In some MJO events, the sea surface is warmed due to the reduced latent heat flux during the suppressed phase of MJOs. As a result, warm sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) occur, which appear to prolong the life time of these MJO events. In a minority of the MJO events, warm SSTAs can drive the atmosphere actively and trigger MJO events. In these events, the warm SSTAs are attributable to the internal oceanic processes influenced by the warm Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which spreads from the southeastern Indian Ocean to the western Indian Ocean and modifies the subtle balance between stratification and mixing in the western Indian Ocean. In addition, during the transit period between monsoon seasons, a few MJO events are sustained by the energy obtained from the mean kinetic energy. Since the MJO events have different energy sources, their mechanisms should be considered in the context of these energy sources. While the spatial scale of the SSTAs in the Indian Ocean is only of order 100 km, the scale of MJOs is of order 1000 km, raising the potential for interactions between the oceanic and the atmospheric oscillations with different scales and this is demonstrated to be possible with analytical solutions to idealized linear governing equations. With a reasonable choice of parameters, the meso-scale oceanic and the large-scale atmospheric oscillations can interact with each other and lead to unstable waves in the intraseasonal band in this linear coupled model. The coupling and

  2. Using MEMS sensor arrays to measure temperature at small spatial scales in hot spring environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiler, J.; Schliep, K.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In situ measurement of temperature across the transition zones between chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities, or between different photosynthetic microbial communities in hot springs, can be ambiguous using current robust bulk measurement techniques due to the small spatial scale at of the transitions. Outflow channels are often narrow and shallow as they transport water away from the source, creating additional constraints on the size of the instrument and measurement technique used. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is well-suited to take measurements of temperature within hot spring environments or other chemical parameters such as conductivity or pH. With recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques, devices can be fabricated to be chemically and thermally tolerant to the conditions present in the hot springs. The small size of the sensing elements (micron scale) provides the high spatial resolution necessary to interrogate the sharp transition zones between chemotrophic and photosynthetic communities. Owing to the small size of each sensor and the ability to batch-fabricate many sensors at once, an array of sensors can be made to measure a particular parameter simultaneously at short spatial intervals. Arrays of MEMS sensors were fabricated to measure temperature changes at intervals of ~1 cm. Our sensors consist of thermistors fabricated from a bi-layer of titanium and platinum. When heated, the electrical resistance of the thermistors will increase, and through calibration the resistance value is paired to a temperature value. The sensors and wires are covered with an inert biocompatible water-resistant polymer, Parylene-C, that protects them from chemical attack in the hot spring water. Using the arrays, a two-dimensional map of depth and distance was created at the Geothermal Explosion site in Tengchong, China, by placing the array vertically into a channel at spatial intervals of ~2 cm. Vertical measurements

  3. Using Combined Temperature, Flow and Level Data to Investigate River-Aquifer Interaction Scaling Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, A. M.; Andersen, M. S.; Rau, G. C.; Acworth, I.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between surface water and groundwater need to be understood for the water resource to be managed appropriately (Winter et al., 1998). However, these can vary at different spatial and temporal scales making quantification of them difficult. Using heat as a natural tracer of water movement has increasingly become popular. The method utilises the natural daily temperature fluctuations within a surface water body which, by the processes of conduction and convention, leads to a temperature response at depth. However, how such point measurements relate to larger scales remains uncertain. In this paper a combination of temperature, flow and level data, collected in a semi-arid region of Australia, are used to investigate this issue. The studied river reach has two flow gauges separated by 34 km which makes computing differential flows (i.e. losses or gains from river) possible. A field site next to the river has a weather station (recording solar radiation and atmospheric pressure and temperature) and a groundwater piezometer in the riverbank. Six arrays with temperature loggers at four depths to 1 m depth were installed vertically into the riverbed between the two gauges. The top and bottom levels also had pressure transducers. A series of dam-release and storm-induced flow events occurred within the eight-month deployment period. The riverbed and bank responded to the flow events in the river, thereby providing times series of potentially gaining and losing periods. The temperature records in the river and riverbed were filtered to retain the daily signal for computing seepage velocities using the method of Hatch et al. (2006). The seepage velocities obtained ranged from approximately -0.8 to 0.1 m/day. The temporal pattern of seepage velocity was similar between all six sites: the velocities increased during high-flows and reached a near-constant value at low-flows; before and after the main flow event the near-constant value changed, reflecting scouring

  4. Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christophe; Dewitte, Boris; Sudre, Joël.; Garçon, Véronique; Varillon, David

    2013-10-01

    The small-scale features in sea surface temperature and salinity fields (SST and SSS) of the Coral Sea are examined using high horizontal spatial and short-term temporal in situ measurements. These features are extracted from thermosalinographs (TSGs) gathered onboard commercial and research vessels and at one long-term fixed station. The analyses are performed along the vessel tracks and the structures of small-scale features are extracted by high-pass spatial filtering the original TSG data. For SSS, it is shown that the features at the scale of mesoscale eddies (˜100 km) vary from about -1.1 to +0.6 psu in the Coral Sea region. Processes sustaining such range include rainfall events, stirring by mesoscale eddies, and the latitudinal displacement of the sharp front associated with the edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool at the seasonal time scales. The TSG data have revealed the presence of a sharp front (0.4-0.6 psu) between the subtropical and equatorial waters instead of a smooth gradient in the standard SSS climatologies. Within the context of recent remotely sensed observations of salinity, this could represent an important limitation for the validation and calibration of satellite products. In addition to these spatial considerations, temporal variations at one long-term station near Vanuatu show that the coupled air-sea responses to intraseasonal tropical variability, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation, may have a signature in both SST and SSS fields. However, this response is found to be complex and not necessarily in phase. In the Coral Sea region, our results suggest that MJO-induced variability on SST and SSS exhibit little coherency at the seasonal time scales.

  5. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  6. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  7. SCALING, MULTIPLICITY AND TEMPERATURE OF e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} HADRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, T. F.; Cork, Bruce

    1980-11-01

    Properties of meson production by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations for E{sub c.m.} = 3,0 to 31.2 GeV have been analyzed using the Bose-Einstein distribution modified for the Feynman-Yang scaling, Validity tests have been made with the P{sub T} and P{sub L} distributions measured with respect to the jet axis, The average charged multiplicity is found to follow an empirical power law E{sub c.m.}{sup 1/2}. The temperatures deduced from < P{sub T} > increase slowly with E{sub c,m,} . The scaling behavior is investigated in terms of the parameter {lambda} = 2/{pi} used to modify the Bose-Einstein distribution. An anomaly resembling a phase transition of the specific heat of the hadronic matter is found at a temperature near 127 MeV corresponding to the threshold for {Upsilon}(9.5) production.

  8. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Walker R.; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Marton, Christopher H.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. PMID:23440220

  9. Changes in site-scale temperature extremes over China during 2071-2100 in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqin David; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Site-scale changes in probability behaviors of temperature extremes across China during 2071-2100 are studied with general circulation models (GCMs) provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Future temperature extremes are compared to those of 1961-2005 estimated from observed daily temperatures at 498 stations. Temperature extremes are described by 15 indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices; quantile mapping (QM) is used to downscale the gridded GCMs outputs to site scale. The site-scale and grid-scale changes of temperature extremes are compared. Results indicate that during 2071-2100, increases of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are more pronounced in the Songhua River Basin, the Liao River Basin, the Hai River Basin, the north part of the Yellow River Basin, and the Northwest Rivers. The numbers of warm days are 3 times of observations, and the warm spell durations become longer. Summer days and tropical nights, which have never been observed in the Tibetan Plateau, may occur in the future. Cold spell may disappear in the Songhua River Basin and the Liao River Basin. Compared to the grid-scale changes, appearance or disappearance of extremes at the site scale is more obvious with higher confidence. The spatial patterns of the site-scale and grid-scale changes are similar, but the change rates are different to a certain extent. For extremes that are more spatially homogenous, the site-scale and grid-scale change rates are close. But for extremes that are more spatially heterogeneous, the site-scale changes are more remarkable.

  10. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Puzzarini, Cristina Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E.; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing {sup 17}O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined {sup 17}O spin-rotation constants of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  11. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  12. Modeling the Temperature Responses to Spectral Solar Variability on Decadal and Centennial Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Wen, G.; Pilewskie, P.; Harder, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric temperature responses to decadal solar variations are computed for two scenarios of solar spectral irradiance (SSI), SIM-based out-of-phase and proxy-based in-phase variations, using a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and also GISS modelE (GCM.) For both scenarios and both models, maximum responses occur in upper stratosphere, decreasing downward to the surface. Upper stratospheric temperature peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are ~0.6 K in RCM and ~0.9 K over tropics in GCM, ~5x as large as responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI (Total Solar Irradiance). Modeled upper stratospheric temperature responses to SIM-based forcing are similar to 11-year temperature variations observed with HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment). For both RCM and GCM, surface responses to the two scenarios are significantly smaller than stratospheric responses. On centennial timescales, SSI variations are poorly known. However, two scenarios of reconstructed TSI, one based on 11-year cycle with background [Lean 2000] and the other on flux transport with much less background [Wang, Lean, and Sheeley, 2005], provide a potential range of TSI variations. We apply phase relations among different SSI bands both from SIM observations and proxy reconstructions to the two scenarios of historical TSI to derive associated historical SSI, which then drives the RCM. The updated atmosphere and ocean mixed coupled RCM including diffusion to deep-ocean provide a first order estimate of temperature responses to SSI variations on centennial time scales. We discuss potential mechanisms for atmosphere-ocean and stratosphere-troposphere couplings responsible for the climate responses to spectral solar variations.

  13. Soil moisture-temperature feedbacks at meso-scale during summer heat waves over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéfanon, Marc; Drobinski, Philippe; D'Andrea, Fabio; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Bastin, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the impact of soil moisture-temperature feedback during heatwaves occurring over France between 1989 and 2008. Two simulations of the weather research and forecasting regional model have been analysed, with two different land-surface models. One resolves the hydrology and is able to simulate summer dryness, while the other prescribes constant and high soil moisture and hence no soil moisture deficit. The sensitivity analysis conducted for all heatwave episodes highlights different soil moisture-temperature responses (1) over low-elevation plains, (2) over mountains and (3) over coastal regions. In the plains, soil moisture deficit induces less evapotranspiration and higher sensible heat flux. This has the effect of heating the planetary boundary layer and at the same time of creating a general condition of higher convective instability and a slight increase of shallow cloud cover. A positive feedback is created which increases the temperature anomaly during the heatwaves. In mountainous regions, enhanced heat fluxes over dry soil reinforce upslope winds producing strong vertical motion over the mountain slope, first triggered by thermal convection. This, jointly to the instability conditions, favors convection triggering and produces clouds and precipitation over the mountains, reducing the temperature anomaly. In coastal regions, dry soil enhances land/sea thermal contrast, strengthening sea-breeze circulation and moist cold marine air advection. This damps the magnitude of the heatwave temperature anomaly in coastal areas, expecially near the Mediterranean coast. Hence, along with heating in the plains, soil dryness can also have a significant cooling effect over mountains and coastal regions due to meso-scale circulations.

  14. Biome-specific scaling of ocean productivity, temperature, and carbon export efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Gregory L.; Primeau, François W.

    2016-05-01

    Mass conservation and metabolic theory place constraints on how marine export production (EP) scales with net primary productivity (NPP) and sea surface temperature (SST); however, little is empirically known about how these relationships vary across ecologically distinct ocean biomes. Here we compiled in situ observations of EP, NPP, and SST and used statistical model selection theory to demonstrate significant biome-specific scaling relationships among these variables. Multiple statistically similar models yield a threefold variation in the globally integrated carbon flux (~4-12 Pg C yr-1) when applied to climatological satellite-derived NPP and SST. Simulated NPP and SST input variables from a 4×CO2 climate model experiment further show that biome-specific scaling alters the predicted response of EP to simulated increases of atmospheric CO2. These results highlight the need to better understand distinct pathways of carbon export across unique ecological biomes and may help guide proposed efforts for in situ observations of the ocean carbon cycle.

  15. Bioinspired large-scale aligned porous materials assembled with dual temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hao; Chen, Yuan; Delattre, Benjamin; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, teeth, shells, and wood, exhibit outstanding properties despite being porous and made of weak constituents. Frequently, they represent a source of inspiration to design strong, tough, and lightweight materials. Although many techniques have been introduced to create such structures, a long-range order of the porosity as well as a precise control of the final architecture remain difficult to achieve. These limitations severely hinder the scale-up fabrication of layered structures aimed for larger applications. We report on a bidirectional freezing technique to successfully assemble ceramic particles into scaffolds with large-scale aligned, lamellar, porous, nacre-like structure and long-range order at the centimeter scale. This is achieved by modifying the cold finger with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wedge to control the nucleation and growth of ice crystals under dual temperature gradients. Our approach could provide an effective way of manufacturing novel bioinspired structural materials, in particular advanced materials such as composites, where a higher level of control over the structure is required. PMID:26824062

  16. Modeling and measuring neighborhood scale flow, turbulence, and temperature within Chicago heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Patrick; Sharma, Ashish; Leo, Laura; Fernando, H. J. S.; Potosnak, Mark; Hellmann, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The modeling of urban heat island (UHI) requires a multi-scale approach as it involves numerous physical phenomena spanning a range of scales. We have performed a comprehensive study of Chicago's UHI via coupling of mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and micro-scale ENVI-met models. The application of the latter model to a Lincoln Park neighborhood and a parallel observational campaign will be the primary focus of this presentation. ENVI-met employs a computational fluid dynamics model to represent heterogeneity of urban areas, providing fine resolution output of UHI dynamics. In the field campaign, two stations located on rooftops of DePaul University buildings were each equipped with a sonic anemometer and vertical array of thermocouples, allowing investigations of spatial variability of flow, turbulent fluxes, and temperature profiles in an urban roughness sublayer. One of these was located above a rooftop garden and the other above a conventional rooftop. Downscaled output from the WRF model or a set of observational data served as initial and boundary conditions for the ENVI-met model. The model's predicative capabilities were assessed through comparison with another set of observational data, and dynamical causes for the model's poor behavior were identified. Funded by NSF Grant No. 0934592 and ND-ECI.

  17. Kinetic analysis of high-temperature oxidation of metals accompanied by scale volatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Taimatsu, Hitoshi

    1999-10-01

    An equation suitable for analyzing the high-temperature oxidation kinetics of metals in the case where scale volatilization is inevitable is presented. The equation derived {Delta}m = k'{sub p}{sup 1/2}t{sup 1/2} - (2/3 + f{sub Me}/3) k{prime}{sub v}t, where k{prime}{sub p} is the parabolic rate constant, f{sub Me} the mass fraction of the metal Me in the scale oxide Me{sub {nu}}O, and k'{sub v} the volatilization rate constant of the oxide, has such a simple form as to be used for easily separating the mass gain into the scale growth due to diffusion and its volatilization by curve-fitting the equation for mass gain data. The limitations of the application of this equation are discussed, and its validity is verified by its application to experimental data reported for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-forming alloys.

  18. What spatial scales are believable for climate model projections of sea surface temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Stephenson, David B.

    2014-09-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) provide high resolution simulations of variables such as sea surface temperature (SST) that are often used in off-line biological impact models. Coral reef modellers have used such model outputs extensively to project both regional and global changes to coral growth and bleaching frequency. We assess model skill at capturing sub-regional climatologies and patterns of historical warming. This study uses an established wavelet-based spatial comparison technique to assess the skill of the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 models to capture spatial SST patterns in coral regions. We show that models typically have medium to high skill at capturing climatological spatial patterns of SSTs within key coral regions, with model skill typically improving at larger spatial scales (≥4°). However models have much lower skill at modelling historical warming patters and are shown to often perform no better than chance at regional scales (e.g. Southeast Asian) and worse than chance at finer scales (<8°). Our findings suggest that output from current generation ESMs is not yet suitable for making sub-regional projections of change in coral bleaching frequency and other marine processes linked to SST warming.

  19. Multi-scale mechanism based life prediction of polymer matrix composites for high temperature airframe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Priyank

    A multi-scale mechanism-based life prediction model is developed for high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMC) for high temperature airframe applications. In the first part of this dissertation the effect of Cloisite 20A (C20A) nano-clay compounding on the thermo-oxidative weight loss and the residual stresses due to thermal oxidation for a thermoset polymer bismaleimide (BMI) are investigated. A three-dimensional (3-D) micro-mechanics based finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to investigate the residual stresses due to thermal oxidation using an in-house FEA code (NOVA-3D). In the second part of this dissertation, a novel numerical-experimental methodology is outlined to determine cohesive stress and damage evolution parameters for pristine as well as isothermally aged (in air) polymer matrix composites. A rate-dependent viscoelastic cohesive layer model was implemented in an in-house FEA code to simulate the delamination initiation and propagation in unidirectional polymer composites before and after aging. Double cantilever beam (DCB) experiments were conducted (at UT-Dallas) on both pristine and isothermally aged IM-7/BMI composite specimens to determine the model parameters. The J-Integral based approach was adapted to extract cohesive stresses near the crack tip. Once the damage parameters had been characterized, the test-bed FEA code employed a micromechanics based viscoelastic cohesive layer model to numerically simulate the DCB experiment. FEA simulation accurately captures the macro-scale behavior (load-displacement history) simultaneously with the micro-scale behavior (crack-growth history).

  20. Temperature Responses to Spectral Solar Variability on Decadal and Centennial Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, Robert; Wen, Guoyong; Pilewskie, Peter; Harder, Jerald

    2010-05-01

    We apply two scenarios of 11-year solar spectral forcing, namely SIM-based out-of-phase variations and proxy-based in-phase variations, as input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and also to the GISS modelE GCM. For both scenarios, and both models, we find that the maximum temperature response occurs in the upper stratosphere, and temperature responses decrease downward to the surface. The upper stratospheric temperature peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase solar forcing are ~0.6 K in RCM and ~0.9 K over the tropical region in GCM simulations, a factor of ~5 times as large as responses to in-phase solar forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) variations. The modeled upper stratospheric temperature response to the SORCE SIM observed SSI (Spectral Solar Irradiance) forcing resembles 11-year temperature variations observed with HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment). Surface responses to the two SSI scenarios are small for both RCM and GCM studies, as compared to stratospheric responses. Though solar irradiance variations on centennial time scale are not well known, the two scenarios of reconstructed TSI time series (i.e., one based on 11-year cycles with background [Lean 2000] and the second from flux transport that has much less background change [Wang, Lean, and Sheeley, 2005]) provide a range of variations of TSI on centennial time scales. We apply phase relations among different spectral irradiance bands both from SIM observation and proxy reconstructions to the two scenarios of historical TSI. The spectral solar forcing is used to drive the RCM. The updated atmosphere and ocean mixed coupled RCM including diffusion to deep-ocean provides a first-order estimate of climate response. We report the different responses of stratosphere, troposphere, and ocean surface to these 4 scenarios of centennial spectral solar forcing. We further discuss the mechanisms for atmosphere-ocean and stratosphere

  1. Low-temperature indium-bonded alkali vapor cell for chip-scale atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straessle, R.; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Mileti, G.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-02-01

    A low-temperature sealing technique for micro-fabricated alkali vapor cells for chip-scale atomic clock applications is developed and evaluated. A thin-film indium bonding technique was used for sealing the cells at temperatures of ≤140 °C. These sealing temperatures are much lower than those reported for other approaches, and make the technique highly interesting for future micro-fabricated cells, using anti-relaxation wall coatings. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on first indium-bonded cells without wall coatings are used to evaluate the cleanliness of the process as well as a potential leak rate of the cells. Both measurements confirm a stable pressure inside the cell and therefore an excellent hermeticity of the indium bonding. The double-resonance measurements performed over several months show an upper limit for the leak rate of 1.5 × 10-13 mbar.l/s. This is in agreement with additional leak-rate measurements using a membrane deflection method on indium-bonded test structures.

  2. Kinetic study on the effect of temperature on biogas production using a lab scale batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Deepanraj, B; Sivasubramanian, V; Jayaraj, S

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, biogas production from food waste through anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 2l laboratory-scale batch reactor operating at different temperatures with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The reactors were operated with a solid concentration of 7.5% of total solids and pH 7. The food wastes used in this experiment were subjected to characterization studies before and after digestion. Modified Gompertz model and Logistic model were used for kinetic study of biogas production. The kinetic parameters, biogas yield potential of the substrate (B), the maximum biogas production rate (Rb) and the duration of lag phase (λ), coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) were estimated in each case. The effect of temperature on biogas production was evaluated experimentally and compared with the results of kinetic study. The results demonstrated that the reactor with operating temperature of 50°C achieved maximum cumulative biogas production of 7556ml with better biodegradation efficiency. PMID:25963808

  3. Temperature and saturation dependence in the vapor sensing of butterfly wing scales.

    PubMed

    Kertész, K; Piszter, G; Jakab, E; Bálint, Zs; Vértesy, Z; Biró, L P

    2014-06-01

    The sensing of gasses/vapors in the ambient air is the focus of attention due to the need to monitor our everyday environment. Photonic crystals are sensing materials of the future because of their strong light-manipulating properties. Natural photonic structures are well-suited materials for testing detection principles because they are significantly cheaper than artificial photonic structures and are available in larger sizes. Additionally, natural photonic structures may provide new ideas for developing novel artificial photonic nanoarchitectures with improved properties. In the present paper, we discuss the effects arising from the sensor temperature and the vapor concentration in air during measurements with a photonic crystal-type optical gas sensor. Our results shed light on the sources of discrepancy between simulated and experimental sensing behaviors of photonic crystal-type structures. Through capillary condensation, the vapors will condensate to a liquid state inside the nanocavities. Due to the temperature and radius of curvature dependence of capillary condensation, the measured signals are affected by the sensor temperature as well as by the presence of a nanocavity size distribution. The sensing materials used are natural photonic nanoarchitectures present in the wing scales of blue butterflies. PMID:24863219

  4. Fundamental studies of stress distributions and stress relaxation in oxide scales on high temperature alloys. [Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes a three-year study of stresses arising in the oxide scale and underlying metal during high temperature oxidation and of scale cracking. In-situ XRD was developed to measure strains during oxidation over 1000{degrees}C on pure metals. Acoustic emission was used to observe scale fracture during isothermal oxidation and cooling, and statistical analysis was used to infer mechanical aspects of cracking. A microscratch technique was used to measure the fracture toughness of scale/metal interface. A theoretical model was evaluated for the development and relaxation of stresses in scale and metal substrate during oxidation.

  5. Promoting Climate Literacy through Collaborative Temperature Investigations at Local, Regional, and Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Charlevoix, D.; Hoffman, M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in promoting student and citizen climate literacy is developing awareness and understanding of the time and spatial scales on which climate changes occur. Students and citizens living in polar regions are now able to observe changes in sea ice extent, permafrost depth, and local ecosystems that have occurred in their lifetimes. In other parts of the world, environmental changes related to climate tend to be more subtle making it more challenging for students and citizens to recognize how changes in climate are affecting their communities. The GLOBE program, an international science and education program operating in 110 countries, implements field-based research and education programs that directly involve students and citizens in observations of their local environment as well as online collaboration using Web 2.0 communication tools to share and discuss how their research findings compare to other environments around the world. In fall 2009, secondary students from several GLOBE schools from around the world will use the GLOBE Minimum-Maximum Temperature protocol to determine daily and monthly average mean air temperatures. Students will collect data in a manner identical to that used by scientists who contributed to the International Panel on Climate Change reports. Students will then use historic weather and climate data from nearby global weather stations to create baseline weather and climate profiles for their communities. Students will use FieldScope, an online GIS tool created by the National Geographic Society to compare their data to temperature trends in their regions for the past 30 to 50 years. Students will share the results of their local temperature investigations with other participating schools via a live Webinar and through asynchronous Web-based conversations held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Group on Earth Observations. Students participating in this “Great Global Investigation of

  6. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary. PMID:26259555

  7. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.

  8. Influence of synoptic scale circulation on temperature and equivalent temperature extremes in Chicago, IL (1948-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldeman, Brooke

    Heat waves are responsible for significant economic impacts and loss of life each year in the United States with humidity often playing an important role. This study examined synoptic patterns associated with extreme temperature and equivalent temperature events in Chicago, IL over the period of 1948-2014 using summertime (June 1st- September 15th) values. Temperature and equivalent temperature-based heat waves were defined as periods with at least eight consecutive six-hour observations exceeding the historical 95th percentile values of temperature and equivalent temperature, respectively, using data from O'Hare International Airport. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) were then applied to 500 mb geopotential height and 850 mb specific humidity datasets from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to identify synoptic states associated with extreme temperature and equivalent temperature events. SOM nodes associated with heat waves were identified and assessed for trends using median of pairwise slopes regression. While mean summertime temperature and equivalent temperature in Chicago did not exhibit significant trends, yearly summertime minimum temperatures were found to be increasing with a significant trend. Additionally, several synoptic patterns favorable for the development of high temperature and high humidity heat waves were increasing significantly.

  9. Thermal monitoring: Raman spectrometer system for remote measurement of cellular temperature on a microscopic scale.

    PubMed

    Pikov, Victor; Siegel, Peter H

    2010-01-01

    A simple setup is demonstrated for remote temperature monitoring of water, water-based media, and cells on a microscopic scale. The technique relies on recording changes in the shape of a stretching band of the hydroxyl group in liquid water at 3,100-3,700 cm(-1). Rather than direct measurements in the near-infrared (IR), a simple Raman spectrometer setup is realized. The measured Raman shifts are observed at near optical wavelengths using an inverted microscope with standard objectives in contrast to costly near-IR elements. This allows for simultaneous visible inspection through the same optical path. An inexpensive 671-nm diode pump laser (< 100 mW), standard dichroic and lowpass filters, and a commercial 600-1,000 nm spectrometer complete the instrument. Temperature changes of 1 degrees C are readily distinguished over a range consistent with cellular processes (25-45 degrees C) using integration times below 10 s. Greatly improved sensitivity was obtained by an automated two-peak fitting procedure. When combined with an optical camera, the instrument can be used to monitor changes in cell behavior as a function of temperature without the need for invasive probing. The instrument is very simple to realize, inexpensive compared with traditional Raman spectrometers and IR microscopes, and applicable to a wide range of problems in microthermometry of biological systems. In a first application of its kind, the instrument was used to successfully determine the temperature rise of a cluster of H1299 derived human lung cells adhered to polystyrene and immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under exposure of RF millimeter wave radiation (60 GHz, 1.3, 2.6, and 5.2 mW/mm2). PMID:20176524

  10. Creep-fatigue interaction in aircraft gas turbine components by simulation and testing at scaled temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabour, Mohammad Hossein

    Advanced gas turbine engines, which use hot section airfoil cooling, present a wide range of design problems. The frequencies of applied loads and the natural frequencies of the blade also are important since they have significant effects on failure of the component due to fatigue phenomenon. Due to high temperature environment the thermal creep and fatigue are quite severe. One-dimensional creep model, using ANSYS has been formulated in order to predict the creep life of a gas turbine engine blade. Innovative mathematical models for the prediction of the operating life of aircraft components, specifically gas turbine blades, which are subjected to creep-fatigue at high temperatures, are proposed. The components are modeled by FEM, mathematically, and using similitude principles. Three models have been suggested and evaluated numerically and experimentally. Using FEM method for natural frequencies causes phenomena such as curve veering which is studied in more detail. The simulation studies on the life-limiting modes of failure, as well as estimating the expected lifetime of the blade, using the proposed models have been carried out. Although the scale model approach has been used for quite some time, the thermal scaling has been used in this study for the first time. The only thermal studies in literature using scaling for structures is by NASA in which materials of both the prototype and the model are the same, but in the present study materials also are different. The finite element method is employed to model the structure. Because of stress redistribution due to the creep process, it is necessary to include a full inelastic creep step in the finite element formulation. Otherwise over-conservative creep life predictions will be estimated if only the initial elastic stresses are considered. The experimental investigations are carried out in order to validate the models. The main contributions in the thesis are: (1) Using similitude theory for life prediction of

  11. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  12. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  13. Does the Response of Leaf Photosynthetic Productivity to Rising Atmospheric Temperature and CO2 Scale Up to the Canopy?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory predicts that interacting increases in temperature and CO2 will synergistically enhance leaf photosynthesis but how this interaction will scale to affect canopy and ecosystem productivity is less clear. Numerous factors contribute to this uncertainty including higher canopy temperatures from ...

  14. Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2016-07-01

    The interannual relationship between North American (NA) winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation are analyzed. NA temperature anomalies are dominated by two leading maximum covariance analysis (MCA) modes of NA surface temperature and Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential anomalies. A new teleconnection index, termed the Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) pattern, is constructed from the normalized geopotential field after linearly removing the contribution of the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. The ABNA pattern is sustained by synoptic eddy forcing. The first MCA mode of NA surface temperature is highly correlated with the PNA and ABNA teleconnections, and the second mode with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This indicates that NA temperature is largely controlled by these three large-scale atmospheric patterns, i.e., the PNA, ABNA and NAO. These temperature-circulation relationships appear stationary in the 20th century.

  15. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T2 scales as nγ. The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging.

  16. Large-scale preparation of graphene by high temperature insertion of hydrogen into graphite.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Fray, Derek J

    2015-07-14

    Experimental evidence for high temperature diffusion of hydrogen into the interlayer space of graphite is provided. This process is discussed as a possible method for the rapid production of high-quality, inexpensive graphene in large quantities, which could lead to the widespread application of graphene. It was found that hydrogen cations, dissolved in molten LiCl, can be discharged on cathodically polarized graphite rods, which then intercalate into the graphite structure, leading to the peeling of graphite to produce graphene. The graphene nanosheets produced displayed a single-crystalline structure with a lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a high degree of crystallinity and thermal stability. The method introduced could be scaled up to produce industrial quantities of high-quality graphene. PMID:26053881

  17. Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-03-13

    A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  18. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  19. Radio Brightness Temperatures and Angular Dimensions of Recently Predicted Vl-Bi Small-Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Muestro que analisis recientes publicados de fuentes de radio galacticas y extragalacticas predicen estructuras en pequera escala en fuentes de radio extendidas, remanentes de supernova, vientos protoestelares, nubes moleculares, distorsiones del fondo de 3 K, enanas blancas magnetizadas, estrellas de tipo tardio y el Sol. Discuto las temperatu- ras de brillo de radio de estas estructuras y sus ditnensiones. Muestro que estas estructuras son detectables con las sensibilidades actuales de VLBI (o en el futuro cercano). ABSTRACT. I show that recently published analysis of galactic and extragalactic radio sources make predictions of small-scale structures in extended radio sources, supernovae remnants, protostellar winds, molecu- lar clouds, distortions of the 3 K background, magnetized white dwarf binaries, late-type stars and the sun. I discuss the radio brightness temperatures of these structures and their dimensions. I show that these structures are detectable with present (or near future) VLBI sensitivities. : RADIO SOURCES-EXTENDED

  20. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  1. Space-Time Dynamics of Soil Moisture and Temperature: Scale issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Miller, Douglas A.; Th.vanGenuchten, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain further understanding of soil moisture/temperature dynamics at different spatio-temporal scales and physical controls/parameters.We created a comprehensive GIS database, which has been accessed extensively by NASA Land Surface Hydrology investigators (and others), is located at the following URL: http://www.essc.psu.edu/nasalsh. For soil moisture field experiments such as SGP97, SGP99, SMEX02, and SMEX03, cartographic products were designed for multiple applications, both pre- and post-mission. Premission applications included flight line planning and field operations logistics, as well as general insight into the extent and distribution of soil, vegetation, and topographic properties for the study areas. The cartographic products were created from original spatial information resources that were imported into Adobe Illustrator, where the maps were created and PDF versions were made for distribution and download.

  2. Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Dingyong; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, E. G.

    2001-06-01

    Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films (6 cm in diameter), which are easily processed and show potential for nanomanipulation, have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at a relatively low temperature of 550{degree}C. The characterization, using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, shows that the nanotubes are polymerized by nanobells with nitrogen concentration of 10%. We propose a push-out growth mechanism for the formation of the special polymerized nanobell structure. A turn-on field of electron emission as low as 0.8 V/{mu}m is obtained. Fowler{endash}Nordheim, consisting of two straight lines with a gentle slope at low field and a steep one at relatively high field, are interpreted based on a top side emission mechanism related to the nanobell structures. No current saturation is found in the films. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  4. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  5. The signatures of large-scale patterns of atmospheric variability in Antarctic surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; Thompson, David W. J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the impact that the four principal large-scale patterns of Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation variability have on Antarctic surface air temperature (SAT): (1) the southern baroclinic annular mode (BAM), which is associated with variations in extratropical storm amplitude; (2) the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), associated with latitudinal shifts in the midlatitude jet; and (3) the two Pacific-South American patterns (PSA1 and PSA2), which are characterized by wave trains originating in the tropical Pacific that extend across the SH extratropics. A key aspect is the use of 35 years of daily observations and reanalysis data, which affords a sufficiently large sample size to assess the signatures of the circulation patterns in both the mean and variability of daily mean SAT anomalies. The BAM exerts the weakest influence on Antarctic SAT, albeit it is still important over select regions. Consistent with previous studies, the SAM is shown to influence SAT across most of the continent throughout the year. The PSA1 also affects SAT across almost all of Antarctica. Regionally, both PSA patterns can exert a greater impact on SAT than the SAM but also have a significantly weaker influence during summer, reflecting the seasonality of the SH response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The SAM and PSA patterns have distinct signatures in daily SAT variance that are physically consistent with their signatures in extratropical dynamic variability. The broad-scale climate linkages identified here provide benchmarks for interpreting the Antarctic climate response to future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures, ozone recovery, and greenhouse gas increases.

  6. Natural-Scale Lava Flow Experiments on Video: Variations with Temperature, Slope, and Effusion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Wysocki, R.; Edwards, B. R.; Lev, E.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations of active basaltic lava flows and analog materials show that flow dynamics and final flow morphology are strongly determined by the rapidly evolving rheology of the lava crust which constrains the downslope advance of the lava flow. The non-dimensional factor Ψ (ratio of the time scale of crust formation to advective heat loss) provides a useful means of comparing different flows. The key parameters that control Ψ include the melt viscosity, temperature, effusion rate, and slope. Experimental lava flows, up to several meters long created in the Syracuse University Lava Project permit these variables to be investigated independently and in combination in volume-limited flows (<450 kg, 0.5 m3). Video results show lava is very sensitive to relatively small variations in these variables under experimental conditions. For example, experiments 1.1 Ga Keewenan basalt from the Mid-Continent Rift and 200 Ma basalt from the Palisades Sill show very different flow rates and flow morphologies for meter-scale flows on dry sand slopes between 5° and 20°, with all other variables held constant. Similar differences result from varying the effusion rate (~10-4m3s-1) or temperature (1050°-1250°C) on a constant slope. In addition, videos document the development of a wide range of reproducible lava flow structures found in natural lava flows including folds, shear zones, lava tubes, inflated lobes, break-outs, and bubbles (limu o'Pele), that provide additional information on lava crust development. New, continuous flow (cooling-limited) experiments show downslope variations under constant flow conditions.

  7. Verification of a Depletion Method in SCALE for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, RYAN; Ilas, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a new approach employing the Dancoff correction method to model the TRISO-based fuel form used by the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) reactor design concept. The Dancoff correction method is used to perform isotope depletion analysis using the TRITON sequence of SCALE and is verified by code-to-code comparisons. The current AHTR fuel design has TRISO particles concentrated along the edges of a slab fuel element. This geometry prevented the use of the DOUBLEHET treatment, previously developed in SCALE to model spherical and cylindrical fuel. The new method permits fuel depletion on complicated geometries that traditionally can be handled only by continuous energy based depletion code systems. The method was initially tested on a fuel configuration typical of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), where DOUBLEHET treatment is possible. A confirmatory study was performed on the AHTR reference core geometry using the VESTA code, which uses the continuous energy MCNP5 code as a transport solver and ORIGEN2.2 code for depletion calculations. Comparisons of the results indicate good agreement of whole core characteristics, such as the multiplication factor and the isotopics, including their spatial distribution. Key isotopes analyzed included 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu. The results from this study indicate that the Dancoff factor method can generate estimates of core characteristics with reasonable precision for scoping studies of configurations where DOUBLEHET treatment cannot be performed.

  8. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  9. Development of Bench and Full-Scale Temperature and pH Responsive Functionalized PVDF Membranes with Tunable Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Isner, Austin; Waldrop, Krysta; Saad, Anthony; Takigawa, Doreen; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pH responsive polymers (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), and polyacrylic acid, PAA) were synthesized in one common macrofiltration PVDF membrane platform by pore-filling method. The microstructure and morphology of the PNIPAAm-PVDF, and PNIPAAm-FPAA-PVDF membranes were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane pore size was controlled by the swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm at the temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The composite membrane demonstrated a rapid and reversible swelling and deswelling change within a small temperature range. The controllable flux makes it possible to utilize this temperature responsive membrane as a valve to regulate filtration properties by temperature change. Dextran solution (Mw=2,000,000g/mol, 26 nm diameter) was used to evaluate the separation performance of the temperature responsive membranes. The ranges of dextran rejection are from 4% to 95% depending on the temperature, monomer amount and pressure. The full-scale membrane was also developed to confirm the feasibility of our bench-scale experimental results. The full-scale membrane also exhibited both temperature and pH responsivity. This system was also used for controlled nanoparticles synthesis and for dechlorination reaction. PMID:24944434

  10. Scaling description of the yielding transition in soft amorphous solids at zero temperature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Lerner, Edan; Rosso, Alberto; Wyart, Matthieu

    2014-10-01

    Yield stress materials flow if a sufficiently large shear stress is applied. Although such materials are ubiquitous and relevant for industry, there is no accepted microscopic description of how they yield, even in the simplest situations in which temperature is negligible and in which flow inhomogeneities such as shear bands or fractures are absent. Here we propose a scaling description of the yielding transition in amorphous solids made of soft particles at zero temperature. Our description makes a connection between the Herschel-Bulkley exponent characterizing the singularity of the flow curve near the yield stress Σc, the extension and duration of the avalanches of plasticity observed at threshold, and the density P(x) of soft spots, or shear transformation zones, as a function of the stress increment x beyond which they yield. We argue that the critical exponents of the yielding transition may be expressed in terms of three independent exponents, θ, df, and z, characterizing, respectively, the density of soft spots, the fractal dimension of the avalanches, and their duration. Our description shares some similarity with the depinning transition that occurs when an elastic manifold is driven through a random potential, but also presents some striking differences. We test our arguments in an elasto-plastic model, an automaton model similar to those used in depinning, but with a different interaction kernel, and find satisfying agreement with our predictions in both two and three dimensions. PMID:25246567

  11. Multi-scale predictions of massive conifer mortality due to chronic temperature rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Nathan G.; Williams, A.P.; Xu, C.; Pockman, W. T.; Dickman, L. T.; Sevanto, S.; Pangle, R.; Limousin, J.; Plaut, J.J.; Mackay, D.S.; Ogee, J.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Allen, Craig D.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Jiang, X.; Muss, J.D.; Breshears, D.D.; Rauscher, Sara A.; Koven, C.

    2015-01-01

    Global temperature rise and extremes accompanying drought threaten forests and their associated climatic feedbacks. Our ability to accurately simulate drought-induced forest impacts remains highly uncertain in part owing to our failure to integrate physiological measurements, regional-scale models, and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here we show consistent predictions of widespread mortality of needleleaf evergreen trees (NET) within Southwest USA by 2100 using state-of-the-art models evaluated against empirical data sets. Experimentally, dominant Southwest USA NET species died when they fell below predawn water potential (Ψpd) thresholds (April–August mean) beyond which photosynthesis, hydraulic and stomatal conductance, and carbohydrate availability approached zero. The evaluated regional models accurately predicted NET Ψpd, and 91% of predictions (10 out of 11) exceeded mortality thresholds within the twenty-first century due to temperature rise. The independent DGVMs predicted ≥50% loss of Northern Hemisphere NET by 2100, consistent with the NET findings for Southwest USA. Notably, the global models underestimated future mortality within Southwest USA, highlighting that predictions of future mortality within global models may be underestimates. Taken together, the validated regional predictions and the global simulations predict widespread conifer loss in coming decades under projected global warming.

  12. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Jamie L.; Byrne, Shane; Langer, Stephen A.

    2015-02-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investigating microcrack propagation. Although these results provide very strong evidence for the significance of thermomechanical processes on airless bodies, more work is needed to quantify crack propagation and rock breakdown rates.

  13. Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests

    SciTech Connect

    SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang

    2006-07-01

    We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

  14. Pilot scale studies on nitritation-anammox process for mainstream wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Process of partial nitritation-anammox for mainstream wastewater at low temperature was run in a pilot scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system for about 300 days. The biofilm history in the reactor was about 3 years of growth at low temperature (down to 10 °C). The goal of the studies presented in this paper was to achieve effective partial nitritation-anammox process. Influence of nitrogen loading rate, hydraulic retention time, aeration strategy (continuous versus intermittent) and sludge recirculation (integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) mode) on deammonification process' efficiency and microbial activity in the examined system was tested. It was found that the sole intermittent aeration strategy is not a sufficient method for successful suppression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in MBBR. The best performance of the process was achieved in IFAS mode. The highest recorded capacity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria in biofilm was 1.4 gN/m(2)d and 0.5 gN/m(2)d, respectively, reaching 51% in nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:26901718

  15. Scaling description of the yielding transition in soft amorphous solids at zero temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Lerner, Edan; Rosso, Alberto; Wyart, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Yield stress materials flow if a sufficiently large shear stress is applied. Although such materials are ubiquitous and relevant for industry, there is no accepted microscopic description of how they yield, even in the simplest situations in which temperature is negligible and in which flow inhomogeneities such as shear bands or fractures are absent. Here we propose a scaling description of the yielding transition in amorphous solids made of soft particles at zero temperature. Our description makes a connection between the Herschel–Bulkley exponent characterizing the singularity of the flow curve near the yield stress Σc, the extension and duration of the avalanches of plasticity observed at threshold, and the density P(x) of soft spots, or shear transformation zones, as a function of the stress increment x beyond which they yield. We argue that the critical exponents of the yielding transition may be expressed in terms of three independent exponents, θ, df, and z, characterizing, respectively, the density of soft spots, the fractal dimension of the avalanches, and their duration. Our description shares some similarity with the depinning transition that occurs when an elastic manifold is driven through a random potential, but also presents some striking differences. We test our arguments in an elasto-plastic model, an automaton model similar to those used in depinning, but with a different interaction kernel, and find satisfying agreement with our predictions in both two and three dimensions. PMID:25246567

  16. Multi-scale predictions of massive conifer mortality due to chronic temperature rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.; Williams, A. P.; Xu, C.; Pockman, W. T.; Dickman, L. T.; Sevanto, S.; Pangle, R.; Limousin, J.; Plaut, J.; Mackay, D. S.; Ogee, J.; Domec, J. C.; Allen, C. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Jiang, X.; Muss, J. D.; Breshears, D. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Koven, C.

    2016-03-01

    Global temperature rise and extremes accompanying drought threaten forests and their associated climatic feedbacks. Our ability to accurately simulate drought-induced forest impacts remains highly uncertain in part owing to our failure to integrate physiological measurements, regional-scale models, and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here we show consistent predictions of widespread mortality of needleleaf evergreen trees (NET) within Southwest USA by 2100 using state-of-the-art models evaluated against empirical data sets. Experimentally, dominant Southwest USA NET species died when they fell below predawn water potential (Ψpd) thresholds (April-August mean) beyond which photosynthesis, hydraulic and stomatal conductance, and carbohydrate availability approached zero. The evaluated regional models accurately predicted NET Ψpd, and 91% of predictions (10 out of 11) exceeded mortality thresholds within the twenty-first century due to temperature rise. The independent DGVMs predicted >=50% loss of Northern Hemisphere NET by 2100, consistent with the NET findings for Southwest USA. Notably, the global models underestimated future mortality within Southwest USA, highlighting that predictions of future mortality within global models may be underestimates. Taken together, the validated regional predictions and the global simulations predict widespread conifer loss in coming decades under projected global warming.

  17. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, James; Winschel, Richard

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  18. Storm type effects on super Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of intense rainstorm properties with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, P.; Fatichi, S.; Gaál, L.; Szolgay, J.; Burlando, P.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation is thought to increase with warming at rates similar to or greater than the water vapour holding capacity of the air at ~ 7% °C-1, the so-called Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate. We present an empirical study of the variability in the rates of increase in precipitation intensity with air temperature using 30 years of 10 min and 1 h data from 59 stations in Switzerland. The analysis is conducted on storm events rather than fixed interval data, and divided into storm type subsets based on the presence of lightning which is expected to indicate convection. The average rates of increase in extremes (95th percentile) of mean event intensity computed from 10 min data are 6.5% °C-1 (no-lightning events), 8.9% °C-1 (lightning events) and 10.7% °C-1 (all events combined). For peak 10 min intensities during an event the rates are 6.9% °C-1 (no-lightning events), 9.3% °C-1 (lightning events) and 13.0% °C-1 (all events combined). Mixing of the two storm types exaggerates the relations to air temperature. Doubled CC rates reported by other studies are an exception in our data set, even in convective rain. The large spatial variability in scaling rates across Switzerland suggests that both local (orographic) and regional effects limit moisture supply and availability in Alpine environments, especially in mountain valleys. The estimated number of convective events has increased across Switzerland in the last 30 years, with 30% of the stations showing statistically significant changes. The changes in intense convective storms with higher temperatures may be relevant for hydrological risk connected with those events in the future.

  19. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  20. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  1. Influence of atmospheric static stability and meridional temperature gradient on the growth in amplitude of synoptic-scale unstable waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatenko, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Observations and results of numerical experiments with climate models under different green-house-gas emission scenarios point to a reconstruction of the thermal and circulation atmospheric regime induced by global climate changes. In particular, an increase in atmospheric static stability, a poleward shift of midlatitude storm tracks, a decrease in the frequency of extratropical cyclones, and a change in their intensity are found at tropical and middle latitudes. This paper, using a simplified idealized model of baroclinic instability, investigates the influence of small variations in the basic atmospheric parameters governing the development of baroclinic instability, namely, static stability and the vertical quasi-zonal flow velocity shear induced by a meridional temperature gradient, on variations in the growth rate of the amplitude of synopticscale unstable waves. Analytical expressions are derived for absolute and relative sensitivity functions to estimate the absolute and relative contribution of variations in the static stability and the vertical flow velocity shear to a change in the growth rate of the amplitude of unstable modes.

  2. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  3. Estimates of the difference between thermodynamic temperature and the International Temperature Scale of 1990 in the range 118 K to 303 K.

    PubMed

    Underwood, R; de Podesta, M; Sutton, G; Stanger, L; Rusby, R; Harris, P; Morantz, P; Machin, G

    2016-03-28

    Using exceptionally accurate measurements of the speed of sound in argon, we have made estimates of the difference between thermodynamic temperature, T, and the temperature estimated using the International Temperature Scale of 1990, T90, in the range 118 K to 303 K. Thermodynamic temperature was estimated using the technique of relative primary acoustic thermometry in the NPL-Cranfield combined microwave and acoustic resonator. Our values of (T-T90) agree well with most recent estimates, but because we have taken data at closely spaced temperature intervals, the data reveal previously unseen detail. Most strikingly, we see undulations in (T-T90) below 273.16 K, and the discontinuity in the slope of (T-T90) at 273.16 K appears to have the opposite sign to that previously reported. PMID:26903104

  4. Absolute/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local absolute instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of absolute instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of absolute instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for absolute instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become absolutely unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, absolute instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become absolutely unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.

  5. A critical analysis of the ultraviolet temperature scale of the helium-dominated DB and DBV white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejll, Peter; Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.

    1991-01-01

    The temperatures of the hottest of the DB and of some of the variable DBV white dwarfs have been reanalyzed, using a new helium-rich model atmosphere grid and archival IUE data. The grid covers variations in the effective temperature, surface gravity, and trace hydrogen abundance. Significantly lower temperatures than those found by earlier investigations are found. This has influence on the issue of which mixing-length theory is the best one for treatment of convection in DB white dwarfs. The prototype of the DBV stars, GD 358, is given particular attention in view of the recently reported HE II 1640-A line. The sensitivity of the new results to input physics is analyzed. It is found that uncertainties in Stark broadening parameters, convective efficiency, and equation of state and the assumptions of a fixed gravity (log g = 8) and a negligible abundance of hydrogen can at most give an error in the effective temperature of 400 K for a typical DB star. The uncertainty on the absolute calibration of the IUE cameras and the effect of small interstellar reddening dominate the error analysis.

  6. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

    1999-12-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an

  8. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  9. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  10. Kinetically controlled synthesis of large-scale morphology-tailored silver nanostructures at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Gu, Fangyuan; Lau, Shu Ping; Li, Li; Chai, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Ag nanostructures are widely used in catalysis, energy conversion and chemical sensing. Morphology-tailored synthesis of Ag nanostructures is critical to tune physical and chemical properties. In this study, we develop a method for synthesizing the morphology-tailored Ag nanostructures in aqueous solution at a low temperature (45 °C). With the use of AgCl nanoparticles as the precursor, the growth kinetics of Ag nanostructures can be tuned with the pH value of solution and the concentration of Pd cubes which catalyze the reaction. Ascorbic acid and cetylpyridinium chloride are used as the mild reducing agent and capping agent in aqueous solution, respectively. High-yield Ag nanocubes, nanowires, right triangular bipyramids/cubes with twinned boundaries, and decahedra are successfully produced. Our method opens up a new environmentally-friendly and economical route to synthesize large-scale and morphology-tailored Ag nanostructures, which is significant to the controllable fabrication of Ag nanostructures and fundamental understanding of the growth kinetics.Ag nanostructures are widely used in catalysis, energy conversion and chemical sensing. Morphology-tailored synthesis of Ag nanostructures is critical to tune physical and chemical properties. In this study, we develop a method for synthesizing the morphology-tailored Ag nanostructures in aqueous solution at a low temperature (45 °C). With the use of AgCl nanoparticles as the precursor, the growth kinetics of Ag nanostructures can be tuned with the pH value of solution and the concentration of Pd cubes which catalyze the reaction. Ascorbic acid and cetylpyridinium chloride are used as the mild reducing agent and capping agent in aqueous solution, respectively. High-yield Ag nanocubes, nanowires, right triangular bipyramids/cubes with twinned boundaries, and decahedra are successfully produced. Our method opens up a new environmentally-friendly and economical route to synthesize large-scale and morphology

  11. Debris flow grain size scales with sea surface temperature over glacial-interglacial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Araújo, João Paulo C.

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are common erosional processes responsible for a large volume of sediment transfer across a range of landscapes from arid settings to the tropics. They are also significant natural hazards in populated areas. However, we lack a clear set of debris flow transport laws, meaning that: (i) debris flows remain largely neglected by landscape evolution models; (ii) we do not understand the sensitivity of debris flow systems to past or future climate changes; and (iii) it remains unclear how to interpret debris flow stratigraphy and sedimentology, for example whether their deposits record information about past tectonics or palaeoclimate. Here, we take a grain size approach to characterising debris flow deposits from 35 well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California. We show that the average grain sizes of these granitic debris flow sediments precisely scales with sea surface temperature throughout the entire last glacial-interglacial cycle, increasing by ~ 7 % per 1 ° C of climate warming. We compare these data with similar debris flow systems in the Mediterranean (southern Italy) and the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and find equivalent signals over a total temperature range of ~ 14 ° C. In each area, debris flows are largely governed by rainfall intensity during triggering storms, which is known to increase exponentially with temperature. Therefore, we suggest that these debris flow systems are transporting predictably coarser-grained sediment in warmer, stormier conditions. This implies that debris flow sedimentology is governed by discharge thresholds and may be a sensitive proxy for past changes in rainfall intensity. Our findings show that debris flows are sensitive to climate changes over short timescales (≤ 104 years) and therefore highlight the importance of integrating hillslope processes into landscape evolution models, as well as providing new observational constraints to guide this. Finally, we comment on what grain size

  12. Scaling theory of the mott transition and breakdown of the Grüneisen scaling near a finite-temperature critical end point.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Lorenz; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael

    2010-06-18

    We discuss a scaling theory of the lattice response in the vicinity of a finite-temperature critical end point. The thermal expansivity is shown to be more singular than the specific heat such that the Grüneisen ratio diverges as the critical point is approached, except for its immediate vicinity. More generally, we express the thermal expansivity in terms of a scaling function which we explicitly evaluate for the two-dimensional Ising universality class. Recent thermal expansivity measurements on the layered organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X close to the Mott transition are well described by our theory. PMID:20867311

  13. Bench-scale reactor tests of low temperature, catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, D.C.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr. )

    1993-02-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES[reg sign]), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2 percent para-cresol or 5 percent and 10 percent lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to [gt] 99 percent reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence lime is less than 5 min at 360C and 3,000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40 percent to 55 percent methane, 35 percent to 50 percent carbon dioxide, and 5 percent to 10 percent hydrogen with as much as 2 percent ethane, but less than 0.1 percent ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD.

  14. Length Scales of Local Glass Transition Temperature Gradients Near Soft and Hard Polymer-Polymer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglay, Roman; Roth, Connie

    Polymer-polymer interfaces are ubiquitous in polymer blends and block copolymers, while opening up another avenue for the study of interfacial perturbations to the local glass transition temperature Tg(z). We have previously reported the full local Tg(z) profile across a glassy-rubbery polymer interface between polystyrene (PS) and poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA), an 80 K difference in bulk Tg [Baglay & Roth, J Chem Phys 2015, 143, 111101]. By using local fluorescence measurements, we revealed how the Tg(z) profile extends hundreds of nanometers away from the interface showing an asymmetric behavior penetrating deeper into the glassy PS side relative to the composition profile. Here, we extend these measurements to investigate how the local Tg profile in PS varies when in contact with a variety of immiscible polymers whose Tgs vary between +90 K and -80 K relative to the bulk Tg of PS, so-called hard vs. soft confinement. The data reveal that the onset of local Tg deviation from bulk in PS occurs at two distinct length scales, which depend on whether PS is the low Tg component (hard confinement) or the high Tg component (soft confinement). In addition, we explore the influence of finite system size on the range of dynamics by the introduction of periodic boundary conditions, as is commonly encountered in computer simulations or block copolymer systems.

  15. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Broad-scale adaptive genetic variation in alpine plants is driven by temperature and precipitation

    PubMed Central

    MANEL, STÉPHANIE; GUGERLI, FELIX; THUILLER, WILFRIED; ALVAREZ, NADIR; LEGENDRE, PIERRE; HOLDEREGGER, ROLF; GIELLY, LUDOVIC; TABERLET, PIERRE

    2014-01-01

    Identifying adaptive genetic variation is a challenging task, in particular in non-model species for which genomic information is still limited or absent. Here, we studied distribution patterns of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in response to environmental variation, in 13 alpine plant species consistently sampled across the entire European Alps. Multiple linear regressions were performed between AFLP allele frequencies per site as dependent variables and two categories of independent variables, namely Moran’s eigenvector map MEM variables (to account for spatial and unaccounted environmental variation, and historical demographic processes) and environmental variables. These associations allowed the identification of 153 loci of ecological relevance. Univariate regressions between allele frequency and each environmental factor further showed that loci of ecological relevance were mainly correlated with MEM variables. We found that precipitation and temperature were the best environmental predictors, whereas topographic factors were rarely involved in environmental associations. Climatic factors, subject to rapid variation as a result of the current global warming, are known to strongly influence the fate of alpine plants. Our study shows, for the first time for a large number of species, that the same environmental variables are drivers of plant adaptation at the scale of a whole biome, here the European Alps. PMID:22680783

  17. Theory of isolated, small-scale magnetic islands in a high temperature tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.W.; Wilson, H.R.

    1995-12-01

    A theory for the existence of noninteracting small-scale, ``drift`` magnetic islands in a high temperature tokamak plasma is presented. This situation contrasts with that discussed by Rebut and Hugon [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion {bold 33}, 1085 (1991)] which involves a background ``sea`` of magnetic turbulence caused by island overlap. The islands are driven by the effect of finite ion Larmor radius on the particle drifts and they propagate with a velocity comparable to the diamagnetic velocity. In contrast with the work of Smolyakov [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion {bold 35}, 657 (1993)] collisions are assumed to be rare. Although the saturated island size is independent of the collision frequency in the model discussed here, collisions play a crucial role in determining the frequency of the magnetic islands. An estimate is made of the anomalous heat transport which results from the fluctuations in the electrostatic potential associated with these magnetic islands. The predicted thermal diffusivity has several, but not all, of the characteristics of the Rebut--Lallia--Watkins transport model. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. Temperature and pressure tuneable swollen bicontinuous cubic phases approaching nature's length scales.

    PubMed

    Barriga, H M G; Tyler, A I I; McCarthy, N L C; Parsons, E S; Ces, O; Law, R V; Seddon, J M; Brooks, N J

    2015-01-21

    Bicontinuous cubic structures offer enormous potential in applications ranging from protein crystallisation to drug delivery systems and have been observed in cellular membrane structures. One of the current bottlenecks in understanding and exploiting these structures is that cubic scaffolds produced in vitro are considerably smaller in size than those observed in biological systems, differing by almost an order of magnitude in some cases. We have addressed this technological bottleneck and developed a methodology capable of manufacturing highly swollen bicontinuous cubic membranes with length scales approaching those seen in vivo. Crucially, these cubic systems do not require the presence of proteins. We have generated highly swollen Im3m symmetry bicontinuous cubic phases with lattice parameters of up to 480 Å, composed of ternary mixtures of monoolein, cholesterol and negatively charged lipid (DOPS or DOPG) and we have been able to tune their lattice parameters. The swollen cubic phases are highly sensitive to both temperature and pressure; these structural changes are likely to be controlled by a fine balance between lipid headgroup repulsions and lateral pressure in the hydrocarbon chain region. PMID:25430049

  19. Combined impacts of land cover changes and large-scale forcing on Southern California summer daily maximum temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequera, Pedro; González, Jorge E.; McDonald, Kyle; Bornstein, Robert; Comarazamy, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    California near-surface air temperatures are influenced by large-scale, regional and local factors. In that sense, a numerical model experiment was carried out to analyze the contribution of large-scale (changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions) and regional (increased urbanization) factors on the observed California South Coast Air Basin regional summer daily maximum temperature warming pattern from 1950 to 2013. The simulations were performed with past (1950-1954) and present (2009-2013) land cover and climate conditions. The past land cover was derived from historical digital maps, and the present land cover was updated with high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. Results show that both factors contribute to the total change in daily maximum temperatures. Changes due to large-scale climate conditions dominate in coastal (due to warming sea surface temperatures) and nonurban regions, while changes due to urbanization have an impact mainly in urban areas, especially inland where large-scale warming weakens. Increased urbanization has also reduced sea-breeze intensity due to changes in surface roughness. The model was able to reproduce the regional observed warming pattern, as it incorporates urban heat island effects, otherwise underestimated by large-scale climate change only.

  20. Tropical and global scale interactions among water vapor, atmospheric greenhouse effect, and surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Anand K.; Ramanathan, V.

    1998-12-01

    tropics, and the sensitivity parameter dGa/dTs decreases. This is because poleward of 30°, the annual cycle is dominated by land surface temperature changes which are not so effective as sea surface temperature changes in enhancing the water vapor greenhouse effect. Irrespective of the region (ocean or land) or the latitude domain (tropics or extratropics), the data presented here do not offer any support for the suggestion that increases in tropical or global mean surface temperature would lead to a decrease in water vapor greenhouse effect by drying the middle to upper troposphere. If any, the global scale sensitivity derived from the annual cycle is consistent with the magnitude of the positive feedback obtained by general circulation models.

  1. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun -Young; Lim, Young -Kwon; Prabhat, -

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so more

  2. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; et al

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic tomore » planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so

  3. Variability of OH rotational temperatures on time scales from hours to 15 years by kinetic temperature variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Rotational temperatures derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric temperatures at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based temperatures are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational temperature are then caused by changes of the kinetic temperature and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured temperatures can be significant and variable. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational temperature variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure temperatures for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by kinetic temperature and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and SABER kinetic temperatures as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.

  4. Large scale crystallization of protein pharmaceuticals in microgravity via temperature change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Marianna M.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of this research effort is the temperature driven growth of protein crystals in large batches in the microgravity environment of space. Pharmaceutical houses are developing protein products for patient care, for example, human insulin, human growth hormone, interferons, and tissue plasminogen activator or TPA, the clot buster for heart attack victims. Except for insulin, these are very high value products; they are extremely potent in small quantities and have a great value per gram of material. It is feasible that microgravity crystallization can be a cost recoverable, economically sound final processing step in their manufacture. Large scale protein crystal growth in microgravity has significant advantages from the basic science and the applied science standpoints. Crystal growth can proceed unhindered due to lack of surface effects. Dynamic control is possible and relatively easy. The method has the potential to yield large quantities of pure crystalline product. Crystallization is a time honored procedure for purifying organic materials and microgravity crystallization could be the final step to remove trace impurities from high value protein pharmaceuticals. In addition, microgravity grown crystals could be the final formulation for those medicines that need to be administered in a timed release fashion. Long lasting insulin, insulin lente, is such a product. Also crystalline protein pharmaceuticals are more stable for long-term storage. Temperature, as the initiation step, has certain advantages. Again, dynamic control of the crystallization process is possible and easy. A temperature step is non-invasive and is the most subtle way to control protein solubility and therefore crystallization. Seeding is not necessary. Changes in protein and precipitant concentrations and pH are not necessary. Finally, this method represents a new way to crystallize proteins in space that takes advantage of the unique microgravity environment. The results

  5. Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with Temperature Extremes as a Basis for Model Evaluation: Methodological Overview and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, P. C.; Broccoli, A. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomalous large-scale circulation patterns often play a key role in the occurrence of temperature extremes. For example, large-scale circulation can drive horizontal temperature advection or influence local processes that lead to extreme temperatures, such as by inhibiting moderating sea breezes, promoting downslope adiabatic warming, and affecting the development of cloud cover. Additionally, large-scale circulation can influence the shape of temperature distribution tails, with important implications for the magnitude of future changes in extremes. As a result of the prominent role these patterns play in the occurrence and character of extremes, the way in which temperature extremes change in the future will be highly influenced by if and how these patterns change. It is therefore critical to identify and understand the key patterns associated with extremes at local to regional scales in the current climate and to use this foundation as a target for climate model validation. This presentation provides an overview of recent and ongoing work aimed at developing and applying novel approaches to identifying and describing the large-scale circulation patterns associated with temperature extremes in observations and using this foundation to evaluate state-of-the-art global and regional climate models. Emphasis is given to anomalies in sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height over North America using several methods to identify circulation patterns, including self-organizing maps and composite analysis. Overall, evaluation results suggest that models are able to reproduce observed patterns associated with temperature extremes with reasonable fidelity in many cases. Model skill is often highest when and where synoptic-scale processes are the dominant mechanisms for extremes, and lower where sub-grid scale processes (such as those related to topography) are important. Where model skill in reproducing these patterns is high, it can be inferred that extremes are

  6. Urban heat islands in China and decadal-scale temperature variability

    SciTech Connect

    Portman, D.A.

    1997-11-01

    The paper describes an investigation involving careful examination of data homogeneity and calculation of urban heat island effects in Chinese surface temperatures. As part of this study, monthly mean temperatures, mean minimum temperatures, and mean maximum temperatures from more than 400 stations were collected and merged. Large seasonal and regional variations were shown; however, results indicate that urban heat island biases are greatest in magnitude during the coldest months. The biases in monthly mean temperature and in mean diurnal temperature range have increased since the 1950s, while those in the minimum temperature appear to have decreased. These changes are significant in comparison to the interdecadal fluctuations during the same 40-year time period. Despite large variations, preliminary results suggest that the Chinese urban heat islands not only produce a warm bias in monthly mean temperature, but also constitute a principal source of the persistent decrease in mean diurnal temperature range.

  7. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  8. How much global burned area can be forecast on seasonal time scales using sea surface temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48% of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p < 0.01 level using a single ocean climate index (OCI) 3 or more months prior to the month of peak burning. Continental regions where burned area had a higher degree of predictability included equatorial Asia, where 92% of the burned area exceeded the correlation threshold, and Central America, where 86% of the burned area exceeded this threshold. Pacific Ocean indices describing the El Niño-Southern Oscillation were more important than indices from other ocean basins, accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI—burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  9. Influence of the outer scales of temperature and dynamic turbulence on the characteristics of transmitted acoustic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamanaeva, L. G.; Belov, V. V.; Burkatovskaya, Yu. B.; Krasnenko, N. P.

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, the problem of propagation of monochromatic acoustic radiation in the lower 500-meter layer of the plain stratified moving turbulent atmosphere is solved by the Monte Carlo method. The influence of the parameters of models of the outer scales of temperature and dynamic turbulence on the intensity of transmitted acoustic radiation intensity is investigated.

  10. The space-time continuum: the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on trees and the importance of scaling.

    PubMed

    Way, Danielle A; Oren, Ram; Kroner, Yulia

    2015-06-01

    To predict how forests will respond to rising temperatures and atmospheric CO₂ concentrations, we need to understand how trees respond to both of these environmental factors. In this review, we discuss the importance of scaling, moving from leaf-level responses to those of the canopy, and from short-term to long-term responses of vegetation to climate change. While our knowledge of leaf-level, instantaneous responses of photosynthesis, respiration, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water-use efficiency to elevated CO₂ and temperature is quite good, our ability to scale these responses up to larger spatial and temporal scales is less developed. We highlight which physiological processes are least understood at various levels of study, and discuss how ignoring differences in the spatial or temporal scale of a physiological process impedes our ability to predict how forest carbon and water fluxes forests will be altered in the future. We also synthesize data from the literature to show that light respiration follows a generalized temperature response across studies, and that the light compensation point of photosynthesis is reduced by elevated growth CO₂. Lastly, we emphasize the need to move beyond single factorial experiments whenever possible, and to combine both CO₂ and temperature treatments in studies of tree performance. PMID:25737035

  11. Does the Response of Leaf Photosynthetic Productivity to Rising Atmospheric Temperature and CO2 Scale Up to the Canopy?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory predicts that interacting increases in temperature and CO2 will work synergistically to enhance leaf photosynthesis. How this interaction will scale up to affect canopy and ecosystem productivity in the future is less clear. Numerous factors contribute to this uncertainty including higher can...

  12. The impact of temperature fluctuations on the large-scale clustering of the Lyα forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Bradley; Bolton, James S.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2015-03-01

    We develop a semi-analytic method for assessing the impact of the large-scale IGM temperature fluctuations expected following He II reionization on three-dimensional clustering measurements of the Lyα forest. Our methodology builds upon the existing large volume, mock Lyα forest survey simulations presented by Greig et al. by including a prescription for a spatially inhomogeneous ionizing background, temperature fluctuations induced by patchy He II photoheating and the clustering of quasars. This approach enables us to achieve a dynamic range within our semi-analytic model substantially larger than currently feasible with computationally expensive, fully numerical simulations. The results agree well with existing numerical simulations, with large-scale temperature fluctuations introducing a scale-dependent increase in the spherically averaged 3D Lyα forest power spectrum of up to 20-30 per cent at wavenumbers k ˜ 0.02 Mpc- 1. Although these large-scale thermal fluctuations will not substantially impact upon the recovery of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale from existing and forthcoming dark energy spectroscopic surveys, any complete forward modelling of the broad-band term in the Lyα correlation function will none the less require their inclusion.

  13. Early Holocene Centennial-Scale Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Variability in the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinlein, W. A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoproxy data and modeling studies suggest that Early Holocene (10.5 - 7 kyr BP) climate in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA) was warmer and wetter than today. Perihelion occurred during boreal summer, resulting in an amplified Early Holocene seasonal cycle and a reorganization of the tropical climate system (Oppo et al., 2007). Trace metal records from the Cariaco Basin (Haug et al., 2001) and ostracod δ18O records from Haiti (Hodell, 1991) suggest a northward shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) resulted in decreased evaporation-precipitation values in the western TNA. In addition, the final drainage of large pro-glacial lakes into the North Atlantic at 8.2 kyr BP is thought to have resulted in a meltwater-induced reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation that caused widespread cooling in the circum-Atlantic region (Barber et al., 1999; Clarke et al., 2004; Ellison et al., 2006). In order to reconstruct centennial-scale records of Early Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) variability in the Florida Straits, we will measure δ18O values as well as Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber from two sediment cores recovered from the Florida Straits: KNR166-2 JPC-51 (24°24.70’N, 83°13.14’W, 198 m; ~60-100 cm/kyr sedimentation rate) and KNR166-2 GGC-7 (24°21.50’N, 83°20.90’N, 535 m; ~55 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). SSTs are calculated from Mg/Ca ratios based on a published sediment trap calibration (Anand et al., 2003). Initial measurements of Mg/Ca ratios suggest centennial-scale SST oscillations during the Early Holocene. Calculated SSTs vary from 26.3 to 29.8°C and are within the range of modern seasonal variability for our core locations (25-30°C). Calculated Mg/Ca-SSTs will be combined with G. ruber δ18O values to calculate past δ18Oseawater values (a proxy for SSS) using a laboratory calibrated relationship (Bemis et al., 1998). In addition, Ba

  14. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCb Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  15. The effect of temperature on chromium vaporization and oxide scale growth on interconnect steels for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Svensson, Jan Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Chromium vaporization and oxide scale growth are probably the two most important degradation mechanisms associated with the interconnect in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) when Cr2O3-forming alloys are used as the interconnect material. This study examines the influence of temperature on both mechanisms. Two commercially available steels; Crofer 22 H and Sanergy HT, were isothermally exposed at 650, 750 and 850 °C in an air-3% H2O atmosphere with a high flow rate. Volatile chromium species were collected using the denuder technique. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The findings of this study show that although Cr evaporation is reduced with lower temperature, its relative importance compared to oxide scale growth is greater.

  16. /sup 3/He constant-volume gas thermometry: calculations for a temperature scale between 0. 8 and 25 K

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; Steur, P.P.M.

    1987-10-01

    A discussion is presented on the possibilities of a /sup 3/He gas thermometer for defining a temperature scale below 30 K, based on recent new measurements of the virial coefficient. The influence of all corrections of interest is given in comparison with /sup 4/He gas thermometry and with /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He vapor pressure thermometry. It is shown that a /sup 3/He gas thermometer can be operated down to temperatures < 1 K, with an estimated inaccuracy of less than +/- 0.5 mK, thereby obviating the explicit need of the /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He vapor pressure scales below 5K, and directly joining a possible scale based on the /sup 3/He melting curve.

  17. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.

  18. Effects of Nozzle Scale, Total Temperature and an Afterburner on Jet Noise from a Pre-Cooled Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Nishida, Shunsuke; Imamura, Osamu; Shiga, Seiichi; Tsue, Mitsuhiro

    Effects of nozzle scale, total temperature, and an afterburner on jet noise characteristics from a pre-cooled turbojet engine are investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is under development. In the present study, 1.0%- and 2.4%-scaled models of the rectangular plug nozzle (Nozzles I and II) are manufactured, and the jet noise characteristics are investigated under a wide range of total temperatures. For Nozzle I, no air-heater is utilized and the total temperature is 290K. For Nozzle II, a pebble heater and an afterburner (AB) are utilized upstream of the nozzle model, and the total temperature is varied from 520K (pebble heater) to 1540K (pebble heater + AB). The total pressure is set at 0.27 and 0.30MPa(a) for both nozzle models. Jet noise is measured using a high-frequency microphone set at 135 deg from the engine inlet, and normalized jet noise spectra are obtained based on AUjn law and Helmholtz number. For cases without afterburner, the normalized spectra agrees well regardless of the nozzle scale and total temperature where the velocity index lies from n = 7.7 to 9.2, and the correlation factor between the two facilities is shown to be about 1dB. For the case with afterburner, the normalized spectrum does not agree with other conditions where the velocity index n seems to be about 4.

  19. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Pop, Eric; King, William P.

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  20. A basin-scale approach to estimating stream temperatures of tributaries to the lower Klamath River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of salmonid habitat and is often above levels suitable for fish survival in the Lower Klamath River in northern California. The objective of this study was to provide boundary conditions for models that are assessing stream temperature on the main stem for the purpose of developing strategies to manage stream conditions using Total Maximum Daily Loads. For model input, hourly stream temperatures for 36 tributaries were estimated for 1 Jan. 2001 through 31 Oct. 2004. A basin-scale approach incorporating spatially distributed energy balance data was used to estimate the stream temperatures with measured air temperature and relative humidity data and simulated solar radiation, including topographic shading and corrections for cloudiness. Regression models were developed on the basis of available stream temperature data to predict temperatures for unmeasured periods of time and for unmeasured streams. The most significant factor in matching measured minimum and maximum stream temperatures was the seasonality of the estimate. Adding minimum and maximum air temperature to the regression model improved the estimate, and air temperature data over the region are available and easily distributed spatially. The addition of simulated solar radiation and vapor saturation deficit to the regression model significantly improved predictions of maximum stream temperature but was not required to predict minimum stream temperature. The average SE in estimated maximum daily stream temperature for the individual basins was 0.9 ?? 0.6??C at the 95% confidence interval. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiments on the Scaling of Ionization Balance vs. Electron and Radiation Temperature in Non-LTE Gold Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Hansen, S B; Beiersdorfer, P; Foord, M E; Fournier, K B; Froula, D H; Mackinnon, A J; May, M J; Schneider, M B; Young, B F

    2004-06-25

    Understanding and predicting the behavior of high-Z non-LTE plasmas is important for developing indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Extending earlier work from the Nova laser, we present results from experiments using the Omega laser to study the ionization balance of gold as a function of electron and radiation temperature. In these experiments, gold samples embedded in Be disks expand under direct laser heating to n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, with T{sub e} varying from 0.8 to 2.5 keV. An additional finite radiation field with effective temperature T{sub r} up to 150 eV is provided by placing the gold-Be disks inside truncated 1.2 mm diameter tungsten-coated cylindrical hohlraums with full laser entrance holes. Densities are measured by imaging of plasma expansion. Electron temperatures are diagnosed with either 2 {omega} or 4 {omega} Thomson scattering, and also K-shell spectroscopy of KCl tracers co-mixed with the gold. Hohlraum flux and effective radiation temperature are measured using an absolutely-calibrated multichannel filtered diode array. Spectroscopic measurements of the M-shell gold emission in the 2.9-4 keV spectral range provide ionization balance and charge state distribution information. The spectra show strong variation with T{sub e}, strong variation with the applied T{sub r} at T{sub e} below 1.6 keV, and relatively little variation with T{sub r} at higher T{sub e} (upwards of 2 keV). We summarize our most recent spectral analyses and discuss emerging and outstanding issues.

  2. An absolutely calibrated survey of polarized emission from the northern sky at 1.4 GHz. Observations and data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-03-01

    A new polarization survey of the northern sky at 1.41 GHz is presented. The observations were carried out using the 25.6 m telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Canada, with an angular resolution of 36 arcmin. The data are corrected for ground radiation to obtain Stokes U and Q maps on a well-established intensity scale tied to absolute determinations of zero levels, containing emission structures of large angular extent, with an rms noise of 12 mK. Survey observations were carried out by drift scanning the sky between -29° and +90° declination. The fully sampled drift scans, observed in steps of 0.25° to ˜ 2.5° in declination, result in a northern sky coverage of 41.7% of full Nyquist sampling. The survey surpasses by a factor of 200 the coverage, and by a factor of 5 the sensitivity, of the Leiden/Dwingeloo polarization survey that was until now the most complete large-scale survey. The temperature scale is tied to the Effelsberg scale. Absolute zero-temperature levels are taken from the Leiden/Dwingeloo survey after rescaling those data by the factor of 0.94. The paper describes the observations, data processing, and calibration steps. The data are publicly available at http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/konti/26msurvey or http://www.drao.nrc.ca/26msurvey.

  3. Regional and large-scale influences on seasonal to interdecadal variability in Caribbean surface air temperature in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jung-Hee; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the ability of global climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to reproduce observed seasonality and interannual variability of temperature over the Caribbean, and compare these with simulations from atmosphere-only (AMIP5) and previous-generation CMIP3 models. Compared to station and gridded observations, nearly every CMIP5, CMIP3 and AMIP5 simulation tends to reproduce the primary inter-regional features of the Caribbean annual temperature cycle. In most coupled model simulations, however, boreal summer temperature lags observations by about 1 month, with a similar lag in the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature (SST), and a systematic cold bias in both climatological annual mean air temperature and SST. There is some improvement from CMIP3 to CMIP5 but the bias is still marked compared to AMIP5 and observations, implying that biases in the annual temperature cycle may originate in the ocean component of the coupled models. This also suggests a tendency for models to over-emphasize the influence of SSTs on near-surface temperature, a bias that may be exacerbated by model tendency to over-estimate ocean mixed layer depth as well. In contrast, we find that both coupled and atmosphere-only models tend to reasonably simulate the response of observed temperature to global temperature, to regional and large-scale variability across the Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico, and even to more remote Atlantic and Pacific influences. These findings contribute to building confidence in the ability of coupled models to simulate the effect of global-scale change on the Caribbean.

  4. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  5. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  6. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  7. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  8. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  9. Changes in seasonal mean maximum air temperature in Romania and their connection with large-scale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomozeiu, Rodica; Busuioc, Aristita; Stefan, Sabina

    2002-08-01

    This paper investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the seasonal mean of maximum air temperature in Romania and its links with the large-scale atmospheric circulation. The Romanian data sets are represented by time series at 14 stations. The large-scale parameters are represented by the observed sea-level pressure (SLP) and geopotential height at 500 hPa (Z500). The period analysed was 1922-98 for winter and 1960-98 for all seasons. Before analysis, the original temperature data were tested to detect for inhomogeneity using the standard normal homogeneity test. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were used to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the local and large-scale parameters and to eliminate noise from the original data set. The time series associated with the first EOF pattern of the SLP and mean maximum temperature in Romania were analysed from trend and shifts point of view using the Pettitt and Mann-Kendall tests respectively. The covariance map computed using the Z500 and the seasonal mean of maximum temperature in Romania were used as additional methods to identify the large-scale circulation patterns influencing the local variability.Significant increasing trends were found for winter and summer mean maximum temperature in Romania, with upward shifts around 1947 and 1985 respectively. During autumn, a decreasing trend with a downward shift around 1969 was detected. These changes seem to be real, since they are connected to similar changes in the large-scale circulation. So, the intensification of the southwesterly circulation over Europe since 1933 overlapped with the enhancement of westerly circulation after the 1940s could be the reason for the change in winter mean maximum temperature. The slight weakening of the southwesterly circulation during autumn could be one of the reasons for the decrease in the regime of the mean maximum temperature for autumn seasons. Additionally, the covariance map technique reveals the

  10. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  11. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  12. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  13. Influence of Fog and Overcast on Stream Temperature across Several Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated water temperatures have been implicated in fish kills and fish disease in salmon-bearing rivers in the western United States. In addition, fish behavior changes with increased temperature as salmon search for cooler water. Direct solar radiation is a major component of a river's energy balance. Consequently, summer fog and low clouds, by decreasing solar radiation received at the water surface, moderate water temperatures during summer low flow. Water temperature regimes from 1997 to 2012 in streams in Humboldt County, north coastal California, were examined to assess the influence of coastal fog and stratus on daily and seasonal water temperatures. Data loggers recorded water temperature at hourly intervals at 12 stream gaging sites. Fog and solar radiation data sets were compiled from Arcata Airport (KACV) and Humboldt State University records. Stream temperature was correlated with streamflow early in the summer, but flow decreased in importance as discharge receded later in the summer. Streams under closed canopy draining small watersheds (< 20 km^2) displayed only minor cooling response (1 to 1.5 degrees C) of daily maximum temperature to fog events (> 8 hours of daytime fog). In contrast, larger rivers without closed canopies (70 to 700 km^2) were more responsive to decreases in solar radiation and were 2 to 4 degrees cooler on foggy days. Minimum daily stream temperatures exhibited a more subdued response to fog, but streams were 1 to 2 degrees warmer on foggy nights than on clear nights. Consequently, the range of diurnal temperature fluctuation was narrower under foggy conditions. Seasonal temperature maxima were generally reached in late July, and maximum weekly average temperature, a common metric used to quantify stress on fish, was highest in years with the highest solar radiation values. Many rivers in this region already display summer temperatures at the higher end of tolerance by salmon. If fog frequency decreases under changing climatic

  14. The lithosphere-scale density and temperature configuration beneath the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    major controlling factors of the thermal field, the obtained 3D density model is used to calculate the lithosphere-scale 3D conductive thermal field of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. Therefore, the predicted thermal field is validated with measured borehole temperatures.

  15. Time scales of the European surface air temperature variability: The role of the 7-8 year cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios A.; Paluš, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature variability on different time scales exhibits recurring patterns and quasi-oscillatory phenomena. Climate oscillations with the period about 7-8 years have been observed in many instrumental records in Europe. Although these oscillations are weak if considering their amplitude, they might have nonnegligible influence on temperature variability on shorter time scales due to cross-scale interactions recently observed by Paluš (2014). In order to quantify the cross-scale influence, we propose a simple conditional mean approach which estimates the effect of the cycle with the period close to 8 years on the amplitude of the annual cycle in surface air temperature (SAT) in the range 0.7-1.4°C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7°C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect in the winter SATA means reaches 4-5°C in central European station and reanalysis data.

  16. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  17. Effects of Fine-Scale Landscape Variability on Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature Products Over Sparse Vegetation Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Goulden, M.; Peterson, S.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental control on biological systems and processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, from controlling biochemical processes such as photosynthesis to influencing continental-scale species distribution. The Landsat satellite series provides a long record (since the mid-1980s) of relatively high spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR) imagery, from which we derive land surface temperature (LST) grids. Here, we investigate fine spatial resolution factors that influence Landsat-derived LST over a spectrally and spatially heterogeneous landscape. We focus on paired sites (inside/outside a 1994 fire scar) within a pinyon-juniper scrubland in Southern California. The sites have nearly identical micro-meteorology and vegetation species composition, but distinctly different vegetation abundance and structure. The tower at the unburned site includes a number of in-situ imaging tools to quantify vegetation properties, including a thermal camera on a pan-tilt mount, allowing hourly characterization of landscape component temperatures (e.g., sunlit canopy, bare soil, leaf litter). We use these in-situ measurements to assess the impact of fine-scale landscape heterogeneity on estimates of LST, including sensitivity to (i) the relative abundance of component materials, (ii) directional effects due to solar and viewing geometry, (iii) duration of sunlit exposure for each compositional type, and (iv) air temperature. To scale these properties to Landsat spatial resolution (~100-m), we characterize the sub-pixel composition of landscape components (in addition to shade) by applying spectral mixture analysis (SMA) to the Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) spectral bands and test the sensitivity of the relationships established with the in-situ data at this coarser scale. The effects of vegetation abundance and cover height versus other controls on satellite-derived estimates of LST will be assessed by comparing estimates at the burned vs

  18. Demonstration and System Analysis of High Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production Using SOFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, an integrated laboratory scale (ILS), 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) facility has been developed under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other “integral” issues. Additionally, a reference process model of a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The reference plant design is driven by a 600 megawatt thermal high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.01×106 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.36 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation. The paper will also present the optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant which may be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  19. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  20. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  1. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Large-Scale, Supersonic, Heated Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Bivolaru, D.; Tedder, S.; Cutler, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Two laser-based measurement techniques have been used to characterize an axisymmetric, combustion-heated supersonic jet issuing into static room air. The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement technique measured temperature and concentration while the interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) method simultaneously measured two components of velocity. This paper reports a preliminary analysis of CARS-IRS temperature and velocity measurements from selected measurement locations. The temperature measurements show that the temperature along the jet axis remains constant while dropping off radially. The velocity measurements show that the nozzle exit velocity fluctuations are about 3% of the maximum velocity in the flow.

  2. Fine-scale temperature fluctuation and modulation of Dirofilaria immitis larval development in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Nicholas; Harrington, Laura

    2015-04-15

    We evaluated degree-day predictions of Dirofilaria immitis development (HDU) under constant and fluctuating temperature treatments of equal average daily temperature. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were infected with D. immitis microfilariae and parasite development was recorded at set time points in dissected mosquitoes. Time to L3 development in Malpighian tubules and detection in mosquito heads was shorter for larvae experiencing a daily regime of 19±9°C than larvae at constant 19°C; larval development rate in Malpighian tubules was slower in fluctuating regimes maintained above the 14°C developmental threshold than larvae under constant temperatures. We showed that hourly temperature modeling more accurately predicted D. immitis development to infective L3 stage. Development time differed between fluctuating and constant temperature treatments spanning the 14°C development threshold, implicating a physiological basis for these discrepancies. We conclude that average daily temperature models underestimate L3 development-and consequently dog heartworm transmission risk-at colder temperatures, and spatiotemporal models of D. immitis transmission risk should use hourly temperature data when analyzing high daily temperature ranges spanning 14°C. PMID:25747489

  3. Effect of topography on farm-scale spatial variation in extreme temperatures in the Southern Mallee of Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Prakash N.; Chen, Deli

    2011-03-01

    Extreme temperatures around flowering of wheat have the potential to reduce grain yield and at farm scale their impact can be spatially variable depending on topography. Twenty-five data loggers were installed at 0.8-m height across a 164-ha farm in the southern Mallee of Victoria, Australia to spatially record the daily course of temperatures around the average date of flowering of wheat in the region. The experiment was conducted during 2-years period. In 1 year, the farm had no crop cover and in another year the farm had a wheat crop. Multiple linear regression analysis techniques were used to fit models relating daily extreme temperatures to the farm topographic features of elevation, aspect and slope, and the average maximum and minimum temperatures of each day at the farm in order to identify areas of high risk of extreme temperatures around the time of the flowering of wheat. The fitted regression models explained 90% and 97% of the variability in maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, when the farm had no crop cover and 80% and 94% of the variability in maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, when the farm had a wheat crop cover. When the farm had no crop, only minimum temperature was partially explained by the topography however, both maximum and minimum temperatures were partially explained by the topography when the farm had a wheat crop. From this study it was concluded that, (1) high temperature variations were found across the farm (2) temperature variations were only partially explained from the developed model presumably due to the flatter topography of the farm and (3) the relationships obtained from this study could be used in a crop model which can explain variation in grain yield based on the topography of a field.

  4. High Resolution, Absolute Dated Terrestrial Climate Record of Temperature and Precipitation From the Eastern US Covering 0-7ka, 116-127ka, and 145-298 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, B. F.; Rowe, H. D.; Springer, G. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of 4 stalagmites from Buckeye Creek Cave (BCC) in West Virginia provides a high resolution record of temperature and precipitation in the eastern US. Periods of coverage include 0-7ka, 116-127ka, and 145-298 ka. Samples were dated using U/Th dating techniques developed for carbonates (Broecker 1963) and adapted for measurement on mass spectrometer (Edwards et al., 1987). The chronology is constrained by 6-14 dates per sample. Replication is the best method to ensure that observed isotopic changes are due to regional climate and not kinetic fractionation or heterogeneous behavior within the cave environment. When replication is available within the BCC record, there is general agreement in the timing, direction, and magnitude of shifts in δ13C and δ18O. Such agreement supports the interpretation of the isotopic composition of speleothem calcite as a climate signal. The δ18O record can reflect either temperature or precipitation. Since the record contains glacial and interglacial intervals and has a range of 2‰ (~5.5 °C at +0.35‰/°C), it is reasonable to conclude that temperature effects determine the isotopic composition of the samples. However, temperature cannot explain the entire record, as Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 and 5e demonstrate more negative values than during full glacial conditions (MIS 6 & 8). Therefore precipitation must be a contributing factor. Such an interpretation is supported by the δ13C record. During arid periods, rock-water interaction time is increased, leading to a positive shift in δ13C (Denniston et al., 2007). Our record is ~4‰ higher during glacial periods than during MIS 1 and 5e. Broadly speaking, our record tracks insolation. However, one remarkable aspect of this record is the behavior of δ18O at insolation peaks. Our record contains four abrupt negative shifts in δ18O during maxima in local summer insolation greater than 520 W/m2. Temperature change does not provide a compelling explanation for this

  5. High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L.; Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M.

    1994-08-01

    The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

  6. Temperature and length scale dependence of solvophobic solvation in a single-site water-like liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdle, John R.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Rossky, Peter J.

    2013-02-01

    The temperature and length scale dependence of solvation properties of spherical hard solvophobic solutes is investigated in the Jagla liquid, a simple liquid that consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential combining a hard core repulsion and a longer ranged soft core interaction, yet exhibits water-like anomalies. The results are compared with equivalent calculations for a model of a typical atomic liquid, the Lennard-Jones potential, and with predictions for hydrophobic solvation in water using the cavity equation of state and the extended simple point charge model. We find that the Jagla liquid captures the qualitative thermodynamic behavior of hydrophobic hydration as a function of temperature for both small and large length scale solutes. In particular, for both the Jagla liquid and water, we observe temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropy of solvation for all solute sizes as well as a negative solvation entropy for sufficiently small solutes at low temperature. This feature of water-like solvation is distinct from the strictly positive and temperature independent enthalpy and entropy of cavity solvation observed in the Lennard-Jones fluid. The results suggest that, compared to a simple liquid, it is the presence of a second thermally accessible repulsive energy scale, acting to increasingly favor larger separations for decreasing temperature, that is the essential characteristic of a liquid that favors low-density, open structures, and models hydrophobic hydration, and that it is the presence of this second energy scale that leads to the similarity in the behavior of water and the Jagla liquid. In addition, the Jagla liquid dewets surfaces of large radii of curvature less readily than the Lennard-Jones liquid, reflecting a greater flexibility or elasticity in the Jagla liquid structure than that of a typical liquid, a behavior also similar to that of water's hydrogen bonding network. The implications of the temperature and

  7. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  8. Evaluation of high-resolution simulations of daily-scale temperature and precipitation over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Megan D.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2009-12-01

    Extreme climate events have been increasing over much of the world, and dynamical models predict further increases in response to enhanced greenhouse forcing. We examine the ability of a high-resolution nested climate model, RegCM3, to capture the statistics of daily-scale temperature and precipitation events over the conterminous United States, using observational and reanalysis data for comparison. Our analyses reveal that RegCM3 captures the pattern of mean, interannual variability, and trend in the tails of the daily temperature and precipitation distributions. However, consistent biases do exist, including wet biases in the topographically-complex regions of the western United States and hot biases in the southern and central United States. The biases in heavy precipitation in the western United States are associated with excessively strong surface and low-level winds. The biases in daily-scale temperature and precipitation in the southcentral United States are at least partially driven by biases in circulation and moisture fields. Further, the areas of agreement and disagreement with the observational data are not intuitive from analyzing the simulated mean seasonal temperature and precipitation fields alone. Our evaluation should enable more informed application and improvement of high-resolution climate models for the study of future changes in socially- and economically-relevant temperature and precipitation events.

  9. The variability of winter high temperature extremes in Romania and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Stefan, S.; Necula, C.

    2015-07-01

    The frequency variability of extreme high winter temperature as recorded at 85 meteorological stations from Romania during 1962-2010 period and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation was investigated. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals that large part of the extreme temperature frequency variability is common to all stations suggesting a strong influence of large-scale circulation anomalies. The North Atlantic Oscillation, West Pacific, East Atlantic, and Scandinavian patterns are related with extreme temperature frequency variability. We show that the East Atlantic Oscillation controls a significant part of interannual extreme high temperature variability over Romania via advection of warm air from the west. In addition, a strong relationship between blocking activity and frequency of extreme high temperature events in Romania was found. High blocking activity in the (20°W-70°E) sector is related with relatively strong advection of cold air over the country during winter. On the other hand, low blocking activity in the same sector is related with weak advection of relatively cold air in the region. Moreover, the blocking frequency in this sector is modulated mainly by the East Atlantic Oscillation.

  10. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY – SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  11. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion, yet in temperate climate digesters, require a considerable amount of additional heat en...

  12. LANDSCAPE SCALE NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION TEMPERATURE ASSESSMENT AND TMDL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS IS AN ONGOING PROJECT. Elevated river temperature is a significant water quality issue in the Pacific Northwest. For example, over 12,000 miles of perennial streams are designated 303(d) water quality limited due to temperature violation in the State of Oregon. Over t...

  13. A self-contained 3He melting curve thermometer for dissemination of the PLTS-2000 temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvarts, Dm; Adams, A.; Lusher, C. P.; Körber, R.; Cowan, B. P.; Noonan, P.; Saunders, J.; Mikheev, V. A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a self-contained 3He melting curve thermometer (MCT), which is compact and easy to operate and makes a reliable tool for the direct dissemination of the new provisional low-temperature scale, PLTS-2000. It is based on a cylindrical pressure gauge and uses a tunnel diode oscillator circuit for capacitive read-out. The gas-handling system uses a set of relief valves and an electronic pressure sensor, enabling the thermometer to be fully automated, including the calibration procedure. The performance of the MCT was evaluated by comparison with a current-sensing noise thermometer in the temperature range from 20 to 700 mK.

  14. Thermal Reaction Norms and the Scale of Temperature Variation: Latitudinal Vulnerability of Intertidal Nacellid Limpets to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Simon A.; Martin, Stephanie M.; Day, Robert W.; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of “duration tenacity”, which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (Topt) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CTmax and Topt over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  15. Thermal reaction norms and the scale of temperature variation: latitudinal vulnerability of intertidal nacellid limpets to climate change.

    PubMed

    Morley, Simon A; Martin, Stephanie M; Day, Robert W; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of "duration tenacity", which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (T(opt)) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CT(max) and T(opt) over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  16. Extended temperature-accelerated dynamics: Enabling long-time full-scale modeling of large rare-event systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bochenkov, Vladimir; Suetin, Nikolay; Shankar, Sadasivan

    2014-09-07

    A new method, the Extended Temperature-Accelerated Dynamics (XTAD), is introduced for modeling long-timescale evolution of large rare-event systems. The method is based on the Temperature-Accelerated Dynamics approach [M. Sørensen and A. Voter, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9599 (2000)], but uses full-scale parallel molecular dynamics simulations to probe a potential energy surface of an entire system, combined with the adaptive on-the-fly system decomposition for analyzing the energetics of rare events. The method removes limitations on a feasible system size and enables to handle simultaneous diffusion events, including both large-scale concerted and local transitions. Due to the intrinsically parallel algorithm, XTAD not only allows studies of various diffusion mechanisms in solid state physics, but also opens the avenue for atomistic simulations of a range of technologically relevant processes in material science, such as thin film growth on nano- and microstructured surfaces.

  17. Drying processes in the presence of temperature gradients —Pore-scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huinink, H. P.; Pel, L.; Michels, M. A. J.; Prat, M.

    2002-12-01

    The influence of temperature gradients on the drying of water-saturated porous networks has been studied. We have focussed on the influence of the temperature on the drying process via the equilibrium vapor density ρ _e, because this is the most sensitive parameter with respect to variations of the temperature T. We have used a 2D model which accounts for both capillary and buoyancy forces. Invasion events by air or water are handled by standard rules of invasion percolation in a gradient (IPG). Vapor fluxes are calculated by solving a discretized version of the Laplace equation. In the model the temperature T varies linearly from the open side T0 to the closed side TL. The temperature gradients strongly influence the cluster evolution during the process, because they facilitate vapor transport through wet regions. When T0TL, the front movement is enhanced and the air ingress in the wet region behind the front is inhibited. The behavior of 3D systems differs from that of 2D systems, because the point where air percolates the system and the point where the water network breaks up in isolated clusters do not coincide. Before the latter fragmentation point the temperature will mainly influence the drying rates. After this point also the water distribution becomes sensitive to the temperature profile.

  18. Drying processes in the presence of temperature gradients--pore-scale modelling.

    PubMed

    Huinink, H P; Pel, L; Michels, M A J; Prat, M

    2002-12-01

    The influence of temperature gradients on the drying of water-saturated porous networks has been studied. We have focussed on the influence of the temperature on the drying process via the equilibrium vapor density rhoe, because this is the most sensitive parameter with respect to variations of the temperature T. We have used a 2D model which accounts for both capillary and buoyancy forces. Invasion events by air or water are handled by standard rules of invasion percolation in a gradient (IPG). Vapor fluxes are calculated by solving a discretized version of the Laplace equation. In the model the temperature T varies linearly from the open side T0 to the closed side TL. The temperature gradients strongly influence the cluster evolution during the process, because they facilitate vapor transport through wet regions. When T0TL, the front movement is enhanced and the air ingress in the wet region behind the front is inhibited. The behavior of 3D systems differs from that of 2D systems, because the point where air percolates the system and the point where the water network breaks up in isolated clusters do not coincide. Before the latter fragmentation point the temperature will mainly influence the drying rates. After this point also the water distribution becomes sensitive to the temperature profile. PMID:15011097

  19. The Joint Statistics of California Temperature and Precipitation as a Function of the Large-scale State of the Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, J. P.; O'Brien, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Single climatic extremes have a strong and disproportionate effect on society and the natural environment. However, the joint occurrence of two or more concurrent extremes has the potential to negatively impact these areas of life in ways far greater than any single event could. California, USA, home to nearly 40 million people and the largest agricultural producer in the United States, is currently experiencing an extreme drought, which has persisted for several years. While drought is commonly thought of in terms of only precipitation deficits, above average temperatures co-occurring with precipitation deficits greatly exacerbate drought conditions. The 2014 calendar year in California was characterized both by extremely low precipitation and extremely high temperatures, which has significantly deepened the already extreme drought conditions leading to severe water shortages and wildfires. While many studies have shown the statistics of 2014 temperature and precipitation anomalies as outliers, none have demonstrated a connection with large-scale, long-term climate trends, which would provide useful relationships for predicting the future trajectory of California climate and water resources. We focus on understanding non-stationarity in the joint distribution of California temperature and precipitation anomalies in terms of large-scale, low-frequency trends in climate such as global mean temperature rise and oscillatory indices such as ENSO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation among others. We consider temperature and precipitation data from the seven distinct climate divisions in California and employ a novel, high-fidelity kernel density estimation method to directly infer the multivariate distribution of temperature and precipitation anomalies conditioned on the large-scale state of the climate. We show that the joint distributions and associated statistics of temperature and precipitation are non-stationary and vary regionally in California. Further, we show

  20. Short-Scale Turbulent Fluctuations Driven by the Electron-Temperature Gradient in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Bell, R. E.; Kaye, S. M.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, P. M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Yuh, H.; Lee, W.; Park, H.

    2008-08-15

    Measurements with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment indicate the existence of turbulent fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub e}=0.1-0.4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length nearly equal to the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from a linear gyrokinetic stability code support the conjecture that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron-temperature gradient.

  1. Short-scale turbulent fluctuations driven by the electron-temperature gradient in the national spherical torus experiment.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, E; Smith, D R; Bell, R E; Kaye, S M; Hosea, J C; LeBlanc, B P; Wilson, J R; Ryan, P M; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Yuh, H; Lee, W; Park, H

    2008-08-15

    Measurements with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment indicate the existence of turbulent fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k perpendicular rho(e)=0.1-0.4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length nearly equal to the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from a linear gyrokinetic stability code support the conjecture that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron-temperature gradient. PMID:18764544

  2. Short-Scale Turbulent Fluctuations Driven by the Electron-Temperature Gradient in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Bell, R. E.; Kaye, S.; Davis, W.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Yuh, H.; Lee, W.; Park, H.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment indicate the existence of turbulent fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k?e 0:1 0:4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length nearly equal to the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from a linear gyrokinetic stability code support the conjecture that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron-temperature gradient.

  3. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  4. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  5. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  6. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  7. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  8. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  9. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  10. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  11. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  12. Temperature sensing of micron scale polymer fibers using fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Zhang, Y.; Mulle, M.; Lubineau, G.

    2015-08-01

    Highly conductive polymer fibers are key components in the design of multifunctional textiles. Measuring the voltage/temperature relationships of these fibers is very challenging due to their very small diameters, making it impossible to rely on classical temperature sensing techniques. These fibers are also so fragile that they cannot withstand any perturbation from external measurement systems. We propose here, a non-contact temperature measurement technique based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The heat exchange is carefully controlled between the probed fibers and the sensing FBG by promoting radiation and convective heat transfer rather than conduction, which is known to be poorly controlled. We demonstrate our technique on a highly conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-based fiber. A non-phenomenological model of the sensing system based on meaningful physical parameters is validated towards experimental observations. The technique reliably measures the temperature of the polymer fibers when subjected to electrical loading.

  13. Temperature mediates continental-scale diversity of microbes in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Shen, Lina; Wen, Chongqing; Yan, Qingyun; Ning, Daliang; Qin, Yujia; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Voordeckers, James W; Nostrand, Joy D Van; Buzzard, Vanessa; Michaletz, Sean T; Enquist, Brian J; Weiser, Michael D; Kaspari, Michael; Waide, Robert; Yang, Yunfeng; Brown, James H

    2016-01-01

    Climate warming is increasingly leading to marked changes in plant and animal biodiversity, but it remains unclear how temperatures affect microbial biodiversity, particularly in terrestrial soils. Here we show that, in accordance with metabolic theory of ecology, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria, fungi and nitrogen fixers are all better predicted by variation in environmental temperature than pH. However, the rates of diversity turnover across the global temperature gradients are substantially lower than those recorded for trees and animals, suggesting that the diversity of plant, animal and soil microbial communities show differential responses to climate change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the diversity of different microbial groups has significantly lower rates of turnover across temperature gradients than other major taxa, which has important implications for assessing the effects of human-caused changes in climate, land use and other factors. PMID:27377774

  14. Temperature mediates continental-scale diversity of microbes in forest soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Shen, Lina; Wen, Chongqing; Yan, Qingyun; Ning, Daliang; Qin, Yujia; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Voordeckers, James W.; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Buzzard, Vanessa; Michaletz, Sean T.; Enquist, Brian J.; Weiser, Michael D.; Kaspari, Michael; Waide, Robert; Yang, Yunfeng; Brown, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Climate warming is increasingly leading to marked changes in plant and animal biodiversity, but it remains unclear how temperatures affect microbial biodiversity, particularly in terrestrial soils. Here we show that, in accordance with metabolic theory of ecology, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria, fungi and nitrogen fixers are all better predicted by variation in environmental temperature than pH. However, the rates of diversity turnover across the global temperature gradients are substantially lower than those recorded for trees and animals, suggesting that the diversity of plant, animal and soil microbial communities show differential responses to climate change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the diversity of different microbial groups has significantly lower rates of turnover across temperature gradients than other major taxa, which has important implications for assessing the effects of human-caused changes in climate, land use and other factors. PMID:27377774

  15. Sea surface temperature and large-scale circulation influences on tropical greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Bony, S.; Lau, K.M.; Sud, Y.C.

    1997-08-01

    Two independent sets of meteorological reanalyses are used to investigate relationships between the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale vertical motion of the atmosphere for spatial and seasonal variations, as well as for El Nino/La Nina episodes of 1987-88. Supergreenhouse effect (SGE) situations are found to be linked to the occurrence of enhance large-scale rising motion associated with increasing SST. In regions where the large-scale atmospheric motion is largely decoupled from the local SST due to internal or remote forcings, the SGE occurrence is weak. On seasonal and interannual timescales, such regions are found mainly over equatorial regions of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, especially for SSTs exceeding 29.5{degrees}C. In these regions, the activation of feedback processes that regulate the ocean temperature is thus likely to be more related to the large-scale remote processes, such as those that govern the monsoon circulations and the low-frequency variability of the atmosphere, than to the local SST change. The relationships among SST, clouds, and cloud radiative forcing inferred from satellite observations are also investigated. 57 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Scalable temperature induced stress for the large-scale production of functionalized Bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu Thanh; Razafindralambo, Hary; Richel, Aurore; Jacquet, Nicolas; Evrard, Pol; Antoine, Patrice; Thonart, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The application of sub-lethal stresses is known to be an efficient strategy to enhance survival of probiotic bacteria during drying processes. In this context, we previously showed that the application of heat stress upon the entry into stationary phase increased significantly the viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum. However, this heat shock has been considered only in small-scale bioreactor and no information is available for a possible scaling-up strategy. Five different operating scales (0.2, 2, 20, 200 and 2000 L) have thus been tested and the results showed that the viability of B. bifidum increases from 3.15 to 6.57 folds, depending on the scale considered. Our observations pointed out the fact that the heat stress procedure is scalable according to the main outcome, i.e., increases in cell viability, but other factors have to be taken into account. Among these factors, dissolved carbon dioxide seems to play a significant role, since it explains the differences observed between the test performed at laboratory scale and in industrial conditions. PMID:26162630

  17. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  18. Relations between large scale oscillation patterns and rising water temperatures at Lake Neusiedl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Anna-Maria; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Lake Neusiedl (Neusiedler See, Fertitó) is a very shallow steppe lake (area 320 km2, mean depth 1.2 m) at the border of Austria/Hungary. The low ratio of water depth to water volume accounts for dynamic, air temperature-dependent developments of water temperature with the potential of unusually warm waters that are a pillar of the touristic attractiveness of the lake. Likewise these conditions are a risk factor for water quality deterioration. In the frame of the EULAKES-project (European Lakes under Environmental Stressors, www.eulakes.eu), financed by the Central Europe Programme of the EU, data records of water temperature at 5 monitoring stations of Lake Neusiedl (eHYD) and the nearby air temperature monitoring station Eisenstadt - Sopron (HISTALP database and ZAMG) were used to investigate the period 1976-2009. Additionally the influences of 7 teleconnection patterns, i.e. the East Atlantic pattern (EAP), the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern (EA/WR), the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP), the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) for Algiers and Cairo, and for Israel and Gibraltar, resp., the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Scandinavia pattern (SCA) were assessed. The increase of temperature during the observation period was more pronounced for water than for air. Water temperatures increased significantly (p

  19. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  20. The hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Meevasana, W.

    2010-05-03

    To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.

  1. Hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Meevasana, W.; Zhou, X.J.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Lee, W.S.; Yang, W.L.; Tanaka, K.; Mannella, N.; Yoshida, T.; Lu, D.H.; Chen, Y.L.; He, R.H.; Lin, Hsin; Komiya, S.; Ando, Y.; Zhou, F.; Ti, W.X.; Xiong, J.W.; Zhao, Z.X.; Sasagawa, T.; Kakeshita, T.; Fujita, K.; Uchida, S.; Eisaki, H.; Fujimori, A.; Hussain, Z.; Markiewicz, R.S.; Bansil, A.; Nagaosa, N.; Zaanen, J.; Devereaux, T.P.; Shen, Z.X.

    2006-12-21

    To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.

  2. Influence of melt-temperature fluctuations on striation formation in large-scale Czochralski Si growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Tadashi; Hourai, Masataka; Miki, Shinichiro; Shigematsu, Tatsuhiko; Tomokage, Hajime; Miyano, Takaya; Morita, Hiroshi; Shintani, Akira

    1996-09-01

    The effects of melt-temperature fluctuations on growth striations in crystals grown in a commercial-scale growth system were studied by an analysis of the fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) method applied to the melt-temperature fluctuations and to the growth striations as evaluated by X-ray topography and spreading-resistance (SR) methods. The period of the growth striations observed in crystals corresponded exactly to that of temperature fluctuations in the melt; however, the amplitude of these growth striations decreased when temperature fluctuations with a constant amplitude occurred rapidly. This phenomenon results from a delay in the response of the microscopic growth rate to rapid temperature fluctuations. The amplitude of melt-temperature fluctuations and the peak height of the FFT power spectra were observed to decrease in the radial direction toward the crystal center, and this trend was also observed for growth striations. It was concluded that temporal thermal fluctuations caused by melt convection are preserved in growth striations for crystals grown in large growth systems.

  3. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  4. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  5. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  6. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  7. Influence of low-temperature resistivity on fast electron transport in solids: scaling to fast ignition electron beam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, P.; MacLellan, D. A.; Butler, N. M. H.; Dance, R. J.; Gray, R. J.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Neely, D.; Desjarlais, M. P.

    2015-06-01

    The role of low-temperature electrical resistivity in defining the transport properties of mega-Ampere currents of fast (MeV) electrons in solids is investigated using 3D hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. By considering resistivity profiles intermediate to the ordered (lattice) and disordered forms of two example materials, lithium and silicon, it is shown that both the magnitude of the resistivity and the shape of the resistivity-temperature profile at low temperatures strongly affect the self-generated resistive magnetic fields and the onset of resistive instabilities, and thus the overall fast electron beam transport pattern. The scaling of these effects to the giga-Ampere electron currents required for the fast ignition scheme for inertial fusion is also explored.

  8. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  9. Hot in Baltimore: linking urban form to fine-scale temperature differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A.; Waugh, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Guikema, S.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding how urban morphology creates microclimates can help policymakers and planners mitigate the effects of heatwaves and other negative urban heat island effects. In Baltimore, where the observed downtown-rural temperature difference (as measured by NOAA stations) can reach 5°C, low-income neighborhoods are almost entirely covered by impervious surfaces like concrete but lack trees and parks. Their urban-rural temperature difference is then expected to exceed the reported one. However, that difference is not well quantified because these areas lack weather station coverage. Additionally, high resolution satellite imagery shows only land surface temperatures (inadequate for policy and health interventions) and may miss severe heat events. To remedy this, a low-cost monitoring network was installed in East Baltimore over summer 2015 aiming to characterize spatial and temporal variability and examine how heat excess varies during heat events. Results confirm that E. Baltimore exceeds downtown temperatures and show that a dense network of low cost sensors can help attribute temperature anomalies to local features such as land cover, building density and tree canopy.

  10. Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic temperature variables to predict agricultural plant suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of local spatial climatic variability is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 temperature loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic temperature variables, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly temperatures, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum temperature, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum temperature and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly temperature. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.

  11. Large Scale Variability of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, Temperature, Clouds, and Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface temperature, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly variability is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal variability in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with temperature in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface temperature of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal temperature or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging variable and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.

  12. The impact of component performance on the overall cycle performance of small-scale low temperature organic Rankine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M.; Sayma, A. I.

    2015-08-01

    Low temperature organic Rankine cycles offer a promising technology for the generation of power from low temperature heat sources. Small-scale systems (∼10kW) are of significant interest, however there is a current lack of commercially viable expanders. For a potential expander to be economically viable for small-scale applications it is reasonable to assume that the same expander must have the ability to be implemented within a number of different ORC applications. It is therefore important to design and optimise the cycle considering the component performance, most notably the expander, both at different thermodynamic conditions, and using alternative organic fluids. This paper demonstrates a novel modelling methodology that combines a previously generated turbine performance map with cycle analysis to establish at what heat source conditions optimal system performance can be achieved using an existing turbine design. The results obtained show that the same turbine can be effectively utilised within a number of different ORC applications by changing the working fluid. By selecting suitable working fluids, this turbine can be used to convert pressurised hot water at temperatures between 360K and 400K, and mass flow rates between 0.45kg/s and 2.7kg/s, into useful power with outputs between 1.5kW and 27kW. This is a significant result since it allows the same turbine to be implemented into a variety of applications, improving the economy of scale. This work has also confirmed the suitability of the candidate turbine for a range of low temperature ORC applications.

  13. Internal and Forced Low-Frequency Surface Temperature Variability at Global and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M. E.; Steinman, B. A.; Miller, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence for internal models of decadal and multidecadal surface temperature variability that possess relatively narrowband spectral signatures. Among these are the so-called Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation ("AMO") and Pacific Decadal Oscillation ("PDO"). Separating these internal variability components from long-term forced temperature changes, however, is a non-trivial task. We apply a semi-empirical approach that combines climate observations and model-simulations to estimate Atlantic- and Pacific-based internal multidecadal variability (termed 'AMO' and 'PMO', respectively). Using analyses of coupled global climate model simulations, we show that our approach correctly identifies the internal variability components, while several alternative approaches overestimate and misidentify these components and their contribution to hemispheric mean temperatures. Using our method, the AMO and PMO are found to project in nearly equal proportion onto internal multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature (termed 'NMO'). A recent NMO cooling trend which contributes to the slowdown or "false pause" in warming of the past decade is seen to reflect a competition between a modest positive peak in the AMO and a substantially negative-trending PMO.

  14. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-11-03

    The low Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 130 °C) of bulk BaTiO{sub 3} greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5 nm to 10 nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained at 600 °C, suggesting a significant increase of T{sub c}. Based on the in-situ TEM results and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO{sub 3} particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the T{sub c} obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.

  15. Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales.

    PubMed

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Bastviken, David; Conrad, Ralf; Gudasz, Cristian; St-Pierre, Annick; Thanh-Duc, Nguyen; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2014-03-27

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century. Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to expected increases in global temperature is therefore fundamental to predicting whether the carbon cycle will mitigate or accelerate climate change. Methanogenesis is the terminal step in the remineralization of organic matter and is carried out by strictly anaerobic Archaea. Like most other forms of metabolism, methanogenesis is temperature-dependent. However, it is not yet known how this physiological response combines with other biotic processes (for example, methanotrophy, substrate supply, microbial community composition) and abiotic processes (for example, water-table depth) to determine the temperature dependence of ecosystem-level CH4 emissions. It is also not known whether CH4 emissions at the ecosystem level have a fundamentally different temperature dependence than other key fluxes in the carbon cycle, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Here we use meta-analyses to show that seasonal variations in CH4 emissions from a wide range of ecosystems exhibit an average temperature dependence similar to that of CH4 production derived from pure cultures of methanogens and anaerobic microbial communities. This average temperature dependence (0.96 electron volts (eV)), which corresponds to a 57-fold increase between 0 and 30°C, is considerably higher than previously observed for respiration (approximately 0.65 eV) and photosynthesis (approximately 0.3 eV). As a result, we show that both the emission of CH4 and the ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions increase markedly with seasonal increases in temperature. Our findings suggest that global warming may have a large impact on the relative contributions of CO2 and CH

  16. Disentangling the confounding effects of PAR and air temperature on net ecosystem exchange in time and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yang, Z.; Chen, J.; Becker, R.; Chu, H.; Xie, J.; Shao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in temperate forests is modulated by microclimatic factors. The effects of those factors differ at different time scales and during different time periods. Some of them are correlated across a number of time scales, so their effects on NEE are confounded by each other. PAR and air temperature (Ta) are among the two most important drivers of NEE in temperate forests, and among the two most correlated microclimatic factors. PAR and Ta have similar daily, seasonal, and annual cycles. Their influence on NEE is confounded by each other and entangled together especially at those scales. In this study, we tried to disentangle the confounding effects of them on NEE at different time scales and during different time periods. To accomplish this objective, we applied the innovative spectral analysis techniques including Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT), Cross Wavelet Transformation (XWT), Wavelet Coherent (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC) on seven years time series (2004-2010) of PAR, Ta and NEE from the Ohio Oak Openings site (N 41.5545°, W 83.8438°), USA for spectral analysis. We found that PAR is the major driver at short time scales (e.g. semidiurnal and daily) and Ta is the major driver at long time scales (e.g. seasonal and annual). At daily scale during growing seasons, PAR is anti-phase with NEE with no time delay while Ta lagged PAR about 2-3 hours, which could be explained by the strong dependence of photosynthesis on PAR and a 2-3 hours lags of the daily course of Ta to PAR. At daily scale during non-growing season, NEE has little variation and thus neither Ta nor PAR has high common wavelet power and significant coherence with NEE. At annual scale, Ta is anti-phase with NEE and PAR leads NEE about 34 days, which could be explained by the strong dependence of LAI dynamics on Ta and the lag between the LAI/biomass development and the progress of sunlight. We also found that NEE distributes most of its variation

  17. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  18. AC Conduction and Time-Temperature Superposition Scaling in a Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zinc Sulfide Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Das, Poulomi; Chakrabarty, Sankalpita; Pal, Tanusri; Ghosh, Surajit

    2016-05-18

    We report, herein, the results of an in depth study and concomitant analysis of the AC conduction [σ'(ω): f=20 Hz to 2 MHz] mechanism in a reduced graphene oxide-zinc sulfide (RGO-ZnS) composite. The magnitude of the real part of the complex impedance decreases with increase in both frequency and temperature, whereas the imaginary part shows an asymptotic maximum that shifts to higher frequencies with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the conductivity isotherm reveals a frequency-independent conductivity at lower frequencies subsequent to a dispersive conductivity at higher frequencies, which follows a power law [σ'(ω)∝ω(s) ] within a temperature range of 297 to 393 K. Temperature-independent frequency exponent 's' indicates the occurrence of phonon-assisted simple quantum tunnelling of electrons between the defects present in RGO. Finally, this sample follows the "time-temperature superposition principle", as confirmed from the universal scaling of conductivity isotherms. These outcomes not only pave the way for increasing our elemental understanding of the transport mechanism in the RGO system, but will also motivate the investigation of the transport mechanism in other order-disorder systems. PMID:26864678

  19. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  20. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  1. Criticality calculations of the Very High Temperature reactor Critical Assembly benchmark with Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Bostelmann, Friederike; Hammer, Hans R.; Ortensi, Javier; Strydom, Gerhard; Velkov, Kiril; Zwermann, Winfried

    2015-12-30

    Within the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling, criticality calculations of the Very High Temperature Critical Assembly experiment were performed as the validation reference to the prismatic MHTGR-350 lattice calculations. Criticality measurements performed at several temperature points at this Japanese graphite-moderated facility were recently included in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments, and represent one of the few data sets available for the validation of HTGR lattice physics. Here, this work compares VHTRC criticality simulations utilizing the Monte Carlo codes Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI. Reasonable agreement was found between Serpent and KENO-VI, but only the use of the latest ENDF cross section library release, namely the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, led to an improved match with the measured data. Furthermore, the fourth beta release of SCALE 6.2/KENO-VI showed significant improvements from the current SCALE 6.1.2 version, compared to the experimental values and Serpent.

  2. Criticality calculations of the Very High Temperature reactor Critical Assembly benchmark with Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bostelmann, Friederike; Hammer, Hans R.; Ortensi, Javier; Strydom, Gerhard; Velkov, Kiril; Zwermann, Winfried

    2015-12-30

    Within the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling, criticality calculations of the Very High Temperature Critical Assembly experiment were performed as the validation reference to the prismatic MHTGR-350 lattice calculations. Criticality measurements performed at several temperature points at this Japanese graphite-moderated facility were recently included in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments, and represent one of the few data sets available for the validation of HTGR lattice physics. Here, this work compares VHTRC criticality simulations utilizing the Monte Carlo codes Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI. Reasonable agreement was found between Serpent andmore » KENO-VI, but only the use of the latest ENDF cross section library release, namely the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, led to an improved match with the measured data. Furthermore, the fourth beta release of SCALE 6.2/KENO-VI showed significant improvements from the current SCALE 6.1.2 version, compared to the experimental values and Serpent.« less

  3. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Curry, E.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Li, S.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2013-02-01

    A measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm nitrogen band, relevant to ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) detectors, is reported. Two independent calibrations of the fluorescence emission induced by a 120 GeV proton beam were employed: Cherenkov light from the beam particle and calibrated light from a nitrogen laser. The fluorescence yield in air at a pressure of 1013 hPa and temperature of 293 K was found to be Y337=5.61±0.06stat±0.22syst photons/MeV. When compared to the fluorescence yield currently used by UHECR experiments, this measurement improves the uncertainty by a factor of three, and has a significant impact on the determination of the energy scale of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  4. High-Temperature Oxidation and Oxide Scale Formation in Plasma-Sprayed CoNiCrAlYRe Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Giovanni; Brentari, Alida; Blasi, Caterina; Pilloni, Luciano; Serra, Emanuele

    2014-11-01

    MCrAlY coatings are usually adopted to improve the environmental resistance of Ni-based superalloy components of turbine engines against high-temperature oxidation and hot corrosion. In this work, CoNiCrAlYRe coatings were produced by atmospheric plasma spraying. The coatings exhibited relatively low oxygen content and porosity. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses revealed that the high-temperature exposure at 1383 K (1110 °C) promoted the growth of an oxide scale on the top surface being composed of a continuous and dense Al2O3 inner layer followed by an outer mixed layer (Cr2O3 and spinels). The oxide scale was mainly composed of Al2O3, while the formation of mixed oxides occurred at lesser extent. After high-temperature exposure, the formation of internal oxides in some areas reduced the inter-lamellar cohesion, so that a decrease in microhardness was found.

  5. Orbital-scale summer precipitation and temperature variability in central China reconstructed with leaf wax hydrogen isotopes and branched GDGTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. K.; Clemens, S. C.; Prell, W. L.; Sun, Y.; Huang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructions of monsoon variability on orbital time scales inform how the monsoon responds to large variations in forcing mechanisms (e.g., insolation, ice volume, greenhouse gases). The timing, or phase, of proxy response relative to forcing mechanisms (e.g., maximum insolation, maximum ice volume) can provide insights into which mechanisms control monsoon variability. Furthermore, obtaining summer monsoon records from different regions of Asia provides information about the spatial expression of monsoon variability. Deciphering which mechanisms control orbital-scale summer monsoon variability, however, requires reconstructions using proxies that respond mainly to summer monsoon variability. We present a 300-kyr-long, millennial-resolution record of Pleistocene summer monsoon precipitation variability on the Chinese Loess Plateau, generated using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes. The loess plateau receives ca. 50% of total annual precipitation during the summer monsoon, and plants produce leaf waxes during the warm, wet summer months. Thus, leaf wax hydrogen isotopes reflect summer precipitation isotopes. Precipitation isotopes change in response to changes in transport history (e.g. source water isotope ratios, transport path, etc.), which is influenced by changes in monsoon strength. Precipitation isotopes are also affected by local condensation temperature, which we account for using an independent temperature proxy, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. We present these independent monsoon and temperature records and examine implications for mechanisms controlling monsoon variability in central China.

  6. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. PMID:27035388

  7. Studies Related to the Oregon State University High Temperature Test Facility: Scaling, the Validation Matrix, and Similarities to the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; William T. Taitano; James R. Wolf; Glenn E. McCreery

    2010-09-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5 year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant project. Because the NRC interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC). Since DOE has incorporated the HTTF as an ingredient in the NGNP thermal-fluids validation program, several important outcomes should be noted: 1. The reference prismatic reactor design, that serves as the basis for scaling the HTTF, became the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR has also been chosen as the reference design for all of the other NGNP thermal-fluid experiments. 2. The NGNP validation matrix is being planned using the same scaling strategy that has been implemented to design the HTTF, i.e., the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology developed by Zuber in 1991. Using this approach a preliminary validation matrix has been designed that integrates the HTTF experiments with the other experiments planned for the NGNP thermal-fluids verification and validation project. 3. Initial analyses showed that the inherent power capability of the OSU infrastructure, which only allowed a total operational facility power capability of 0.6 MW, is

  8. The coupled effects of environmental composition, temperature and contact size-scale on the tribology of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Harmandeep S.

    Liquid lubricants are precluded in an exceedingly large number of consumer as well as extreme applications as a means to reduce friction and wear at the sliding interface of two bodies. The extraterrestrial environment is one such example of an extreme environment which has motivated the development of advanced solid lubricant materials. Mechanical systems for space require fabrication, assembly, transportation and testing on earth before launch and deployment. Solid lubricants for space are expected to not only operate efficiently in the hard vacuum of space but also withstand interactions with moisture or oxygen during the terrestrial storage, transportation and assembly prior to deployment and launch. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered the gold standard in solid lubricants for space due to its excellent tribological properties in ultra-high vacuum. However in the presence of environmental species such as water and oxygen or at elevated temperatures, the lubricity and endurance of MoS2 is severely limited. Past studies have offered several hypotheses for the breakdown of lubrication of MoS2 under the influence of water and oxygen, although exact mechanisms remain unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear if temperature acts as a driver solely for oxidation or for thermally activated slip and thermally activated desorption as well. The answers to these questions are of fundamental importance to improving the reliability of existing MoS2-based solid lubricants for space, as well as for guiding the design of advanced lamellar solid lubricant coatings. This dissertation aims to elucidate: (1) the role of water on MoS2 oxidation, (2) the role of water on MoS2 friction, (3) the role of oxygen on MoS2 friction, (4) the contribution of thermal activation to ambient-temperature friction, and (5) effects of length-scale. The results of this study showed that water does not cause oxidation of MoS2. Water increases ambient-temperature friction of MoS2 directly through a

  9. Density and temperature scaling of disorder-induced heating in ultracold plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, S. D.; Denning, A.; Lyon, M.; Robicheaux, F.

    2011-02-15

    We report measurements and simulations of disorder-induced heating in ultracold neutral plasmas. Fluorescence from plasma ions is excited using a detuned probe laser beam while the plasma relaxes from its initially disordered nonequilibrium state. This method probes the wings of the ion velocity distribution. The simulations yield information on time-evolving plasma parameters that are difficult to measure directly and make it possible to connect the fluorescence signal to the rms velocity distribution. The disorder-induced heating signal can be used to estimate the electron and ion temperatures {approx}100 ns after the plasma is created. This is particularly interesting for plasmas in which the electron and ion temperatures are not known.

  10. Large-scale sea surface temperature variability from satellite and shipboard measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. L.; Chelton, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    A series of satellite sea surface temperature intercomparison workshops were conducted under NASA sponsorship at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three different satellite data sets were compared with each other, with routinely collected ship data, and with climatology, for the months of November 1979, December 1981, March 1982, and July 1982. The satellite and ship data were differenced against an accepted climatology to produce anomalies, which in turn were spatially and temporally averaged into two-degree latitude-longitude, one-month bins. Monthly statistics on the satellite and ship bin average temperatures yielded rms differences ranging from 0.58 to 1.37 C, and mean differences ranging from -0.48 to 0.72 C, varying substantially from month to month, and sensor to sensor.

  11. Simulating the impact of the large-scale circulation on the 2-m temperature and precipitation climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Jared H.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Otte, Tanya L.

    2013-04-01

    The impact of the simulated large-scale atmospheric circulation on the regional climate is examined using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as a regional climate model. The purpose is to understand the potential need for interior grid nudging for dynamical downscaling of global climate model (GCM) output for air quality applications under a changing climate. In this study we downscale the NCEP-Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) Reanalysis using three continuous 20-year WRF simulations: one simulation without interior grid nudging and two using different interior grid nudging methods. The biases in 2-m temperature and precipitation for the simulation without interior grid nudging are unreasonably large with respect to the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) over the eastern half of the contiguous United States (CONUS) during the summer when air quality concerns are most relevant. This study examines how these differences arise from errors in predicting the large-scale atmospheric circulation. It is demonstrated that the Bermuda high, which strongly influences the regional climate for much of the eastern half of the CONUS during the summer, is poorly simulated without interior grid nudging. In particular, two summers when the Bermuda high was west (1993) and east (2003) of its climatological position are chosen to illustrate problems in the large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies. For both summers, WRF without interior grid nudging fails to simulate the placement of the upper-level anticyclonic (1993) and cyclonic (2003) circulation anomalies. The displacement of the large-scale circulation impacts the lower atmosphere moisture transport and precipitable water, affecting the convective environment and precipitation. Using interior grid nudging improves the large-scale circulation aloft and moisture transport/precipitable water anomalies, thereby improving the simulated 2-m temperature and precipitation

  12. Bench-scale testing of novel high-temperature desulfurization sorbents: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Harkins, S.M.; Stogner, J.M.; Woods, M.C.; Rogers, T.N.

    1988-12-01

    Extrudates of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents including zinc ferrite, copper-modified zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, copper aluminate, copper-iron aluminate, and copper manganate were prepared and tested for their potential to remove hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from coal gasifier gas in a high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) fixed-bed reactor. The zinc containing sorbents were found to be more promising than those containing combinations of copper, aluminum, iron, and manganese. Reductions in H/sub 2/S concentration were achieved depending on sorbent, reactor temperature, and steam concentration. The copper-modified zinc ferrite sorbent reduced the H/sub 2/S concentration to less than 1 ppmv at up to 1100/degree/F with 20 volume % steam in the gas. The zinc ferrite sorbent showed no apparent loss in capacity over 15 sulfidation-regeneration cycles but underwent significant strength reduction in a coal-derived gas with 15% or less steam due to soot formation. Zinc titanate exhibited excellent strength and capacity retention at steam levels as low as 5% and temperatures as high as 1350/degree/F. 13 refs., 64 figs., 75 tabs.

  13. Ion-Scale Electrostatic Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas with Two-Temperature Superthermal Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Masud, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The basic properties of nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma system [consisting of inertial ions, negatively charged immobile dust, and superthermal electrons with two distinct temperatures] are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The modified Burgers equation is derived and is numerically analyzed in order to examine the basic properties of DIA shock structures. The effects of nonplanar geometry, electron superthermality, and ion kinematic viscosity on the basic features of DIA shock waves are discussed. It is found that the properties of the cylindrical and spherical DIA shock waves in dusty plasmas with two-temperature superthermal electrons significantly differ from those of one-dimensional planar shocks. The implications of our results in space plasmas [viz. star formation, supernovae explosion, solar wind, pulsar magnetosphere, Saturn's outer magnetosphere (R ˜13-18 R S , where R S is the radius of Saturn), Saturn's inner magnetosphere (R <9 R S , etc.)] and laboratory plasmas (viz. laser-induced implosion, capsule implosion, shock tube, etc.), where superthermal electrons with two distinct temperatures occurs, are briefly discussed.

  14. Exploiting the atmosphere's memory for monthly, seasonal and interannual temperature forecasting using Scaling LInear Macroweather Model (SLIMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Amador, Lenin; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, most of the models for prediction of the atmosphere behavior in the macroweather and climate regimes follow a deterministic approach. However, modern ensemble forecasting systems using stochastic parameterizations are in fact deterministic/ stochastic hybrids that combine both elements to yield a statistical distribution of future atmospheric states. Nevertheless, the result is both highly complex (both numerically and theoretically) as well as being theoretically eclectic. In principle, it should be advantageous to exploit higher level turbulence type scaling laws. Concretely, in the case for the Global Circulation Models (GCM's), due to sensitive dependence on initial conditions, there is a deterministic predictability limit of the order of 10 days. When these models are coupled with ocean, cryosphere and other process models to make long range, climate forecasts, the high frequency "weather" is treated as a driving noise in the integration of the modelling equations. Following Hasselman, 1976, this has led to stochastic models that directly generate the noise, and model the low frequencies using systems of integer ordered linear ordinary differential equations, the most well-known are the Linear Inverse Models (LIM). For annual global scale forecasts, they are somewhat superior to the GCM's and have been presented as a benchmark for surface temperature forecasts with horizons up to decades. A key limitation for the LIM approach is that it assumes that the temperature has only short range (exponential) decorrelations. In contrast, an increasing body of evidence shows that - as with the models - the atmosphere respects a scale invariance symmetry leading to power laws with potentially enormous memories so that LIM greatly underestimates the memory of the system. In this talk we show that, due to the relatively low macroweather intermittency, the simplest scaling models - fractional Gaussian noise - can be used for making greatly improved forecasts

  15. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  16. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  17. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  18. Temperature scaling, glassiness and stationarity in the Bak-Sneppen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, D.

    2000-09-01

    We show that the emergence of criticality in the locally-defined Bak-Sneppen model corresponds to separation over a hierarchy of timescales. Near to the critical point the model obeys scaling relations, with exponents which we derive numerically for a one-dimensional system. We further describe how the model can be related to the glass model of Bouchaud [{\\em J. Phys. I France {\\bf 2}, 1705 (1992)}], and we use this insight to comment on the usual assumption of stationarity in the Bak-Sneppen model. Finally, we propose a general definition of self-organised criticality which is in partial agreement with other recent definitions.

  19. AMiBA: Scaling Relations Between the Integrated Compton-y and X-ray-derived Temperature, Mass, and Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chiueh, Tzihong; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y 2500 to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T e, total mass M 2500, and bolometric luminosity LX within r 2500. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y 2500-LX relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  20. An InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer and fixed-point blackbodies for temperature scale realization at NIM

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper, we describe an InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer (IRT) and new design of fixed-point blackbodies, including Sn, Zn, Al and Cu, for the establishment of a temperature scale from 200 °C to 1085 °C at the National Institute of Metrology of China. The construction and calibration of the IRT with the four fixed-point blackbodies are described. Characteristics of the IRT, such as the size-of-source effect, the amplifier performance and its stability are determined. The design of the four fixed-points, with 10 mm diameter of aperture and 0.9999 emissivity, is described. The uncertainty of the scale realization is elaborated.