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Sample records for absorb atmospheric co2

  1. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  2. Improving CO2 permeation and separation performance of CO2-philic polymer membrane by blending CO2 absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Hu, Leiqing; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-07-01

    To research effects of CO2 absorption capacity and type of CO2 absorbent on the CO2 separation and free-volume properties of facilitated transport membranes, two types of CO2 absorbents, namely monoethanolamine (MEA) and ionic liquids (ILs:[P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op]), were adopted. The CO2 absorption capacities of MEA, [P66614][Triz] and [P66614][2-Op] were about 0.561 mol CO2 per mol, 0.95 mol CO2 per mol and 1.60 mol CO2 per mol, respectively. All mean free-volume hole radiuses of membranes decreased after blending CO2 absorbents. After polymer membrane blended with two ILs, number of free-volume hole increased, resulting in modest increase of the fractional free volume. Both CO2 permeability and selectivity increased after blending MEA and ILs. The increasing range of CO2 permeability corresponded with CO2 absorption capacity of CO2 absorbents, and membrane blending with [P66614][2-Op] showed the highest CO2 permeability of 672.1 Barrers at 25 °C. Pebax/PEGDME membrane blending with MEA obtained the highest CO2/H2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity at 17.8 and 20.5, respectively.

  3. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tans, Pieter P.; Fung, Inez Y.; Takahashi, Taro

    1990-01-01

    Observed atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and data on the partial pressures of CO2 in surface ocean waters are combined to identify globally significant sources and sinks of CO2. The atmospheric data are compared with boundary layer concentrations calculated with the transport fields generated by a general circulation model (GCM) for specified source-sink distributions. In the model the observed north-south atmospheric concentration gradient can be maintained only if sinks for CO2 are greater in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. The observed differences between the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface waters of the Northern Hemisphere and the atmosphere are too small for the oceans to be the major sink of fossil fuel CO2. Therefore, a large amount of the CO2 is apparently absorbed on the continents by terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive.

  5. A Global Perspective of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.; Ott, Lesley; Darmenov, Anton; daSilva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas affected by human activity. About half of the CO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion remains in the atmosphere, contributing to rising temperatures, while the other half is absorbed by natural land and ocean carbon reservoirs. Despite the importance of CO2, many questions remain regarding the processes that control these fluxes and how they may change in response to a changing climate. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), launched on July 2, 2014, is NASA's first satellite mission designed to provide the global view of atmospheric CO2 needed to better understand both human emissions and natural fluxes. This visualization shows how column CO2 mixing ratio, the quantity observed by OCO-2, varies throughout the year. By observing spatial and temporal gradients in CO2 like those shown, OCO-2 data will improve our understanding of carbon flux estimates. But, CO2 observations can't do that alone. This visualization also shows that column CO2 mixing ratios are strongly affected by large-scale weather systems. In order to fully understand carbon flux processes, OCO-2 observations and atmospheric models will work closely together to determine when and where observed CO2 came from. Together, the combination of high-resolution data and models will guide climate models towards more reliable predictions of future conditions.

  6. Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stannard, D.I.; Michmerhuizen, C.M.; McConnaughey, T.A.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lake-atmosphere CO2 flux was directly measured above a small, woodland lake using the eddy covariance technique and compared with fluxes deduced from changes in measured lake-water CO2 storage and with flux predictions from boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Over a 3-yr period, lake-atmosphere exchanges of CO2 were measured over 5 weeks in spring, summer, and fall. Observed springtime CO2 efflux was large (2.3-2.7 ??mol m-2 s-1) immediately after lake-thaw. That efflux decreased exponentially with time to less than 0.2 ??mol m-2 s-1 within 2 weeks. Substantial interannual variability was found in the magnitudes of springtime efflux, surface water CO2 concentrations, lake CO2 storage, and meteorological conditions. Summertime measurements show a weak diurnal trend with a small average downward flux (-0.17 ??mol m-2 s-1) to the lake's surface, while late fall flux was trendless and smaller (-0.0021 ??mol m-2 s-1). Large springtime efflux afforded an opportunity to make direct measurement of lake-atmosphere fluxes well above the detection limits of eddy covariance instruments, facilitating the testing of different gas flux methodologies and air-water gas-transfer models. Although there was an overall agreement in fluxes determined by eddy covariance and those calculated from lake-water storage change in CO2, agreement was inconsistent between eddy covariance flux measurements and fluxes predicted by boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Comparison of measured and modeled transfer velocities for CO2, along with measured and modeled cumulative CO2 flux, indicates that in most instances the surface-renewal model underpredicts actual flux. Greater underestimates were found with comparisons involving homogeneous boundary-layer models. No physical mechanism responsible for the inconsistencies was identified by analyzing coincidentally measured environmental variables.

  7. Do Continental Shelves Act as an Atmospheric CO2 Sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, W.

    2003-12-01

    Recent air-to-sea CO2 flux measurements at several major continental shelves (European Atlantic Shelves, East China Sea and U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight) suggest that shelves may act as a one-way pump and absorb atmospheric CO2 into the ocean. These observations also favor the argument that continental shelves are autotrophic (i.e., net production of organic carbon, OC). The U.S. South Atlantic Bight (SAB) contrasts these findings in that it acts as a strong source of CO2 to the atmosphere while simultaneously exporting dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the open ocean. We report pCO2, DIC, and alkalinity data from the SAB collected in 8 cruises along a transect from the shore to the shelf break in the central SAB. The shelf-wide net heterotrophy and carbon exports in the SAB are subsidized by the export of OC from the abundant intertidal marshes, which are a sink for atmospheric CO2. It is proposed here that the SAB represents a marsh-dominated heterotrophic ocean margin as opposed to river-dominated autotrophic margins. To further investigate why margins may behave differently in term of CO2 sink/source, the physical and biological conditions of several western boundary current margins are compared. Based on this and other studies, DIC export flux from margins to the open ocean must be significant in the overall global ocean carbon budget.

  8. Atmospheric effects on CO2 laser propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.; Bilbro, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the losses encountered in the propagation of CO2 laser radiation through the atmosphere, particularly as it applies to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Pulsed Laser Doppler System. As such it addresses three major areas associated with signal loss: molecular absorption, refractive index changes in a turbulent environment, and aerosol absorption and scattering. In particular, the molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated for various laser lines in the region of 10.6 mu m as a function of various pressures and temperatures. The current status in the physics of low-energy laser propagation through a turbulent atmosphere is presented together with the analysis and evaluation of the associated heterodyne signal power loss. Finally, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients are calculated for various aerosol distributions and the results incorporated into the signal-to-noise ratio equation for the Marshall Space Flight Center system.

  9. Influence of the biosphere and circulation on atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, A.; Jiang, X.; La, J.; Olsen, E. T.; Licata, S. J.; Yung, Y. L.

    2017-12-01

    Using multiple satellite CO2 retrievals (e.g., AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2), we have investigated seasonal changes of CO2 as a function of latitudes and altitudes. The annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 is closely related to the exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere, so we also examine solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). High SIF value means more CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, which will lead to lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The satellite data demonstrate a negative correlation between atmospheric CO2 and SIF. SIF can be influenced by precipitation and evaporation. We have found a positive correlation between SIF and the difference of precipitation and evaporation, suggesting there is more CO2 uptake by vegetation when more water is available. In addition to the annual cycle, large-scale circulation, such as South Atlantic Walker Circulation, can also modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As seen from AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2 CO2 retrievals, there is less CO2 over the South Atlantic Ocean than over South America from December to March. Results in this study will help us better understand interactions between the biosphere, circulation, and atmospheric CO2.

  10. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.

    2013-10-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  11. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

  12. Kinetic analysis of an anion exchange absorbent for CO2 capture from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Li, Qibin; Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a preparation method of a new moisture swing sorbent for CO2 capture from air. The new sorbent components include ion exchange resin (IER) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a binder. The IER can absorb CO2 when surrounding is dry and release CO2 when surrounding is wet. The manuscript presents the studies of membrane structure, kinetic model of absorption process, performance of desorption process and the diffusivity of water molecules in the CO2 absorbent. It has been proved that the kinetic performance of CO2 absorption/desorption can be improved by using thin binder and hot water treatment. The fast kinetics of P-100-90C absorbent is due to the thin PVC binder, and high diffusion rate of H2O molecules in the sample. The impressive is this new CO2 absorbent has the fastest CO2 absorption rate among all absorbents which have been reported by other up-to-date literatures.

  13. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric CO2 in urban Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoxian; Wang, Tijian; Talbot, Robert; Xie, Min; Mao, Huiting; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Zhu, Jialei; Huang, Xing; Xu, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Although China is a big carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter, in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 are sparse in urban China. The mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its influencing factors in urban Nanjing were investigated in this study, from the 18th of January to the 31st of December 2011. The annual average mixing ratio of CO2 was 406.5 ± 20.0 ppmv over the study period. The signal analysis using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm showed that CO2 had different cycles as a result of multiple controlling factors. The seasonal and intra-seasonal fluctuations of CO2 were mainly caused by the terrestrial biospheric uptake and emission and atmospheric oscillation. The weekly variation of CO2 was largely influenced by traffic volume. The diurnal cycle of CO2 presented a bimodal pattern in winter (DJF) probably due to the rush hour emissions. The seasonal mean CO2/CO correlation slope varied from 0.024 ppmv/ppbv to 0.029 ppmv/ppbv, comparable to the fossil fuel combustion emission ratio. The diurnal pattern of CO2/CO was irregular, indicating random anthropogenic emissions in an urban area. Firework setting was a large source of CO2 during the Spring Festival holiday. The backward trajectories by the HYSPLIT model showed that the local anthropogenic emissions contributed the most to the high CO2 mixing ratio in the urban area.

  14. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-05-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m above ground level. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14C content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~ one week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14C sampling strategies.

  15. Impact of atmospheric CO2 levels on continental silicate weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, E.; GoddéRis, Y.; Labat, D.; Roelandt, C.; Oliva, P.; Guerrero, B.

    2010-07-01

    Anthropogenic sources are widely accepted as the dominant cause for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Here we use the B-WITCH model to quantify the impact of increased CO2 concentrations on CO2 consumption by weathering of continental surfaces. B-WITCH couples a dynamic biogeochemistry model (LPJ) and a process-based numerical model of continental weathering (WITCH). It allows simultaneous calculations of the different components of continental weathering fluxes, terrestrial vegetation dynamics, and carbon and water fluxes. The CO2 consumption rates are estimated at four different atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from 280 up to 1120 ppmv, for 22 sites characterized by silicate lithologies (basalt, granite, or sandstones). The sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations is explored, while temperature and rainfall are held constant. First, we show that under 355 ppmv of atmospheric CO2, B-WITCH is able to reproduce the global pattern of weathering rates as a function of annual runoff, mean annual temperature, or latitude for silicate lithologies. When atmospheric CO2 increases, evapotranspiration generally decreases due to progressive stomatal closure, and the soil CO2 pressure increases due to enhanced biospheric productivity. As a result, vertical drainage and soil acidity increase, promoting CO2 consumption by mineral weathering. We calculate an increase of about 3% of the CO2 consumption through silicate weathering (mol ha-1 yr-1) for 100 ppmv rise in CO2. Importantly, the sensitivity of the weathering system to the CO2 rise is not uniform and heavily depends on the climatic, lithologic, pedologic, and biospheric settings.

  16. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  17. [Simulation of CO2 exchange between forest canopy and atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Diao, Yiwei; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie; Guan, Dexin; Pei, Tiefan

    2006-12-01

    Estimating the scalar source/sink distribution of CO2 and its vertical fluxes within and above forest canopy continues to be a critical research problem in biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and plant ecology. With broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on Raupach's localized near field theory, the source/sink and vertical flux distribution of CO2 within and above forest canopy were modeled through an inverse Lagrangian dispersion analysis. This model correctly predicted a strong positive CO2 source strength in the deeper layers of the canopy due to soil-plant respiration, and a strong CO2 sink in the upper layers of the canopy due to the assimilation by sunlit foliage. The foliage in the top layer of canopy changed from a CO2 source in the morning to a CO2 sink in the afternoon, while the soil constituted a strong CO2 source all the day. The simulation results accorded well with the eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements within and above the canopy, and the average precision was 89%. The CO2 exchange predicted by the analysis was averagely 15% higher than that of the eddy correlation, but exhibited identical temporal trend. Atmospheric stability remarkably affected the CO2 exchange between forest canopy and atmosphere.

  18. Atmospheric CO2 Variability Observed From ASCENDS Flight Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Choi, Yonghoon; Dobler, Jeremy; Fan, Tai-Fang; Harrison, F. Wallace; Kooi, Susan; Liu, Zhaoyan; Meadows, Byron; hide

    2015-01-01

    Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales were observed during ASCENDS flight campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200x300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Even over extended forests, about 2-ppm CO2 column variability was measured within about 500-km distance. For winter times, especially over snow covered ground, relatively less horizontal CO2 variability was observed, likely owing to minimal interactions between the atmosphere and land surface. Inter-annual variations of CO2 drawdown over cornfields in the Mid-West were found to be larger than 5 ppm due to slight differences in the corn growing phase and meteorological conditions even in the same time period of a year. Furthermore, considerable differences in atmospheric CO2 profiles were found during winter and summer campaigns. In the winter CO2 was found to decrease from about 400 ppm in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to about 392 ppm above 10 km, while in the summer CO2 increased from 386 ppm in the ABL to about 396 ppm in free troposphere. These and other CO2 observations are discussed in this presentation.

  19. Atmospheric CO2 capture for the artificial photosynthetic system.

    PubMed

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Zukowska, Adrianna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2018-04-15

    The aim of these studies is to evaluate the ambient CO 2 capture abilities of the membrane contactor system in the same conditions as leafs, such as ambient temperature, pressure and low CO 2 concentration, where the only driving force is the concentration gradient. The polysulfone membrane employed was made by a phase inversion process and characterized by ESEM micrographs which were used to determine the thickness, asymmetry and pore size. Besides, the porosity of the membrane was measured from the membrane and polysulfone density correlation and the hydrophobicity was analyzed by contact angle measurements. Moreover, the compatibility of membrane and absorbent was evaluated, in order to exclude wetting issues by meaning of swelling, dynamic contact angle and AFM analysis. The prepared membranes were introduced into a cross flow module and used as contactors between CO 2 and the absorbing media, a potassium hydroxide solution. The influence of the membrane thickness, absorbent stirring rate, solution pH and absorption time on CO 2 capture were evaluated. Absorbent solution stirring rate showed no statistically significant influence on absorption. We observed a non-linear correlation between the capture rate and the increase of absorbent solution pH as well as absorption time. The results showed that the efficiency of our CO 2 capture system is similar to stomatal carbon dioxide assimilation rate, achieving stable value of 20μmol/m 2 ·s after 1h of experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strengthening seasonal marine CO2 variations due to increasing atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Stemmler, Irene; Six, Katharina D.

    2018-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 (ref. 1) has been predicted to impact the seasonal cycle of inorganic carbon in the global ocean2,3, yet the observational evidence to verify this prediction has been missing. Here, using an observation-based product of the oceanic partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) covering the past 34 years, we find that the winter-to-summer difference of the pCO2 has increased on average by 2.2 ± 0.4 μatm per decade from 1982 to 2015 poleward of 10° latitude. This is largely in agreement with the trend expected from thermodynamic considerations. Most of the increase stems from the seasonality of the drivers acting on an increasing oceanic pCO2 caused by the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. In the high latitudes, the concurrent ocean-acidification-induced changes in the buffer capacity of the ocean enhance this effect. This strengthening of the seasonal winter-to-summer difference pushes the global ocean towards critical thresholds earlier, inducing stress to ocean ecosystems and fisheries4. Our study provides observational evidence for this strengthening seasonal difference in the oceanic carbon cycle on a global scale, illustrating the inevitable consequences of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  1. Laser Sounder Approach for Measuring Atmospheric CO2 from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Allan, Graham R.; Burris, John F.; Collatz, G. James; Riris, Harris; Stephen, Mark A.; Sun, Xiao-Li; Abshire, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an active remote sensing approach using an erbium fiber amplifier based transmitter for atmospheric CO2 measurements in an overtone band near 1.57 microns and initial horizontal path measurements to less than 1% precision.

  2. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination ofmore » the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.« less

  3. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 From Space: Challenge & Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Kooi, Susan; Fan, Tai-Fang; hide

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is the key radiative forcing for the Earth's climate and may contribute a major part of the Earth's warming during the past 150 years. Advanced knowledge on the CO2 distributions and changes can lead considerable model improvements in predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions have been found for decades owing to limited CO2 observations. To obtain precise measurements of atmospheric CO2, certain challenges have to be overcome. For an example, global annual means of the CO2 are rather stable, but, have a very small increasing trend that is significant for multi-decadal long-term climate. At short time scales (a second to a few hours), regional and subcontinental gradients in the CO2 concentration are very small and only in an order of a few parts per million (ppm) compared to the mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 400 ppm, which requires atmospheric CO2 space monitoring systems with extremely high accuracy and precision (about 0.5 ppm or 0.125%) in spatiotemporal scales around 75 km and 10-s. It also requires a decadal-scale system stability. Furthermore, rapid changes in high latitude environments such as melting ice, snow and frozen soil, persistent thin cirrus clouds in Amazon and other tropical areas, and harsh weather conditions over Southern Ocean all increase difficulties in satellite atmospheric CO2 observations. Space lidar approaches using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique are considered to be capable of obtaining precise CO2 measurements and, thus, have been proposed by various studies including the 2007 Decadal Survey (DS) of the U.S. National Research Council. This study considers to use the Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar to monitor global atmospheric CO2 distribution and variability from space. Development and demonstration of space lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements have been made through joint adventure of NASA Langley Research Center and

  5. Atmospheric CO2 capture for the artificial photosynthetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Zukowska, Adrianna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-11-01

    The scope of these studies is to evaluate the ambient CO2 capture abilities of the membrane contactor system in the same conditions as leaves works during photosynthesis, such as ambient temperature, pressure and low CO2 concentration, where the only driving force is the concentration gradient. The polysulfone membrane was made by phase inversion process and characterized by ESEM micrographs which were used to determine the thickness, asymmetry and pore size. Besides, the porosity of the membrane was measured from the membrane and polysulfone density correlation and hydrophobicity was analyzed by contact angle measurements. Moreover, the compatibility of the membrane and absorbent solution was evaluated, in order to exclude wetting issues. The prepared membranes were introduced in a cross flow module and used as contactor between the CO2 and the potassium hydroxide solution, as absorbing media. The influence of the membrane thickness, absorbent stirring rate and absorption time, on CO2 capture were evaluated. The results show that the efficiency of our CO2 capture system is similar to stomatal carbon dioxide assimilation rate.

  6. CO2 greenhouse in the early martian atmosphere: SO2 inhibits condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Nair, H.; Gerstell, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Many investigators of the early martian climate have suggested that a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere was present and warmed the surface above the melting point of water (J.B. Pollack, J.F. Kasting, S.M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff 1987. Icarus 71, 203-224). However, J.F. Kasting (1991. Icarus 94, 1-13) pointed out that previous thermal models of the primitive martian atmosphere had not considered the condensation of CO2. When this effect was incorporated, Kasting found that CO2 by itself is inadequate to warm the surface. SO2 absorbs strongly in the near UV region of the solar spectrum. While a small amount of SO2 may have a negligible effect by itself on the surface temperature, it may have significantly warmed the middle atmosphere of early Mars, much as ozone warms the terrestrial stratosphere today. If this region is kept warm enough to inhibit the condensation of CO2, then CO2 remains a viable greenhouse gas. Our preliminary radiative modeling shows that the addition of 0.1 ppmv of SO2 in a 2 bar CO2 atmosphere raises the temperature of the middle atmosphere by approximately 10 degrees, so that the upper atmosphere in a 1 D model remains above the condensation temperature of CO2. In addition, this amount of SO2 in the atmosphere provides an effective UV shield for a hypothetical biosphere on the martian surface.

  7. Role of Atmospheric CO2 in the Ice Ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica provide our most highly resolved records of glacial-interglacial climate change. They feature big transitions every 100,000 years or so in which Antarctica warms by up to 10 deg. C while the level of atmospheric CO2 rises by up to 100 ppm. We have no other records like these from any other location, so the assumption is often made that the Earth's mean temperature varies like the temperatures in Antarctica. The striking co-variation between the two records is taken to mean 1) that there is a causal relationship between the global temperature and atmospheric CO2 and 2) that atmospheric CO2 is a powerful agent of climate change during the ice ages. The problem is that the mechanism most often invoked to explain the CO2 variations operates right next to Antarctica and, as such, provides a fairly direct way to explain the temperature variations in Antarctica as well. If so, Antarctic temperatures go up and down for the same reason that atmospheric CO2 goes up and down, in which case no causation can be inferred. Climate models suggest that the 100-ppm CO2 increases during the big transitions did not increase surface temperatures by more than 2 deg. C. This is not nearly enough to explain the observed variability. A better reason for thinking that atmospheric CO2 is important is that its temporal variations are concentrated in the 100,000-yr band. In my presentation I will argue that atmospheric CO2 is important because it has the longest time scale in the system. We observe empirically that atmospheric CO2 remains low for 50,000 years during the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle. The northern ice sheets become especially large toward the ends of these intervals, and it is large ice sheets that make the Earth especially cold. This leads me to conclude that atmospheric CO2 is important because of its slow and persistent influence on the northern ice sheets over the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle.

  8. Atmospheric CO2 and abrupt climate change on submillennial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward

    2010-05-01

    How atmospheric CO2 varies and is controlled on various time scales and under various boundary conditions is important for understanding how the carbon cycle and climate change are linked. Ancient air preserved in ice cores provides important information on past variations in atmospheric CO2. In particular, concentration records for intervals of abrupt climate change may improve understanding of mechanisms that govern atmospheric CO2. We present new multi-decadal CO2 records that cover Greenland stadial 9 (between Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events 8 and 9) and the abrupt cooling event at 8.2 ka. The CO2 records come from Antarctic ice cores but are well synchronized with Greenland ice core records using new high-resolution CH4 records,precisely defining the timing of CO2 change with respect to abrupt climate events in Greenland. Previous work showed that during stadial 9 (40~38 ka), CO2 rose by about 15~20 ppm over around 2,000 years, and at the same time temperatures in Antarctica increased. Dust proxies indicate a decrease in dust flux over the same period. With more detailed data and better age controls we now find that approximately half of the CO2 increase during stadial 9 occurred abruptly, over the course of decades to a century at ~39.6 ka. The step increase of CO2 is synchronous with a similar step increase of Antarctic isotopic temperature and a small abrupt change in CH4, and lags after the onset of decrease in dust flux by ~400 years. New atmospheric CO2 records at the well-known ~8.2 ka cooling event were obtained from Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica. Our preliminary CO2 data span 900 years and include 19 data points within the 8.2 ka cooling event, which persisted for ~160 years (Thomas et al., Quarternary Sci. Rev., 2007). We find that CO2 increased by 2~4 ppm during that cooling event. Further analyses will improve the resolution and better constrain the CO2 variability during other times in the early Holocene to determine if the variations observed

  9. A 40-million-year history of atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Liu, Zhonghui; Bohaty, Steven M; Deconto, Robert

    2013-10-28

    The alkenone-pCO2 methodology has been used to reconstruct the partial pressure of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the past 45 million years of Earth's history (Middle Eocene to Pleistocene epochs). The present long-term CO2 record is a composite of data from multiple ocean localities that express a wide range of oceanographic and algal growth conditions that potentially bias CO2 results. In this study, we present a pCO2 record spanning the past 40 million years from a single marine locality, Ocean Drilling Program Site 925 located in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The trends and absolute values of our new CO2 record site are broadly consistent with previously published multi-site alkenone-CO2 results. However, new pCO2 estimates for the Middle Miocene are notably higher than published records, with average pCO2 concentrations in the range of 400-500 ppm. Our results are generally consistent with recent pCO2 estimates based on boron isotope-pH data and stomatal index records, and suggest that CO2 levels were highest during a period of global warmth associated with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-14 million years ago, Ma), followed by a decline in CO2 during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (approx. 14 Ma). Several relationships remain contrary to expectations. For example, benthic foraminiferal δ(18)O records suggest a period of deglaciation and/or high-latitude warming during the latest Oligocene (27-23 Ma) that, based on our results, occurred concurrently with a long-term decrease in CO2 levels. Additionally, a large positive δ(18)O excursion near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (the Mi-1 event, approx. 23 Ma), assumed to represent a period of glacial advance and retreat on Antarctica, is difficult to explain by our CO2 record alone given what is known of Antarctic ice sheet history and the strong hysteresis of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet once it has grown to continental dimensions. We also demonstrate that in the

  10. Production and uses of liquefied atmosphere (CO2) on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is universally accessible on Mars, and can be liquefied and separated from residual atmospheric gases by various compress-refrigeration cycles. Liquid CO2, stored under elevated pressures, can be used as a source of high pressure gas for nighttime power generation at a Martian base powered by solar energy during the daytime. Carbon dioxide can also be used for vehicular power. The extractable energy per unit mass of CO2 can exceed that of commercial lead-acid batteries for operating cycles without heat addition. Improved performance is possible using heat input from the ambient atmosphere or thermochemical agents. A unique vehicular application uses pressurized CO2 as a non-combustion low performance propellant for intermediate distance surface transportation. The thermodynamic properties of CO2 are presented with typical operating cycles for the application classes described above.

  11. Spatial response of coastal marshes to increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Katherine M; Braswell, Anna E; Marani, Marco

    2015-12-22

    The elevation and extent of coastal marshes are dictated by the interplay between the rate of relative sea-level rise (RRSLR), surface accretion by inorganic sediment deposition, and organic soil production by plants. These accretion processes respond to changes in local and global forcings, such as sediment delivery to the coast, nutrient concentrations, and atmospheric CO2, but their relative importance for marsh resilience to increasing RRSLR remains unclear. In particular, marshes up-take atmospheric CO2 at high rates, thereby playing a major role in the global carbon cycle, but the morphologic expression of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, an imminent aspect of climate change, has not yet been isolated and quantified. Using the available observational literature and a spatially explicit ecomorphodynamic model, we explore marsh responses to increased atmospheric CO2, relative to changes in inorganic sediment availability and elevated nitrogen levels. We find that marsh vegetation response to foreseen elevated atmospheric CO2 is similar in magnitude to the response induced by a varying inorganic sediment concentration, and that it increases the threshold RRSLR initiating marsh submergence by up to 60% in the range of forcings explored. Furthermore, we find that marsh responses are inherently spatially dependent, and cannot be adequately captured through 0-dimensional representations of marsh dynamics. Our results imply that coastal marshes, and the major carbon sink they represent, are significantly more resilient to foreseen climatic changes than previously thought.

  12. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  13. Commander Lousma stows trash bags in middeck CO2 Absorber Stowage volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma uses his body as a zero gravity garbage compactor to stow plastic bags full of empty containers and trash in the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Absorber Stowage volume in front of the airlock hatch.

  14. Atmospheric CO2: principal control knob governing Earth's temperature.

    PubMed

    Lacis, Andrew A; Schmidt, Gavin A; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A

    2010-10-15

    Ample physical evidence shows that carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the single most important climate-relevant greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. This is because CO(2), like ozone, N(2)O, CH(4), and chlorofluorocarbons, does not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere at current climate temperatures, whereas water vapor can and does. Noncondensing greenhouse gases, which account for 25% of the total terrestrial greenhouse effect, thus serve to provide the stable temperature structure that sustains the current levels of atmospheric water vapor and clouds via feedback processes that account for the remaining 75% of the greenhouse effect. Without the radiative forcing supplied by CO(2) and the other noncondensing greenhouse gases, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound Earth state.

  15. Seasonal and interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Ghil, M.

    1998-01-01

    Interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Mauna Loa are almost masked by the seasonal cycle and a strong trend; at the South Pole, the seasonal cycle is small and is almost lost in the trend and interannual variations. Singular-spectrum analysis (SSA) issued here to isolate and reconstruct interannual signals at both sites and to visualize recent decadal changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Analysis of the Mauna Loa CO2 series illustrates a hastening of the CO2 seasonal cycle, a close temporal relation between Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature trends and the amplitude of the seasonal CO2 cycle, and tentative ties between the latter and seasonality changes in temperature over the NH continents. Variations of the seasonal CO2 cycle at the South Pole differ from those at Mauna Loa: it is phase changes of the seasonal cycle at the South Pole, rather than amplitude changes, that parallel hemispheric and global temperature trends. The seasonal CO2 cycles exhibit earlier occurrences of the seasons by 7 days at Mauna Loa and 18 days at the South Pole. Interannual CO2 variations are shared at the two locations, appear to respond to tropical processes, and can be decomposed mostly into two periodicities, around (3 years)-1 and (4 years)-1, respectively. Joint SSA analyses of CO2 concentrations and tropical climate indices isolate a shared mode with a quasi-triennial (QT) period in which the CO2 and sea-surface temperature (SST) participation are in phase opposition. The other shared mode has a quasi-quadrennial (QQ) period and CO2 variations are in phase with the corresponding tropical SST variations throughout the tropics. Together these interannual modes exhibit a mean lag between tropical SSTs and CO2 variations of about 6-8 months, with SST leading. Analysis of the QT and QQ signals in global gridded SSTs, joint SSA of CO2 and ??13C isotopic ratios, and SSA of CO2 and NH-land temperatures indicate that the QT variations in

  16. Seasonal and interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, Michael D.; Ghil, Michael

    1998-02-01

    Interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Mauna Loa are almost masked by the seasonal cycle and a strong trend; at the South Pole, the seasonal cycle is small and is almost lost in the trend and interannual variations. Singular-spectrum analysis (SSA) is used here to isolate and reconstruct interannual signals at both sites and to visualize recent decadal changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Analysis of the Mauna Loa CO2 series illustrates a hastening of the CO2 seasonal cycle, a close temporal relation between Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature trends and the amplitude of the seasonal CO2 cycle, and tentative ties between the latter and seasonality changes in temperature over the NH continents. Variations of the seasonal CO2 cycle at the South Pole differ from those at Mauna Loa: it is phase changes of the seasonal cycle at the South Pole, rather than amplitude changes, that parallel hemispheric and global temperature trends. The seasonal CO2 cycles exhibit earlier occurrences of the seasons by 7days at Mauna Loa and 18days at the South Pole. Interannual CO2 variations are shared at the two locations, appear to respond to tropical processes, and can be decomposed mostly into two periodicities, around (3years)-1 and (4years)-1, respectively. Joint SSA analyses of CO2 concentrations and tropical climate indices isolate a shared mode with a quasi-triennial (QT) period in which the CO2 and sea-surface temperature (SST) participation are in phase opposition. The other shared mode has a quasi-quadrennial (QQ) period and CO2 variations are in phase with the corresponding tropical SST variations throughout the tropics. Together these interannual modes exhibit a mean lag between tropical SSTs and CO2 variations of about 6 8months, with SST leading

  17. Kinetic analysis of an anion exchange absorbent for CO2 capture from ambient air

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Li, Qibin; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a preparation method of a new moisture swing sorbent for CO2 capture from air. The new sorbent components include ion exchange resin (IER) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a binder. The IER can absorb CO2 when surrounding is dry and release CO2 when surrounding is wet. The manuscript presents the studies of membrane structure, kinetic model of absorption process, performance of desorption process and the diffusivity of water molecules in the CO2 absorbent. It has been proved that the kinetic performance of CO2 absorption/desorption can be improved by using thin binder and hot water treatment. The fast kinetics of P-100-90C absorbent is due to the thin PVC binder, and high diffusion rate of H2O molecules in the sample. The impressive is this new CO2 absorbent has the fastest CO2 absorption rate among all absorbents which have been reported by other up-to-date literatures. PMID:28640914

  18. A process for capturing CO 2 from the atmosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Keith, David W.; Holmes, Geoffrey; St. Angelo, David; ...

    2018-06-07

    Here, we describe a process for capturing CO 2 from the atmosphere in an industrial plant. The design captures ~1 Mt-CO 2/year in a continuous process using an aqueous KOH sorbent coupled to a calcium caustic recovery loop. We describe the design rationale, summarize performance of the major unit operations, and provide a capital cost breakdown developed with an independent consulting engineering firm. We report results from a pilot plant which provides data on performance of the major unit operations. We summarize the energy and material balance computed using an Aspen process simulation. When CO 2 is delivered at 15more » MPa the design requires either 8.81 GJ of natural gas, or 5.25 GJ of gas and 366 kWhr of electricity, per ton of CO 2 captured. Depending on financial assumptions, energy costs, and the specific choice of inputs and outputs, the levelized cost per ton CO 2 captured from the atmosphere ranges from 94 to 232 $/t-CO 2.« less

  19. A process for capturing CO 2 from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, David W.; Holmes, Geoffrey; St. Angelo, David

    Here, we describe a process for capturing CO 2 from the atmosphere in an industrial plant. The design captures ~1 Mt-CO 2/year in a continuous process using an aqueous KOH sorbent coupled to a calcium caustic recovery loop. We describe the design rationale, summarize performance of the major unit operations, and provide a capital cost breakdown developed with an independent consulting engineering firm. We report results from a pilot plant which provides data on performance of the major unit operations. We summarize the energy and material balance computed using an Aspen process simulation. When CO 2 is delivered at 15more » MPa the design requires either 8.81 GJ of natural gas, or 5.25 GJ of gas and 366 kWhr of electricity, per ton of CO 2 captured. Depending on financial assumptions, energy costs, and the specific choice of inputs and outputs, the levelized cost per ton CO 2 captured from the atmosphere ranges from 94 to 232 $/t-CO 2.« less

  20. Where does CO2 in Antarctica cool the atmosphere ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter; Jung, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study we have shown that for the high altitude plateau in Antarctica CO2 causes a surplus in infrared emission to space compared to what is emitted from the surface. This corresponds to a negative greenhouse effect, and is due to the fact that for this region the surface is typically colder than the atmosphere above, opposite to the rest of the world. As a consequence, for this region an increase in CO2 leads to an increase in the energy loss to space, leading to an increase in the negative greenhouse effect. We now studied in more detail the radiative effect of CO2 and compared the results with available measurements from Antarctica. H. Schmithüsen, J. Notholt, G. Köngig-Langlo, T, Jung. How increasing CO2 leads to an increased negative greenhouse effect in Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, in press, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015GL066749.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  2. Rapid Removal of Atmospheric CO2 by Urban Soils.

    PubMed

    Washbourne, Carla-Leanne; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Renforth, Phil; Ascough, Philippa L; Manning, David A C

    2015-05-05

    The measured calcium carbonate content of soils to a depth of 100 mm at a large urban development site has increased over 18 months at a rate that corresponds to the sequestration of 85 t of CO2/ha (8.5 kg of CO2 m(-2)) annually. This is a consequence of rapid weathering of calcium silicate and hydroxide minerals derived from the demolition of concrete structures, which releases Ca that combines with CO2 ultimately derived from the atmosphere, precipitating as calcite. Stable isotope data confirm an atmospheric origin for carbonate carbon, and 14C dating indicates the predominance of modern carbon in the pedogenic calcite. Trial pits show that carbonation extends to depths of ≥1 m. Work at other sites shows that the occurrence of pedogenic carbonates is widespread in artificially created urban soils containing Ca and Mg silicate minerals. Appropriate management of fewer than 12000 ha of urban land to maximize calcite precipitation has the potential to remove 1 million t of CO2 from the atmosphere annually. The maximal global potential is estimated to be approximately 700-1200 Mt of CO2 per year (representing 2.0-3.7% of total emissions from fossil fuel combustion) based on current rates of production of industry-derived Ca- and Mg-bearing materials.

  3. A Southern Ocean driver of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronge, T.; Geibert, W.; Lippold, J.; Lamy, F.; Schnetger, B.; Tiedemann, R.

    2017-12-01

    A prominent two-step rise in atmospheric CO2 marked the end of the last glacial. The steps coincided with climatic intervals Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). Records of 231Pa/230Th on sediment cores bathed by NADW, revealed a rapid reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), during these intervals. It was argued that a weakened AMOC would have significantly reduced the efficiency of the biological pump and thus might have contributed to the rise in atmospheric CO2. Despite playing an important role, this process fails to account for the enigmatic drop in atmospheric Δ14C and δ13C during HS1 that marks the first step of the CO2-rise. Increasing CO2-concentrations with a simultaneous drop in their Δ14C, call for the ventilation of an old and 14C-depleted carbon reservoir. In this respect, several studies point to the presence of very old, 14C-depleted deep-waters in the glacial Southern Ocean, which rejuvenated during the last deglaciation. However, the accumulation of 14C-depleted, carbon-rich waters in the deep Southern Ocean requires circulation patterns that significantly differ from todays. Here we present a combined set of 231Pa/230Th-, Rare Earth Element- and XRF-proxy records to understand the evolution of the South Pacific Overturning Circulation (SPOC) over the last 35,000 years. Our reconstructions are based on a transect of five sediment cores from the Southwest Pacific, covering the AAIW as well as the UCDW and LCDW. Our data show that throughout the last glacial the SPOC was significantly weakened. This reduction favored the observed accumulation of 14C-depleted CO2 in Circumpolar Deep Waters (CDW). Parallel to the HS1 increase of atmospheric CO2, the deep circulation picked up its pace and recovered toward the Holocene. This trend is in remarkable agreement with water mass radiocarbon reconstructions from the very same area, as well as with atmospherical changes in CO2, Δ14C and δ13C. Hence, we are

  4. RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rising CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere could alter Earth's climate system, but it is thought that higher concentrations may improve plant growth by way of the fertilization effect. Forests, an important part of the Earth's carbon cycle, are postulated to sequester a...

  5. Modeling the transformation of atmospheric CO2 into microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mohammed Fahad; Vogt, Frank

    2017-10-23

    Marine phytoplankton acts as a considerable sink of atmospheric CO 2 as it sequesters large quantities of this greenhouse gas for biomass production. To assess microalgae's counterbalancing of global warming, the quantities of CO 2 they fix need to be determined. For this task, it is mandatory to understand which environmental and physiological parameters govern this transformation from atmospheric CO 2 to microalgal biomass. However, experimental analyses are challenging as it has been found that the chemical environment has a major impact on the physiological properties of the microalgae cells (diameter typ. 5-20 μm). Moreover, the cells can only chemically interact with their immediate vicinity and thus compound sequestration needs to be studied on a microscopic spatial scale. Due to these reasons, computer simulations are a more promising approach than the experimental studies. Modeling software has been developed that describes the dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 into oceans followed by the formation of HCO 3 - which is then transported to individual microalgae cells. The second portion of this model describes the competition of different cell species for this HCO 3 - , a nutrient, as well as its uptake and utilization for cell production. Two microalgae species, i.e. Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata, were cultured individually and in a competition situation under different atmospheric CO 2 conditions. It is shown that this novel model's predictions of biomass production are in very good agreement with the experimental flow cytometry results. After model validation, it has been applied to long-term prediction of phytoplankton generation. These investigations were motivated by the question whether or not cell production slows down as cultures grow. This is of relevance as a reduced cell production rate means that the increase in a culture's CO 2 -sinking capacity slows down as well. One implication resulting from this is that an increase in

  6. Implications of ``peak oil'' for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Unconstrained CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of "proven" and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO2 limit. It is also important to "stretch" conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era "beyond fossil fuels". We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  7. CO2 Dissociation using the Versatile Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Experiment (VADER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindon, Michael Allen

    As of 2013, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) estimates that the world emits approximately 36 trillion metric tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere every year. These large emissions have been correlated to global warming trends that have many consequences across the globe, including glacial retraction, ocean acidification and increased severity of weather events. With green technologies still in the infancy stage, it can be expected that CO2 emissions will stay this way for along time to come. Approximately 41% of the emissions are due to electricity production, which pump out condensed forms of CO2. This danger to our world is why research towards new and innovative ways of controlling CO2 emissions from these large sources is necessary. As of now, research is focused on two primary methods of CO2 reduction from condensed CO2 emission sources (like fossil fuel power plants): Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU). CCS is the process of collecting CO2 using absorbers or chemicals, extracting the gas from those absorbers and finally pumping the gas into reservoirs. CCU on the other hand, is the process of reacting CO2 to form value added chemicals, which can then be recycled or stored chemically. A Dielectric Barrier discharge (DBD) is a pulsed, low temperature, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma which creates high energy electrons suitable for dissociating CO2 into its components (CO and O) as one step in the CCU process. Here I discuss the viability of using a DBD for CO2 dissociation on an industrial scale as well as the fundamental physics and chemistry of a DBD for CO2 dissociation. This work involved modeling the DBD discharge and chemistry, which showed that there are specific chemical pathways and plasma parameters that can be adjusted to improve the CO2 reaction efficiencies and rates. Experimental studies using the Versatile Atmospheric dielectric barrier Discharge Expe

  8. Atmospheric correlation time measurements using coherent CO2 lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed TEA-CO2 lidar with coherent detection was used to measure the correlation time of backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles which are illuminated by the pulsed radiation. The correlation time of the backscatter return signal is important in studies of atmospheric turbulence and its effects on optical propagation and backscatter. If the temporal coherence of the pulse is large enough, then the temporal coherence of the return signal is dominated by the turbulence and shear for a variety of interesting atmospheric conditions. Various techniques for correlation time measurement are discussed and evaluated.

  9. Agroecosystem productivity in a warmer and CO2 enriched atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacchi, Carl; Köhler, Iris; Ort, Donald; Long, Steven; Clemente, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    A number of in-field manipulative experiments have been conducted that address the response of key ecosystem services of major agronomic species to rising CO2. Global warming, however, is inextricably linked to rising greenhouse gases in general, of which CO2 is the most dominant. Therefore, agroecosystem functioning in future conditions requires an understanding of plant responses to both rising CO2 and increased temperatures. Few in-field manipulative experiments have been conducted that supplement both heating and CO2 above background concentrations. Here, the results of six years of experimentation using a coupled Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology with variable output infrared heating arrays are reported. The manipulative experiment increased temperatures (+ 3.5˚ C) and CO2 (+ 200 μmol mol-1) above background levels for on two major agronomic crop species grown throughout the world, Zea mays (maize) and Glycine max (soybean). The first phase of this research addresses the response of plant physiological parameters to growth in elevated CO2 and warmer temperatures for maize and soybean grown in an open-air manipulative experiment. The results show that any increase in ecosystem productivity associated with rising CO2 is either similar or is offset by growth at higher temperatures, inconsistent with the perceived benefits of higher CO2 plus warmer temperatures on agroecosystem productivity. The second phase of this research addresses the opportunity to genetically modify soybean to allow for improved productivity under high CO2 and warmer temperatures by increasing a key photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle enzyme, SPBase. The results from this research demonstrates that manipulation of the photosynthetic pathway can lead to higher productivity in high CO2 and temperature relative to the wild-type control soybean. Overall, this research advances the understanding of the physiological responses of two major crops, and the impact on ecosystem services

  10. Modification of land-atmosphere interactions by CO2 effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemordant, Leo; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Increased CO2 modifies the seasonality of the water cycle through stomatal regulation and increased leaf area. As a result, the water saved during the growing season through higher water use efficiency mitigates summer dryness and the impact of potential heat waves. Land-atmosphere interactions and CO2 fertilization together synergistically contribute to increased summer transpiration. This, in turn, alters the surface energy budget and decreases sensible heat flux, mitigating air temperature rise. Accurate representation of the response to higher CO2 levels, and of the coupling between the carbon and water cycles are therefore critical to forecasting seasonal climate, water cycle dynamics and to enhance the accuracy of extreme event prediction under future climate.

  11. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  12. Implications of 'Peak Oil' for Atmospheric CO2 and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharecha, P. A.; Hansen, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Unconstrained CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of "proven" and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration -- and recent trends are toward lower estimates -- we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired facilities without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO2 limit. It is also important to "stretch" conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era "beyond fossil fuels". We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO2 below 450 ppm. It is also plausible that CO2 can be returned below 350 ppm by 2100 or sooner, if more aggressive mitigation measures are enacted, most notably a phase-out of global coal emissions by circa 2030 and large- scale reforestation, primarily in the tropics but also in temperate regions.

  13. Delta14 CO2 Atmospheric Record from Schauinsland, Germany

    DOE Data Explorer

    Levin, Ingeborg [Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Kromer, Bernd [Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

    1997-01-01

    All air samples at Schauinsland have been collected from a ventilated intake stack approximately 7m above the ground. Bi-weekly integrated CO2 samples from about 15-20 m3 of air have been continuously collected by dynamic quantitative absorption in carbonate-free sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Air has been pumped through a rotating glass tube filled with a packed bed of Raschig rings (hard glass) to enlarge the surface of the absorbing NaOH solution (200 ml of 4 normal NaOH). The CO2 absorption is quantitative and samples represent mean values of 10 days to 2 weeks. In the laboratory, the samples are extracted from the NaOH solution in a vacuum system by adding hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. 13C analyses of the CO2 are by mass spectrometry and 14C analyses are by high precision proportional counting, after purification of the CO2 sample over charcoal (Schoch et al. 1980, Kromer and Münnich 1992). δ13C values are given relative to the V-PDB standard (Hut 1987) with the overall precision of a single analysis reported to be +/- 0.15 per mil (Levin and Kromer 1997). δ14C data are given relative to the NIST oxalic acid activity corrected for decay (Stuiver and Polach 1977) with the precision of a single δ14C measurement reported to be +/- 3-5 per mil (Levin and Kromer 1997).

  14. Postglacial Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics and Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C. I.; Harrison, S. P.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2002-12-01

    Combining PMIP climate model results from the last glacial maximum (LGM) with biome modelling indicates the involvement of both cold, dry climate and physiological effects of low atmospheric CO2 in reducing tree cover on the continents. Further results with the LPJ dynamic vegetation model agree with independent evidence for greatly reduced terrestrial carbon storage at LGM, and suggest that terrestrial carbon storage continued to increase during the Holocene. These results point to predominantly oceanic explanations for preindustrial changes in atmospheric CO2, although land changes after the LGM may have contributed indirectly by reducing the aeolian marine Fe source and (on a longer time scale) by triggering CaCO3 compensation in the ocean.

  15. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system

    Treesearch

    G. Brett Runion; John R. Butnor; S. A. Prior; R. J. Mitchell; H. H. Rogers

    2012-01-01

    The southeastern landscape is composed of agricultural and forest systems that can store carbon (C) in standing biomass and soil. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial C dynamics including CO2 release back to the atmosphere and soil sequestration. Longleaf...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and field evaluation of a new calcium-based CO2 absorbent for radial diffusive sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciniello, Raffaele; Proto, Antonio; Alfano, Davide; Motta, Oriana

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the use of passive sampling as a powerful approach to monitor atmospheric CO2 is assessed. Suitable substrate based on calcium-aluminium oxide was synthetized according to a process which permits to control the particle size of the CaO/Al based sorbent. The study shows that hydration of substrate is an essential part of the process of CO2 absorption and subsequent conversion to carbonate. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopic analysis were used in order to characterize the substrate and to establish the best performances both in terms of particle size and CO2 absorption capacity. Passive samplers for CO2 monitoring were prepared and then tested at laboratory level and in the atmospheric environment. Validation was performed by comparison with an infrared continuous detector. Thermogravimetric analysis results, carried out to evaluate the absorbing capability of this new passive device, were in accordance with data collected at the same time by the active continuous analyser. The diffusive sampling rate and the diffusion coefficient of CO2 respect to this new passive device were also evaluated resulting equal to 47 ± 3 ml min-1 and 0.0509 ± 0.005 cm2 s-1, respectively.

  17. Modeling the volcanic signal in the atmospheric CO2 record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Cox, Peter M.

    2001-06-01

    There is significant interannual variability in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide even when the effect of anthropogenic sources has been accounted for. It has been shown that this variability is correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle [Bacastow, 1976; Keeling et al., 1995]. However, there are periods during the atmospheric CO2 record when this correlation does not hold and CO2 levels are much lower than can be explained by the correlation with ENSO. These periods coincide with major volcanic eruptions. It has been well documented that a major eruption has a cooling effect on the surface and lower troposphere [McCormick, 1992; Hansen, et al., 1996]. Here we show that it is likely that this cooling has a significant and measurable effect on the carbon cycle. We use a coupled general circulation climate-carbon cycle model to study the mechanisms involved. The model simulates the observed temperature and CO2 response of the climate to the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The surface cooling due to the eruption leads to reduced soil and plant respiration globally and increased gross primary productivity in the tropics. The result is significant uptake of carbon (1-2 GtC yr-1) by the terrestrial biosphere for several years after the eruption. There is no significant variation in uptake or release of carbon by the oceans.

  18. In vitro performance of prefilled CO2 absorbers with the Zeus®.

    PubMed

    Omer, Mohab; Hendrickx, Jan F A; De Ridder, Simon; De Houwer, Alexander; Carette, Rik; De Cooman, Sofie; De Wolf, Andre M

    2017-12-13

    Low fresh gas flows (FGFs) decrease the use of anesthetic gases, but increase CO 2 absorbent usage. CO 2 absorbent usage remains poorly quantified. The goal of this study is to determine canister life of 8 commercially available CO 2 absorbent prepacks with the Zeus ® . Pre-packed CO 2 canisters of 8 different brands were tested in vitro: Amsorb Plus, Spherasorb, LoFloSorb, LithoLyme, SpiraLith, SpheraSorb, Drägersorb 800+, Drägersorb Free, and CO2ntrol. CO 2 (160 mL min - 1 ) flowed into the tip of a 2 L breathing bag that was ventilated with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a respiratory rate of 10/min, and an I:E ratio of 1:1 using the controlled mechanical ventilation mode of the Zeus ® (Dräger, Lubeck, Germany). In part I, canister life of 5 canisters each of 2 different lots of each brand was determined with a 350 mL min - 1 FGF. Canister life is the time it takes for the inspired CO 2 concentration (F I CO 2 ) to rise to 0.5%. In part II, canister life was measured accross a FGF range of 0.25 to 4 L min - 1 for Drägersorb 800+ (2 lots) and SpiraLith (1 lot). In part III, the calculated canister life per 100 g fresh granule content of the different brands was compared between the Zeus and (previously published data for) the Aisys. In vitro canister life of prefilled CO 2 absorber canisters differed between brands, and depended on the amount of CO 2 absorbent and chemical composition. Canister life expressed as FCU 0.5 (the fraction of the canister used per hour) was proportional to FGF over 0.2-2 L min -1 range only, but was non-linear with higher FGF: FCU 0.5 was larger than expected with FGF > 2 L min -1 , and even with FGF > minute ventilation FCU 0.5 did not become zero, indicating some CO 2 was being absorbed. Canister life on a per weight basis of the same brand is higher with the Zeus than the Aisys. Canister life of prefilled CO 2 absorber canisters differs between brands. The FCU 0.5 -FGF relationship is not linear across

  19. Liquid water on Mars - An energy balance climate model for CO2/H2O atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Callegari, A. J.; Hsieh, C. T.; Ziegler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A simple climatic model is developed for a Mars atmosphere containing CO2 and sufficient liquid water to account for the observed hydrologic surface features by the existence of a CO2/H2O greenhouse effect. A latitude-resolved climate model originally devised for terrestrial climate studies is applied to Martian conditions, with the difference between absorbed solar flux and emitted long-wave flux to space per unit area attributed to the divergence of the meridional heat flux and the poleward heat flux assumed to equal the atmospheric eddy heat flux. The global mean energy balance is calculated as a function of atmospheric pressure to assess the CO2/H2O greenhouse liquid water hypothesis, and some latitude-resolved cases are examined in detail in order to clarify the role of atmospheric transport and temperature-albedo feedback. It is shown that the combined CO2/H2O greenhouse at plausible early surface pressures may account for climates hot enough to support a hydrological cycle and running water at present-day insolation and visible albedo levels.

  20. Liquid water on Mars - an energy balance climate model for CO2/H2O atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Callegari, A. J.; Hsieh, T.; Ziegler, W.

    1981-07-01

    A simple climatic model is developed for a Mars atmosphere containing CO2 and sufficient liquid water to account for the observed hydrologic surface features by the existence of a CO2/H2O greenhouse effect. A latitude-resolved climate model originally devised for terrestrial climate studies is applied to Martian conditions, with the difference between absorbed solar flux and emitted long-wave flux to space per unit area attributed to the divergence of the meridional heat flux and the poleward heat flux assumed to equal the atmospheric eddy heat flux. The global mean energy balance is calculated as a function of atmospheric pressure to assess the CO2/H2O greenhouse liquid water hypothesis, and some latitude-resolved cases are examined in detail in order to clarify the role of atmospheric transport and temperature-albedo feedback. It is shown that the combined CO2/H2O greenhouse at plausible early surface pressures may account for climates hot enough to support a hydrological cycle and running water at present-day insolation and visible albedo levels.

  1. Does Silicate Weathering of Loess Affect Atmospheric CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.

    2002-12-01

    Weathering of glacial loess may be a significant, yet unrecognized, component of the carbon cycle. Glaciers produce fine-grained sediment, exposing vast amounts of mineral surface area to weathering processes, yet silicate mineral weathering rates at glacier beds and of glacial till are not high. Thus, despite the tremendous potential for glaciers to influence global weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 levels, this effect has not been demonstrated. Loess, comprised of silt-clay sizes, may be the key glacial deposit in which silicate weathering rates are high. Loess is transported by wind off braid plains of rivers, and deposited broadly (order 100 km from the source) in vegetated areas. Both the fine grain size, and hence large mineral surface area, and presence of vegetation should render loess deposits highly susceptible to silicate weathering. These deposits effectively extend the geochemical impact of glaciation in time and space, and bring rock flour into conditions conducive to chemical weathering. A simple 1-d model of silicate weathering fluxes from a soil profile demonstrates the potential of loess deposition to enhance CO2 consumption. At each time step, computed mineral dissolution (using anorthite and field-based rate constants) modifies the size of mineral grains within the soil. In the case of a stable soil surface, this results in a gradual decline in weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption through time, as finer grain sizes dissolve away. Computed weathering fluxes for a typical loess, with an initial mean grain size of 25 μm, are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes from a non-loess soil that differs only in having a mean grain size of 320 μm. High weathering fluxes are maintained through time if loess is continually deposited. Deposition rates as low as 0.01 mm/yr (one loess grain thickness per year) can lead to a doubling of CO2 consumption rates within 5 ka. These results suggest that even modest loess deposition rates can significantly

  2. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  3. CO2 Ice Formation and CO2 Gas Depletion in the Polar Winter Atmosphere of Mars from Mars Climate Sounder Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinboehl, A.; Patel, P. K.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D. M.; Hayne, P. O.; McCleese, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Temperatures in the martian lower atmosphere commonly reach the frost point of CO2 in the polar winter vortices over an extended vertical range. New retrievals from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter allow the characterization of the winter polar regions with improved accuracy. MCS is a passive infrared sounder with 5 mid-infrared, 3 far infrared, and one broadband visible/near-infrared channels. Each spectral channel uses a linear detector array consisting of 21 elements, which provides -10 to 90 km altitude coverage when pointed at the Mars limb. From the infrared measurements, vertical profiles of temperature and aerosols are retrieved with an altitude resolution of about 5 km. Due to their long optical path through the atmosphere, limb measurements are susceptible to horizontal gradients in temperature or absorber amount in their line-of-sight, an effect that is particularly important in polar winter regions due to strong latitudinal temperature gradients in the atmosphere. The new retrievals take horizontal gradients in temperature and aerosols into account by means of a two-dimensional radiative transfer scheme. The resulting temperature profiles reveal that temperatures in the south winter polar region repeatedly drop several degrees below the frost point of CO2. This behavior is consistent with the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere through condensation, resulting in an atmosphere that is depleted in gaseous CO2 and enhanced in non-condensable gases like N2 and Ar. In these regions emission features at 22 μm are often found in MCS limb measurements, consistent with the presence of CO2 ice in the polar vortex. We will map these depletions of CO2 gas and show correlations with the occurrence of CO2 ice. We will provide comparisons of these effects between the southern and the northern polar winter vortices.

  4. Analysis of Urban Forest Needs as Anthropogenic (CO2) Gas Absorbent in Semarang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriani, Anisa Putri; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Green open space in cities in significant needs to maintenance environment quality. On of the critical function is to absorb increasing number of gas CO2. Therefore, developing urban forest in cities is very importance. The objective of the study is to determine the area of urban forest as CO2 gas anthropogenic absorb which is formed from fuel, diesel fuel, liquid petroleum gas. The study consists of (1) Analyzing the number of CO2 gas emission by calculating the needs of petroleum and gas based on the number of population, (2) Analyzing the power of gas absorption, (3) Measuring the air concentration of CO2 gas ambient based on daily traffic activities. This study shown that from year 2013 to year 2017, the increasing of urban forest is not so significant. For year 2013 the green open space in Semarang City are 373.67 hectares (7.5 percent from Semarang City area), consists of 239 parks, 11 public cemeteries, production forests, community forests, and urban forests, however the area of urban forest is not increase. The study assess that Antidesmabunius is one of the green species which high absorb capacity planted for Semarang. This trees produce 31,31 ton annually. This study proposed to fostering Antidesmabunius as one principle threes in Semarang urban forest.

  5. Influence of the concentration of CO2 and SO2 on the absorption of CO2 by a lithium orthosilicate-based absorbent.

    PubMed

    Pacciani, R; Torres, J; Solsona, P; Coe, C; Quinn, R; Hufton, J; Golden, T; Vega, L F

    2011-08-15

    A novel, high temperature solid absorbent based on lithium orthosilicate (Li(4)SiO(4)) has shown promise for postcombustion CO(2) capture. Previous studies utilizing a clean, synthetic flue gas have shown that the absorbent has a high CO(2) capacity, >25 wt %, along with high absorption rates, lower heat of absorption and lower regeneration temperature than other solids such as calcium oxide. The current effort was aimed at evaluating the Li(4)SiO(4) based absorbent in the presence of contaminants found in typical flue gas, specifically SO(2), by cyclic exposure to gas mixtures containing CO(2), H(2)O (up to 25 vol. %), and SO(2) (up to 0.95 vol. %). In the absence of SO(2), a stable CO(2) capacity of ∼ 25 wt % over 25 cycles at 550 °C was achieved. The presence of SO(2), even at concentrations as low as 0.002 vol. %, resulted in an irreversible reaction with the absorbent and a decrease in CO(2) capacity. Analysis of SO(2)-exposed samples revealed that the absorbent reacted chemically and irreversibly with SO(2) at 550 °C forming Li(2)SO(4). Thus, industrial application would require desulfurization of flue gas prior to contacting the absorbent. Reactivity with SO(2) is not unique to the lithium orthosilicate material, so similar steps would be required for other absorbents that chemically react with SO(2).

  6. Recent Widespread Tree Growth Decline Despite Increasing Atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas C. R.; Anand, Madhur; Leithead, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The synergetic effects of recent rising atmospheric CO2 and temperature are expected to favor tree growth in boreal and temperate forests. However, recent dendrochronological studies have shown site-specific unprecedented growth enhancements or declines. The question of whether either of these trends is caused by changes in the atmosphere remains unanswered because dendrochronology alone has not been able to clarify the physiological basis of such trends. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we combined standard dendrochronological methods with carbon isotopic analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of two deciduous and two coniferous tree species along a 9° latitudinal gradient across temperate and boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Our results show that although trees have had around 53% increases in WUE over the past century, growth decline (measured as a decrease in basal area increment – BAI) has been the prevalent response in recent decades irrespective of species identity and latitude. Since the 1950s, tree BAI was predominantly negatively correlated with warmer climates and/or positively correlated with precipitation, suggesting warming induced water stress. However, where growth declines were not explained by climate, WUE and BAI were linearly and positively correlated, showing that declines are not always attributable to warming induced stress and additional stressors may exist. Conclusions Our results show an unexpected widespread tree growth decline in temperate and boreal forests due to warming induced stress but are also suggestive of additional stressors. Rising atmospheric CO2 levels during the past century resulted in consistent increases in water use efficiency, but this did not prevent growth decline. These findings challenge current predictions of increasing terrestrial carbon stocks under climate change scenarios. PMID:20657763

  7. Recent widespread tree growth decline despite increasing atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas C R; Anand, Madhur; Leithead, Mark D

    2010-07-21

    The synergetic effects of recent rising atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are expected to favor tree growth in boreal and temperate forests. However, recent dendrochronological studies have shown site-specific unprecedented growth enhancements or declines. The question of whether either of these trends is caused by changes in the atmosphere remains unanswered because dendrochronology alone has not been able to clarify the physiological basis of such trends. Here we combined standard dendrochronological methods with carbon isotopic analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of two deciduous and two coniferous tree species along a 9 degrees latitudinal gradient across temperate and boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Our results show that although trees have had around 53% increases in WUE over the past century, growth decline (measured as a decrease in basal area increment--BAI) has been the prevalent response in recent decades irrespective of species identity and latitude. Since the 1950s, tree BAI was predominantly negatively correlated with warmer climates and/or positively correlated with precipitation, suggesting warming induced water stress. However, where growth declines were not explained by climate, WUE and BAI were linearly and positively correlated, showing that declines are not always attributable to warming induced stress and additional stressors may exist. Our results show an unexpected widespread tree growth decline in temperate and boreal forests due to warming induced stress but are also suggestive of additional stressors. Rising atmospheric CO2 levels during the past century resulted in consistent increases in water use efficiency, but this did not prevent growth decline. These findings challenge current predictions of increasing terrestrial carbon stocks under climate change scenarios.

  8. Organic chemistry in a CO2 rich early Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Millan, Maëva; Vettier, Ludovic; Szopa, Cyril

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of life on the Earth has required a prior organic chemistry leading to the formation of prebiotic molecules. The origin and the evolution of the organic matter on the early Earth is not yet firmly understood. Several hypothesis, possibly complementary, are considered. They can be divided in two categories: endogenous and exogenous sources. In this work we investigate the contribution of a specific endogenous source: the organic chemistry occurring in the ionosphere of the early Earth where the significant VUV contribution of the young Sun involved an efficient formation of reactive species. We address the issue whether this chemistry can lead to the formation of complex organic compounds with CO2 as only source of carbon in an early atmosphere made of N2, CO2 and H2, by mimicking experimentally this type of chemistry using a low pressure plasma reactor. By analyzing the gaseous phase composition, we strictly identified the formation of H2O, NH3, N2O and C2N2. The formation of a solid organic phase is also observed, confirming the possibility to trigger organic chemistry in the upper atmosphere of the early Earth. The identification of Nitrogen-bearing chemical functions in the solid highlights the possibility for an efficient ionospheric chemistry to provide prebiotic material on the early Earth.

  9. Why CO2 cools the middle atmosphere - a consolidating model perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goessling, Helge F.; Bathiany, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    Complex models of the atmosphere show that increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, while warming the surface and troposphere, lead to lower temperatures in the stratosphere and mesosphere. This cooling, which is often referred to as "stratospheric cooling", is evident also in observations and considered to be one of the fingerprints of anthropogenic global warming. Although the responsible mechanisms have been identified, they have mostly been discussed heuristically, incompletely, or in combination with other effects such as ozone depletion, leaving the subject prone to misconceptions. Here we use a one-dimensional window-grey radiation model of the atmosphere to illustrate the physical essence of the mechanisms by which CO2 cools the stratosphere and mesosphere: (i) the blocking effect, associated with a cooling due to the fact that CO2 absorbs radiation at wavelengths where the atmosphere is already relatively opaque, and (ii) the indirect solar effect, associated with a cooling in places where an additional (solar) heating term is present (which on Earth is particularly the case in the upper parts of the ozone layer). By contrast, in the grey model without solar heating within the atmosphere, the cooling aloft is only a transient blocking phenomenon that is completely compensated as the surface attains its warmer equilibrium. Moreover, we quantify the relative contribution of these effects by simulating the response to an abrupt increase in CO2 (and chlorofluorocarbon) concentrations with an atmospheric general circulation model. We find that the two permanent effects contribute roughly equally to the CO2-induced cooling, with the indirect solar effect dominating around the stratopause and the blocking effect dominating otherwise.

  10. A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Deng, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites (62 collocated with 13CO2 sites) for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using prior CO2 fluxes estimated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. This joint inversion system using both13CO2 and CO2 observations is effectively a double deconvolution system with consideration of the spatial variations of isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium. Compared to the CO2-only inversion, this 13CO2 constraint on the inversion considerably reduces the total land carbon sink from 3.40 ± 0.84 to 2.53 ± 0.93 Pg C year-1 but increases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 2.36 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1. This constraint also changes the spatial distribution of the carbon sink. The largest sink increase occurs in the Amazon, while the largest source increases are in southern Africa, and Asia, where CO2 data are sparse. Through a case study, in which the spatial distribution of the annual 13CO2 discrimination rate over land is ignored by treating it as a constant at the global average of -14. 1 ‰, the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land was found to be significantly modified (up to 15 % for some regions). The uncertainties in our disequilibrium flux estimation are 8.0 and 12.7 Pg C year-1 ‰ for land and ocean, respectively. These uncertainties induced the unpredictability of 0.47 and 0.54 Pg C year-1 in the inverted CO2 fluxes for land and ocean, respectively. Our joint inversion system is therefore

  11. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  12. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux

    Treesearch

    A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren

    2014-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity,...

  13. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  14. Characteristics of NaNO3-Promoted CdO as a Midtemperature CO2 Absorbent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Yeong; Kwak, Jin-Su; An, Young-In; Oh, Kyung-Ryul; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2017-06-28

    In this study, we explored the reaction system CdO(s) + CO 2 (g) ⇄ CdCO 3 (s) as a model system for CO 2 capture agent in the intermediate temperature range of 300-400 °C. While pure CdO does not react with CO 2 at all up to 500 °C, CdO mixed with an appropriate amount of NaNO 3 (optimal molar ratio NaNO 3 /CdO = 0.14) greatly enhances the conversion of CdO into CdCO 3 up to ∼80% (5.68 mmol/g). These NaNO 3 -promoted CdO absorbents can undergo many cycles of absorption and desorption by temperature swing between 300 and 370 °C under a 100% CO 2 condition. Details of how NaNO 3 promotes the CO 2 absorption of CdO have been delineated through various techniques using thermogravimetry, coupled with X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. On the basis of the observed data, we propose a mechanism of CO 2 absorption and desorption of NaNO 3 -promoted CdO. The absorption proceeds through a sequence of events of CO 2 adsorption on the CdO surface covered by NaNO 3 , dissolution of so-formed CdCO 3 , and precipitation of CdCO 3 particles in the NaNO 3 medium. The desorption occurs through the decomposition of CdCO 3 in the dissolved state in the NaNO 3 medium where CdO nanoparticles are formed dispersed in the NaNO 3 medium. The CdO nanoparticles are aggregated into micrometer-large particles with smooth surfaces and regular shapes.

  15. Atmospheric Variability of CO2 impact on space observation Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, A. L.; Sen, B.; Newhart, L.; Segal, G.

    2009-12-01

    If International governments are to reduce GHG levels by 80% by 2050, as recommended by most scientific bodies concerned with avoiding the most hazardous changes in climate, then massive investments in infrastructure and new technology will be required over the coming decades. Such an investment will be a huge commitment by governments and corporations, and while it will offer long-term dividends in lower energy costs, a healthier environment and averted additional global warming, the shear magnitude of upfront costs will drive a call for a monitoring and verification system. Such a system will be required to offer accountability to signatories of governing bodies, as well as, for the global public. Measuring the average global distribution of CO2 is straight forward, as exemplified by the long running station measurements managed by NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division that includes the longterm Keeling record. However, quantifying anthropogenic and natural source/sink distributions and atmospheric mixing have been much more difficult to constrain. And, yet, an accurate accounting of all anthropogenic source strengths is required for Global Treaty verification. The only way to accurately assess Global GHG emissions is to construct an integrated system of ground, air and space based observations with extensive chemical modeling capabilities. We look at the measurement requirements for the space based component of the solutions. To determine what space sensor performance requirements for ground resolution, coverage, and revisit, we have analyzed regional CO2 distributions and variability using NASA and NOAA aircraft flight campaigns. The results of our analysis are presented as variograms showing average spatial variability over several Northern Hemispheric regions. There are distinct regional differences with the starkest contrast between urban versus rural and Coastal Asia versus Coastal US. The results suggest specific consequences on what spatial and temporal

  16. Radiocarbon observations in atmospheric CO2: determining fossil fuel CO2 over Europe using Jungfraujoch observations as background.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Hammer, Samuel; Kromer, Bernd; Meinhardt, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Monthly mean 14CO2 observations at two regional stations in Germany (Schauinsland observatory, Black Forest, and Heidelberg, upper Rhine valley) are compared with free tropospheric background measurements at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps) to estimate the regional fossil fuel CO2 surplus at the regional stations. The long-term mean fossil fuel CO2 surplus at Schauinsland is 1.31+/-0.09 ppm while it is 10.96+/-0.20 ppm in Heidelberg. No significant trend is observed at both sites over the last 20 years. Strong seasonal variations of the fossil fuel CO2 offsets indicate a strong seasonality of emissions but also of atmospheric dilution of ground level emissions by vertical mixing.

  17. Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott

    2016-05-01

    National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in

  18. Airborne Double Pulsed 2-Micron IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Singh, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an airborne 2-micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements. The double pulsed, high pulse energy lidar instrument can provide high-precision CO2 column density measurements.

  19. Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; D.W. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y-1...

  20. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:26838480

  1. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    PubMed

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What is the main driver of atmospheric CO2 dynamic: ocean or permafrost?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.

    2010-12-01

    Majority have assumed that during the Last Deglaciation (LD) ocean was a strong source of carbon (C) transporting hundreds of gigatons of C into the terrestrial and atmospheric storages. Increase in the δ13C of foraminifera shells during the LD by 0.3-0.4 per mil considered as an evidence of such a source. However terrestrial and oceanic branches of the biological carbon cycle have very similar carbon isotopic signatures and carbon storage capacities. So the same δ13C increase could be caused by an oceanic bio-productivity increase and the increase of C in bottom sediments (Brovkin et al. 2002). Additionally it has been shown experimentally that at 90 ppmv increase in atmospheric CO2, due to changes in the concentration of carbonate ions in sea water, would cause the δ13C of foraminifera shells to increase by at least 0.25-0.5 per mil (Spero et al. 1997). At all stable parameters to equilibrate for 90 ppm CO2 increase in the atmosphere ocean inorganic C reservoir should have increased by 1800 Gt C (Sigman et al. 2000). Therefore it is very hard to find a mechanism which would allow ocean in LD to release carbon instead of absorbing it, and such a mechanism haven’t been found so far. Methane (CH4) produced by steppe-tundra biome (ST) soil thawing has a unique isotopic signal depleted in all isotopes. Inclusion of this source into a model of the atmospheric methane isotope budget allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of methane’s main sources. Results indicated that thawing of ST soils during the deglaciation, were the largest methane source and resulted in 255 Gt C emitted in the form of CH4 to the atmosphere (Zimov, see AGU 2010). When soil turns anaerobic only minor portion of soil C converts into CH4. Bigger portion of ST didn’t turn anaerobic at all and all decomposing C was turned into CO2. Besides that part of the soil CH4 flux was consumed by methanotrophs. Therefore C storage in ST soils were many times higher then CH4 emission into the atmosphere

  3. Constraining terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes by integrating models of biogeochemistry and atmospheric transport and data of surface carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D.; Bowman, K.; Chen, M.; Liu, Y.; He, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Oechel, W.

    2014-09-01

    Regional net carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems could be estimated with either biogeochemistry models by assimilating surface carbon flux measurements or atmospheric CO2 inversions by assimilating observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we combine the ecosystem biogeochemistry modeling and atmospheric CO2 inverse modeling to investigate the magnitude and spatial distribution of the terrestrial ecosystem CO2 sources and sinks. First, we constrain a terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM) at site level by assimilating the observed net ecosystem production (NEP) for various plant functional types. We find that the uncertainties of model parameters are reduced up to 90% and model predictability is greatly improved for all the plant functional types (coefficients of determination are enhanced up to 0.73). We then extrapolate the model to a global scale at a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to estimate the large-scale terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes, which serve as prior for atmospheric CO2 inversion. Second, we constrain the large-scale terrestrial CO2 fluxes by assimilating the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 and mid-tropospheric CO2 retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) into an atmospheric transport model (GEOS-Chem). The transport inversion estimates that: (1) the annual terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink in 2003 is -2.47 Pg C yr-1, which agrees reasonably well with the most recent inter-comparison studies of CO2 inversions (-2.82 Pg C yr-1); (2) North America temperate, Europe and Eurasia temperate regions act as major terrestrial carbon sinks; and (3) The posterior transport model is able to reasonably reproduce the atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which are validated against Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) CO2 concentration data. This study indicates that biogeochemistry modeling or atmospheric transport and inverse modeling alone might not be able to well quantify regional terrestrial carbon fluxes. However, combining

  4. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  5. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  6. Three dimensional global modeling of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, I.; Hansen, J.; Rind, D.

    1983-01-01

    A model was developed to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO2 variations. The approach uses a three dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO2 at the surface. The 3-D model employed is identified and biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks are discussed. Some preliminary model results are presented.

  7. Decadal trends in regional CO2 fluxes estimated from atmospheric inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Top-down approach (or atmospheric inversion) using atmospheric transport models and CO2 observations are an effective way to optimize surface fluxes at subcontinental scales and monthly time intervals. We used the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC AGCM-based Chemistry Transport Model (JAMSTEC's ACTM) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations at NOAA, CSIRO, JMA, NIES, NIES-MRI sites from Obspack GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data product (2013) for estimating CO2 fluxes for the period of 1990-2011. Carbon fluxes were estimated for 84 partitions (54 lands + 30 oceans) of the globe by using a Bayesian synthesis inversion framework. A priori fluxes are (1) atmosphere-ocean exchange from Takahashi et al. (2009), (2) 3-hourly terrestrial biosphere fluxes (annually balanced) from CASA model, and (3) fossil fuel fluxes from CDIAC global totals and EDGAR4.2 spatial distributions. Four inversion cases have been tested with 1) 21 sites (sites which have real data fraction of 90 % or more for 1989-2012), 2) 21 sites + CONTRAIL data, 3) 66 sites (over 70 % coverage), and 4) 157 sites. As a result of time-dependent inversions, mean total flux (excluding fossil fuel) for the period 1990-2011 is estimated to be -3.09 ±0.16 PgC/yr (mean and standard deviation of the four cases), where land (incl. biomass burning and land use change) and ocean absorb an average rate of -1.80 ±0.18 and -1.29 ±0.08 PgC/yr, respectively. The average global total sink from 1991-2000 to 2001-2010 increases by about 0.5 PgC/yr, mainly due to the increase in northern and tropical land sinks (Africa, Boreal Eurasia, East Asia and Europe), while ocean sinks show no clear trend. Inversion with CONTRAIL data estimates large positive flux anomalies in late 1997 associated with the 1997/98 El-Nino, while inversion without CONTARIL data between Japan and Australia fails to estimate such large anomalies. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1401) of the Ministry of the Environment

  8. Sugarcane vinasse CO2 gasification and release of ash-forming matters in CO2 and N2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Dirbeba, Meheretu Jaleta; Brink, Anders; DeMartini, Nikolai; Lindberg, Daniel; Hupa, Mikko

    2016-10-01

    Gasification of sugarcane vinasse in CO2 and the release of ash-forming matters in CO2 and N2 atmospheres were investigated using a differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyzer (DSC-TGA) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C. The results showed that pyrolysis is the main mechanism for the release of the organics from vinasse. Release of ash-forming matters in the vinasse is the main cause for vinasse char weight losses in the TGA above 700°C. The losses are higher in N2 than in CO2, and increase considerably with temperature. CO2 gasification also consumes the carbon in the vinasse chars while suppressing alkali release. Alkali release was also significant due to volatilization of KCl and reduction of alkali sulfate and carbonate by carbon. The DSC measured thermal events during heating up in N2 atmosphere that correspond to predicted melting temperatures of alkali salts in the char. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rising global atmospheric CO2 concentration and implications for crop productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is incontestable evidence that the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is increasing. Regardless of the potential impact of this increase on climate change, CO2 will have a direct effect on plants since it is a primary input for growth. Herein, we discuss relative CO2 responses of C3 and C4 plant...

  10. Implications of elevated atmospheric CO2 on plant growth and water relations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Empirical records provide incontestable evidence for the global rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere. Plant growth can be stimulated by elevation of CO2; photosynthesis increases and economic yield is often enhanced. The application of more CO2 can result in less water use. Competitio...

  11. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Sabrina; Cox, Peter M; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2016-10-27

    Uncertainties in the response of vegetation to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations contribute to the large spread in projections of future climate change. Climate-carbon cycle models generally agree that elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations will enhance terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). However, the magnitude of this CO 2 fertilization effect varies from a 20 per cent to a 60 per cent increase in GPP for a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in model studies. Here we demonstrate emergent constraints on large-scale CO 2 fertilization using observed changes in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO 2 seasonal cycle that are thought to be the result of increasing terrestrial GPP. Our comparison of atmospheric CO 2 measurements from Point Barrow in Alaska and Cape Kumukahi in Hawaii with historical simulations of the latest climate-carbon cycle models demonstrates that the increase in the amplitude of the CO 2 seasonal cycle at both measurement sites is consistent with increasing annual mean GPP, driven in part by climate warming, but with differences in CO 2 fertilization controlling the spread among the model trends. As a result, the relationship between the amplitude of the CO 2 seasonal cycle and the magnitude of CO 2 fertilization of GPP is almost linear across the entire ensemble of models. When combined with the observed trends in the seasonal CO 2 amplitude, these relationships lead to consistent emergent constraints on the CO 2 fertilization of GPP. Overall, we estimate a GPP increase of 37 ± 9 per cent for high-latitude ecosystems and 32 ± 9 per cent for extratropical ecosystems under a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on the basis of the Point Barrow and Cape Kumukahi records, respectively.

  13. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  14. Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites in the Umweltbundesamt (UBA) Air Sampling Network (1972 - 1997)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Fricke, W. [Umweltbundesamt, Offenbach/Main, Germany; Wallasch, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Offenbach/Main, Germany; Uhse, Karin [Umweltbundesamt, Offenbach/Main, Germany; Schmidt, Martina [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Levin, Ingeborg [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

    1998-01-01

    Air samples for the purpose of monitoring atmospheric CO2 were collected from five sites in the UBA air sampling network. Annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Brotjacklriegel rose from 331.63 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1972 to 353.12 ppmv in 1988. Because of the site's forest location, the monthly atmospheric CO2 record from Brotjacklriegel exhibits very large seasonal amplitude. This amplitude reached almost 40 ppmv in 1985. Minimum mixing ratios are recorded at Brotjacklriegel during July-September; maximum values, during November-March. CO2 concentrations at Deuselbach rose from 340.82 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1972 to 363.76 ppmv in 1989. The monthly atmospheric CO2 record from Deuselbach is influenced by local agricultural activities and photosynthetic depletion but does not exhibit the large seasonal amplitude observed at other UBA monitoring sites. Minimum monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios at Deuselbach are typically observed in August but may appear as early as June. Maximum values are seen in the record for November-March. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Schauinsland rose from ~328 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1972 to ~365 ppmv in 1997. This represents a growth rate of approximately 1.5 ppmv per year. The Schauinsland site is considered the least contaminated of the UBA sites. CO2 concentrations at Waldhof rose from 346.82 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1972 to 372.09 ppmv in 1993. The Waldhof site is subject to pollution sources; consequently, the monthly atmospheric CO2 record exhibits a large seasonal amplitude. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Westerland rose from ~329 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1973 to ~364 ppmv in 1997. The atmospheric CO2 record from Westerland shows a seasonal pattern similar to other UBA sites; minimum values are recorded during July-September; maximum mixing ratios during November-March.

  15. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  16. Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 From Regional to Global Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate and the knowledge on its distributions and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions persist due to limited observations. This study uses the airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IMCW) lidar developed at NASA Langley Research Center to measure regional atmospheric CO2 spatio-temporal variations. Further lidar development and demonstration will provide the capability of global atmospheric CO2 estimations from space, which will significantly advances our knowledge on atmospheric CO2 and reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of future climate. In this presentation, atmospheric CO2 column measurements from airborne flight campaigns and lidar system simulations for space missions will be discussed. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved. Data analysis also shows that airborne lidar CO2 column measurements over these surfaces agree well with in-situ measurements. Even when thin cirrus clouds present, consistent CO2 column measurements between clear and thin cirrus cloudy skies are obtained. Airborne flight campaigns have demonstrated that precise atmospheric column CO2 values can be measured from current IM-CW lidar systems, which will lead to use this airborne technique in monitoring CO2 sinks and sources in regional and continental scales as proposed by the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America project. Furthermore, analyses of space CO2 measurements shows that applying the current IM-CW lidar technology and approach to space, the CO2 science goals of space missions will be achieved, and uncertainties in CO2 distributions and variations will be reduced.

  17. Climate change and the middle atmosphere. I - The doubled CO2 climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Prather, M. J.; Suozzo, R.; Balachandran, N. K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of doubling the atmospheric content of CO2 on the middle-atmosphere climate is investigated using the GISS global climate model. In the standard experiment, the CO2 concentration is doubled both in the stratosphere and troposphere, and the SSTs are increased to match those of the doubled CO2 run of the GISS model. Results show that the doubling of CO2 leads to higher temperatures in the troposphere, and lower temperatures in the stratosphere, with a net result being a decrease of static stability for the atmosphere as a whole. The middle atmosphere dynamical differences found were on the order of 10-20 percent of the model values for the current climate. These differences, along with the calculated temperature differences of up to about 10 C, may have a significant impact on the chemistry of the future atmosphere, including that of stratospheric ozone, the polar ozone 'hole', and basic atmospheric composition.

  18. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming.

    PubMed

    Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

  19. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California using atmospheric observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Jeong, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Keeling, R. F.; Bambha, R.; Brophy, K.; Callahan, W.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Gurney, K. R.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S. J.; Michelsen, H.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, W.; Parazoo, N. C.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S. J.

    2018-06-01

    Analysis systems incorporating atmospheric observations could provide a powerful tool for validating fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions reported for individual regions, provided that fossil fuel sources can be separated from other CO2 sources or sinks and atmospheric transport can be accurately accounted for. We quantified ffCO2 by measuring radiocarbon (14C) in CO2, an accurate fossil-carbon tracer, at nine observation sites in California for three months in 2014–15. There is strong agreement between the measurements and ffCO2 simulated using a high-resolution atmospheric model and a spatiotemporally-resolved fossil fuel flux estimate. Inverse estimates of total in-state ffCO2 emissions are consistent with the California Air Resources Board’s reported ffCO2 emissions, providing tentative validation of California’s reported ffCO2 emissions in 2014–15. Continuing this prototype analysis system could provide critical independent evaluation of reported ffCO2 emissions and emissions reductions in California, and the system could be expanded to other, more data-poor regions.

  1. The Role of CO2 Clouds on the Stability of the Early Mars Atmosphere Against Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, Jim; Kling, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    The early Mars atmosphere was likely significantly more massive than it is today, given the growing body of evidence that liquid water flowed on the surface early in the planet’s history. Although the CO2 inventory was likely larger in the past, there is much we still do not understand about the state of that CO2. As surface pressure increases, the temperature at which CO2 condenses also increases, making it more likely that CO2 ice would form and persist on the surface when the atmospheric mass increases. An atmosphere that is stable against collapse must contain enough energy, distributed globally, to prohibit the formation of permanents CO2 ice reservoirs that lead to collapse. The presence of the “faint young sun” compounds this issue. Previous global climate model (GCM) investigations show that atmospheres within specific ranges of obliquities and atmospheric masses are stable against collapse. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to expand on these works by focusing specifically on the role of CO2 clouds in atmospheric stability. Two end member simulations are executed, one that includes CO2 cloud formation and one that does not. The simulation that explicitly includes CO2 clouds is stable, while the simulation without CO2 clouds collapses into permanent surface CO2 reservoirs. In both cases, significant atmospheric condensation is occurring in the atmosphere throughout the year. In the case without CO2 clouds, all atmospheric condensation (even if it occurs at altitude) leads directly to the accumulation of surface ice, whereas in the case with CO2 clouds, there is a finite settling timescale for the cloud particles. Depending on this timescale and the local conditions, the cloud particles could stay aloft or sublimate as they fall toward the surface. Thus, the striking difference between these two cases illustrates the important role of CO2 clouds. We plan to conduct and present further simulations to better understand how atmospheric stability depends on

  2. The effect of anthropogenic emissions corrections on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Mills, R. T.; Erickson, D. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    A previous study (Erickson et al. 2008) approximated the monthly global emission estimates of anthropogenic CO2 by applying a 2-harmonic Fourier expansion with coefficients as a function of latitude to annual CO2 flux estimates derived from United States data (Blasing et al. 2005) that were extrapolated globally. These monthly anthropogenic CO2 flux estimates were used to model atmospheric concentrations using the NASA GEOS-4 data assimilation system. Local variability in the amplitude of the simulated CO2 seasonal cycle were found to be on the order of 2-6 ppmv. Here we used the same Fourier expansion to seasonally adjust the global annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the SRES A2 scenario. For a total of four simulations, both the annual and seasonalized fluxes were advected in two configurations of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) used in the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP). One configuration used the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM) coupled with the CASA‧ (carbon only) biogeochemistry model and the other used CLM coupled with the CN (coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles) biogeochemistry model. All four simulations were forced with observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre and a prescribed transient atmospheric CO2 concentration for the radiation and land forcing over the 20th century. The model results exhibit differences in the seasonal cycle of CO2 between the seasonally corrected and uncorrected simulations. Moreover, because of differing energy and water feedbacks between the atmosphere model and the two land biogeochemistry models, features of the CO2 seasonal cycle were different between these two model configurations. This study reinforces previous findings that suggest that regional near-surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations depend strongly on the natural sources and sinks of CO2, but also on the strength of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions and geographic position. This work further

  3. Mechanisms of glacial-to-future atmospheric CO2 effects on plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alex; Pétriacq, Pierre; Schwarzenbacher, Roland E; Beerling, David J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on plant disease have received increasing attention, but with little consensus emerging on the direct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity. Furthermore, the impact of sub-ambient CO 2 concentrations, which plants have experienced repeatedly over the past 800 000 yr, has been largely overlooked. A combination of gene expression analysis, phenotypic characterisation of mutants and mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was used to determine development-independent effects of sub-ambient CO 2 (saCO 2 ) and elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) on Arabidopsis immunity. Resistance to the necrotrophic Plectosphaerella cucumerina (Pc) was repressed at saCO 2 and enhanced at eCO 2 . This CO 2 -dependent resistance was associated with priming of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent gene expression and required intact JA biosynthesis and signalling. Resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) increased at both eCO 2 and saCO 2 . Although eCO 2 primed salicylic acid (SA)-dependent gene expression, mutations affecting SA signalling only partially suppressed Hpa resistance at eCO 2 , suggesting additional mechanisms are involved. Induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at saCO 2 corresponded to a loss of resistance in glycolate oxidase mutants and increased transcription of the peroxisomal catalase gene CAT2, unveiling a mechanism by which photorespiration-derived ROS determined Hpa resistance at saCO 2 . By separating indirect developmental impacts from direct immunological effects, we uncover distinct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity and discuss their evolutionary significance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Characterizing Uncertainties in Atmospheric Inversions of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, K. J.; Graven, H. D.; Manning, A.; Arnold, T.; Fischer, M. L.; Jeong, S.; Cui, X.; Parazoo, N.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006 California passed a law requiring greenhouse gas emissions be reduced to 1990 levels by 2020, equivalent to a 20% reduction over 2006-2020. Assessing compliance with greenhouse gas mitigation policies requires accurate determination of emissions, particularly for CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion (ffCO2). We found differences in inventory-based ffCO2 flux estimates for California total emissions of 11% (standard deviation relative to the mean), and even larger differences on some smaller sub-state levels. Top-down studies may be useful for validating ffCO2 flux estimates, but top-down studies of CO2 typically focus on biospheric CO2 fluxes and they are not yet well-developed for ffCO2. Implementing top-down studies of ffCO2 requires observations of a fossil fuel combustion tracer such as 14C to distinguish ffCO2 from biospheric CO2. However, even if a large number of 14C observations are available, multiple other sources of uncertainty will contribute to the uncertainty in posterior ffCO2 flux estimates. With a Bayesian inverse modelling approach, we use simulated atmospheric observations of ffCO2 at a network of 11 tower sites across California in an observing system simulation experiment to investigate uncertainties. We use four different prior ffCO2 flux estimates, two different atmospheric transport models, different types of spatial aggregation, and different assumptions for observational and model transport uncertainties to investigate contributions to posterior ffCO2 emission uncertainties. We show how various sources of uncertainty compare and which uncertainties are likely to limit top-down estimation of ffCO2 fluxes in California.

  5. [Quantitative estimation source of urban atmospheric CO2 by carbon isotope composition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Nan-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jian; Zeng, You-Shi; Fan, Xue-Bo; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan

    2012-04-01

    To effectively reduce urban carbon emissions and verify the effectiveness of currently project for urban carbon emission reduction, quantitative estimation sources of urban atmospheric CO2 correctly is necessary. Since little fractionation of carbon isotope exists in the transportation from pollution sources to the receptor, the carbon isotope composition can be used for source apportionment. In the present study, a method was established to quantitatively estimate the source of urban atmospheric CO2 by the carbon isotope composition. Both diurnal and height variations of concentrations of CO2 derived from biomass, vehicle exhaust and coal burning were further determined for atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai. Biomass-derived CO2 accounts for the largest portion of atmospheric CO2. The concentrations of CO2 derived from the coal burning are larger in the night-time (00:00, 04:00 and 20:00) than in the daytime (08:00, 12:00 and 16:00), and increase with the increase of height. Those derived from the vehicle exhaust decrease with the height increase. The diurnal and height variations of sources reflect the emission and transport characteristics of atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai.

  6. Physiological Significance of Low Atmospheric CO 2 for Plant-Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowling, Sharon A.; Sykes, Martin T.

    1999-09-01

    Methods of palaeoclimate reconstruction from pollen are built upon the assumption that plant-climate interactions remain the same through time or that these interactions are independent of changes in atmospheric CO2. The latter may be problematic because air trapped in polar ice caps indicates that atmospheric CO2 has fluctuated significantly over at least the past 400,000 yr, and likely the last 1.6 million yr. Three other points indicate potential biases for vegetation-based climate proxies. First, C3-plant physiological research shows that the processes that determine growth optima in plants (photosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration) are all highly CO2-dependent, and thus were likely affected by the lower CO2 levels of the last glacial maximum. Second, the ratio of carbon assimilation per unit transpiration (called water-use efficiency) is sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 through effects on stomatal conductance and may have altered C3-plant responses to drought. Third, leaf gas-exchange experiments indicate that the response of plants to carbon-depleting environmental stresses are strengthened under low CO2 relative to today. This paper reviews the scope of research addressing the consequences of low atmospheric CO2 for plant and ecosystem processes and highlights why consideration of the physiological effects of low atmospheric CO2 on plant function is recommended for any future refinements to pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

  7. Potential of European 14CO2 observation network to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 emissions via atmospheric inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilong; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Vogel, Felix; Wu, Lin; Yin, Yi; Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Combining measurements of atmospheric CO2 and its radiocarbon (14CO2) fraction and transport modeling in atmospheric inversions offers a way to derive improved estimates of CO2 emitted from fossil fuel (FFCO2). In this study, we solve for the monthly FFCO2 emission budgets at regional scale (i.e., the size of a medium-sized country in Europe) and investigate the performance of different observation networks and sampling strategies across Europe. The inversion system is built on the LMDZv4 global transport model at 3.75° × 2.5° resolution. We conduct Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and use two types of diagnostics to assess the potential of the observation and inverse modeling frameworks. The first one relies on the theoretical computation of the uncertainty in the estimate of emissions from the inversion, known as posterior uncertainty, and on the uncertainty reduction compared to the uncertainty in the inventories of these emissions, which are used as a prior knowledge by the inversion (called prior uncertainty). The second one is based on comparisons of prior and posterior estimates of the emission to synthetic true emissions when these true emissions are used beforehand to generate the synthetic fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratio measurements that are assimilated in the inversion. With 17 stations currently measuring 14CO2 across Europe using 2-week integrated sampling, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions in a country where the network is rather dense like Germany, is larger than 30 %. With the 43 14CO2 measurement stations planned in Europe, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions is increased for the UK, France, Italy, eastern Europe and the Balkans, depending on the configuration of prior uncertainty. Further increasing the number of stations or the sampling frequency improves the uncertainty reduction (up to 40 to 70 %) in high emitting regions, but the performance of the inversion remains

  8. Hemiparasite abundance in an alpine treeline ecotone increases in response to atmospheric CO(2) enrichment.

    PubMed

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Zumbrunn, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    Populations of the annual hemiparasites Melampyrum pratense L. and Melampyrum sylvaticum L. were studied at the treeline in the Swiss Alps after 3 years of in situ CO(2) enrichment. The total density of Melampyrum doubled to an average of 44 individuals per square meter at elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). In response to elevated CO(2), the height of the more abundant and more evenly distributed M. pratense increased by 20%, the number of seeds per fruit by 21%, and the total seed dry mass per fruit by 27%, but the individual seed size did not change. These results suggest that rising atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate the reproductive output and increase the abundance of Melampyrum in the alpine treeline ecotone. Because hemiparasites can have important effects on community dynamics and ecosystem processes, notably the N cycle, changing Melampyrum abundance may potentially influence the functioning of alpine ecosystems in a future CO(2)-rich atmosphere.

  9. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

    PubMed Central

    Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Raupach, Michael R.; Field, Christopher B.; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Ciais, Philippe; Conway, Thomas J.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing. PMID:17962418

  10. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks.

    PubMed

    Canadell, Josep G; Le Quéré, Corinne; Raupach, Michael R; Field, Christopher B; Buitenhuis, Erik T; Ciais, Philippe; Conway, Thomas J; Gillett, Nathan P; Houghton, R A; Marland, Gregg

    2007-11-20

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO(2) emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000-2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y(-1). The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO(2) emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO(2) sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO(2) growth rate have been approximately 65 +/- 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 +/- 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 +/- 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate-carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.

  11. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO 2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Buddle, Stanlee; Caraher, Joel

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO 2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO 2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO 2 with at least 95% CO 2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO 2 captured. In the first budget period of the project,more » the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO 2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO 2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO 2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major unit operations in the process. The bench scale unit operations were assembled into

  12. Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3: Implications for early planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes, which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesicular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

  13. Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlies, A.

    2009-08-01

    The sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to alterations in the marine biological carbon pump, such as brought about by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization, has repeatedly been investigated by studies employing numerical biogeochemical ocean models. It is shown here that the results of such ocean-centered studies are very sensitive to the assumption made about the response of the carbon reservoirs on the atmospheric side of the sea surface. Assumptions made include prescribed atmospheric pCO2, an interactive atmospheric CO2 pool exchanging carbon with the ocean but not with the terrestrial biosphere, and an interactive atmosphere that exchanges carbon with both oceanic and terrestrial carbon pools. The impact of these assumptions on simulated annual to millennial oceanic carbon uptake is investigated for a hypothetical increase in the C:N ratio of the biological pump and for an idealized enhancement of phytoplankton growth. Compared to simulations with interactive atmosphere, using prescribed atmospheric pCO2 overestimates the sensitivity of the oceanic CO2 uptake to changes in the biological pump, by about 2%, 25%, 100%, and >500% on annual, decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. The smaller efficiency of the oceanic carbon uptake under an interactive atmosphere is due to the back flux of CO2 that occurs when atmospheric CO2 is reduced. Adding an interactive terrestrial carbon pool to the atmosphere-ocean model system has a small effect on annual timescales, but increases the simulated fertilization-induced oceanic carbon uptake by about 4%, 50%, and 100% on decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively, for pCO2 sensitivities of the terrestrial carbon storage in the middle range of the C4MIP models (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). For such sensitivities, a substantial fraction of oceanic carbon uptake induced by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization originates, on timescales longer than decades, not from the atmosphere

  14. The role of artificial atmospheric CO2 removal in stabilizing Earth's climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, K.; Tokarska, K.

    2014-12-01

    The current CO2 emission trend entails a risk that the 2°C target will be missed, potentially causing "dangerous" changes in Earth's climate system. This research explores the role of artificial atmospheric CO2 removal (also referred to as "negative emissions") in stabilizing Earth's climate after overshoot. We designed a range of plausible CO2 emission scenarios, which follow a gradual transition from a fossil fuel driven economy to a zero-emission energy system, followed by a period of negative emissions. The scenarios differ in peak emissions rate and, accordingly, the amount of negative emissions, to reach the same cumulative emissions compatible with the 2°C temperature stabilization target. The climate system components' responses are computed using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model of intermediate complexity. Results suggest that negative emissions are effective in reversing the global mean temperature and stabilizing it at a desired level (2°C above pre-industrial) after overshoot. Also, changes in the meridional overturning circulation and sea ice are reversible with the artificial removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. However, sea level continues to rise and is not reversible for several centuries, even under assumption of large amounts of negative emissions. For sea level to decline, atmospheric CO2 needs to be reduced to pre-industrial levels in our simulations. During the negative emission phase, outgassing of CO2 from terrestrial and marine carbon sinks offsets the artificial removal of atmospheric CO2, thereby reducing its effectiveness. On land, the largest CO2 outgassing occurs in the Tropics and is partially compensated by CO2 uptake at northern high latitudes. In the ocean, outgassing occurs mostly in the Southern Ocean, North Atlantic and tropical Pacific. The strongest outgassing occurs for pathways entailing greatest amounts of negative emissions, such that the efficiency of CO2 removal - here defined as the change in

  15. Evaluation of terrestrial carbon cycle models with atmospheric CO2 measurements: Results from transient simulations considering increasing CO2, climate, and land-use effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dargaville, R.J.; Heimann, Martin; McGuire, A.D.; Prentice, I.C.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Joos, F.; Clein, Joy S.; Esser, G.; Foley, J.; Kaplan, J.; Meier, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Ramankutty, N.; Reichenau, T.; Schloss, A.; Sitch, S.; Tian, H.; Williams, L.J.; Wittenberg, U.

    2002-01-01

    An atmospheric transport model and observations of atmospheric CO2 are used to evaluate the performance of four Terrestrial Carbon Models (TCMs) in simulating the seasonal dynamics and interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 between 1980 and 1991. The TCMs were forced with time varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations, climate, and land use to simulate the net exchange of carbon between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The monthly surface CO2 fluxes from the TCMs were used to drive the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry and the simulated seasonal cycles and concentration anomalies are compared with observations from several stations in the CMDL network. The TCMs underestimate the amplitude of the seasonal cycle and tend to simulate too early an uptake of CO2 during the spring by approximately one to two months. The model fluxes show an increase in amplitude as a result of land-use change, but that pattern is not so evident in the simulated atmospheric amplitudes, and the different models suggest different causes for the amplitude increase (i.e., CO2 fertilization, climate variability or land use change). The comparison of the modeled concentration anomalies with the observed anomalies indicates that either the TCMs underestimate interannual variability in the exchange of CO2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, or that either the variability in the ocean fluxes or the atmospheric transport may be key factors in the atmospheric interannual variability.

  16. Regional and Global Atmospheric CO2 Measurements Using 1.57 Micron IM-CW Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Harrison, F. Wallace; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Kooi, Susan; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; hide

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate, and knowledge of its distribution and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 are also crucial to improving our understanding of CO2 sources, sinks and transports. To meet these science needs, NASA is developing technologies for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, which is aimed at global CO2 observations. Meanwhile an airborne investigation of atmospheric CO2 distributions as part of the NASA Suborbital Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America (ACT-America) mission will be conducted with lidar and in situ instrumentation over the central and eastern United States during all four seasons and under a wide range of meteorological conditions. In preparing for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center and Exelis Inc./Harris Corp. have jointly developed and demonstrated the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar. Since 2005, a total of 14 flight campaigns have been conducted. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved, and the lidar CO2 measurements also agree well with in-situ observations. Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales have been observed during these campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200A-300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Results from recent flight campaigns are presented in this paper. The ability to achieve the science objectives of the ASCENDS mission with an IM-CW lidar is also discussed in this paper, along with the plans for the ACT-America aircraft investigation that begins in the winter of 2016.

  17. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera): reproductive fitness

    Treesearch

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil Nelson; Elina Oksanen; Elina Vaapavuori; David F. Karnosky

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO2 and O3 for paper birch...

  18. Phloem function: A key to understanding and manipulating plant responses to rising atmospheric [CO2]?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) directly stimulates photosynthesis and reduces stomatal conductance in C3 plants. Both of these physiological effects have the potential to alter phloem function at elevated [CO2]. Recent research has clearly established that photosynthetic...

  19. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and N fertilization on bahiagrass root distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on pasture systems remain understudied in the Southeastern US. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was established in 2005 using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic...

  20. Atmospheric CO2 and O3 alter competition for soil nitrogen in developing forests

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Zak; Mark E. Kubiske; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Andrew J. Burton

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth responses to rising atmospheric CO2 and O3 vary among genotypes and between species, which could plausibly influence the strength of competitive interactions for soil N. Ascribable to the size-symmetric nature of belowground competition, we reasoned that differential growth responses to CO2...

  1. Measurement of Concentration of CO2 in Atmosphere In Situ Based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    As one of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO2 has a significant impact on global climate change and the ecological environment. Because of close relationship between human activities and the CO2 emissions, it is very meaningful of detecting atmospheric CO2 accurately. Based on the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, the wavelength of distributed feedback laser is modulated, Fresnel lens is used as the receiving optical system, which receives the laser-beam reflected by corner reflector, and focuses the receiving laser-beam to the photoelectric detector. The second harmonic signal is received through lock-in amplifier and collected by AD data acquisition card, after that the system is built up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57μm, the system is calibrated by 100% CO2 gas cell. The atmospheric CO2 in situ is measured with long open-path way. Furthermore, the results show that CO2 concentration decreases along time in the morning of day. It is proved that TDLAS technology has many advantages, including fast response, high sensitivity and resolution. This research provides a technique for monitoring secular change of CO2 in atmosphere.

  2. Measurement of Concentration of CO2 in Atmosphere In Situ Based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    As one of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO2has a significant impact on global climate change and the ecological environment. Because of close relationship between human activities and the CO2 emissions, it is very meaningful of detecting atmospheric CO2accurately. Based on the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, the wavelength of distributed feedback laser is modulated, Fresnel lens is used as the receiving optical system, which receives the laser-beam reflected by corner reflector, and focuses the receiving laser-beam to the photoelectric detector. The second harmonic signal is received through lock-in amplifier and collected by AD data acquisition card, after that the system is built up.By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2at 1.57μm, the system is calibrated by 100% CO2 gas cell. The atmospheric CO2 in situ is measured with long open-path way. Furthermore, the results show that CO2 concentration decreases along time in the morning of day. It is proved that TDLAS technology has many advantages, including fast response, high sensitivity and resolution. This research provides a technique for monitoring secular change of CO2 in atmosphere.

  3. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-emore » project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.« less

  4. Acetylene fuel from atmospheric CO2 on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars mission scenario proposed by Baker and Zubrin (1990) intended for an unmanned preliminary mission is extended to maximize the total impulse of fuel produced with a minimum mass of hydrogen from Earth. The hydrogen along with atmospheric carbon dioxide is processed into methane and oxygen by the exothermic reaction in an atmospheric processing module. Use of simple chemical reactions to produce acetylene/oxygen rocket fuel on Mars from hydrogen makes it possible to produce an amount of fuel that is nearly 100 times the mass of hydrogen brought from earth. If such a process produces the return propellant for a manned Mars mission, the required mission mass in LEO is significantly reduced over a system using all earth-derived propellants.

  5. Carbon isotope signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in precipitation and atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Górka, Maciej; Sauer, Peter E; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Jędrysek, Mariusz-Orion

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes results of chemical and isotopic analysis of inorganic carbon species in the atmosphere and precipitation for the calendar year 2008 in Wrocław (SW Poland). Atmospheric air samples (collected weekly) and rainwater samples (collected after rain episodes) were analysed for CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and for δ13C composition. The values obtained varied in the ranges: atmospheric CO2: 337-448 ppm; δ13CCO2 from -14.4 to -8.4‰; DIC in precipitation: 0.6-5.5 mg dm(-3); δ13CDIC from -22.2 to +0.2‰. No statistical correlation was observed between the concentration and δ13C value of atmospheric CO2 and DIC in precipitation. These observations contradict the commonly held assumption that atmospheric CO2 controls the DIC in precipitation. We infer that DIC is generated in ambient air temperatures, but from other sources than the measured atmospheric CO2. The calculated isotopic composition of a hypothetical CO2 source for DIC forming ranges from -31.4 to -11.0‰, showing significant seasonal variations accordingly to changing anthropogenic impact and atmospheric mixing processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Net uptake of atmospheric CO2 by coastal submerged aquatic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tokoro, Tatsuki; Hosokawa, Shinya; Miyoshi, Eiichi; Tada, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Kenta; Montani, Shigeru; Kayanne, Hajime; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    ‘Blue Carbon’, which is carbon captured by marine living organisms, has recently been highlighted as a new option for climate change mitigation initiatives. In particular, coastal ecosystems have been recognized as significant carbon stocks because of their high burial rates and long-term sequestration of carbon. However, the direct contribution of Blue Carbon to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 through air-sea gas exchange remains unclear. We performed in situ measurements of carbon flows, including air-sea CO2 fluxes, dissolved inorganic carbon changes, net ecosystem production, and carbon burial rates in the boreal (Furen), temperate (Kurihama), and subtropical (Fukido) seagrass meadows of Japan from 2010 to 2013. In particular, the air-sea CO2 flux was measured using three methods: the bulk formula method, the floating chamber method, and the eddy covariance method. Our empirical results show that submerged autotrophic vegetation in shallow coastal waters can be functionally a sink for atmospheric CO2. This finding is contrary to the conventional perception that most near-shore ecosystems are sources of atmospheric CO2. The key factor determining whether or not coastal ecosystems directly decrease the concentration of atmospheric CO2 may be net ecosystem production. This study thus identifies a new ecosystem function of coastal vegetated systems; they are direct sinks of atmospheric CO2. PMID:24623530

  7. The Effect of CO2 Ice Cap Sublimation on Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Sublimation of the polar CO2 ice caps on Mars is an ongoing phenomenon that may be contributing to secular climate change on Mars. The transfer of CO2 between the surface and atmosphere via sublimation and deposition may alter atmospheric mass such that net atmospheric mass is increasing despite seasonal variations in CO2 transfer. My study builds on previous studies by Kahre and Haberle that analyze and compare data from the Phoenix and Viking Landers 1 and 2 to determine whether secular climate change is happening on Mars. In this project, I use two years worth of temperature, pressure, and elevation data from the MSL Curiosity rover to create a program that allows for successful comparison of Curiosity pressure data to Viking Lander pressure data so a conclusion can be drawn regarding whether CO2 ice cap sublimation is causing a net increase in atmospheric mass and is thus contributing to secular climate change on Mars.

  8. Speleothems as proxy for the carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    1993-12-01

    We have measured the stable isotope ratios of carbon in a suite of recent cave deposits (less than 200 years) from the San Saba County, Texas, USA. The methodology for dating these deposits using excess Pb-210 was recently established (Baskaran and Iliffe, 1993). The carbon isotope ratios of these samples, spanning the time period approximately 1800-1990 AD, reflect the carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 for the same period. The pathways by which the delta C-13 of atmospheric CO2 is imprinted on these speleothems can be explained using a model developed by Cerling (1984). The results suggest that the carbon isotope ratios of speleothems can be used to develop long-term, high-resolution chronologies of the delta C-13 of atmospheric CO2 and, by implication, the concentration of the atmospheric CO2.

  9. Atmospheric Collapse on Early Mars: The Role of CO2 Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Steakley, K. E.; Murphy, J. R.; Kling, A.

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of evidence that liquid water flowed on the surface early in Mars' history strongly implies that the early Martian atmosphere was significantly more massive than it is today. While it seems clear that the total CO2 inventory was likely substantially larger in the past, the fundamental question about the physical state of that CO2 is not completely understood. Because the temperature at which CO2 condenses increases with surface pressure, surface CO2 ice is more likely to form and persist as the atmospheric mass increases. For the atmosphere to remain stable against collapse, there must be enough energy, distributed planet wide, to stave off the formation of permanent CO2 caps that leads to atmospheric collapse. The presence of a "faint young sun" that was likely about 25 percent less luminous 3.8 billion years ago than the sun today makes this even more difficult. Several physical processes play a role in the ultimate stability of a CO2 atmosphere. The system is regulated by the energy balance between solar insolation, the radiative effects of the atmosphere and its constituents, atmospheric heat transport, heat exchange between the surface and the atmosphere, and latent heating/cooling. Specific considerations in this balance for a given orbital obliquity/eccentricity and atmospheric mass are the albedo of the caps, the dust content of the atmosphere, and the presence of water and/or CO2 clouds. Forget et al. show that, for Mars' current obliquity (in a circular orbit), CO2 atmospheres ranging in surface pressure from 500 hectopascals to 3000 hectopascals would have been stable against collapsing into permanent surface ice reservoirs. Soto et al. examined a similar range in initial surface pressure to investigate atmospheric collapse and to compute collapse rates. CO2 clouds and their radiative effects were included in Forget et al. but they were not included in Soto et al. Here we focus on how CO2 clouds affect the stability of the atmosphere

  10. Using radiocarbon to investigate soil respiration impacts on atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. L.; LaFranchi, B. W.; McFarlane, K. J.; Desai, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    While soil respiration is believed to represent the largest single source of CO2 emissions on a global scale, there are few tools available to measure soil emissions at large spatial scales. We investigated whether radiocarbon (14C) abundance in CO2 could be used to detect and characterize soil emissions in the atmosphere, taking advantage of the fact that 14C abundance in soil carbon is elevated compared to the background atmosphere, a result of thermonuclear weapons testing during the mid-20th Century (i.e. bomb-C). Working in a temperate hardwood forest in Northern Wisconsin during 2011-12, we made semi-high-frequency measurements of CO2 at nested spatial scales from the soil subsurface to 150 m above ground level. These measurements were used to investigate seasonal patterns in respired C sources, and to evaluate whether variability in soil-respired Δ14C could also be detected in atmospheric measurements. In our ground-level measurements we found large seasonal variation in soil-respired 14CO2 that correlated with soil moisture, which was likely related to root activity. Atmospheric measurements of 14CO2 in the forest canopy (2 to 30m) were used to construct Keeling plots, and these provided larger spatial-scale estimates of respired 14CO2 that largely agreed with the soil-level measurements. In collaboration with the NOAA we also examined temporal patterns of 14CO2 at the Park Falls tall-tower (150m), and found elevated 14CO2 levels during summer months that likely resulted from increased respiration from heterotrophic sources. These results demonstrate that a fingerprint from soil-respired CO2 can be detected in the seasonal patterns of atmospheric 14CO2, even at a regionally-integrating spatial scale far from the soil surface.

  11. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  12. The stomatal CO2 proxy does not saturate at high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: evidence from stomatal index responses of Araucariaceae conifers.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2011-09-01

    The inverse relationship between the number of stomata on a leaf surface and the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) in which the leaf developed allows plants to optimise water-use efficiency (WUE), but it also permits the use of fossil plants as proxies of palaeoatmospheric [CO(2)]. The ancient conifer family Araucariaceae is often represented in fossil floras and may act as a suitable proxy of palaeo-[CO(2)], yet little is known regarding the stomatal index (SI) responses of extant Araucariaceae to [CO(2)]. Four Araucaria species (Araucaria columnaris, A. heterophylla, A. angustifolia and A. bidwillii) and Agathis australis displayed no significant relationship in SI to [CO(2)] below current ambient levels (~380 ppm). However, representatives of the three extant genera within the Araucariaceae (A. bidwillii, A. australis and Wollemia nobilis) all exhibited significant reductions in SI when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm). Stomatal conductance was reduced and WUE increased when grown under elevated [CO(2)]. Stomatal pore length did not increase alongside reduced stomatal density (SD) and SI in the three araucariacean conifers when grown at elevated [CO(2)]. These pronounced SD and SI reductions occur at higher [CO(2)] levels than in other species with more recent evolutionary origins, and may reflect an evolutionary legacy of the Araucariaceae in the high [CO(2)] world of the Mesozoic Era. Araucariacean conifers may therefore be suitable stomatal proxies of palaeo-[CO(2)] during periods of "greenhouse" climates and high [CO(2)] in the Earth's history.

  13. Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Trevor F; Prentice, I. Colin; Canadell, Josep G; Williams, Christopher A; Wang, Han; Raupach, Michael; Collatz, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and offset a large fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The terrestrial carbon sink is increasing, yet the mechanisms responsible for its enhancement, and implications for the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, remain unclear. Here using global carbon budget estimates, ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple global vegetation models, we report a recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, and a decline in the fraction of anthropogenic emissions that remain in the atmosphere, despite increasing anthropogenic emissions. We attribute the observed decline to increases in the terrestrial sink during the past decade, associated with the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 on vegetation and the slowdown in the rate of warming on global respiration. The pause in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate provides further evidence of the roles of CO2 fertilization and warming-induced respiration, and highlights the need to protect both existing carbon stocks and regions, where the sink is growing rapidly. PMID:27824333

  14. Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake

    DOE PAGES

    Keenan, Trevor F.; Prentice, I. Colin; Canadell, Josep G.; ...

    2016-11-08

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and offset a large fraction of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. The terrestrial carbon sink is increasing, yet the mechanisms responsible for its enhancement, and implications for the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2, remain unclear. Here using global carbon budget estimates, ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple global vegetation models, we report a recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2, and a decline in the fraction of anthropogenic emissions that remain in the atmosphere, despite increasing anthropogenic emissions. We also attribute the observed decline tomore » increases in the terrestrial sink during the past decade, associated with the effects of rising atmospheric CO 2 on vegetation and the slowdown in the rate of warming on global respiration. Furthermore, the pause in the atmospheric CO 2 growth rate provides further evidence of the roles of CO 2 fertilization and warming-induced respiration, and highlights the need to protect both existing carbon stocks and regions, where the sink is growing rapidly.« less

  15. Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Trevor F.; Prentice, I. Colin; Canadell, Josep G.

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and offset a large fraction of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. The terrestrial carbon sink is increasing, yet the mechanisms responsible for its enhancement, and implications for the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2, remain unclear. Here using global carbon budget estimates, ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple global vegetation models, we report a recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2, and a decline in the fraction of anthropogenic emissions that remain in the atmosphere, despite increasing anthropogenic emissions. We also attribute the observed decline tomore » increases in the terrestrial sink during the past decade, associated with the effects of rising atmospheric CO 2 on vegetation and the slowdown in the rate of warming on global respiration. Furthermore, the pause in the atmospheric CO 2 growth rate provides further evidence of the roles of CO 2 fertilization and warming-induced respiration, and highlights the need to protect both existing carbon stocks and regions, where the sink is growing rapidly.« less

  16. CO2 capture from humid flue gases and humid atmosphere using a microporous coppersilicate.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Khumnoon, Chutharat; Lee, Zhen Hao; Moon, Won Kyung; Docao, Son; Nguyen, Thanh Huu; Hwang, In Chul; Moon, Dohyun; Oleynikov, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2015-10-16

    Capturing CO2 from humid flue gases and atmosphere with porous materials remains costly because prior dehydration of the gases is required. A large number of microporous materials with physical adsorption capacity have been developed as CO2-capturing materials. However, most of them suffer from CO2 sorption capacity reduction or structure decomposition that is caused by co-adsorbed H2O when exposed to humid flue gases and atmosphere. We report a highly stable microporous coppersilicate. It has H2O-specific and CO2-specific adsorption sites but does not have H2O/CO2-sharing sites. Therefore, it readily adsorbs both H2O and CO2 from the humid flue gases and atmosphere, but the adsorbing H2O does not interfere with the adsorption of CO2. It is also highly stable after adsorption of H2O and CO2 because it was synthesized hydrothermally. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. CO2 deficit in temperate forest soils receiving high atmospheric N-deposition.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Siegfried

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is provided for an internal CO2 sink in forest soils, that may have a potential impact on the global CO2-budget. Lowered CO2 fraction in the soil atmosphere, and thus lowered CO2 release to the aboveground atmosphere, is indicated in high N-deposition areas. Also at forest edges, especially of spruce forest, where additional N-deposition has occurred, the soil CO2 is lowered, and the gradient increases into the closed forest. Over the last three decades the capacity of the forest soil to maintain the internal sink process has been limited to a cumulative supply of approximately 1000 and 1500 kg N ha(-1). Beyond this limit the internal soil CO2 sink becomes an additional CO2 source, together with nitrogen leaching. This stage of "nitrogen saturation" is still uncommon in closed forests in southern Scandinavia, however, it occurs in exposed forest edges which receive high atmospheric N-deposition. The soil CO2 gradient, which originally increases from the edge towards the closed forest, becomes reversed.

  18. Intermediate time scale response of atmospheric CO 2 following prescribed fire in a longleaf pine forest

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian; Parker, M.; Maze, G.

    Fire plays an essential role in maintaining the structure and function of longleaf pine ecosystems. While the effects of fire on carbon cycle have been measured in previous studies for short periods during a burn and for multiyear periods following the burn, information on how carbon cycle is influenced by such changes over the span of a few weeks to months has yet to be quantified. We have analyzed high-frequency measurements of CO 2 concentration and flux, as well as associated micrometeorological variables, at three levels of the tall Aiken AmeriFlux tower during and after a prescribed burn. Measurements ofmore » the CO 2 concentration and vertical fluxes were examined as well as calculated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for periods prior to and after the burn. Large spikes in both CO 2 concentration and CO 2 flux during the fire and increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and reduced CO 2 flux were observed for several weeks following the burn, particularly below the forest canopy. Both CO 2 measurements and NEE were found to return to their preburn states within 60–90 days following the burn when no statistical significance was found between preburn and postburn NEE. Furthermore, this study examines the micrometeorological conditions during a low-intensity prescribed burn and its short-term effects on local CO 2 dynamics in a forested environment by identifying observable impacts on local measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and fluxes.« less

  19. A Test of Sensitivity to Convective Transport in a Global Atmospheric CO2 Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bian, H.; Kawa, S. R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Rasch, P.; Wu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO2 distributions. GlobalCO2 in the year 2000 is simulated using theCTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA s Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO2 by adopting the same CO2 emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection. Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO2 over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO2 difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO2 seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO2 sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO2 driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  20. Responses of C4 grasses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment : I. Effect of irradiance.

    PubMed

    Sionit, Nasser; Patterson, David T

    1984-12-01

    The growth and photosynethetic responses to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment of 4 species of C 4 grasses grown at two levels of irradiance were studied. We sought to determine whether CO 2 enrichment would yield proportionally greater growth enhancement in the C 4 grasses when they were grown at low irradiance than when grown at high irradiance. The species studied were Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, and Setaria faberi. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350, 675 and 1,000 μl 1 -1 CO 2 and 1,000 or 150 μmol m -2 s -1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). An increase in CO 2 concentration and PPFD significantly affected net photosynthesis and total biomass production of all plants. Plants grown at low PPFD had significantly lower rates of photosynthesis, produced less biomass, and had reduced responses to increases in CO 2 . Plants grown in CO 2 -enriched atmosphere had lower photosynthetic capacity relative to the low CO 2 grown plants when exposed to lower CO 2 concentration at the time of measurement, but had greater rate of photosynthesis when exposed to increasing PPFD. The light level under which the plants were growing did not influence the CO 2 compensation point for photosynthesis.

  1. Intermediate time scale response of atmospheric CO2 following prescribed fire in a longleaf pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viner, B.; Parker, M.; Maze, G.; Varnedoe, P.; Leclerc, M.; Starr, G.; Aubrey, D.; Zhang, G.; Duarte, H.

    2016-10-01

    Fire plays an essential role in maintaining the structure and function of longleaf pine ecosystems. While the effects of fire on carbon cycle have been measured in previous studies for short periods during a burn and for multiyear periods following the burn, information on how carbon cycle is influenced by such changes over the span of a few weeks to months has yet to be quantified. We have analyzed high-frequency measurements of CO2 concentration and flux, as well as associated micrometeorological variables, at three levels of the tall Aiken AmeriFlux tower during and after a prescribed burn. Measurements of the CO2 concentration and vertical fluxes were examined as well as calculated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for periods prior to and after the burn. Large spikes in both CO2 concentration and CO2 flux during the fire and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and reduced CO2 flux were observed for several weeks following the burn, particularly below the forest canopy. Both CO2 measurements and NEE were found to return to their preburn states within 60-90 days following the burn when no statistical significance was found between preburn and postburn NEE. This study examines the micrometeorological conditions during a low-intensity prescribed burn and its short-term effects on local CO2 dynamics in a forested environment by identifying observable impacts on local measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and fluxes.

  2. Intermediate time scale response of atmospheric CO 2 following prescribed fire in a longleaf pine forest

    DOE PAGES

    Viner, Brian; Parker, M.; Maze, G.; ...

    2016-10-12

    Fire plays an essential role in maintaining the structure and function of longleaf pine ecosystems. While the effects of fire on carbon cycle have been measured in previous studies for short periods during a burn and for multiyear periods following the burn, information on how carbon cycle is influenced by such changes over the span of a few weeks to months has yet to be quantified. We have analyzed high-frequency measurements of CO 2 concentration and flux, as well as associated micrometeorological variables, at three levels of the tall Aiken AmeriFlux tower during and after a prescribed burn. Measurements ofmore » the CO 2 concentration and vertical fluxes were examined as well as calculated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for periods prior to and after the burn. Large spikes in both CO 2 concentration and CO 2 flux during the fire and increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and reduced CO 2 flux were observed for several weeks following the burn, particularly below the forest canopy. Both CO 2 measurements and NEE were found to return to their preburn states within 60–90 days following the burn when no statistical significance was found between preburn and postburn NEE. Furthermore, this study examines the micrometeorological conditions during a low-intensity prescribed burn and its short-term effects on local CO 2 dynamics in a forested environment by identifying observable impacts on local measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and fluxes.« less

  3. Assessing Atmospheric CO2 Entrapped in Clay Nanotubes using Residual Gas Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Das, Sankar; Maity, Abhijit; Pradhan, Manik; Jana, Subhra

    2016-02-16

    A residual gas analyzer (RGA) coupled with a high-vacuum chamber has been explored to measure atmospheric CO2 entrapped in aminosilane-modified clay nanotubes. Ambient CO2 uptake efficacy together with stability of these novel adsorbents composed of both primary and/or secondary amine sites has been demonstrated at standard ambient temperature and pressure. The unprecedented sensitivity and accuracy of the RGA-based mass spectrometry technique toward atmospheric CO2 measurement has been substantiated with a laser-based optical cavity-enhanced integrated cavity output spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics of atmospheric CO2 on amine-functionalized clay nanotubes followed the fractional-order kinetic model compared to that of the pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order rate equations. The efficiency along with stability of these novel adsorbents has also been demonstrated by their repetitive use for CO2 capture in the oxidative environment. Our findings thus point to a fundamental study on the atmospheric CO2 adsorption by amine-loaded adsorbents using an easy handling and low-cost benchtop RGA-based mass spectrometer, opening a new strategy for CO2 capture and sequestering study.

  4. Evolutionary History of Atmospheric CO2 during the Late Cenozoic from Fossilized Metasequoia Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqing; Momohara, Arata; Wang, Li; Lebreton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    The change in ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations provides important clues for understanding the relationship between the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature. However, the lack of CO2 evolution curves estimated from a single terrestrial proxy prevents the understanding of climatic and environmental impacts due to variations in data. Thus, based on the stomatal index of fossilized Metasequoia needles, we reconstructed a history of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from middle Miocene to late Early Pleistocene when the climate changed dramatically. According to this research, atmospheric CO2 concentration was stabile around 330–350 ppmv in the middle and late Miocene, then it decreased to 278–284 ppmv during the Late Pliocene and to 277–279 ppmv during the Early Pleistocene, which was almost the same range as in preindustrial time. According to former research, this is a time when global temperature decreased sharply. Our results also indicated that from middle Miocene to Pleistocene, global CO2 level decreased by more than 50 ppmv, which may suggest that CO2 decrease and temperature decrease are coupled. PMID:26154449

  5. Evolutionary History of Atmospheric CO2 during the Late Cenozoic from Fossilized Metasequoia Needles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqing; Momohara, Arata; Wang, Li; Lebreton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    The change in ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations provides important clues for understanding the relationship between the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature. However, the lack of CO2 evolution curves estimated from a single terrestrial proxy prevents the understanding of climatic and environmental impacts due to variations in data. Thus, based on the stomatal index of fossilized Metasequoia needles, we reconstructed a history of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from middle Miocene to late Early Pleistocene when the climate changed dramatically. According to this research, atmospheric CO2 concentration was stabile around 330-350 ppmv in the middle and late Miocene, then it decreased to 278-284 ppmv during the Late Pliocene and to 277-279 ppmv during the Early Pleistocene, which was almost the same range as in preindustrial time. According to former research, this is a time when global temperature decreased sharply. Our results also indicated that from middle Miocene to Pleistocene, global CO2 level decreased by more than 50 ppmv, which may suggest that CO2 decrease and temperature decrease are coupled.

  6. Development of a Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar for Range Resolved Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulgueta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo. C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffery J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-m coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument will measure atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) initially from a ground platform, and then be prepared for aircraft installation to measure the atmospheric CO2 column densities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere. The airborne prototype CO2 lidar can measure atmospheric CO2 column density in a range bin of 1km with better than 1.5% precision at horizontal resolution of less than 50km. It can provide the image of the pooling of CO2 in lowlying areas and performs nighttime mass balance measurements at landscape scale. This sensor is unique in its capability to study the vertical ABL-free troposphere exchange of CO2 directly. It will allow the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop.

  7. Atmospheric Fossil Fuel CO2 Tracing By 14C In Some Chinese Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Niu, Z.; Zhu, Y., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    CO2 plays an important role in global climate as a primary greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Moreover, it has been shown that more than 70% of global fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are concentrated in urban areas (Duren and Miller, 2012). Our study focuses on atmospheric CO2ff concentrations in 15 Chinese cities using accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure 14C. Our objectives are: (1) to document atmospheric CO2ff concentrations in a variety of urban environments, (2) to differentiate the spatial-temporal variations in CO2ff among these cities, and (3) to ascertain the factors that control the observed variations. For about two years (winter 2014 to winter 2016), the CO2ff concentrations we observed from all sites varied from 5.1±4.5 ppm to 65.8±39.0 ppm. We observed that inland cities display much higher CO2ff concentrations and overall temporal variations than coastal cities in winter, and that northern cities have higher CO2ff concentrations than those of southern cities in winter. For inland cities relatively high CO2ff values are observed in winter and low values in summer; while seasonal variations are not distinct in the coastal cities. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in CO2ff values are found between weekdays and weekends as was shown previously in Xi'an (Zhou et al., 2014). Diurnal CO2ff variations are plainly evident, with high values between midnight and 4:00 am, and during morning and afternoon rush hours (Niu et al., 2016). The high CO2ff concentrations in northern inland cities in winter results mainly from the substantial consumption of fossil fuels for heating. The high CO2ff concentrations seen in diurnal measurements result mainly from variations in atmospheric dispersion, and from vehicle emissions related to traffic flows. The inter-annual variations in CO2ff in cities could provide a useful reference for local governments to develop policy around the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction strategies.

  8. Analysis of Vertical Weighting Functions for Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, S.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Weaver, C. J.; Kawa, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Several NASA groups have developed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approaches to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidates for NASA's ASCENDS space mission. For example, the Goddard CO2 Sounder approach uses two pulsed lasers to simultaneously measure both CO2 and O2 absorption in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764 nm. The measurements of CO2 and O2 absorption allow computing their vertically weighted number densities and then their ratios for estimating CO2 concentration relative to dry air. Since both the CO2 and O2 densities and their absorption line-width decrease with altitude, the absorption response (or weighting function) varies with both altitude and absorption wavelength. We have used some standard atmospheres and HITRAN 2008 spectroscopy to calculate the vertical weighting functions for two CO2 lines near 1571 nm and the O2 lines near 764.7 and 1260 nm for candidate online wavelength selections for ASCENDS. For CO2, the primary candidate on-line wavelengths are 10-12 pm away from line center with the weighting function peaking in the atmospheric boundary layer to measure CO2 sources and sinks at the surface. Using another on-line wavelength 3-5 pm away from line center allows the weighting function to peak in the mid- to upper troposphere, which is sensitive to CO2 transport in the free atmosphere. The Goddard CO2 sounder team developed an airborne precursor version of a space instrument. During the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011 it has participated in airborne measurement campaigns over a variety of different sites in the US, flying with other NASA ASCENDS lidar candidates along with accurate in-situ atmospheric sensors. All flights used altitude patterns with measurements at steps in altitudes between 3 and 13 km, along with spirals from 13 km altitude to near the surface. Measurements from in-situ sensors allowed an

  9. BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Network (BEACON) - Bringing Measurements of CO2 Emissions to a School Near You

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teige, V. E.; Havel, E.; Patt, C.; Heber, E.; Cohen, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    The University of California at Berkeley in collaboration with the Chabot Space and Science Center describe a set of educational programs, workshops, and exhibits based on a multi-node greenhouse gas and air quality monitoring network being deployed over Oakland, California. Examining raw numerical data using highly engaging and effective geo-data visualization tools like Google Earth can make the science come alive for students, and provide a hook for drawing them into deeper investigations. The Climate Science Investigations teacher workshop at the Chabot Space and Science Center will make use of Google Earth, Excel, and other geo-data visualization tools to step students through the process from data acquisition to discovery. Using multiple data sources, including output from the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Network (BEACON) project, participants will be encouraged to explore a variety of different modes of data display toward producing a unique, and ideally insightful, illumination of the data.

  10. Constraining land carbon cycle process understanding with observations of atmospheric CO2 variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, F.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate our understanding of the land biospheric carbon cycle by benchmarking a model and its variants to atmospheric CO2 observations and to an atmospheric CO2 inversion. Though the seasonal cycle in CO2 observations is well simulated by the model (RMSE/standard deviation of observations <0.5 at most sites north of 15N and <1 for Southern Hemisphere sites) different model setups suggest that the CO2 seasonal cycle provides some constraint on gross photosynthesis, respiration, and fire fluxes revealed in the amplitude and phase at northern latitude sites. CarbonTracker inversions (CT) and model show similar phasing of the seasonal fluxes but agreement in the amplitude varies by region. We also evaluate interannual variability (IAV) in the measured atmospheric CO2 which, in contrast to the seasonal cycle, is not well represented by the model. We estimate the contributions of biospheric and fire fluxes, and atmospheric transport variability to explaining observed variability in measured CO2. Comparisons with CT show that modeled IAV has some correspondence to the inversion results >40N though fluxes match poorly at regional to continental scales. Regional and global fire emissions are strongly correlated with variability observed at northern flask sample sites and in the global atmospheric CO2 growth rate though in the latter case fire emissions anomalies are not large enough to account fully for the observed variability. We discuss remaining unexplained variability in CO2 observations in terms of the representation of fluxes by the model. This work also demonstrates the limitations of the current network of CO2 observations and the potential of new denser surface measurements and space based column measurements for constraining carbon cycle processes in models.

  11. Detection of CO2 leaks from carbon capture and storage sites to the atmosphere with combined CO2 and O2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main issues in carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the possibility of leakage of CO2 from the storage reservoir to the atmosphere, both from a public health and a climate change combat perspective. Detecting these leaks in the atmosphere is difficult due to the rapid mixing of the emitted CO2 with the surrounding air masses and the high natural variability of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Instead of measuring only the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere, its isotopes or chemical tracers that are released together with the CO2, our method uses O2 measurements in addition to CO2 measurements to detect a leak from a CCS site. CO2 and O2 are coupled in most processes on earth. In photosynthesis, plants take up CO2 and release O2 at the same time. In respiration and fossil fuel burning, O2 is consumed while CO2 is released. In case of a leak from a CCS site, however, there is no relationship between CO2 and O2. A CO2 leak can therefore be distinguished from other sources of CO2 by looking at the atmospheric CO2-O2 ratio. A natural increase of the CO2 concentration is accompanied by a drop in the O2 concentration, while an increase in the CO2 concentration caused by a leak from a CCS site does not have any effect on the O2 concentration. To demonstrate this leak detection strategy we designed and built a transportable CO2 and O2 measurement system, that is capable of measuring the relatively minute (ppm's variations on a 21% concentration) changes in the O2 concentration. The system comprises of three cases that contain the instrumentation and gas handling equipment, the gas cylinders used as reference and calibration gases and a drying system, respectively. Air is pumped to the system from an air inlet that is placed in a small tower in the field. At the conference, we will demonstrate the success of leak detection with our system by showing measurements of several CO2 release experiments, where CO2 was released at a small distance from the air inlet of

  12. Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peylin, P.; Law, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Chevallier, F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Maki, T.; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Peters, W.; Rayner, P. J.; Rödenbeck, C.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Zhang, X.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversions estimate surface carbon fluxes from an optimal fit to atmospheric CO2 measurements, usually including prior constraints on the flux estimates. Eleven sets of carbon flux estimates are compared, generated by different inversions systems that vary in their inversions methods, choice of atmospheric data, transport model and prior information. The inversions were run for at least 5 yr in the period between 1990 and 2010. Mean fluxes for 2001-2004, seasonal cycles, interannual variability and trends are compared for the tropics and northern and southern extra-tropics, and separately for land and ocean. Some continental/basin-scale subdivisions are also considered where the atmospheric network is denser. Four-year mean fluxes are reasonably consistent across inversions at global/latitudinal scale, with a large total (land plus ocean) carbon uptake in the north (-3.4 Pg C yr-1 (±0.5 Pg C yr-1 standard deviation), with slightly more uptake over land than over ocean), a significant although more variable source over the tropics (1.6 ± 0.9 Pg C yr-1) and a compensatory sink of similar magnitude in the south (-1.4 ± 0.5 Pg C yr-1) corresponding mainly to an ocean sink. Largest differences across inversions occur in the balance between tropical land sources and southern land sinks. Interannual variability (IAV) in carbon fluxes is larger for land than ocean regions (standard deviation around 1.06 versus 0.33 Pg C yr-1 for the 1996-2007 period), with much higher consistency among the inversions for the land. While the tropical land explains most of the IAV (standard deviation ~ 0.65 Pg C yr-1), the northern and southern land also contribute (standard deviation ~ 0.39 Pg C yr-1). Most inversions tend to indicate an increase of the northern land carbon uptake from late 1990s to 2008 (around 0.1 Pg C yr-1, predominantly in North Asia. The mean seasonal cycle appears to be well constrained by the atmospheric data over the northern land (at the

  13. Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peylin, P.; Law, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Chevallier, F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Maki, T.; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Peters, W.; Rayner, P. J.; Rödenbeck, C.; Zhang, X.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversions estimate surface carbon fluxes from an optimal fit to atmospheric CO2 measurements, usually including prior constraints on the flux estimates. Eleven sets of carbon flux estimates are compared, generated by different inversions systems that vary in their inversions methods, choice of atmospheric data, transport model and prior information. The inversions were run for at least 5 yr in the period between 1990 and 2009. Mean fluxes for 2001-2004, seasonal cycles, interannual variability and trends are compared for the tropics and northern and southern extra-tropics, and separately for land and ocean. Some continental/basin-scale subdivisions are also considered where the atmospheric network is denser. Four-year mean fluxes are reasonably consistent across inversions at global/latitudinal scale, with a large total (land plus ocean) carbon uptake in the north (-3.3 Pg Cy-1 (±0.6 standard deviation)) nearly equally spread between land and ocean, a significant although more variable source over the tropics (1.6 ± 1.0 Pg Cy-1) and a compensatory sink of similar magnitude in the south (-1.4 ± 0.6 Pg Cy-1) corresponding mainly to an ocean sink. Largest differences across inversions occur in the balance between tropical land sources and southern land sinks. Interannual variability (IAV) in carbon fluxes is larger for land than ocean regions (standard deviation around 1.05 versus 0.34 Pg Cy-1 for the 1996-2007 period), with much higher consistency amoung the inversions for the land. While the tropical land explains most of the IAV (stdev ∼ 0.69 Pg Cy-1), the northern and southern land also contribute (stdev ∼ 0.39 Pg Cy-1). Most inversions tend to indicate an increase of the northern land carbon uptake through the 2000s (around 0.11 Pg Cy-1), shared by North America and North Asia. The mean seasonal cycle appears to be well constrained by the atmospheric data over the northern land (at the continental scale), but still highly dependent on

  14. Transient Atmospheric Circulation Changes in a Grand ensemble of Idealized CO2 Increase Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpechko, A.; Manzini, E.; Kornblueh, L.

    2017-12-01

    The yearly evolution with increasing forcing of the large-scale atmospheric circulation is examined in a 68-member ensemble of 1pctCO2 scenario experiments performed with the MPI-ESM model. Each member of the experiment ensemble is integrated for 155 years, from initial conditions taken from a 2000-yr long pre-industrial control climate experiment. The 1pctCO2 scenario experiments are conducted following the protocol of including as external forcing only a CO2 concentration increase at 1%/year, till quadrupling of CO2 concentrations. MPI-ESM is the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (including coupling between the atmosphere, ocean and seaice). By averaging over the 68 members (ensemble mean), atmospheric variability is greatly reduced. Thus, it is possible to investigate the sensitivity to the climate state of the atmospheric response to CO2 doubling. Indicators of global change show the expected monotonic evolution with increasing CO2 and a weak dependence of the thermodynamical response to CO2 doubling on the climate state. The surface climate response of the atmospheric circulation, diagnosed for instance by the pressure at sea level, and the eddy-driven jet response show instead a marked dependence to the climate state, for the Northern winter season. We find that as the CO2 concentration increases above doubling, Northern winter trends in some indicators of atmospheric circulation changes decrease or even reverse, posing the question on what are the causes of this nonlinear behavior. The investigation of the role of stationary waves, the meridional overturning circulation, the decrease in Arctic sea ice and the stratospheric vortex points to the latter as a plausible cause of such nonlinear response.

  15. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in atmospheric [CO2] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO2] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO2] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO2] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO2]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO2] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO2] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO2]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO2] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO2] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO2] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO2]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C4 photosynthesis into C3 leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration of plant responses to varying

  16. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2].

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-02-19

    Variation in atmospheric [CO(2)] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO(2)] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO(2)] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO(2)] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO(2)]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO(2)] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO(2)] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO(2)]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO(2)] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO(2)] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO(2)] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO(2)]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C(4) photosynthesis into C(3) leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration

  17. Role of advection for the ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange of alpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The neglect of the advection contribution could bring uncertainties to the estimation of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) between ecosystems and the atmosphere, especially in complex terrain and stable atmospheric conditions. In order to quantify the advection flux of CO2, we carried out four monthly field campaigns at different grasslands in the mountainous areas of Italy, Austria, and Germany in 2015 and 2016. The measurement was based on the advection completed mass balance (ACMB) concept. A home-assembled solenoid valve system, together with multiple sampling inlets and a gas analyser, was used to measure CO2 concentration online at three heights on the four sides of a control volume of 20 m by 20 m. Advection of CO2 was then calculated from the measurement of wind components and CO2 gradients. The turbulent flux of CO2 was measured by the eddy-covariance technique. Three clear automatic chambers measured NEE as reference. Results showed that both the horizontal and vertical advection contributed more significantly to CO2 flux at night time than at daytime. At most sites, the horizontal advection played a more important role than the vertical advection. The above-canopy advection contributed more CO2 flux than within-canopy advection due to the short canopy heights. Large variability of NEE measured by the three chambers indicates the challenge of comparing chamber and micrometeorological fluxes resulting from the heterogeneity of the surface.

  18. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a High Sensitivity DIAL System for Profiling Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady J.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. N.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system for atmospheric boundary layer studies and validation of space-based CO2 sensors is being developed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. To capture the variability of CO2 in the lower troposphere a precision of 1-2 ppm of CO2 (less than 0.5%) with 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution from near surface to free troposphere (4-5 km) is one of the goals of this program. In addition, a 1% (3 ppm) absolute accuracy with a 1 km resolution over 0.5 km to free troposphere (4-5 km) is also a goal of the program. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and other NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. This presentation describes the capabilities of this system for atmospheric CO2 and aerosol profiling. Examples of atmospheric measurements in the lidar and DIAL mode will be presented.

  20. [Diurnal and seasonal variations of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration in the river estuarine marsh].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Hai; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Cong-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics of diurnal and seasonal variations of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration were analyzed in the Minjiang River estuarine marsh from December 2011 to November 2012. The results revealed that both the diurnal and seasonal variation of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration showed single-peak patterns, with the valley in the daytime and the peak value at night for the diurnal variations, and the maxima in winter and minima in summer for the seasonal variation. Diurnal amplitude of CO2 concentration varied from 16.96 micromol x mol(-1) to 38.30 micromol x mol(-1). The seasonal averages of CO2 concentration in spring, summer, autumn and winter were (353.74 +/- 18.35), (327.28 +/- 8.58), (354.78 +/- 14.76) and (392.82 +/- 9.71) micromol x mol(-1), respectively, and the annual mean CO2 concentration was (357.16 +/- 26.89) micromol x mol(-1). The diurnal CO2 concentration of surface atmospheric was strongly negatively correlated with temperature, wind speed, photosynthetically active radiation and total solar radiation (P < 0.05). The diurnal concentration of CO2 was negatively related with tidal level in January, but significantly positively related in July.

  1. State of the Carbon Cycle - Consequences of Rising Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. J.; Cooley, S. R.; Alin, S. R.; Brown, M. E.; Butman, D. E.; French, N. H. F.; Johnson, Z. I.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Ocko, I.; Shadwick, E. H.; Sutton, A. J.; Potter, C. S.; Yu, R. M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2, largely attributable to human activity through fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. We outline the consequences of this carbon uptake as direct and indirect effects on terrestrial and oceanic systems and processes for different regions of North America and the globe. We assess the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks. Rising CO2 has decreased seawater pH; this process of ocean acidification has impacted some marine species and altered fundamental ecosystem processes with further effects likely. In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, net primary production, and increased water-use efficiency. Rising CO2 may change vegetation composition and carbon storage, and widespread increases in water use efficiency likely influence terrestrial hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. Consequences for human populations include changes to ecosystem services including cultural activities surrounding land use, agricultural or harvesting practices. Commercial fish stocks have been impacted and crop production yields have been changed as a result of rising CO2. Ocean and terrestrial effects are contingent on, and feedback to, global climate change. Warming and modified precipitation regimes impact a variety of ecosystem processes, and the combination of climate change and rising CO2 contributes considerable uncertainty to forecasting carbon sink capacity in the ocean and on land. Disturbance regime (fire and insects) are modified with increased temperatures. Fire frequency and intensity increase, and insect lifecycles are disrupted as temperatures move out of historical norms. Changes in disturbance patterns modulate the effects of rising CO2 depending on ecosystem type, disturbance frequency, and magnitude of events. We discuss management strategies designed to limit the rise of atmospheric CO2 and reduce

  2. An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from leaf megafossils

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, D. J.; Lomax, B. H.; Royer, D. L.; Upchurch, G. R.; Kump, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The end-Cretaceous mass extinctions, 65 million years ago, profoundly influenced the course of biotic evolution. These extinctions coincided with a major extraterrestrial impact event and massive volcanism in India. Determining the relative importance of each event as a driver of environmental and biotic change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) crucially depends on constraining the mass of CO2 injected into the atmospheric carbon reservoir. Using the inverse relationship between atmospheric CO2 and the stomatal index of land plant leaves, we reconstruct Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2) levels with special emphasis on providing a pCO2 estimate directly above the KTB. Our record shows stable Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary background pCO2 levels of 350–500 ppm by volume, but with a marked increase to at least 2,300 ppm by volume within 10,000 years of the KTB. Numerical simulations with a global biogeochemical carbon cycle model indicate that CO2 outgassing during the eruption of the Deccan Trap basalts fails to fully account for the inferred pCO2 increase. Instead, we calculate that the postboundary pCO2 rise is most consistent with the instantaneous transfer of ≈4,600 Gt C from the lithic to the atmospheric reservoir by a large extraterrestrial bolide impact. A resultant climatic forcing of +12 W⋅m−2 would have been sufficient to warm the Earth's surface by ≈7.5°C, in the absence of counter forcing by sulfate aerosols. This finding reinforces previous evidence for major climatic warming after the KTB impact and implies that severe and abrupt global warming during the earliest Paleocene was an important factor in biotic extinction at the KTB. PMID:12060729

  3. State of the Carbon Cycle - Consequences of Rising Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, David J.; Cooley, Sarah R.; Alin, Simone R.; Brown, Molly; Butman, David E.; French, Nancy H. F.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Keppel-Aleks; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Ocko, Ilissa; hide

    2016-01-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2, largely attributable to human activity through fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. We outline the consequences of this carbon uptake as direct and indirect effects on terrestrial and oceanic systems and processes for different regions of North America and the globe. We assess the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks. Rising CO2 has decreased seawater pH; this process of ocean acidification has impacted some marine species and altered fundamental ecosystem processes with further effects likely. In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, net primary production, and increased water-use efficiency. Rising CO2 may change vegetation composition and carbon storage, and widespread increases in water use efficiency likely influence terrestrial hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. Consequences for human populations include changes to ecosystem services including cultural activities surrounding land use, agricultural or harvesting practices. Commercial fish stocks have been impacted and crop production yields have been changed as a result of rising CO2. Ocean and terrestrial effects are contingent on, and feedback to, global climate change. Warming and modified precipitation regimes impact a variety of ecosystem processes, and the combination of climate change and rising CO2 contributes considerable uncertainty to forecasting carbon sink capacity in the ocean and on land. Disturbance regime (fire and insects) are modified with increased temperatures. Fire frequency and intensity increase, and insect lifecycles are disrupted as temperatures move out of historical norms. Changes in disturbance patterns modulate the effects of rising CO2 depending on ecosystem type, disturbance frequency, and magnitude of events. We discuss management strategies designed to limit the rise of atmospheric CO2 and reduce

  4. Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Jaccard, Samuel L; Galbraith, Eric D; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Anderson, Robert F

    2016-02-11

    No single mechanism can account for the full amplitude of past atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration variability over glacial-interglacial cycles. A build-up of carbon in the deep ocean has been shown to have occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the mechanisms responsible for the release of the deeply sequestered carbon to the atmosphere at deglaciation, and the relative importance of deep ocean sequestration in regulating millennial-timescale variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration before the Last Glacial Maximum, have remained unclear. Here we present sedimentary redox-sensitive trace-metal records from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean that provide a reconstruction of transient changes in deep ocean oxygenation and, by inference, respired carbon storage throughout the last glacial cycle. Our data suggest that respired carbon was removed from the abyssal Southern Ocean during the Northern Hemisphere cold phases of the deglaciation, when atmospheric CO2 concentration increased rapidly, reflecting--at least in part--a combination of dwindling iron fertilization by dust and enhanced deep ocean ventilation. Furthermore, our records show that the observed covariation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and abyssal Southern Ocean oxygenation was maintained throughout most of the past 80,000 years. This suggests that on millennial timescales deep ocean circulation and iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean played a consistent role in modifying atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  5. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice

  6. Stable carbon isotope ratio in atmospheric CO2 collected by new diffusive devices.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonio; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Rossi, Federico; Motta, Oriana

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, stable carbon isotope ratios (δ (13)C) were determined in the atmosphere by using a Ca-based sorbent, CaO/Ca12Al14O33 75:25 w/w, for passively collecting atmospheric CO2, in both field and laboratory experiments. Field measurements were conducted in three environments characterized by different carbon dioxide sources. In particular, the environments under consideration were a rather heavily trafficked road, where the source of CO2 is mostly vehicle exhaust, a rural unpolluted area, and a private kitchen where the major source of CO2 was gas combustion. Samplers were exposed to the free atmosphere for 3 days in order to allow collection of sufficient CO2 for δ(13)C analysis, then the collected CO2 was desorbed from the adsorbent with acid treatment, and directly analyzed by nondispersive infrared (NDIR) instrument. δ (13)C results confirmed that the samplers collected representative CO2 samples and no fractionation occurred during passive trapping, as also confirmed by an appositely designed experiment conducted in the laboratory. Passive sampling using CaO/Ca12Al14O33 75:25 w/w proved to be an easy and reliable method to collect atmospheric carbon dioxide for δ (13)C analysis in both indoor and outdoor places.

  7. Climatic consequences of very high CO2 levels in Earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Earth has approximately 60 bars of carbon dioxide tied up in carbonate rocks, or roughly 2/3 the amount of CO2 of Venus' atmosphere. Two different lines of evidence, one based on thermodynamics and the other on geochemical cycles, indicate that a substantial fraction of this CO2 may have resulted in the atmosphere during the first few hundred million years of the Earth's history. A natural question which arises concerning this hypothesis is whether this would have resulted in a runaway greenhouse affect. One-dimensional radiative/convective model calculations show that the surface temperature of a hypothetical primitive atmosphere containing 20 bars of CO2 would have been less than 100C and no runaway greenhouse should have occurred. The climatic stability of the early atmosphere is a consequence of three factors: (1) reduced solar luminosity at that time; (2) an increase in planetary albedo caused by Rayleigh scattering by CO2; and (3) the stabilizing effects of moist convection. The latter two factors are sufficient to prevent a CO2-induced runaway greenhouse on the present Earth and for CO2 levels up to 100 bars. It is determined whether a runaway greenhouse could have occurred during the latter stages of the accretion process and, if so, whether it would have collapsed once the influx of material slowed down.

  8. Lidar Observations of Atmospheric CO2 Column During 2014 Summer Flight Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Advanced knowledge in atmospheric CO2 is critical in reducing large uncertainties in predictions of the Earth' future climate. Thus, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) from space was recommended by the U.S. National Research Council to NASA. As part of the preparation for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Exelis, Inc. have been collaborating in development and demonstration of the Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar approach for measuring atmospheric CO2 column from space. Airborne laser absorption lidars such as the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) operating in the 1.57 micron CO2 absorption band have been developed and tested to obtain precise atmospheric CO2 column measurements using integrated path differential absorption technique and to evaluate the potential of the space ASCENDS mission. This presentation reports the results of our lidar atmospheric CO2 column measurements from 2014 summer flight campaign. Analysis shows that for the 27 Aug OCO-2 under flight over northern California forest regions, significant variations of CO2 column approximately 2 ppm) in the lower troposphere have been observed, which may be a challenge for space measurements owing to complicated topographic condition, heterogeneity of surface reflection and difference in vegetation evapotranspiration. Compared to the observed 2011 summer CO2 drawdown (about 8 ppm) over mid-west, 2014 summer drawdown in the same region measured was much weak (approximately 3 ppm). The observed drawdown difference could be the results of the changes in both meteorological states and the phases of growing seasons. Individual lidar CO2 column measurements of 0.1-s integration were within 1-2 ppm of the CO2 estimates obtained from on-board in-situ sensors. For weak surface reflection conditions such as ocean surfaces, the 1- s integrated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of

  9. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  10. Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J A; Pataki, D E; Körner, C; Clark, H; Del Grosso, S J; Grünzweig, J M; Knapp, A K; Mosier, A R; Newton, P C D; Niklaus, P A; Nippert, J B; Nowak, R S; Parton, W J; Polley, H W; Shaw, M R

    2004-06-01

    Atmospheric CO2 enrichment may stimulate plant growth directly through (1) enhanced photosynthesis or indirectly, through (2) reduced plant water consumption and hence slower soil moisture depletion, or the combination of both. Herein we describe gas exchange, plant biomass and species responses of five native or semi-native temperate and Mediterranean grasslands and three semi-arid systems to CO2 enrichment, with an emphasis on water relations. Increasing CO2 led to decreased leaf conductance for water vapor, improved plant water status, altered seasonal evapotranspiration dynamics, and in most cases, periodic increases in soil water content. The extent, timing and duration of these responses varied among ecosystems, species and years. Across the grasslands of the Kansas tallgrass prairie, Colorado shortgrass steppe and Swiss calcareous grassland, increases in aboveground biomass from CO2 enrichment were relatively greater in dry years. In contrast, CO2-induced aboveground biomass increases in the Texas C3/C4 grassland and the New Zealand pasture seemed little or only marginally influenced by yearly variation in soil water, while plant growth in the Mojave Desert was stimulated by CO2 in a relatively wet year. Mediterranean grasslands sometimes failed to respond to CO2-related increased late-season water, whereas semiarid Negev grassland assemblages profited. Vegetative and reproductive responses to CO2 were highly varied among species and ecosystems, and did not generally follow any predictable pattern in regard to functional groups. Results suggest that the indirect effects of CO2 on plant and soil water relations may contribute substantially to experimentally induced CO2-effects, and also reflect local humidity conditions. For landscape scale predictions, this analysis calls for a clear distinction between biomass responses due to direct CO2 effects on photosynthesis and those indirect CO2 effects via soil moisture as documented here.

  11. Improving the Ginkgo CO2 barometer: Implications for the early Cenozoic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Richard S.; Wing, Scott L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal properties of fossil Ginkgo have been used widely to infer the atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the geological past (paleo-pCO2). Many of these estimates of paleo-pCO2 have relied on the inverse correlation between pCO2 and stomatal index (SI - the proportion of epidermal cells that are stomata) observed in recent Ginkgo biloba, and therefore depend on the accuracy of this relationship. The SI - pCO2 relationship in G. biloba has not been well documented, however. Here we present new measurements of SI for leaves of G. biloba that grew under pCO2 from 290 to 430 ppm. We prepared and imaged all specimens using a consistent procedure and photo-documented each count. As in prior studies, we found a significant inverse relationship between SI and pCO2, however, the relationship is more linear, has a shallower slope, and a lower correlation coefficient than previously reported. We examined leaves of G. biloba grown under pCO2 of 1500 ppm, but found they had highly variable SI and a large proportion of malformed stomata. We also measured stomatal dimensions, stomatal density, and the carbon isotope composition of G. biloba leaves in order to test a mechanistic model for inferring pCO2. This model overestimated observed pCO2, performing less well than the SI method between 290 and 430 ppm. We used our revised SI-pCO2 response curve, and new observations of selected fossils, to estimate late Cretaceous and Cenozoic pCO2 from fossil Ginkgo adiantoides. All but one of the new estimates is below 800 ppm, and together they show little long-term change in pCO2 or relation to global temperature. The low Paleogene pCO2 levels indicated by the Ginkgo SI proxy are not consistent with the high pCO2 inferred by some climate and carbon cycle models. We cannot currently resolve the discrepancy, but greater agreement between proxy data and models may come from a better understanding of the stomatal response of G. biloba to elevated pCO2, better counts and measurements of

  12. Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations from Aircraft for 1972-1981, CSIRO Monitoring Program

    DOE Data Explorer

    Beardsmore, David J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Victoria, Australia; Pearman, Graeme I. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Victoria, Australia

    2012-01-01

    From 1972 through 1981, air samples were collected in glass flasks from aircraft at a variety of latitudes and altitudes over Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. The samples were analyzed for CO2 concentrations with nondispersive infrared gas analysis. The resulting data contain the sampling dates, type of aircraft, flight number, flask identification number, sampling time, geographic sector, distance in kilometers from the listed distance measuring equipment (DME) station, station number of the radio navigation distance measuring equipment, altitude of the aircraft above mean sea level, sample analysis date, flask pressure, tertiary standards used for the analysis, analyzer used, and CO2 concentration. These data represent the first published record of CO2 concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere expressed in the WMO 1981 CO2 Calibration Scale and provide a precise record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over Australia and New Zealand.

  13. 2-Micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; hide

    2014-01-01

    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations. This new 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of this year for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It is able to make measurements of the total amount of atmospheric CO2 from the aircraft to the ground or cloud. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  14. Dynamics of soil CO 2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO 2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes

    Treesearch

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; James S. Clark; Sari Palmroth; A. Christopher Oishi; Heather R. McCarthy; Chris A. Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2) ranging 1.0–1.8 times ambient did not affect FCO2. FCO2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO2 treatment, longer...

  15. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiaping; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ(13)C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ(13)CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83±14.11% and 86.84±12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17±14.11% and 13.16±12.27%, respectively. The δ(13)C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Separating the influence of temperature, drought, and fire on interannual variability in atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Wolf, Aaron S; Mu, Mingquan; Doney, Scott C; Morton, Douglas C; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Miller, John B; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Randerson, James T

    2014-11-01

    The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is important for improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in these ESMs. Several recent studies have identified the temperature dependence of tropical net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as a primary driver of this variability by analyzing a single, globally averaged time series of CO 2 anomalies. Here we examined how the temporal evolution of CO 2 in different latitude bands may be used to separate contributions from temperature stress, drought stress, and fire emissions to CO 2 variability. We developed atmospheric CO 2 patterns from each of these mechanisms during 1997-2011 using an atmospheric transport model. NEE responses to temperature, NEE responses to drought, and fire emissions all contributed significantly to CO 2 variability in each latitude band, suggesting that no single mechanism was the dominant driver. We found that the sum of drought and fire contributions to CO 2 variability exceeded direct NEE responses to temperature in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Additional sensitivity tests revealed that these contributions are masked by temporal and spatial smoothing of CO 2 observations. Accounting for fires, the sensitivity of tropical NEE to temperature stress decreased by 25% to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pg C yr -1  K -1 . These results underscore the need for accurate attribution of the drivers of CO 2 variability prior to using contemporary observations to constrain long-term ESM responses.

  17. Separating the influence of temperature, drought, and fire on interannual variability in atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Wolf, Aaron S; Mu, Mingquan; Doney, Scott C; Morton, Douglas C; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Miller, John B; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Randerson, James T

    2014-01-01

    The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in these ESMs. Several recent studies have identified the temperature dependence of tropical net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as a primary driver of this variability by analyzing a single, globally averaged time series of CO2 anomalies. Here we examined how the temporal evolution of CO2 in different latitude bands may be used to separate contributions from temperature stress, drought stress, and fire emissions to CO2 variability. We developed atmospheric CO2 patterns from each of these mechanisms during 1997–2011 using an atmospheric transport model. NEE responses to temperature, NEE responses to drought, and fire emissions all contributed significantly to CO2 variability in each latitude band, suggesting that no single mechanism was the dominant driver. We found that the sum of drought and fire contributions to CO2 variability exceeded direct NEE responses to temperature in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Additional sensitivity tests revealed that these contributions are masked by temporal and spatial smoothing of CO2 observations. Accounting for fires, the sensitivity of tropical NEE to temperature stress decreased by 25% to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pg C yr−1 K−1. These results underscore the need for accurate attribution of the drivers of CO2 variability prior to using contemporary observations to constrain long-term ESM responses. PMID:26074665

  18. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, J.; Wen, X.; Sun, X.

    2016-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ13C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ13CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83 ± 14.11% and 86.84 ± 12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17 ± 14.11% and 13.16 ± 12.27%, respectively. The δ13C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing.

  19. Scrutinizing the carbon cycle and CO2 residence time in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann

    2017-05-01

    Climate scientists presume that the carbon cycle has come out of balance due to the increasing anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use change. This is made responsible for the rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over recent years, and it is estimated that the removal of the additional emissions from the atmosphere will take a few hundred thousand years. Since this goes along with an increasing greenhouse effect and a further global warming, a better understanding of the carbon cycle is of great importance for all future climate change predictions. We have critically scrutinized this cycle and present an alternative concept, for which the uptake of CO2 by natural sinks scales proportional with the CO2 concentration. In addition, we consider temperature dependent natural emission and absorption rates, by which the paleoclimatic CO2 variations and the actual CO2 growth rate can well be explained. The anthropogenic contribution to the actual CO2 concentration is found to be 4.3%, its fraction to the CO2 increase over the Industrial Era is 15% and the average residence time 4 years.

  20. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Jacqueline E; Ziska, Lewis H; Schlesinger, William H; Thomas, Richard B; Sicher, Richard C; George, Kate; Clark, James S

    2006-06-13

    Contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) is one of the most widely reported ailments at poison centers in the United States, and this plant has been introduced throughout the world, where it occurs with other allergenic members of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Approximately 80% of humans develop dermatitis upon exposure to the carbon-based active compound, urushiol. It is not known how poison ivy might respond to increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), but previous work done in controlled growth chambers shows that other vines exhibit large growth enhancement from elevated CO(2). Rising CO(2) is potentially responsible for the increased vine abundance that is inhibiting forest regeneration and increasing tree mortality around the world. In this 6-year study at the Duke University Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment experiment, we show that elevated atmospheric CO(2) in an intact forest ecosystem increases photosynthesis, water use efficiency, growth, and population biomass of poison ivy. The CO(2) growth stimulation exceeds that of most other woody species. Furthermore, high-CO(2) plants produce a more allergenic form of urushiol. Our results indicate that Toxicodendron taxa will become more abundant and more "toxic" in the future, potentially affecting global forest dynamics and human health.

  1. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Jacqueline E.; Ziska, Lewis H.; Schlesinger, William H.; Thomas, Richard B.; Sicher, Richard C.; George, Kate; Clark, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) is one of the most widely reported ailments at poison centers in the United States, and this plant has been introduced throughout the world, where it occurs with other allergenic members of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Approximately 80% of humans develop dermatitis upon exposure to the carbon-based active compound, urushiol. It is not known how poison ivy might respond to increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but previous work done in controlled growth chambers shows that other vines exhibit large growth enhancement from elevated CO2. Rising CO2 is potentially responsible for the increased vine abundance that is inhibiting forest regeneration and increasing tree mortality around the world. In this 6-year study at the Duke University Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment, we show that elevated atmospheric CO2 in an intact forest ecosystem increases photosynthesis, water use efficiency, growth, and population biomass of poison ivy. The CO2 growth stimulation exceeds that of most other woody species. Furthermore, high-CO2 plants produce a more allergenic form of urushiol. Our results indicate that Toxicodendron taxa will become more abundant and more “toxic” in the future, potentially affecting global forest dynamics and human health. PMID:16754866

  2. Fast Atmosphere-Ocean Model Runs with Large Changes in CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gary L.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rind, David H.; Colose, Christopher; Opstbaum, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    How does climate sensitivity vary with the magnitude of climate forcing? This question was investigated with the use of a modified coupled atmosphere-ocean model, whose stability was improved so that the model would accommodate large radiative forcings yet be fast enough to reach rapid equilibrium. Experiments were performed in which atmospheric CO2 was multiplied by powers of 2, from 1/64 to 256 times the 1950 value. From 8 to 32 times, the 1950 CO2, climate sensitivity for doubling CO2 reaches 8 C due to increases in water vapor absorption and cloud top height and to reductions in low level cloud cover. As CO2 amount increases further, sensitivity drops as cloud cover and planetary albedo stabilize. No water vapor-induced runaway greenhouse caused by increased CO2 was found for the range of CO2 examined. With CO2 at or below 1/8 of the 1950 value, runaway sea ice does occur as the planet cascades to a snowball Earth climate with fully ice covered oceans and global mean surface temperatures near 30 C.

  3. Three-dimensional variations of atmospheric CO2: aircraft measurements and multi-transport model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Sawa, Y.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Belikov, D.; Maki, T.; Ikegami, M.; Imasu, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Oda, T.; Satoh, M.; Takigawa, M.

    2011-04-01

    Numerical simulation and validation of three-dimensional structure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is necessary for quantification of transport model uncertainty and its role on surface flux estimation by inverse modeling. Simulations of atmospheric CO2 were performed using four transport models and two sets of surface fluxes compared with an aircraft measurement dataset of Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL), covering various latitudes, longitudes, and heights. Under this transport model intercomparison project, spatiotemporal variations of CO2 concentration for 2006-2007 were analyzed with a three-dimensional perspective. Results show that the models reasonably simulated vertical profiles and seasonal variations not only over northern latitude areas but also over the tropics and southern latitudes. From CONTRAIL measurements and model simulations, intrusion of northern CO2 in to the Southern Hemisphere, through the upper troposphere, was confirmed. Furthermore, models well simulated the vertical propagation of seasonal variation in the northern free-troposphere. However, significant model-observation discrepancies were found in Asian regions, which are attributable to uncertainty of the surface CO2 flux data. The models consistently underestimated the north-tropics mean gradient of CO2 both in the free-troposphere and marine boundary layer during boreal summer. This result suggests that the north-tropics contrast of annual mean net non-fossil CO2 flux should be greater than 2.7 Pg C yr-1 for 2007.

  4. Atomic carbon emission from photodissociation of CO2. [planetary atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Phillips, E.; Lee, L. C.; Judge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Atomic carbon fluorescence, C I 1561, 1657, and 1931 A, has been observed from photodissociation of CO2, and the production cross sections have been measured. A line emission source provided the primary photons at wavelengths from threshold to 420 A. The present results suggest that the excited carbon atoms are produced by total dissociation of CO2 into three atoms. The cross sections for producing the O I 1304-A fluorescence through photodissociation of CO2 are found to be less than 0.01 Mb in the wavelength region from 420 to 835 A. The present data have implications with respect to photochemical processes in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

  5. Plastic and adaptive responses of plant respiration to changes in atmospheric CO(2) concentration.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez-Meler, Miquel A; Blanc-Betes, Elena; Flower, Charles E; Ward, Joy K; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria

    2009-12-01

    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 has increased from below 200 microl l(-1) during last glacial maximum in the late Pleistocene to near 280 microl l(-1) at the beginning of the Holocene and has continuously increased since the onset of the industrial revolution. Most responses of plants to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels result in increases in photosynthesis, water use efficiency and biomass. Less known is the role that respiration may play during adaptive responses of plants to changes in atmospheric CO2. Although plant respiration does not increase proportionally with CO2-enhanced photosynthesis or growth rates, a reduction in respiratory costs in plants grown at subambient CO2 can aid in maintaining a positive plant C-balance (i.e. enhancing the photosynthesis-to-respiration ratio). The understanding of plant respiration is further complicated by the presence of the alternative pathway that consumes photosynthate without producing chemical energy [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] as effectively as respiration through the normal cytochrome pathway. Here, we present the respiratory responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants selected at Pleistocene (200 microl l(-1)), current Holocene (370 microl l(-1)), and elevated (700 microl l(-1)) concentrations of CO2 and grown at current CO2 levels. We found that respiration rates were lower in Pleistocene-adapted plants when compared with Holocene ones, and that a substantial reduction in respiration was because of reduced activity of the alternative pathway. In a survey of the literature, we found that changes in respiration across plant growth forms and CO2 levels can be explained in part by differences in the respiratory energy demand for maintenance of biomass. This trend was substantiated in the Arabidopsis experiment in which Pleistocene-adapted plants exhibited decreases in respiration without concurrent reductions in tissue N content. Interestingly, N-based respiration rates of plants adapted to elevated CO2 also

  6. Modern soil system constraints on reconstructing deep-time atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montañez, Isabel P.

    2013-01-01

    Paleosol carbonate-based estimates of paleo-atmospheric CO2 play a prominent role in constraining radiative-forcing and climate sensitivity in the deep-time. Large uncertainty in paleo-CO2 estimates made using the paleosol-carbonate CO2-barometer, however, arises primarily from their sensitivity to soil-respired CO2 (S(z)). This parameter is poorly constrained due to a paucity of soil CO2 measurements during carbonate formation in modern soils and a lack of widely applicable proxies of paleo-soil CO2. Here the δ13C values of carbonate and soil organic matter (SOM) pairs from 130 Holocene soils are applied to a two-component CO2-mixing equation to define soil order-specific ranges of soil CO2 applicable for constraining S(z) in their corresponding paleosol analogs. Equilibrium carbonate-SOM pairs, characterized by Δ13Ccarb-SOM values of 12.2-15.8‰, define a mean effective fractionation of 14.1‰ and overall inferred total soil CO2 contents during calcite formation of <1000-10,000 ppmv. For those Aridisols and Alfisols, characterized by a net soil-moisture deficit, and their paleosol analogs (Calcisols and Argillisols), a best estimate of S(z) during calcite formation is 1500-2000 ppmv (range of 500-2500 ppmv). Overall higher values (2000-5000 ppmv) are indicated by the subset of these soils characterized by higher moisture content and productivity. Near atmospheric levels (400 ± 200 ppmv) of estimated S(z) are indicated by immature soils, recording their low soil productivity. Vertisols define the largest range in total soil CO2 (<1000 to >25,000 ppmv) reflecting their seasonally driven dynamic hydrochemistry. A S(z) range of 1000-10,000 ppmv is suggested for paleo-Vertisols for which calcite precipitation can be constrained to have occurred in an open system with two-component CO2 mixing, with a best estimate of 2000 ppmv ± 1000 ppmv appropriate for paleo-Vertisols for which evidence of protracted water saturation is lacking. Mollisol pairs define a best

  7. Relationship between synoptic scale weather systems and column averaged atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, M.; Yaremchuk, A.; Onishi, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Inoue, G.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of the atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models contributes to the understanding of the geographical distributions of CO2 sources and sinks. Space-borne sensors could be advantageous for CO2 measurements as they can provide wider spatial and temporal coverage. Inversion studies have suggested requirement of better than 1% precision for the space-borne observations. Since sources and sinks are inferred from spatial and temporal gradients in CO2, the space-borne observations must have no significant geographically varying biases. To study the dynamical biases in column CO2 due to possible correlation between clouds and atmospheric CO2 at synoptic scale, we have made simulations of CO2 (1988-2003) using NIES tracer transport model. Model resolution is 2.5o x 2.5o in horizontal and it has 15 vertical sigma-layers. Fluxes for (1) fossil fuels, (2) terrestrial biosphere (CASA NEP), (3) the oceans, and (4) inverse model derived monthly regional fluxes from 11 land and 11 ocean regions are used. SVD truncation is used to filter out noise in the inverse model flux time series. Model reproduces fairly well CO2 global trend and observed time series at monitoring sites around the globe. Lower column CO2 concentration is simulated inside cyclonic systems in summer over North hemispheric continental areas. Surface pressure is used as a proxy for dynamics and it is demonstrated that anomalies in column averaged CO2 has fairly good correlation with the anomalies in surface pressure. Positive correlation, as high as 0.7, has been estimated over parts of Siberia and N. America in summer time. Our explanation is based on that the low-pressure system is associated the upward motion, which leads to lower column CO2 values over these regions due to lifting of CO2-depleted summertime PBL air, and higher column CO2 over source areas. A sensitivity study without inverse model fluxes shows same correlation. The low-pressure systems' induced negative biases are 0

  8. Weathering by tree-root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, J.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Taylor, L. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]a) over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation. However, the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  9. Weathering by tree root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, J.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Taylor, L. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]a) over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation, but the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  10. A joint data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) to simultaneously estimate surface CO2 fluxes and 3-D atmospheric CO2 concentrations from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Xie, Z.; Liu, Y.; Cai, Z.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Feng, L.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a novel framework ("Tan-Tracker") for assimilating observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, based on the POD-based (proper orthogonal decomposition) ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation method (PODEn4DVar). The high flexibility and the high computational efficiency of the PODEn4DVar approach allow us to include both the atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the surface CO2 fluxes as part of the large state vector to be simultaneously estimated from assimilation of atmospheric CO2 observations. Compared to most modern top-down flux inversion approaches, where only surface fluxes are considered as control variables, one major advantage of our joint data assimilation system is that, in principle, no assumption on perfect transport models is needed. In addition, the possibility for Tan-Tracker to use a complete dynamic model to consistently describe the time evolution of CO2 surface fluxes (CFs) and the atmospheric CO2 concentrations represents a better use of observation information for recycling the analyses at each assimilation step in order to improve the forecasts for the following assimilations. An experimental Tan-Tracker system has been built based on a complete augmented dynamical model, where (1) the surface atmosphere CO2 exchanges are prescribed by using a persistent forecasting model for the scaling factors of the first-guess net CO2 surface fluxes and (2) the atmospheric CO2 transport is simulated by using the GEOS-Chem three-dimensional global chemistry transport model. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) for assimilating synthetic in situ observations of surface CO2 concentrations are carefully designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tan-Tracker system. In particular, detailed comparisons are made with its simplified version (referred to as TT-S) with only CFs taken as the prognostic variables. It is found that our Tan-Tracker system is capable of outperforming TT-S with higher assimilation

  11. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment alters energy assimilation, investment and allocation in Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer M; Wang, Xianzhong; Lewis, James D; Fung, Howard A; Tissue, David T; Griffin, Kevin L

    2005-05-01

    Energy-use efficiency and energy assimilation, investment and allocation patterns are likely to influence plant growth responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Here, we describe the influence of elevated [CO2] on energetic properties as a mechanism of growth responses in Xanthium strumarium. Individuals of X. strumarium were grown at ambient or elevated [CO2] and harvested. Total biomass and energetic construction costs (CC) of leaves, stems, roots and fruits and percentage of total biomass and energy allocated to these components were determined. Photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) was calculated as the ratio of total energy gained via photosynthetic activity (Atotal) to leaf CC. Elevated [CO2] increased leaf Atotal, but decreased CC per unit mass of leaves and roots. Consequently, X. strumarium individuals produced more leaf and root biomass at elevated [CO2] without increasing total energy investment in these structures (CCtotal). Whole-plant biomass was associated positively with PEUE. Whole-plant construction required 16.1% less energy than modeled whole-plant energy investment had CC not responded to increased [CO2]. As a physiological mechanism affecting growth, altered energetic properties could positively influence productivity of X. strumarium, and potentially other species, at elevated [CO2].

  12. An Atmospheric CO2 Record Across the End-Cretaceous Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, D. L.; Milligan, J. N.; Kowalczyk, J.

    2017-12-01

    A bolide impact and flood-basalt emissions likely caused large changes to the end-Cretaceous carbon cycle. Presently, there is only one proxy record for atmospheric CO2 that captures these changes (Beerling et al., 2002, PNAS 99: 7836-7840). These authors estimated CO2 from the calibrated stomatal indices of Ginkgo dated to within 105 yrs before and after the extinction ( 300-500 ppm) in addition to that of Stenochlaena, a fern disaster taxa present in the Raton Basin, New Mexico, <104 yrs after the bolide impact (>2300 ppm). We revisited these fossil collections and applied a newer and more robust CO2 proxy that is based on leaf gas-exchange principles and does not require calibrations with present-day species (Franks et al., 2014, Geophys Res Lett 41: 4685-4694). We reconstruct pre- and post-extinction CO2 concentrations of 650 ppm from Ginkgo, compared to 850 ppm directly after the extinction from Stenochlaena. This change in CO2 of 200 ppm can be readily explained with carbon cycle models as a consequence of either the bolide impact or flood-basalt emissions. Placing these CO2 estimates into the broader context of other leaf gas-exchange CO2 estimates for the Cenozoic, the Earth system sensitivity was 3 K per CO2 doubling during the early Paleogene, before steepening to >6 K several million years before the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  13. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Gruber, N.; Frenzel, H.; Doney, S. C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical biogeochemical ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability) tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  14. Radiative transfer in CO2-rich atmospheres: 1. Collisional line mixing implies a colder early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozak, N.; Aharonson, O.; Halevy, I.

    2016-06-01

    Fast and accurate radiative transfer methods are essential for modeling CO2-rich atmospheres, relevant to the climate of early Earth and Mars, present-day Venus, and some exoplanets. Although such models already exist, their accuracy may be improved as better theoretical and experimental constraints become available. Here we develop a unidimensional radiative transfer code for CO2-rich atmospheres, using the correlated k approach and with a focus on modeling early Mars. Our model differs from existing models in that it includes the effects of CO2 collisional line mixing in the calculation of the line-by-line absorption coefficients. Inclusion of these effects results in model atmospheres that are more transparent to infrared radiation and, therefore, in colder surface temperatures at radiative-convective equilibrium, compared with results of previous studies. Inclusion of water vapor in the model atmosphere results in negligible warming due to the low atmospheric temperatures under a weaker early Sun, which translate into climatically unimportant concentrations of water vapor. Overall, the results imply that sustained warmth on early Mars would not have been possible with an atmosphere containing only CO2 and water vapor, suggesting that other components of the early Martian climate system are missing from current models or that warm conditions were not long lived.

  15. Recent slowdown of atmospheric CO2 amplification due to vegetation-climate feedback over northern lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Xia, J.; Ahlström, A.; Rinke, A.; Koven, C.; Hayes, D. J.; Ji, D.; Zhang, G.; Krinner, G.; Chen, G.; Dong, J.; Liang, J.; Moore, J.; Jiang, L.; Yan, L.; Ciais, P.; Peng, S.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, X.; Shi, Z.; McGuire, A. D.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The enhanced vegetation growth by climate warming plays a pivotal role in amplifying the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes since 1960s1-3. It remains unclear that whether this mechanism is still robust since 1990s, because a paused vegetation growth increase4,5 and weakened temperature control on CO2 uptake6,7 have been detected during this period. Here, based on in-situ atmospheric CO2 concentration records above northern 50o N, we found a slowdown of the atmospheric CO2 amplification from the mid-1990s to mid-2000s. This phenomenon is associated with the pause of vegetation greening trend and slowdown of spring warming. We further showed that both the vegetation greenness and its growing season length are positively correlated to spring but not autumn temperature from 1982 to 2010 over the northern lands. However, the state-of-art terrestrial biosphere models produce positive responses of gross primary productivity to both spring and autumn warming. These findings emphasize the importance of vegetation-climate feedback in shaping the atmospheric CO2 seasonality, and call for an improved carbon-cycle response to non-uniform seasonal warming at high latitudes in current models.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  17. Recharge of the early atmosphere of Mars by impact-induced release of CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Channels on the Martian surface suggest that Mars had an early, relatively thick atmosphere. If the atmosphere was thick enough for water to be stable at the surface, CO2 in the atmosphere would have been fixed as carbonates on a relatively short time scale, previously estimated to be 1 bar every 107 years. This loss must have been offset by some replenishment mechanism to account for the numerous valley networks in the oldest surviving terrains. Impacts could have released CO2 into the atmosphere by burial, by shock-induced release during impact events, and by addition of carbon to Mars from the impacting bolides. Depending on the relationship between the transient cavity diameter and the diameter of the resulting crater, burial rates as a result of impact gardening at the end of heavy bombardment are estimated to range from 20 to 45 m/106 years, on the assumption that cratering rates in Mars were similar to those of the Nectarian Period on the Moon. At these rates 0.1-0.2 bar of CO2 could have been released every 107 years as a result of burial to depths where dissociation temperatures of carbonates were reached. Modeling of large impacts suggests that an additional 0.01 to 0.02 bar of CO2 could have been released every 107 years during the actual impacts. In the unlikely event that all the impacting material was composed of carbonaceous chondrites, a further 0.3 bar of CO2 could have been added to the atmosphere every 107 years by oxidation of meteoritic carbon. Even when supplemented by the volcanically induced release of CO2, these release rates are barely sufficient to sustain an early atmosphere if water were continuously present at the surface. The results suggest that water may have been only intermittently present on the surface early in the planet's history.

  18. Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlies, A.

    2009-04-01

    The sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to alterations in the marine biological carbon pump, such as brought about by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization, has repeatedly been investigated by studies employing numerical biogeochemical ocean models. It is shown here that the results of such ocean-centered studies are very sensitive to the assumption made about the response of the carbon reservoirs on the atmospheric side of the sea surface. Assumptions made include prescribed atmospheric pCO2, an interactive atmospheric CO2 pool exchanging carbon with the ocean but not with the terrestrial biosphere, and an interactive atmosphere that exchanges carbon with both oceanic and terrestrial carbon pools. The impact of these assumptions on simulated annual to millennial oceanic carbon uptake is investigated for a hypothetical increase in the C:N ratio of the biological pump and for an idealized enhancement of phytoplankton growth. Compared to simulations with interactive atmosphere, using prescribed atmospheric pCO2 overestimates the sensitivity of the oceanic CO2 uptake to changes in the biological pump, by about 2%, 25%, 100%, and >500% on annual, decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. Adding an interactive terrestrial carbon pool to the atmosphere-ocean model system has a small effect on annual timescales, but increases the simulated fertilization-induced oceanic carbon uptake by about 4%, 50%, and 100% on decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. On longer than decadal timescales, a substantial fraction of oceanic carbon uptake induced by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization may not come from the atmosphere but from the terrestrial biosphere.

  19. On the causes of trends in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Yilong; Ciais, Philippe; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Chevallier, Frédéric; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Janssens, Ivan A; Peñuelas, Josep; Sitch, Stephen; Wang, Tao

    2018-02-01

    No consensus has yet been reached on the major factors driving the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO 2 in the northern latitudes. In this study, we used atmospheric CO 2 records from 26 northern hemisphere stations with a temporal coverage longer than 15 years, and an atmospheric transport model prescribed with net biome productivity (NBP) from an ensemble of nine terrestrial ecosystem models, to attribute change in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO 2 . We found significant (p < .05) increases in seasonal peak-to-trough CO 2 amplitude (AMP P -T ) at nine stations, and in trough-to-peak amplitude (AMP T -P ) at eight stations over the last three decades. Most of the stations that recorded increasing amplitudes are in Arctic and boreal regions (>50°N), consistent with previous observations that the amplitude increased faster at Barrow (Arctic) than at Mauna Loa (subtropics). The multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) shows that the response of ecosystem carbon cycling to rising CO 2 concentration (eCO 2 ) and climate change are dominant drivers of the increase in AMP P -T and AMP T -P in the high latitudes. At the Barrow station, the observed increase of AMP P -T and AMP T -P over the last 33 years is explained by eCO 2 (39% and 42%) almost equally than by climate change (32% and 35%). The increased carbon losses during the months with a net carbon release in response to eCO 2 are associated with higher ecosystem respiration due to the increase in carbon storage caused by eCO 2 during carbon uptake period. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes (10% for AMP P -T and 11% for AMP T -P ) and the impacts of land-use change (marginally significant 3% for AMP P -T and 4% for AMP T -P ) also contributed to the CO 2 measured at Barrow, highlighting the role of these factors in regulating seasonal changes in the global carbon cycle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Combined Effects of Deforestation and Doubled Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations on the Climate of Amazonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Marcos Heil; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: 1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and 2) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO2 concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate.In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day1 over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO2 concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day1. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO2, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day1. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO2 concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO2 concentrations both tend to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO2. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO2, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5°C.

  1. Fungal Community Responses to Past and Future Atmospheric CO2 Differ by Soil Type

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J. Christopher; Fay, Philip A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Jackson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Soils sequester and release substantial atmospheric carbon, but the contribution of fungal communities to soil carbon balance under rising CO2 is not well understood. Soil properties likely mediate these fungal responses but are rarely explored in CO2 experiments. We studied soil fungal communities in a grassland ecosystem exposed to a preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250 to 500 ppm) in a black clay soil and a sandy loam soil. Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of the rRNA gene cluster revealed that fungal community composition and its response to CO2 differed significantly between soils. Fungal species richness and relative abundance of Chytridiomycota (chytrids) increased linearly with CO2 in the black clay (P < 0.04, R2 > 0.7), whereas the relative abundance of Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) increased linearly with elevated CO2 in the sandy loam (P = 0.02, R2 = 0.63). Across both soils, decomposition rate was positively correlated with chytrid relative abundance (r = 0.57) and, in the black clay soil, fungal species richness. Decomposition rate was more strongly correlated with microbial biomass (r = 0.88) than with fungal variables. Increased labile carbon availability with elevated CO2 may explain the greater fungal species richness and Chytridiomycota abundance in the black clay soil, whereas increased phosphorus limitation may explain the increase in Glomeromycota at elevated CO2 in the sandy loam. Our results demonstrate that soil type plays a key role in soil fungal responses to rising atmospheric CO2. PMID:25239904

  2. Nannofossil carbonate fluxes during the Early Cretaceous: Phytoplankton response to nutrification episodes, atmospheric CO2, and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Tremolada, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Greenhouse episodes during the Valanginian and Aptian correlate with major perturbations in the C cycle and in marine ecosystems, carbonate crises, and widespread deposition of Corg-rich black shales. Quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite were conducted on continuous pelagic sections from the Southern Alps (northern Italy), where high-resolution integrated stratigraphy allows precise dating of Early Cretaceous geological events. Rock-forming calcareous nannofloras were quantified in smear slides and thin sections to obtain relative and absolute abundances and paleofluxes that are interpreted as the response of calcareous phytoplankton to global changes in the ocean-atmosphere system. Increased rates of volcanism during the formation of Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus and the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) are proposed to have caused the geological responses associated with early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a and the Valanginian event, respectively. Calcareous nannofloras reacted to the new conditions of higher pCO2 and fertility by drastically reducing calcification. The Valanginian event is marked by a 65% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes that would correspond to a 2-3 times increase in pCO2 during formation of the Paranà-Endenteka LIP. A 90% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes, which occurred in a 1.5 myr-long interval leading into OAE1a, is interpreted as the result of a 3-6 times increase in pCO2 produced by emplacement of the giant Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. High pCO2 was balanced back by an accelerated biological pump during the Valanginian episode, but not during OAE1a, suggesting persisting high levels of pCO2 in the late Aptian and/or the inability of calcareous phytoplankton to absorb excess pCO2 above threshold values.

  3. Investigating CO2 Reservoirs at Gale Crater and Evidence for a Dense Early Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Archer, P. D.; Heil, E.; Eigenbrode, J.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Ming, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    One of the most compelling features of the Gale landing site is its age. Based on crater counts, the formation of Gale crater is dated to be near the beginning of the Hesperian near the pivotal Hesperian/Noachian transition. This is a time period on Mars that is linked to increased fluvial activity through valley network formation and also marks a transition from higher erosion rates/clay mineral formation to lower erosion rates with mineralogies dominated by sulfate minerals. Results from the Curiosity mission have shown extensive evidence for fluvial activity within the crater suggesting that sediments on the floor of the crater and even sediments making up Mt. Sharp itself were the result of longstanding activity of liquid water. Warm/wet conditions on early Mars are likely due to a thicker atmosphere and increased abundance of greenhouse gases including the main component of the atmosphere, CO2. Carbon dioxide is minor component of the Earth's atmosphere yet plays a major role in surface water chemistry, weathering, and formation of secondary minerals. An ancient martian atmosphere was likely dominated by CO2 and any waters in equilibrium with this atmosphere would have different chemical characteristics. Studies have noted that high partial pressures of CO2 would result in increased carbonic acid formation and lowering of the pH so that carbonate minerals are not stable. However, if there were a dense CO2 atmosphere present at the Hesperian/Noachian transition, it would have to be stored in a carbon reservoir on the surface or lost to space. The Mt. Sharp sediments are potentially one of the best places on Mars to investigate these CO2 reservoirs as they are proposed to have formed in the early Hesperian, from an alkaline lake, and record the transition to an aeolian dominated regime near the top of the sequence. The total amount of CO2 in the Gale crater soils and sediments is significant but lower than expected if a thick atmosphere was present at the

  4. What would optimal vegetation do when confronted with steadily increasing atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, M. L.; Donohue, R. J.; Yang, Y.; McVicar, T.; Farquhar, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2 presents an interesting opportunity for primary producers. An increase in the substrate availability would, with all else equal, stimulate fixation of carbon from the atmosphere. But all else is not necessarily equal and this is only the beginning of a cascade of changes that can ultimately be traced back to the stomatal regulation of water-carbon exchanges. We first discuss theoretical expectations and then deduce how vegetation might respond to changing CO2 in water- and energy-limited environments. We then use satellite observations to test the theoretical expectations.

  5. Role of Southern Ocean stratification in glacial atmospheric CO2 reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Oka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxy data at the glacial period shows high salinity of more than 37.0 psu in the deep South Atlantic. At the same time, data also indicate that the residence time of the water mass was more than 3000 years. These data implies that the stratification by salinity was stronger in the deep Southern Ocean (SO) in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Previous studies using Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) fail to explain the low glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration at LGM. The reproducibility of salinity and water mass age is considered insufficient in these OGCMs, which may in turn affect the reproducibility of the atmospheric CO2concentration. In coarse-resolution OGCMs, The deep water is formed by unrealistic open-ocean deep convection in the SO. Considering these facts, we guessed previous studies using OGCM underestimated the salinity and water mass age at LGM. This study investigate the role of the enhanced stratification in the glacial SO on the variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration by using OGCM. In order to reproduce the recorded salinity of the deep water, relaxation of salinity toward value of recorded data is introduced in our OGCM simulations. It was found that deep water formation in East Antarctica is required for explaining the high salinity in the South Atlantic. In contrast, it is difficult to explain the glacial water mass age, even if we assume the situation vertical mixing is very weak in the SO. Contrary to previous estimate, the high salinity of the deep SO resulted in increase of Antarctic Bottom water (AABW) flow and decrease the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, which increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. On the other hand, the weakening of the vertical mixing in the SO contributed to increase the vertical gradient of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which decreased atmospheric CO2 concentration. Adding the contribution of the enhanced stratification in the glacial SO, we obtained larger

  6. Observations of Atmospheric Δ14CO2 at the Global and Regional Background Sites in China: Implication for Fossil Fuel CO2 Inputs.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Lu, Xuefeng; Xiong, Xiaohu; Du, Hua; Fu, Yunchong

    2016-11-15

    Six months to more than one year of atmospheric Δ 14 CO 2 were measured in 2014-2015 at one global background site in Waliguan (WLG) and four regional background sites at Shangdianzi (SDZ), Lin'an (LAN), Longfengshan (LFS) and Luhuitou (LHT), China. The objectives of the study are to document the Δ 14 CO 2 levels at each site and to trace the variations in fossil fuel CO 2 (CO 2ff ) inputs at regional background sites. Δ 14 CO 2 at WLG varied from 7.1 ± 2.9‰ to 32.0 ± 3.2‰ (average 17.1 ± 6.8‰) in 2015, with high values generally in autumn/summer and low values in winter/spring. During the same period, Δ 14 CO 2 values at the regional background sites were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those at WLG, indicating different levels of CO 2ff inputs at those sites. CO 2ff concentrations at LAN (12.7 ± 9.6 ppm) and SDZ (11.5 ± 8.2 ppm) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those at LHT (4.6 ± 4.3 ppm) in 2015. There were no significant (p > 0.05) seasonal differences in CO 2ff concentrations for the regional sites. Regional sources contributed in part to the CO 2ff inputs at LAN and SDZ, while local sources dominated the trend observed at LHT. These data provide a preliminary understanding of atmospheric Δ 14 CO 2 and CO 2ff inputs for a range of Chinese background sites.

  7. Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 change linked to Southern Ocean nutrient utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, M.; Diz, P.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biological uptake of CO2 by the ocean and its subsequent storage in the abyss is intimately linked with the global carbon cycle and constitutes a significant climatic force1. The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2 laden abyssal waters to the surface that exchange CO2 with the atmosphere. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a CO2 sink and also drives global primary productivity as unutilized nutrients, advected with surface waters from the south, are exported via Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) as preformed nutrients to the low latitudes where they fuel the biological pump in upwelling areas. Recent model estimates suggest that up to 40 ppm of the total 100 ppm atmospheric pCO2 reduction during the last ice age were driven by increased nutrient utilization in the SAZ and associated feedbacks on the deep ocean alkalinity. Micro-nutrient fertilization by iron (Fe), contained in the airborne dust flux to the SAZ, is considered to be the prime factor that stimulated this elevated photosynthetic activity thus enhancing nutrient utilization. We present a millennial-scale record of the vertical stable carbon isotope gradient between subsurface and deep water (Δδ13C) in the SAZ spanning the past 350,000 years. The Δδ13C gradient, derived from planktonic and benthic foraminifera, reflects the efficiency of biological pump and is highly correlated (rxy = -0.67 with 95% confidence interval [0.63; 0.71], n=874) with the record of dust flux preserved in Antarctic ice cores6. This strongly suggests that nutrient utilization in the SAZ was dynamically coupled to dust-induced Fe fertilization across both glacial-interglacial and faster millennial timescales. In concert with ventilation changes of the deep Southern Ocean this drove ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and, ultimately, atmospheric pCO2 variability during the late Pleistocene.

  8. Steady- and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate controls on atmospheric CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two contrasting hypotheses have recently been proposed for the past long-term relation between atmospheric CO2 and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle. One approach (Berner, 1990) suggests that CO2 levels have varied in a manner that has maintained chemical weathering and carbonate sedimentation at a steady state with respect to tectonically controlled decarbonation reactions. A second approach (Raymo et al., 1988), applied specificlly to the late Cenozoic, suggests a decrease in CO2 caused by an uplift-induced increase in chemical weathering, without regard to the rate of decarbonation. According to the steady-state (first) hypothesis, increased weathering and carbonate sedimentation are generally associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, whereas the uplift (second) hypothesis implies decreasing CO2 under the same conditions. An ocean-atmosphere-sediment model has been used to assess the response of atmospheric CO2 and carbonate sedimentation to global perturbations in chemical weathering and decarbonation reactions. Although this assessment is theoretical and cannot yet be related to the geologic record, the model simulations compare steady-state and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate cycle response. The e-fold response time of the 'CO2-weathering' feedback mechanism is between 300 and 400 ka. The response of carbonate sedimentation is much more rapid. These response times provide a measure of the strength of steady-state assumptions, and imply that certain systematic relations are sustained throughout steady-state and non-steady-state scenarios for the carbonate-silicate cycle. The simulations suggest that feedbacks can maintain the system near a steady state, but that non-steady-state effects may contribute to long-term trends. The steady-state and uplift hypotheses are not necessarily incompatible over time scales of a few million years. ?? 1991.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and reactive nitrogen inputs interactively stimulate soil cation losses and acidification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yunpeng; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Lingli; Tu, Cong; Bowman, Dan C; Burkey, Kent O; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-05-17

    Reactive N inputs (Nr) may alleviate N-limitation of plant growth and are assumed to help sustain plant responses to the rising atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). However, Nr and eCO2 may elicit a cascade reaction that alters soil chemistry and nutrient availability, shifting the limiting factors of plant growth, particularly in acidic tropical and subtropical croplands with low organic matter and low nutrient cations. Yet, few have so far examined the interactive effects of Nr and eCO2 on the dynamics of soil cation nutrients and soil acidity. We investigated the cation dynamics in the plant-soil system with exposure to eCO2 and different N sources in a subtropical, acidic agricultural soil. eCO2 and Nr, alone and interactively, increased Ca2+ and Mg2+ in soil solutions or leachates in aerobic agroecosystems. eCO2 significantly reduced soil pH, and NH4+-N inputs amplified this effect, suggesting that eCO2-induced plant preference of NH4+-N and plant growth may facilitate soil acidification. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration of eCO2 enhancement of soil acidity, although other studies have previously shown that eCO2 can increase cation release into soil solutions. Together, these findings provide new insights into the dynamics of cation nutrients and soil acidity under future climatic scenarios, highlighting the urgency for more studies on plant-soil responses to climate change in acidic tropical and subtropical ecosystems.

  10. The persistent and pernicious myth of the early CO2-N2 atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, G. H.

    2009-12-01

    The accepted model for early atmospheres of terrestrial planets has settled on a CO2-N2 composition. Unfortunately, while it is largely based on a brilliant geological analysis by Rubey, there is no compelling evidence whatsoever for such a composition as the first “permanent” atmosphere for Earth or any other planet. In fact, geological discoveries of the past 50+ years reveal several problems with a CO2-N2 atmosphere, some of which Rubey recognized in his own analysis. He clearly addressed the problem of timing of degassing, concluding that early massive degassing of CO2 would produce readily observed and profound effects, which are not evident. Modeling and constraints on the timing of planetary accretion and core formation indicate massive early degassing. If early degassing emitted CO2-N2, the effects are concealed. Plate tectonic recycling is not a solution, as conditions would have persisted beyond the time of the earliest rocks, which do not show the effects. Attempts to return degassed CO2 to the mantle are not only ad hoc, but inconsistent with early thermal structure of the Earth. Second, production of prebiotic organic compounds from a CO2-N2 atmosphere has been a nagging problem. At best this has been addressed by invoking hydrogen production from the mantle to provide reducing capacity. While hydrogen may be emitted in volcanic eruptions, it is exceedingly difficult to imagine this process generating enough organics to yield high concentrations in a global ocean. The recent fashion of invoking organic synthesis at deep-sea vents suffers from the same problem: how to achieve sufficient concentrations of organics in a global ocean by abiotic synthesis when hydrothermal activity stirs the solution and carries the prebiotic products off to great dilution? Suggesting life began at deep-sea vents, and continues to carry on chemosynthesis there, begs the question. Unless you get high enough concentrations of prebiotics by abiotic processes, you simply

  11. Three-dimensional variations of atmospheric CO2: aircraft measurements and multi-transport model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Sawa, Y.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Belikov, D.; Maki, T.; Ikegami, M.; Imasu, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Oda, T.; Satoh, M.; Takigawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical simulation and validation of three-dimensional structure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is necessary for quantification of transport model uncertainty and its role on surface flux estimation by inverse modeling. Simulations of atmospheric CO2 were performed using four transport models and two sets of surface fluxes compared with an aircraft measurement dataset of Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL), covering various latitudes, longitudes, and heights. Under this transport model intercomparison project, spatiotemporal variations of CO2 concentration for 2006-2007 were analyzed with a three-dimensional perspective. Results show that the models reasonably simulated vertical profiles and seasonal variations not only over northern latitude areas but also over the tropics and southern latitudes. From CONTRAIL measurements and model simulations, intrusion of northern CO2 in to the Southern Hemisphere, through the upper troposphere, was confirmed. Furthermore, models well simulated the vertical propagation of seasonal variation in the northern free troposphere. However, significant model-observation discrepancies were found in Asian regions, which are attributable to uncertainty of the surface CO2 flux data. In summer season, differences in latitudinal gradients by the fluxes are comparable to or greater than model-model differences even in the free troposphere. This result suggests that active summer vertical transport sufficiently ventilates flux signals up to the free troposphere and the models could use those for inferring surface CO2 fluxes.

  12. The paper trail of the 13C of atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, Dan

    2011-07-01

    The 13C concentration in atmospheric CO2 has been declining over the past 150 years as large quantities of 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil fuel burning are added to the atmosphere. Deforestation and other land use changes have also contributed to the trend. Looking at the 13C variations in the atmosphere and in annual growth rings of trees allows us to estimate CO2 uptake by land plants and the ocean, and assess the response of plants to climate. Here I show that the effects of the declining 13C trend in atmospheric CO2 are recorded in the isotopic composition of paper used in the printing industry, which provides a well-organized archive and integrated material derived from trees' cellulose. 13C analyses of paper from two European and two American publications showed, on average, a - 1.65 ± 1.00‰ trend between 1880 and 2000, compared with - 1.45 and - 1.57‰ for air and tree-ring analyses, respectively. The greater decrease in plant-derived 13C in the paper we tested than in the air is consistent with predicted global-scale increases in plant intrinsic water-use efficiency over the 20th century. Distinct deviations from the atmospheric trend were observed in both European and American publications immediately following the World War II period.

  13. Calculating the balance between atmospheric CO2 drawdown and organic carbon oxidation in subglacial hydrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Drever, James I.; Humphrey, Neil F.

    2017-04-01

    In order to constrain CO2 fluxes from biogeochemical processes in subglacial environments, we model the evolution of pH and alkalinity over a range of subglacial weathering conditions. We show that subglacial waters reach or exceed atmospheric pCO2 levels when atmospheric gases are able to partially access the subglacial environment. Subsequently, closed system oxidation of sulfides is capable of producing pCO2 levels well in excess of atmosphere levels without any input from the decay of organic matter. We compared this model to published pH and alkalinity measurements from 21 glaciers and ice sheets. Most subglacial waters are near atmospheric pCO2 values. The assumption of an initial period of open system weathering requires substantial organic carbon oxidation in only 4 of the 21 analyzed ice bodies. If the subglacial environment is assumed to be closed from any input of atmospheric gas, large organic carbon inputs are required in nearly all cases. These closed system assumptions imply that order of 10 g m-2 y-1 of organic carbon are removed from a typical subglacial environment—a rate too high to represent soil carbon built up over previous interglacial periods and far in excess of fluxes of surface deposited organic carbon. Partial open system input of atmospheric gases is therefore likely in most subglacial environments. The decay of organic carbon is still important to subglacial inorganic chemistry where substantial reserves of ancient organic carbon are found in bedrock. In glaciers and ice sheets on silicate bedrock, substantial long-term drawdown of atmospheric CO2 occurs.

  14. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observedmore » increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in

  15. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant’s functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be

  16. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be of

  17. Atmospheric CO2 Over the Last 1000 Years: WAIS Divide Ice Core Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-04-01

    How atmospheric CO2 varied over the last thousands years is of great interest because we may see not only natural, but also anthropogenic variations (Ruddiman, Climatic Change, 2003). The Law Dome ice cores reveal decadal to centennial variations in CO2 over the last 2000 years (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006). However, these variations have not yet been well confirmed in other ice core records. Here we use a newly drilled WAIS Divide ice core, which is ideal for this purpose because WAIS Divide has relatively high snow accumulation rate and small gas age distribution that allow us to observe decadal CO2 variations with minimal damping. We have started an extensive study of CO2 in WAIS Divide core. So far we have obtained data for 960-1940 A.D. from the WDC05-A core drilled in 2005-2006. 344 ice samples from 103 depths were analyzed and the standard error of the mean is ~0.8 ppm on average. Ancient air in 8~12 g of bubbly ice is liberated by crushing with steel pins at -35 °C and trapped in stainless steel tubes at -262 °C. CO2 mixing ratio in the extracted air is precisely determined using a gas chromatographic method. Details of the high-precision methods are described in Ahn et al. (J. of Glaciology, in press). Our new results show preindustrial atmospheric CO2 variability of ~ 10 ppm. The most striking feature of the record is a rapid atmospheric CO2 decrease of 7~8 ppm within ~20 years at ~ 1600 A.D. Considering the larger smoothing of gas records in the WAIS Divide relative to Law Dome, our results confirm the atmospheric CO2 decrease of ~10 ppm in Law Dome records observed at this time. However, this event is not significant in the Dronning Maud Land ice core (Siegenthaler et al., Tellus, 2005), probably due to more extensive smoothing of gas records in the core. Similar rapid changes of CO2 at other times in the WAIS Divide record need to be confirmed with higher resolution studies. We also found that our WAIS Divide CO2 data are

  18. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO 2 records based on stomatal frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Friederike; Kouwenberg, Lenny L. R.; van Hoof, Thomas B.; Visscher, Henk

    2004-10-01

    The majority of the stomatal frequency-based estimates of CO2 for the Holocene do not support the widely accepted concept of comparably stable CO2 concentrations throughout the past 11,500 years. To address the critique that these stomatal frequency variations result from local environmental change or methodological insufficiencies, multiple stomatal frequency records were compared for three climatic key periods during the Holocene, namely the Preboreal oscillation, the 8.2 kyr cooling event and the Little Ice Age. The highly comparable fluctuations in the palaeo-atmospheric CO2 records, which were obtained from different continents and plant species (deciduous angiosperms as well as conifers) using varying calibration approaches, provide strong evidence for the integrity of leaf-based CO2 quantification.

  19. A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (NDP-072)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Curtis, Peter S [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Cushman, Robert M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brenkert, Antoinette L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by woody vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled. Eighty-four independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 65 species and 35 response parameters, met the necessary criteria for inclusion in the database: reporting mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). Data were retrieved from the published literature and unpublished reports. This numeric data package contains a 29-field data set of CO2-exposure experiment responses by woody plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO2-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data set, and this documentation file (which includes SAS and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file; SAS is a registered trademark of the SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27511).

  20. Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations--The Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (1993) (NDP-034)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trivett, N. B. A. [Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada; Hudec, V. C. [Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada; Wong, C. S. [Marine Carbon Research Centre, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada

    1993-01-01

    Flask air samples collected at roughly weekly intervals at three Canadian sites [Alert, Northwest Territories (July 1975 through July 1992); Sable Island, Nova Scotia (March 1975 through July 1992); and Cape St. James, British Columbia (May 1979 through July 1992)] were analyzed for CO2 concentration with the measurements directly traceable to the WMO primary CO2 standards. Each record includes the date, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and flask classification code. They provide an accurate record of CO2 concentration levels in Canada during the past two decades. Because these data are directly traceable to WMO standards, this record may be compared with records from other Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) stations. The data are in three files (one for each of the monitoring stations) ranging in size from 9.4 to 20.1 kB.

  1. Mass wasting triggered by seasonal CO2 sublimation under Martian atmospheric conditions: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvest, Matthew E.; Conway, Susan J.; Patel, Manish R.; Dixon, John C.; Barnes, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Sublimation is a recognized process by which planetary landscapes can be modified. However, interpretation of whether sublimation is involved in downslope movements on Mars and other bodies is restricted by a lack of empirical data to constrain this mechanism of sediment transport and its influence on landform morphology. Here we present the first set of laboratory experiments under Martian atmospheric conditions which demonstrate that the sublimation of CO2 ice from within the sediment body can trigger failure of unconsolidated, regolith slopes and can measurably alter the landscape. Previous theoretical studies required CO2 slab ice for movements, but we find that only frost is required. Hence, sediment transport by CO2 sublimation could be more widely applicable (in space and time) on Mars than previously thought. This supports recent work suggesting CO2 sublimation could be responsible for recent modification in Martian gullies.

  2. Global carbon - nitrogen - phosphorus cycle interactions: A key to solving the atmospheric CO2 balance problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. J.; Mellillo, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    If all biotic sinks of atmospheric CO2 reported were added a value of about 0.4 Gt C/yr would be found. For each category, a very high (non-conservative) estimate was used. This still does not provide a sufficient basis for achieving a balance between the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. The bulk of the discrepancy lies in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in the net biotic release and ocean uptake segments, but smaller errors or biases may exist in calculations of the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase and total fossil fuel use as well. The reason why biotic sinks are not capable of balancing the CO2 increase via nutrient-matching in the short-term is apparent from a comparison of the stoichiometry of the sources and sinks. The burning of fossil fuels and forest biomass releases much more CO2-carbon than is sequestered as organic carbon.

  3. Low atmospheric CO(2) levels during the Permo- Carboniferous glaciation inferred from fossil lycopsids.

    PubMed

    Beerling, D J

    2002-10-01

    Earth history was punctuated during the Permo-Carboniferous [300-250 million years (Myr) ago] by the longest and most severe glaciation of the entire Phanerozoic Eon. But significant uncertainty surrounds the concentration of CO(2) in the atmosphere through this time interval and therefore its role in the evolution of this major prePleistocene glaciation. Here, I derive 24 Late Paleozoic CO(2) estimates from the fossil cuticle record of arborsecent lycopsids of the equatorial Carboniferous and Permian swamp communities. Quantitative calibration of Late Carboniferous (330-300 Myr ago) and Permian (270-260 Myr ago) lycopsid stomatal indices yield average atmospheric CO(2) concentrations of 344 ppm and 313 ppm, respectively. The reconstructions show a high degree of self-consistency and a degree of precision an order of magnitude greater than other approaches. Low CO(2) levels during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation are in agreement with glaciological evidence for the presence of continental ice and coupled models of climate and ice-sheet growth on Pangea. Moreover, the Permian data indicate atmospheric CO(2) levels were low 260 Myr ago, by which time continental deglaciation was already underway. Positive biotic feedbacks on climate, and geotectonic events, therefore are implicated as mechanisms underlying deglaciation.

  4. Low atmospheric CO2 levels during the Permo- Carboniferous glaciation inferred from fossil lycopsids

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    Earth history was punctuated during the Permo-Carboniferous [300–250 million years (Myr) ago] by the longest and most severe glaciation of the entire Phanerozoic Eon. But significant uncertainty surrounds the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere through this time interval and therefore its role in the evolution of this major prePleistocene glaciation. Here, I derive 24 Late Paleozoic CO2 estimates from the fossil cuticle record of arborsecent lycopsids of the equatorial Carboniferous and Permian swamp communities. Quantitative calibration of Late Carboniferous (330–300 Myr ago) and Permian (270–260 Myr ago) lycopsid stomatal indices yield average atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 344 ppm and 313 ppm, respectively. The reconstructions show a high degree of self-consistency and a degree of precision an order of magnitude greater than other approaches. Low CO2 levels during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation are in agreement with glaciological evidence for the presence of continental ice and coupled models of climate and ice-sheet growth on Pangea. Moreover, the Permian data indicate atmospheric CO2 levels were low 260 Myr ago, by which time continental deglaciation was already underway. Positive biotic feedbacks on climate, and geotectonic events, therefore are implicated as mechanisms underlying deglaciation. PMID:12235372

  5. Atmospheric CO2 variations on millennial-scale during MIS 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jinhwa; Grilli, Roberto; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Teste, Grégory; Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Schmidely, Loïc; Schmitt, Jochen; Stocker, Thomas; Fischer, Hubertus

    2017-04-01

    Understanding natural carbon cycle / climate feedbacks on various time scales is highly important for predicting future climate changes. Paleoclimate records of Antarctic temperatures, relative sea level and foraminiferal isotope and pollen records in sediment cores from the Portuguese margin have shown climate variations on millennial time scale over the Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6; from approximately 135 to 190 kyr BP). These proxy data suggested iceberg calving in the North Atlantic result in cooling in the Northern hemisphere and warming in Antarctica by changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, which is explained by a bipolar see-saw trend in the ocean (Margari et al., 2010). Atmospheric CO2 reconstruction from Antarctic ice cores can provide key information on how atmospheric CO2 concentrations are linked to millennial-scale climate changes. However, existing CO2 records cannot be used to address this relationship because of the lack of suitable temporal resolution. In this work, we will present a new CO2 record with an improved time resolution, obtained from the Dome C ice core (75˚ 06'S, 123˚ 24'E) spanning the MIS 6 period, using dry extraction methods. We will examine millennial-scale features in atmospheric CO2, and their possible links with other proxies covering MIS 6. Margari, V., Skinner, L. C., Tzedakis, P. C., Ganopolski, A., Vautravers, M., and Shackleton, N. J.: The nature of millennial scale climate variability during the past two glacial periods, Nat.Geosci., 3, 127-131, 2010.

  6. Enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake: global drivers and implications for the growth rate of atmospheric CO2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor F.; Prentice, Colin; Canadell, Josep; Williams, Christopher; Han, Wang; Riley, William; Zhu, Qing; Koven, Charlie; Chambers, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation we will focus on using decadal changes in the global carbon cycle to better understand how ecosystems respond to changes in CO2 concentration, temperature, and water and nutrient availability. Using global carbon budget estimates, ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models, we examine the causes and consequences of the long-term changes in the terrestrial carbon sink. We show that over the past century the sink has been greatly enhanced, largely due to the effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis dominating over warming induced increases in respiration. We also examine the relative roles of greening, water and nutrients, along with individual events such as El Nino. We show that a slowdown in the rate of warming over land since the start of the 21st century likely led to a large increase in the sink, and that this increase was sufficient to lead to a pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2. We also show that the recent El Nino resulted in the highest growth rate of atmospheric CO2 ever recorded. Our results provide evidence of the relative roles of CO2 fertilization and warming induced respiration in the global carbon cycle, along with an examination of the impact of climate extremes.

  7. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  8. The Role of Artificial Atmospheric CO2 Removal in Stabilizing Earth's Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Recent research showed that global mean temperature remains approximately constant for several centuries after complete cessation of CO2 emissions, while global mean thermosteric sea level continues to rise. This implies that a net artificial removal of CO2 from the atmosphere may be necessary to decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentrations more rapidly and bring the climate system components to their previous states on human timescales. The purpose of this study is to explore the reversibility of climate responses to a range of realistic CO2 emission scenarios, which follow a gradual transition from fossil-fuel driven economy to a zero-emission energy system with implementation of negative CO2 emissions, using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model of intermediate complexity (UVic ESCM 2.9). The CO2 emission pathways were designed to meet constraints related to the implementation of negative emission technologies derived from the integrated assessment literature. Our simulations show that while it is possible, in principle, to revert the global mean temperature after a phase of overshoot, the thermosteric sea level rise is not reversible on human timescales for the range of emission scenarios considered. During the negative emission phase, CO2 is released form the natural (terrestrial and marine) carbon sinks, which diminishes the efficiency of negative emissions implemented. In addition, spatial changes of vegetation distribution patterns are not entirely reversible on human timescales. We suggest that while negative emissions could potentially stabilize the global mean temperature at a desired level, such technology does not supersede reductions in fossil fuel emissions, as the artificial CO2 capture at large scale has many limitations and is unable to stabilize other climate system components (e.g. sea level) at desired levels.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of polyethers and a quaternary ammonium ionic liquid as CO2 absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Piercarlo Fortunato; Fernandez, Juan S. L. C.; Lepre, Luiz Fernando; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Costa Gomes, Margarida F.; Siqueira, Leonardo J. A.

    2018-04-01

    The properties of mixtures of butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [N4111][NTf2], with poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethyl ether, PEO, were described as a function of PEO chain size by molecular dynamics simulations. Both PEO chain size and mixture composition revealed to play a significant role in determining the structure and the dynamics of the fluids. The remarkably higher viscosity observed for mixtures composed by 0.25 mole fraction of PEO was attributed to the increase in the gauche population of OCCO dihedral of the polyether of longer chains. The negative solvation enthalpy (ΔsolH < 0) and entropy (ΔsolS < 0) revealed a favorable CO2 absorption by the neat and mixture systems. The CO2 absorption was higher in neat PEO, particularly considering longer chains. The gas solubility in the mixtures presented intermediate values in comparison to the neat PEO and neat ionic liquid. The CO2 solutions had their structures discussed in the light of the calculated radial and spatial distribution functions.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of polyethers and a quaternary ammonium ionic liquid as CO2 absorbers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Piercarlo Fortunato; Fernandez, Juan S L C; Lepre, Luiz Fernando; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Siqueira, Leonardo J A

    2018-04-07

    The properties of mixtures of butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [N 4111 ][NTf 2 ], with poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethyl ether, PEO, were described as a function of PEO chain size by molecular dynamics simulations. Both PEO chain size and mixture composition revealed to play a significant role in determining the structure and the dynamics of the fluids. The remarkably higher viscosity observed for mixtures composed by 0.25 mole fraction of PEO was attributed to the increase in the gauche population of OCCO dihedral of the polyether of longer chains. The negative solvation enthalpy (Δ sol H < 0) and entropy (Δ sol S < 0) revealed a favorable CO 2 absorption by the neat and mixture systems. The CO 2 absorption was higher in neat PEO, particularly considering longer chains. The gas solubility in the mixtures presented intermediate values in comparison to the neat PEO and neat ionic liquid. The CO 2 solutions had their structures discussed in the light of the calculated radial and spatial distribution functions.

  11. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P; Butler, Harry J; Strong, Craig L; McTainsh, Grant H; Leys, John F; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A

    2013-10-01

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and transporting C dust quickly offshore; augmenting the net loss of C from terrestrial systems. However, the contribution of wind erosion to rates of C release and sequestration is poorly understood. Here, we describe how SOC dust emission is omitted from national C accounting, is an underestimated source of CO(2) and may accelerate SOC decomposition. Similarly, long dust residence times in the unshielded atmospheric environment may considerably increase CO(2) emission. We developed a first approximation to SOC enrichment for a well-established dust emission model and quantified SOC dust emission for Australia (5.83 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)) and Australian agricultural soils (0.4 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)). These amount to underestimates for CO(2) emissions of ≈10% from combined C pools in Australia (year = 2000), ≈5% from Australian Rangelands and ≈3% of Australian Agricultural Soils by Kyoto Accounting. Northern hemisphere countries with greater dust emission than Australia are also likely to have much larger SOC dust emission. Therefore, omission of SOC dust emission likely represents a considerable underestimate from those nations' C accounts. We suggest that the omission of SOC dust emission from C cycling and C accounting is a significant global source of uncertainty. Tracing the fate of wind-eroded SOC in the dust cycle is therefore essential to quantify the release of CO(2) from SOC dust to the atmosphere and the contribution of SOC deposition to downwind C sinks. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  13. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE PAGES

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; ...

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore » conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  14. Recharge of the early atmosphere of Mars by impact-induced release of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    The question as to whether high impact rates early in the history of Mars could have aided in maintaining a relatively thick CO2 atmosphere is discussed. Such impacts could have released CO2 into the atmosphere by burial, by shock-induced release during impact events, and by the addition of carbon to Mars from the impacting bolides. On the assumption that cratering rates on Mars were comparable to those of the moon's Nectarial period, burial rates are a result of 'impact gardening' at the end of heavy bombardment are estimated to have ranged from 20 to 45 m/million years; at these rates, 0.1-0.2 bar of CO2 would have been released every 10 million years as a result of burial to depths at which carbonate dissociation temperatures are encountered.

  15. Simple model to estimate the contribution of atmospheric CO2 to the Earth's greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Derrek J.; Gea-Banacloche, Julio

    2012-04-01

    We show how the CO2 contribution to the Earth's greenhouse effect can be estimated from relatively simple physical considerations and readily available spectroscopic data. In particular, we present a calculation of the "climate sensitivity" (that is, the increase in temperature caused by a doubling of the concentration of CO2) in the absence of feedbacks. Our treatment highlights the important role played by the frequency dependence of the CO2 absorption spectrum. For pedagogical purposes, we provide two simple models to visualize different ways in which the atmosphere might return infrared radiation back to the Earth. The more physically realistic model, based on the Schwarzschild radiative transfer equations, uses as input an approximate form of the atmosphere's temperature profile, and thus includes implicitly the effect of heat transfer mechanisms other than radiation.

  16. A 490 W transversely excited atmospheric CO2 spark gap laser with added H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zand, M.; Koushki, A. M.; Neshati, R.; Kia, B.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a new design for a high pulse repetition rate transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser with ultraviolet pre-ionization. A new method of fast thyristor capacitor charging and discharging by a spark gap is used. The effect of H2 gas addition on the output and stability of a transversely excited atmospheric laser operating with a basic mixture of CO2, N2 and He is investigated. The output power was increased by adding H2 to the gas mixture ratio of CO2:N2:He:H2  =  1:1:8:0.5 at total pressure of 850 mbar. An average power of 490 W at 110 Hz with 4.5 J per pulse was obtained. The laser efficiency was 11.2% and oxygen gas was used in the spark gap for electron capture to reduce the recovery time and increase the repetition rate.

  17. Comparing Amazon Basin CO2 fluxes from an atmospheric inversion with TRENDY biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Alden, C. B.; Harper, A. B.; Ahlström, A.; Touma, D. E.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.

    2015-12-01

    Net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is sensitive to environmental conditions, including extreme heat and drought. Of particular importance for local and global carbon balance and climate are the expansive tracts of tropical rainforest located in the Amazon Basin. Because of the Basin's size and ecological heterogeneity, net biosphere CO2 exchange with the atmosphere remains largely un-constrained. In particular, the response of net CO2 exchange to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation are not yet well known. However, proper representation of these relationships in biosphere models is a necessary constraint for accurately modeling future climate and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. In an effort to compare biosphere response to climate across different biosphere models, the TRENDY model intercomparison project coordinated the simulation of CO2 fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in response to historical climate forcing, by 9 different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. We examine the TRENDY model results in the Amazon Basin, and compare this "bottom-up" method with fluxes derived from a "top-down" approach to estimating net CO2 fluxes, obtained through atmospheric inverse modeling using CO2 measurements sampled by aircraft above the basin. We compare the "bottom-up" and "top-down" fluxes in 5 sub-regions of the Amazon basin on a monthly basis for 2010-2012. Our results show important periods of agreement between some models in the TRENDY suite and atmospheric inverse model results, notably the simulation of increased biosphere CO2 loss during wet season heat in the Central Amazon. During the dry season, however, model ability to simulate observed response of net CO2 exchange to drought was varied, with few models able to reproduce the "top-down" inversion flux signals. Our results highlight the value of atmospheric trace gas observations for helping to narrow the

  18. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera): reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F

    2007-03-21

    Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO2 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  19. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  20. Atmospheric pCO2 Reconstructed across the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Schubert, B.

    2015-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are commonly associated with extreme global warming. The Early Eocene is punctuated by five such CIEs, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ca. 55.8 Ma), H1 (ca. 53.6 Ma), H2 (ca. 53.5 Ma), I1 (ca. 53.3 Ma), and I2 (ca. 53.2 Ma), each characterized by global warming. The negative CIEs are recognized in both marine and terrestrial substrates, but the terrestrial substrates exhibit a larger absolute magnitude CIE than the marine substrates. Here we reconcile the difference in CIE magnitude between the terrestrial and marine substrates for each of these events by accounting for the additional carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased atmospheric pCO2. Our analysis yields background and peak pCO2 values for each of the events. Assuming a common mechanism for each event, we calculate that background pCO2 was not static across the Early Eocene, with the highest background pCO2 immediately prior to I2, the last of the five CIEs. Background pCO2 is dependent on the source used in our analysis with values ranging from 300 to 720 ppmv provided an injection of 13C-depleted carbon with δ13C value of -60‰ (e.g. biogenic methane). The peak pCO2 during each event scales according to the magnitude of CIE, and is therefore greatest during the PETM and smallest during H2. Both background and peak pCO2 are higher if we assume a mechanism of permafrost thawing (δ13C = -25‰). Our reconstruction of pCO2 across these events is consistent with trends in the δ18O value of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, suggesting a strong link between pCO2 and temperature during the Early Eocene.

  1. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  2. Atmospheric inversion for cost effective quantification of city CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.; Bellassen, V.; Vogel, F.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Wang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Cities, currently covering only a very small portion (< 3 %) of the world's land surface, directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, and are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we propose a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. We examine the cost-effectiveness and the performance of such a tool. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive. However, cheaper sensors are currently developed and should be useable for the monitoring of CO2 emissions from a megacity in the near-term. Our assessment of the inversion method is thus based on the use of several types of hypothetical networks, with a range of numbers of sensors sampling at 25 m a.g.l. The study case for this assessment is the monitoring of the emissions of the Paris metropolitan area (~ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 Tg C emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. The performance of the inversion is evaluated in terms of uncertainties in the estimates of total and sectoral CO2 emissions. These uncertainties are compared to a notional ambitious target to diagnose annual total city emissions with an uncertainty of 5 % (2-sigma). We find that, with 10 stations only, which is the typical size of current pilot networks that are deployed in some cities, the uncertainty for the 1-month total city CO2 emissions is significantly reduced by the inversion by ~ 42 % but still corresponds to an annual

  3. Trends in land surface phenology and atmospheric CO2 seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystems on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotope ratio seasonality. Atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality is controlled by vegetation phenology, but is not identical because growth will typically commence some time before and terminate some time after the net carbon exchange changes sign in spring and autumn, respectively. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology affect both the atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality. Differences and similarities in recent trends of CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality and vegetation phenology will be discussed. Furthermore, we use the NDVI observations, and atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C data to show the trends and variability of the timing of peak season plant activity. Preliminary results show that the peak season plant activity of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical terrestrial ecosystems is shifting towards spring, largely in response to the warming-induced advance of the start of growing season. Besides, the spring-ward shift of the peak plant activity is contributing the most to the increasing peak season productivity. In other words, earlier start of growing season is highly linked to earlier arrival of peak of season and higher NDVI. Changes in the timing of peak season plant activity are expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget.

  4. Sellers works at the CO2 Absorber Panel Door in the MDDK during STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-15

    S132-E-007167 (15 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, works at the Carbon Dioxide absorber panel door on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Atlantis during Flight Day 2 activities. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. Is phloem loading a driver of plant photosynthetic responses to elevated atmospheric [CO2]? 

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A better understanding of the interactions between photosynthesis, photoassimilate translocation and sink activity is necessary to improve crop productivity. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is perturbing source-sink balance in a manner not experienced by crops during the history of their cultivation, so ne...

  6. Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, M; Vicca, S; Janssens, I A; Ciais, P; Obersteiner, M; Bartrons, M; Sardans, J; Verger, A; Canadell, J G; Chevallier, F; Wang, X; Bernhofer, C; Curtis, P S; Gianelle, D; Grünwald, T; Heinesch, B; Ibrom, A; Knohl, A; Laurila, T; Law, B E; Limousin, J M; Longdoz, B; Loustau, D; Mammarella, I; Matteucci, G; Monson, R K; Montagnani, L; Moors, E J; Munger, J W; Papale, D; Piao, S L; Peñuelas, J

    2017-08-29

    Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO 2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO 2 -fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO 2 , to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling.

  7. The role of carbon dust emission as a global source of atmospheric CO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget, because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by selectively removing4 SOC from vast areas and ...

  8. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Gasson, Edward; Kuhn, Gerhard; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco; SMS Science Team; Acton, Gary; Askin, Rosemary; Atkins, Clifford; Bassett, Kari; Beu, Alan; Blackstone, Brian; Browne, Gregory; Ceregato, Alessandro; Cody, Rosemary; Cornamusini, Gianluca; Corrado, Sveva; DeConto, Robert; Del Carlo, Paola; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Dunbar, Gavin; Falk, Candice; Field, Brad; Fielding, Christopher; Florindo, Fabio; Frank, Tracy; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Grelle, Thomas; Gui, Zi; Handwerger, David; Hannah, Michael; Harwood, David M.; Hauptvogel, Dan; Hayden, Travis; Henrys, Stuart; Hoffmann, Stefan; Iacoviello, Francesco; Ishman, Scott; Jarrard, Richard; Johnson, Katherine; Jovane, Luigi; Judge, Shelley; Kominz, Michelle; Konfirst, Matthew; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lacy, Laura; Levy, Richard; Maffioli, Paola; Magens, Diana; Marcano, Maria C.; Millan, Cristina; Mohr, Barbara; Montone, Paola; Mukasa, Samuel; Naish, Timothy; Niessen, Frank; Ohneiser, Christian; Olney, Mathew; Panter, Kurt; Passchier, Sandra; Patterson, Molly; Paulsen, Timothy; Pekar, Stephen; Pierdominici, Simona; Pollard, David; Raine, Ian; Reed, Joshua; Reichelt, Lucia; Riesselman, Christina; Rocchi, Sergio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sandroni, Sonia; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Schmitt, Douglas; Speece, Marvin; Storey, Bryan; Strada, Eleonora; Talarico, Franco; Taviani, Marco; Tuzzi, Eva; Verosub, Kenneth; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Warny, Sophie; Wilson, Gary; Wilson, Terry; Wonik, Thomas; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23-14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3-4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (˜280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (˜500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene.

  9. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and tr...

  10. Application of a conceptional framework to interpret variability in rangeland responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant productivity and other ecosystem processes vary widely in their responses to experimental increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. We adapt a conceptual framework first suggested by Chapin et al. (1996) to define conditions that sustain ecosystems to address the question o...

  11. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new 2-miron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of 2014 for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  12. The Martian climate: Energy balance models with CO2/H2O atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.

    1985-01-01

    Coupled equations are developed for mass and heat transport in a seasonal Mars model with condensation and sublimation of CO2 at the polar caps. Topics covered include physical considerations of planetary as mass and energy balance; effects of phase changes at the surface on mass and heat flux; atmospheric transport and governing equations; and numerical analysis.

  13. Productivity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps under increased atmospheric CO2 and O3

    Treesearch

    Carrie Andrew; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2009-01-01

    Sporocarp production is essential for ectomycorrhizal fungal recombination and dispersal, which influences fungal community dynamics. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) affect host plant carbon gain and allocation, which may in turn influence ectomycorrhizal sporocarp production if the carbon...

  14. Does phloem loading strategy and capacity alter plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2]?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A better understanding of the interactions between photosynthesis, photoassimilate translocation and sink activity is necessary to improve crop productivity. Rising atmospheric [CO2] perturbs source-sink balance which needs to be addressed to adapt crops to future growing conditions. This project ta...

  15. Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. I - Amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, G.; Miller, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, HCN, H2CO, and NH3 using a spark discharge on various simulated primitive earth atmospheres at 25 C is investigated. Various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, N2, NH3, H2O, and H2 were utilized in different experiments. The yields of amino acids (1.2-4.7 percent based on the carbon) are found to be approximately independent of the H2/CH4 ratio and the presence of NH3, and a wide variety of amino acids are obtained. Glycine is found to be almost the only amino acid produced from CO and CO2 model atmospheres, with the maximum yield being about the same for the three carbon sources at high H2/carbon ratios,whereas CH4 is superior at low H2/carbon ratios. In addition, it is found that the directly synthesized NH3 together with the NH3 obtained from the hydrolysis of HCN, nitriles, and urea could have been a major source of ammonia in the atmosphere and oceans of the primitive earth. It is determined that prebiotic syntheses from HCN and H2CO to give products such as purines and sugars and some amino acids could have occurred in primitive atmospheres containing CO and CO2 provided the H2/CO and H2/CO2 ratios were greater than about 1.0.

  16. Soil type influences the sensitivity of nutrient dynamics to changes in atmospheric CO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous studies have indicated that increases in atmospheric CO2 have the potential to decrease nitrogen availability through the process of progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL). The timing and magnitude of PNL in field experiments is varied due to numerous ecosystem processes. Here we examined ...

  17. Soil type influences the sensitivity of nutrient dynamics to changes in atmospheric CO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous studies have indicated that increases in atmospheric CO2 have the potential to decrease nitrogen availability through the process of progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL). The timing and magnitude of PNL in field experiments is varied due to numerous ecosystem processes. Here we examined th...

  18. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Gasson, Edward; Kuhn, Gerhard; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco

    2016-03-29

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23-14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3-4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (∼280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (∼500 ppm) atmospheric CO2 These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene.

  19. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient content and yield of important food crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the many ways that climate change may affect human health is by altering the nutrient content of food crops. However, previous attempts to study the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop nutrition have been limited by small sample sizes and/or artificial growing conditions. Here we p...

  20. Rising atmospheric CO2 lowers food zinc, iron, and protein concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary deficiencies of zinc and iron are a major global public health problem. Most people who experience these deficiencies depend on agricultural crops for zinc and iron. In this context, the influence of rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on the availability of these nutrients from crops i...

  1. Regional contributions of ocean iron fertilization to atmospheric CO2 changes during the last glacial termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opazo, N. E.; Lambert, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols affect climate directly by changing the radiative balance of the Earth, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and by affecting biogeochemical cycles. The impact on marine biogeochemical cycles is primarily through the supply of micronutrients such as iron to nutrient-limited regions of the oceans. Iron fertilization of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the oceans is thought to have significantly affected the carbon cycle on glacial-interglacial scales and contributed about one fourth of the 80-100 ppm lowering of glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations.In this study, we quantify the effect of global dust fluxes on atmospheric CO2 using the cGENIE model, an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity with emphasis on the carbon cycle. Global Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dust flux fields were obtained from both dust model simulations and reconstructions based on observational data. The analysis was performed in two stages. In the first instance, we produced 8 global intermediate dust flux fields between Holocene and LGM and simulated the atmospheric CO2 drawdown due to these 10 dust levels. In the second stage, we only changed dust flux levels in specific HNLC regions to isolate the effect of these ocean basins. We thus quantify the contribution of the South Atlantic, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Central Pacific HNLC regions to the total atmospheric CO2 difference due to iron fertilization of the Earth's oceans.

  2. Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 traced by 14CO2 and air quality index pollutant observations in Beijing and Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Feng, Xue; Feng, Tian; Wu, Shugang; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Du, Hua; Xiong, Xiaohu; Fu, Yunchong

    2018-06-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14 C) is the most accurate tracer available for quantifying atmospheric CO 2 derived from fossil fuel (CO 2ff ), but it is expensive and time-consuming to measure. Here, we used common hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) pollutants (AQI, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and CO) to indirectly trace diurnal CO 2ff variations during certain days at the urban sites in Beijing and Xiamen, China, based on linear relationships between AQI pollutants and CO 2ff traced by 14 C ([Formula: see text]) for semimonthly samples obtained in 2014. We validated these indirectly traced CO 2ff (CO 2ff-in ) concentrations against [Formula: see text] concentrations traced by simultaneous diurnal 14 CO 2 observations. Significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations were observed between each of the separate AQI pollutants and [Formula: see text] for the semimonthly samples. Diurnal variations in CO 2ff traced by each of the AQI pollutants generally showed similar trends to those of [Formula: see text], with high agreement at the sampling site in Beijing and relatively poor agreement at the sampling site in Xiamen. AQI pollutant tracers showed high normalized root-mean-square (NRMS) errors for the summer diurnal samples due to low [Formula: see text] concentrations. After the removal of these summer samples, the NRMS errors for AQI pollutant tracers were in the range of 31.6-64.2%. CO generally showed a high agreement and low NRMS errors among these indirect tracers. Based on these linear relationships, monthly CO 2ff averages at the sampling sites in Beijing and Xiamen were traced using CO concentration as a tracer. The monthly CO 2ff averages at the Beijing site showed a shallow U-type variation. These results indicate that CO can be used to trace CO 2ff variations in Chinese cities with CO 2ff concentrations above 5 ppm.

  3. Stability of CO2 Atmospheres on Terrestrial Exoplanets in the Proximity of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Hu, R.; Yung, Y. L.

    2013-12-01

    M dwarfs are promising targets for the search and characterization of terrestrial exoplanets that might be habitable, as the habitable planets around M dwarfs are in much more close-in orbits compared to their counterparts around Sun-like stars. CO2, one of the most important greenhouse gases on our planet, is conventionally adopted as a major greenhouse gas in studying the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets around M dwarfs. However, the stability of CO2 in terrestrial atmospheres has been called into question due to the high FUV/NUV flux ratio of some M dwarfs in comparison to that of Sun-like stars. While CO2 is photolyzed into CO and O by photons in the FUV, with O2 forming from the O atoms through third body catalytic reactions, NUV photons are able to photolyze water, producing HOx radicals which go on to catalytically recombine the relatively stable CO and O2 molecules back into CO2. The comparatively low NUV flux of some M dwarfs leads to a significantly reduced efficiency of catalytic recombination of CO and O2 and the possible net destruction of CO2 and the build up of CO and O2. In this work we test the above hypothesis using a 1D photochemical kinetics model for a Mars-sized planet with an initial atmospheric composition similar to that of Mars and the incoming stellar flux of a weakly active M dwarf, assuming the exoplanet is 0.1 AU away from its parent star, in proximity of its habitable zone. We show that a CO2-dominated atmosphere can be converted into a CO2/CO/O2-dominated atmosphere in 10^3-10^4 years by CO2 photolysis. This process is kept from running away by a combination of O2 photolysis, three body reactions of O, O2, and another species to form O3, and reactions of CO with OH to form CO2 and H. However, such a large amount of O2 and CO, combined with some amount of H and H2, may be susceptible to spontaneous combustion or detonation, and thus could prove to be an especially unstable state in itself. Thus there could arise a situation

  4. Interannual Variability In the Atmospheric CO2 Rectification Over Boreal Forests Based On A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Worthy, D.

    2004-05-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The simulation of this atmospheric rectifier effect is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern. A 12-year (1990-1996, 1999-2003), continuous CO2 measurement record from Fraserdale, Ontario (located ~150 km north of Timmons), along with a coupled Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS), is used to investigate the interannual variability in this effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. Simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effects, (including seasonal and diurnal), quantified as the variation in the mean CO2 concentration from the surface to the top of the PBL, varied from 2.8 to 4.1 ppm, even though the modeled seasonal variations in the PBL depth were similar throughout the 12-year period. The differences in the interannual rectifier effect primarily resulted from changes in the biospheric CO2 uptake and heterotrophic respiration. Correlations in the year-to year variations of the CO2 rectification were found with mean annual air temperatures, simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (r2=0.5, 0.46, 0.42, respectively). A small increasing trend in the CO2 rectification was also observed. The year-to-year variation in the vertical distribution of the monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios (reflecting differences in the diurnal rectifier effect) was related to interannual climate variability, however, the seasonal rectifier effects were found to be more sensitive to climate variability than the diurnal rectifier effects.

  5. High Materials Performance in Supercritical CO2 in Comparison with Atmospheric Pressure CO2 and Supercritical Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey

    2017-02-26

    This presentation covers environments (including advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler/turbine and sCO2 indirect power cycle), effects of pressure, exposure tests, oxidation results, and mechanical behavior after exposure.

  6. Shifting carbon flow from roots into associated microbial communities in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Barbara; Pijl, Agata S; Duyts, Henk; Kielak, Anna M; Gamper, Hannes A; Houtekamer, Marco J; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bodelier, Paul L E; Whiteley, Andrew S; van Veen, Johannes A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2010-06-15

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) levels are predicted to have major consequences on carbon cycling and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Increased photosynthetic activity is expected, especially for C-3 plants, thereby influencing vegetation dynamics; however, little is known about the path of fixed carbon into soil-borne communities and resulting feedbacks on ecosystem function. Here, we examine how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) act as a major conduit in the transfer of carbon between plants and soil and how elevated atmospheric CO(2) modulates the belowground translocation pathway of plant-fixed carbon. Shifts in active AMF species under elevated atmospheric CO(2) conditions are coupled to changes within active rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities. Thus, as opposed to simply increasing the activity of soil-borne microbes through enhanced rhizodeposition, elevated atmospheric CO(2) clearly evokes the emergence of distinct opportunistic plant-associated microbial communities. Analyses involving RNA-based stable isotope probing, neutral/phosphate lipid fatty acids stable isotope probing, community fingerprinting, and real-time PCR allowed us to trace plant-fixed carbon to the affected soil-borne microorganisms. Based on our data, we present a conceptual model in which plant-assimilated carbon is rapidly transferred to AMF, followed by a slower release from AMF to the bacterial and fungal populations well-adapted to the prevailing (myco-)rhizosphere conditions. This model provides a general framework for reappraising carbon-flow paths in soils, facilitating predictions of future interactions between rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions but the effect on the Earth's biosphere is poorly understood. The ability of the biosphere to fix CO2 through photosynthesis will determine future atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as future productivity of crops and forests. Manipulative CO2 enrichment experiments (e.g. FACE) are limited to (i) short time spans, (ii) few locations and (iii) large step increases in [CO2]. Here, we apply new stable isotope methodology to tree-ring archives, to study the effect of increasing CO2 concentrations retrospectively during the past centuries. We cover the whole [CO2] increase since industrialization, and sample trees with global distribution. Instead of isotope ratios of whole molecules, we use intramolecular isotope distributions, a new tool for tree-ring analysis with decisive advantages. In experiments on annual plants, we have found that the intramolecular distribution of deuterium (equivalent to ratios of isotopomer abundances) in photosynthetic glucose depends on growth [CO2] and reflects the metabolic flux ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration. By applying this isotopomer methodology to trees from Oak Ridge FACE experiment, we show that this CO2 response is present in trees on the leaf level. This CO2 dependence constitutes a physiological signal, which is transferred to the wood of the tree rings. In trees from 13 locations on all continents the isotopomer ratio of tree-ring cellulose is correlated to atmospheric [CO2] during the past 200 years. The shift of the isotopomer ratio is universal for all 12 species analyzed, including both broad-leafed trees and conifers. Because the trees originate from sites with widely differing D/H ratios of precipitation, the generality of the response demonstrates that the signal is independent of the source isotope ratio, because it is encoded in an isotopomer abundance ratio. This decoupling of climate signals and physiological

  8. Temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 and CO at Ahmedabad in western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Naveen; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, S.; Patra, Prabir K.; Sheel, Varun

    2016-05-01

    About 70 % of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from the megacities and urban areas of the world. In order to draw effective emission mitigation policies for combating future climate change as well as independently validating the emission inventories for constraining their large range of uncertainties, especially over major metropolitan areas of developing countries, there is an urgent need for greenhouse gas measurements over representative urban regions. India is a fast developing country, where fossil fuel emissions have increased dramatically in the last three decades and are predicted to continue to grow further by at least 6 % per year through to 2025. The CO2 measurements over urban regions in India are lacking. To overcome this limitation, simultaneous measurements of CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) have been made at Ahmedabad, a major urban site in western India, using a state-of-the-art laser-based cavity ring down spectroscopy technique from November 2013 to May 2015. These measurements enable us to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 with respect to its sources (both anthropogenic and biospheric) and biospheric sinks. The observed annual average concentrations of CO2 and CO are 413.0 ± 13.7 and 0.50 ± 0.37 ppm respectively. Both CO2 and CO show strong seasonality with lower concentrations (400.3 ± 6.8 and 0.19 ± 0.13 ppm) during the south-west monsoon and higher concentrations (419.6 ± 22.8 and 0.72 ± 0.68 ppm) during the autumn (SON) season. Strong diurnal variations are also observed for both the species. The common factors for the diurnal cycles of CO2 and CO are vertical mixing and rush hour traffic, while the influence of biospheric fluxes is also seen in the CO2 diurnal cycle. Using CO and CO2 covariation, we differentiate the anthropogenic and biospheric components of CO2 and found significant contributions of biospheric respiration and anthropogenic emissions in the late night (00:00-05:00 h, IST

  9. Faster turnover of new soil carbon inputs under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Terrer, César; Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; Heath, James; Nie, Ming; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Richard P; Hungate, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 frequently stimulate plant inputs to soil, but the consequences of these changes for soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. Plant-derived inputs can accumulate in the soil and become part of the soil C pool ("new soil C"), or accelerate losses of pre-existing ("old") soil C. The dynamics of the new and old pools will likely differ and alter the long-term fate of soil C, but these separate pools, which can be distinguished through isotopic labeling, have not been considered in past syntheses. Using meta-analysis, we found that while elevated CO 2 (ranging from 550 to 800 parts per million by volume) stimulates the accumulation of new soil C in the short term (<1 year), these effects do not persist in the longer term (1-4 years). Elevated CO 2 does not affect the decomposition or the size of the old soil C pool over either temporal scale. Our results are inconsistent with predictions of conventional soil C models and suggest that elevated CO 2 might increase turnover rates of new soil C. Because increased turnover rates of new soil C limit the potential for additional soil C sequestration, the capacity of land ecosystems to slow the rise in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may be smaller than previously assumed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microbial Assimilation of Atmospheric CO2 to Synthesize Organic Matter in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tida

    2014-05-01

    Like higher plants, microbial autotrophs possess photosynthetic systems that enable them to fix CO2. Whilst present in large numbers in soils, the capacity for soil microorganisms to fix CO2 and their importance in terrestrial C cycling has not been quantified. To measure the activities of microbial autotrophs in assimilating atmospheric CO2, seven different soils were incubated with 14C labelled CO2 for 80 d, and the 14C-labelled organic C synthesized was determined. The results indicate that the synthesis rates of 14C-lablled organic C ranged from 0.0134 to 0.103 g C m-2 d-1, and were closely related to RubisCO activities and the abundance of cbbL-genes in the soils, indicating that the synthesis could be attributed to soil microbial autotrophs. This finding suggests that microbial assimilation of atmospheric CO2 is an important process in the sequestration and cycling of terrestrial C that, until now, has been largely ignored.

  11. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  12. Potential effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased from 280 parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 381 ppm today and is predicted by some models to double within the next century. Some of the important pathways whereby changes in atmospheric CO2 may impact coastal wetlands include changes in temperature, rainfall, and hurricane intensity (fig. 1). Increases in CO2 can contribute to global warming, which may (1) accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice fields and steric expansion of oceans, (2) alter rainfall patterns and salinity regimes, and (3) change the intensity and frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes. Sea-level rise combined with changes in storm activity may affect erosion and sedimentation rates and patterns in coastal wetlands and maintenance of soil elevations.Feedback loops between plant growth and hydroedaphic conditions also contribute to maintenance of marsh elevations through accumulation of organic matter. Although increasing CO2 concentration may contribute to global warming and climate changes, it may also have a direct impact on plant growth and development by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey are examining responses of wetland plants to elevated CO2 concentration and other factors. This research will lead to a better understanding of future changes in marsh species composition, successional rates and patterns, ecological functioning, and vulnerability to sea-level rise and other global change factors.

  13. Δ14CO2 from dark respiration in plants and its impact on the estimation of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaohu; Zhou, Weijian; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Niu, Zhenchuan; Du, Hua; Lu, Xuefeng; Fu, Yunchong; Burr, George S

    2017-04-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14 C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO 2 (CO 2ff ) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the 14 C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the 14 C content of CO 2 derived from plants has been equated with the 14 C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking. Here we present accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon results of CO 2 respired from 21 plants using a lab-incubation method and associated bulk organic matter. From the respired CO 2 we determine Δ 14 C res values, and from the bulk organic matter we determine Δ 14 C bom values. A significant difference between Δ 14 C res and Δ 14 C bom (P < 0.01) was observed for all investigated plants, ranging from -42.3‰ to 10.1‰. The results show that Δ 14 C res values are in agreement with mean atmospheric Δ 14 CO 2 for several days leading up to the sampling date, but are significantly different from corresponding bulk organic Δ 14 C values. We find that although dark respiration is unlikely to significantly influence the estimation of CO 2ff , an additional bias associated with the respiration rate during a plant's growth period should be considered when using Δ 14 C in plants to quantify atmospheric CO 2ff . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer Lidar Validation for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    A double-pulsed, 2-micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Based on direct detection technique, the instrument can be operated on ground or onboard a small aircraft. Key features of this compact, rugged and reliable IPDA lidar includes high transmitted laser energy, wavelength tuning, switching and locking, and sensitive detection. As a proof of concept, the IPDA ground and airborne CO2 measurement and validation will be presented. IPDA lidar CO2 measurements ground validation were conducted at NASA LaRC using hard targets and a calibrated in-situ sensor. Airborne validation, conducted onboard the NASA B-200 aircraft, included CO2 plum detection from power stations incinerators, comparison to in-flight CO2 in-situ sensor and comparison to air sampling at different altitude conducted by NOAA at the same site. Airborne measurements, spanning for 20 hours, were obtained from different target conditions. Ground targets included soil, vegetation, sand, snow and ocean. In addition, cloud slicing was examined over the ocean. These flight validations were conducted at different altitudes, up to 7 km, with different wavelength controlled weighing functions. CO2 measurement results agree with modeling conducted through the different sensors, as will be discussed.

  15. Changes in Atmospheric CO2 Influence the Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang-Yona, N.; Levin, Y.; Dannemoller, K. C.; Yarden, O.; Peccia, J.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Increased allergic susceptibility has been documented without a comprehensive understanding for its causes. Therefore understanding trends and mechanisms of allergy inducing agents is essential. In this study we investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 levels can affect the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus, a common allergenic fungal species. Both direct exposure to changing CO2 levels during fungal growth, and indirect exposure through changes in the C:N ratios in the growth media were inspected. We determined the allergenicity of the spores through two types of immunoassays, accompanied with genes expression analysis, and proteins relative quantification. We show that fungi grown under present day CO2 levels (392 ppm) exhibit 8.5 and 3.5 fold higher allergenicity compared to fungi grown at preindustrial (280 ppm) and double (560 ppm) CO2 levels, respectively. A corresponding trend is observed in the expression of genes encoding for known allergenic proteins and in the major allergen Asp f1 concentrations, possibly due to physiological changes such as respiration rates and the nitrogen content of the fungus, influenced by the CO2 concentrations. Increased carbon and nitrogen levels in the growth medium also lead to a significant increase in the allergenicity, for which we propose two different biological mechanisms. We suggest that climatic changes such as increasing atmospheric CO2 levels and changes in the fungal growth medium may impact the ability of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus to induce allergies. The effect of changing CO2 concentrations on the total allergenicity per 10^7 spores of A. fumigatus (A), the major allergen Asp f1 concentration in ng per 10^7 spores (B), and the gene expression by RT-PCR (C). The error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

  16. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. W.; Andres, R. J.; Davis, K. J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D. J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; de Jong, B.; Kurz, W. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.; Woodall, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990-2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.

  17. North America's net terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE PAGES

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; ...

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO 2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO 2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO 2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate thatmore » the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO 2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr -1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr -1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr -1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO 2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO 2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr -1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr -1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO 2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or

  18. North America's net terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO 2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO 2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO 2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate thatmore » the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO 2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr -1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr -1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr -1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO 2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO 2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr -1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr -1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO 2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or

  19. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, A.W.; Andres, R.J.; Davis, K.J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D.J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, W.A.; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo I.; Wei, Y.; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from −890 to −280 Tg C yr−1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are −472 ± 281 Tg C yr−1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and −360 Tg C yr−1 (with an interquartile range of −496 to −337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr−1 and assuming the estimate of −472 Tg C yr−1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was

  20. Distribution of CO2 in Saturn's Atmosphere from Cassini/cirs Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A.; Woodard, E.; Young, M.; Stanbro, M.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Jennings, D. E.; the Cassini/CIRS Team

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on the CO2 distribution in Saturn's atmosphere based on analysis of infrared spectral observations of Saturn made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997 October, inserted in Saturn's orbit in 2004 July, and has been successfully making infrared observations of Saturn, its rings, Titan, and other icy satellites during well-planned orbital tours. The infrared observations, made with a dual Fourier transform spectrometer in both nadir- and limb-viewing modes, cover spectral regions of 10-1400 cm-1, with the option of variable apodized spectral resolutions from 0.53 to 15 cm-1. An analysis of the observed spectra with well-developed radiative transfer models and spectral inversion techniques has the potential to provide knowledge of Saturn's thermal structure and composition with global distributions of a series of gases. In this paper, we present an analysis of a large observational data set for retrieval of Saturn's CO2 distribution utilizing spectral features of CO2 in the Q-branch of the ν2 band, and discuss its possible relationship to the influx of interstellar dust grains. With limited spectral regions available for analysis, due to low densities of CO2 and interference from other gases, the retrieved CO2 profile is obtained as a function of a model photochemical profile, with the retrieved values at atmospheric pressures in the region of ~1-10 mbar levels. The retrieved CO2 profile is found to be in good agreement with the model profile based on Infrared Space Observatory measurements with mixing ratios of ~4.9 × 10-10 at atmospheric pressures of ~1 mbar.

  1. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    PubMed

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  2. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M.; Batke, Sven P.; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency. PMID:27605929

  3. Increase in the CO2 exchange rate of leaves of Ilex rotunda with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in an urban canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, M.; Gyokusen, Koichiro; Saito, Akira

    It was found that the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in an urban canyon in Fukuoka city, Japan during August 1997 was about 30 µmol mol-1 higher than that in the suburbs. When fully exposed to sunlight, in situ the rate of photosynthesis in single leaves of Ilex rotunda planted in the urban canyon was higher when the atmospheric CO2 concentration was elevated. A biochemically based model was able to predict the in situ rate of photosynthesis well. The model also predicted an increase in the daily CO2 exchange rate for leaves in the urban canyon with an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, in situ such an increase in the daily CO2 exchange rate may be offset by diminished sunlight, a higher air temperature and a lower relative humidity. Thus, the daily CO2 exchange rate predicted using the model based soleley on the environmental conditions prevailing in the urban canyon was lower than that predicted based only on environmental factors found in the suburbs.

  4. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO 2 and O 3 on Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE PAGES

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; ...

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and tropospheric O 3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO 3 and O 3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO 2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O 3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering hasmore » yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO 2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO 2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO 2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O 3 (elevated O 3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO 2 , plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO 2 , while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O 3 . Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO 2 and O 3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.« less

  5. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  6. Atmospheric CO2 effect on stable carbon isotope composition of terrestrial fossil archives.

    PubMed

    Hare, Vincent J; Loftus, Emma; Jeffrey, Amy; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2018-01-17

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratio of C 3 plant matter is thought to be controlled by the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 and stomatal response to environmental conditions, particularly mean annual precipitation (MAP). The effect of CO 2 concentration on 13 C/ 12 C ratios is currently debated, yet crucial to reconstructing ancient environments and quantifying the carbon cycle. Here we compare high-resolution ice core measurements of atmospheric CO 2 with fossil plant and faunal isotope records. We show the effect of pCO 2 during the last deglaciation is stronger for gymnosperms (-1.4 ± 1.2‰) than angiosperms/fauna (-0.5 ± 1.5‰), while the contributions from changing MAP are -0.3 ± 0.6‰ and -0.4 ± 0.4‰, respectively. Previous studies have assumed that plant 13 C/ 12 C ratios are mostly determined by MAP, an assumption which is sometimes incorrect in geological time. Atmospheric effects must be taken into account when interpreting terrestrial stable carbon isotopes, with important implications for past environments and climates, and understanding plant responses to climate change.

  7. Interpreting OCO-2 Constrained CO2 Surface Flux Estimates Through the Lens of Atmospheric Transport Uncertainty.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Basu, S.; Weir, B.; Baker, D. F.; Bowman, K. W.; Chevallier, F.; Crowell, S.; Deng, F.; Denning, S.; Feng, L.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO-2) was launched in July 2014 and has collected three years of column mean CO2 (XCO2) data. The OCO-2 model inter-comparison project (MIP) was formed to provide a means of analysis of results from many different atmospheric inversion modeling systems. Certain facets of the inversion systems, such as observations and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes were standardized to remove first order sources of difference between the systems. Nevertheless, large variations amongst the flux results from the systems still exist. In this presentation, we explore one dimension of this uncertainty, the impact of different atmospheric transport fields, i.e. wind speeds and directions. Early results illustrate a large systematic difference between two classes of atmospheric transport, arising from winds in the parent GEOS-DAS (NASA-GMAO) and ERA-Interim (ECMWF) data assimilation models. We explore these differences and their effect on inversion-based estimates of surface CO2 flux by using a combination of simplified inversion techniques as well as the full OCO-2 MIP suite of CO2 flux estimates.

  8. Biosphere-atmosphere Exchange of CO2 in a Subtropical Mangrove Wetland in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Neogi, S.; Lai, D. Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mangrove ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their high primary productivity, carbon-rich sediment, and sensitivity to climate change. Yet, there is currently a paucity of studies that quantify the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of GHGs in mangrove wetlands continuously at the ecosystem level. In this study, the temporal variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) between the Kandelia obovata mangrove and the atmosphere was determined in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve of subtropical Hong Kong using an eddy covariance system between February 2016 and January 2017. The daytime half-hourly NEE ranged between -5.0 and +3.3 µmol m-2 s-1, while the maximum nighttime NEE could reach +5.0 µmol m-2 s-1 during the wet, warm season. Temperature, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and surface water salinity were some key physical and hydrological controls of NEE. Tidal activity could also exert profound influence on CO2 fluxes in this mangrove ecosystem by exporting dissolved carbon to adjacent estuary and inhibiting soil respiration during the inundation period. Overall, this coastal mangrove was a net sink of atmospheric CO2. Our results suggest that the ability of subtropical mangrove ecosystems in sequestering CO2 could be highly dependent on future changes in temperature, precipitation, and salinity.

  9. Effects of increased levels of atmospheric CO2 and high temperatures on rice growth and quality

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed; Wang, Song-he; Xiong, Xiang-yang; Wan, Yun-fan

    2017-01-01

    The increased atmospheric temperatures resulting from the increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have had a profound influence on global rice production. China serves as an important area for producing and consuming rice. Therefore, exploring the effects of the simultaneously rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and temperatures on rice growth and quality in the future is very important. The present study was designed to measure the most important aspects of variation for rice-related physiological, ecological and quality indices in different growing periods under a simultaneous increase of CO2 and temperature, through simulation experiments in climate-controlled growth chambers, with southern rice as the study object. The results indicated that the ecological indices, rice phenology, and leaf area would decrease under a simultaneous increase of CO2 and temperature. For the physiological indices, Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased significantly in the seedling period. However, it showed the trend of increase and subsequent decrease in the heading and filling periods. In addition, the decomposition of soluble protein (SP) and soluble sugar (SS) accelerated in filling period. The rice quality index of the Head Rice Rate showed the decreasing trend and subsequent increase, but the Chalky Rice Rate and Protein Content indices gradually decreased while the Gel Consistency gradually increased. PMID:29145420

  10. Sea level fall during glaciation stabilized atmospheric CO2 by enhanced volcanic degassing

    PubMed Central

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Knorr, Gregor; Rüpke, Lars H.; Köhler, Peter; Morgan, Jason; Garofalo, Kristin; Barker, Stephen; Lohmann, Gerrit; Hall, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    Paleo-climate records and geodynamic modelling indicate the existence of complex interactions between glacial sea level changes, volcanic degassing and atmospheric CO2, which may have modulated the climate system’s descent into the last ice age. Between ∼85 and 70 kyr ago, during an interval of decreasing axial tilt, the orbital component in global temperature records gradually declined, while atmospheric CO2, instead of continuing its long-term correlation with Antarctic temperature, remained relatively stable. Here, based on novel global geodynamic models and the joint interpretation of paleo-proxy data as well as biogeochemical simulations, we show that a sea level fall in this interval caused enhanced pressure-release melting in the uppermost mantle, which may have induced a surge in magma and CO2 fluxes from mid-ocean ridges and oceanic hotspot volcanoes. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized negative feedback between glaciation and atmospheric CO2 predominantly controlled by marine volcanism on multi-millennial timescales of ∼5,000–15,000 years. PMID:28681844

  11. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-13

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  12. Historical carbonyl sulfide observations support long-term growth in atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Laine, M.; Wang, Y.; Berry, J. A.; Hannigan, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The seasonal amplitude in atmospheric CO2 has grown over the last 50 years, pointing to a fundamental shift in the regional carbon cycle. Theoretical drivers from the amplitude growth include changes in terrestrial photosynthesis and heterotrophic respiration. However, large-scale, measurement-based evidence for these mechanisms is unclear. Here we analyze historical measurements of carbonyl sulfide which also show long-term growth in seasonal amplitude. We use this new trend to interpret the underlying mechanisms of CO2 amplitude growth and to validate global ecosystem models.

  13. [Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil urease and phosphatase activities].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie; Huang, Guohong; Zhou, Likai

    2002-10-01

    The response of soil urease and phosphatase activities at different rice growth stages to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) was studied. The results showed that comparing with the ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (370 mumol.mol-1), FACE (570 mumol.mol-1) significantly increased the urease activity of 0-5 cm soil layer at the vigorous growth stage of rice, whole that of 5-10 cm layer had no significant change during the whole growing season. Phosphatase activity of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers significantly increased, and the peak increment was at the vigorous growth stage of rice.

  14. Phytochemical changes in leaves of subtropical grasses and fynbos shrubs at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattas, D.; Stock, W. D.; Mabusela, W. T.; Green, I. R.

    2005-07-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on plant polyphenolic, tannin, nitrogen, phosphorus and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations were investigated in leaves of subtropical grass and fynbos shrub species. The hypothesis tested was that carbon-based secondary compounds would increase when carbon gain is in excess of growth requirements. This premise was tested in two ecosystems involving plants with different photosynthetic mechanisms and growth strategies. The first ecosystem comprised grasses from a C 4-dominated, subtropical grassland, where three plots were subjected to three different free air CO 2 enrichment treatments, i.e., elevated (600 to 800 μmol mol -1), intermediate (400 μmol mol -1) and ambient atmospheric CO 2. One of the seven grass species, Alloteropsis semialata, had a C 3 photosynthetic pathway while the other grasses were all C 4. The second ecosystem was simulated in a microcosm experiment where three fynbos species were grown in open-top chambers at ambient and 700 μmol mol -1 atmospheric CO 2 in low nutrient acid sands typical of south western coastal and mountain fynbos ecosystems. Results showed that polyphenolics and tannins did not increase in the grass species under elevated CO 2 and only in Leucadendron laureolum among the fynbos species. Similarly, foliar nitrogen content of grasses was largely unaffected by elevated CO 2, and among the fynbos species, only L. laureolum and Leucadendron xanthoconus showed changes in foliar nitrogen content under elevated CO 2, but these were of different magnitude. The overall decrease in nitrogen and phosphorus and consequent increase in C:N and C:P ratio in both ecosystems, along with the increase in polyphenolics and tannins in L. laureolum in the fynbos ecosystem, may negatively affect forage quality and decomposition rates. It is concluded that fast growing grasses do not experience sink limitation and invest extra carbon into growth rather than polyphenolics and

  15. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  16. Changes in atmospheric CO2 - Influence of the marine biota at high latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, F.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately half of the nitrogen and phosphorus entering deep waters of the contemporary ocean are transported from the surface in inorganic form as preformed nutrients. A simple model for ocean chemistry is presented and shown to account for the present level of atmospheric CO2. Fluctuations in preformed nutrients, modulated by changes in insolation and circulation at high latitudes, can result in significant variations in CO2. It is suggested that these changes may account for the apparent control on climate exercised by secular variations in the orbital parameters of the earth.

  17. Spatial variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the ARCTAS-CARB 2008 Summer Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadrevu, K. P.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) was a major NASA field campaign designed to understand the transport and transformation of trace gases and aerosols on transcontinental and intercontinental scales and their impact on the composition of the arctic atmosphere and climate. Preceding the summer ARCTAS deployment, measurements were conducted over the state of California in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) utilizing the airborne chemistry payload already integrated on the NASA DC-8. In situ CO2 measurements were made using a modified infrared CO2 gas analyzer having a precision of 0.1 ppmv and accuracy of ±0.25 ppmv traceable to the WMO scale. This analysis focuses on the atmospheric CO2 variability and biospheric/atmospheric exchange over California. We used multi-satellite remote sensing datasets to relate airborne observations of CO2 to infer sources and sinks. Georeferencing the airborne CO2 transect data with the LANDSAT derived land cover datasets over California suggested significant spatial variations. The airborne CO2 concentrations were found to be 375-380ppm over the Pacific ocean, 385-391ppm in the highly vegetated agricultural areas, 400-420 in the near coastal areas and greater than 425ppmv in the urban areas. Analysis from MODIS fire products suggested significant fires in northern California. CO2 emissions exceeded 425ppmv in the fire affected regions, where mostly Douglas and White Fir conifers and mixed Chaparral vegetation was burnt. Analysis from GOES-East and GOES-West visible satellite imagery suggested significant smoke plumes moving from northern California towards Nevada and Idaho. To infer the biospheric uptake of CO2, we tested the potential correlations between airborne CO2 data and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Results suggested significant anti-correlations between the airborne CO2 data and

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumCO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were

  19. A terrestrial biosphere model optimized to atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Ito, A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    This study documents an optimization of a prognostic biosphere model (VISIT; Vegetation Integrative Similator for Trace gases) to observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass by using a Bayesian inversion method combined with an atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM; National Institute for Environmental Studies / Frontier Research Center for Global Change (NIES/FRCGC) off-line global atmospheric tracer transport model). The assimilated observations include 74 station records of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration and aggregated grid data sets of above ground woody biomass (AGB) and net primary productivity (NPP) over the globe. Both the biosphere model and the atmospheric transport model are used at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg grid with temporal resolutions of a day and an hour, respectively. The atmospheric transport model simulates atmospheric CO2 concentration with nine vertical levels using daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange rate (NEE) from the biosphere model, oceanic CO2 flux, and fossil fuel emission inventory. The models are driven by meteorological data from JRA-25 (Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis) and JCDAS (JMA Climate Data Assimilation System). Statistically optimum physiological parameters in the biosphere model are found by iterative minimization of the corresponding Bayesian cost function. We select thirteen physiological parameter with high sensitivity to NEE, NPP, and AGB for the minimization. Given the optimized physiological parameters, the model shows error reductions in seasonal variation of the CO2 concentrations especially in the northern hemisphere due to abundant observation stations, while errors remain at a few stations that are located in coastal coastal area and stations in the southern hemisphere. The model also produces moderate estimates of the mean magnitudes and probability distributions in AGB and NPP for each biome. However, the model fails in the simulation of the terrestrial

  20. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Scaling relationships are derived for the perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the carbon cycle model LOSCAR (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b) we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature and total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, and alkalinity, marine sediment carbon, plus carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form γDαEbeta, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. However, these power laws deviate substantially from predictions based on simplified equilibrium considerations. For example, although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission rate-only scaling α + β =0, a prediction of the long-term equilibrium between CO2 input by volcanism and CO2 removal by silicate weathering. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0< α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables. The deviations in these scaling laws from equilibrium predictions are mainly due to the multitude and diversity of time scales that govern the exchange of carbon between marine sediments, the ocean, and the atmosphere.

  1. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Gruber, N.; Frenzel, H.; Doney, S. C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, integrated over 10 years, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production and export. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability) tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  2. The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrew J.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.

    2006-02-01

    Decreased ventilation of the Southern Ocean in glacial time is implicated in most explanations of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. Today, the deep (>2000 m) ocean south of the Polar Front is rapidly ventilated from below, with the interaction of deep currents with topography driving high mixing rates well up into the water column. We show from a buoyancy budget that mixing rates are high in all the deep waters of the Southern Ocean. Between the surface and ~2000 m depth, water is upwelled by a residual meridional overturning that is directly linked to buoyancy fluxes through the ocean surface. Combined with the rapid deep mixing, this upwelling serves to return deep water to the surface on a short time scale. We propose two new mechanisms by which, in glacial time, the deep Southern Ocean may have been more isolated from the surface. Firstly, the deep ocean appears to have been more stratified because of denser bottom water resulting from intense sea ice formation near Antarctica. The greater stratification would have slowed the deep mixing. Secondly, subzero atmospheric temperatures may have meant that the present-day buoyancy flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface was reduced or reversed. This in turn would have reduced or eliminated the upwelling (contrary to a common assumption, upwelling is not solely a function of the wind stress but is coupled to the air-sea buoyancy flux too). The observed very close link between Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO2 could then be explained as a natural consequence of the connection between the air-sea buoyancy flux and upwelling in the Southern Ocean, if slower ventilation of the Southern Ocean led to lower atmospheric CO2. Here we use a box model, similar to those of previous authors, to show that weaker mixing and reduced upwelling in the Southern Ocean can explain the low glacial atmospheric CO2 in such a formulation.

  3. Control of Atmospheric CO2 by the Ocean's Biological Pump and Shelf-Basin Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. F.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Mix, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Identifying the cause of the dramatic correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and past climate variability has been one of the principal goals of paleoclimate research over the past quarter century. Several plausible mechanisms have been proposed, and each has been rejected as being incapable by itself of accounting for the full range (80 to 100 ppm) of glacial to interglacial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Consequently, recent studies have focused on scenarios by which a combination of mechanisms work synergistically to account for the full range of CO2 variability. We will present evidence from equatorial Pacific sediment cores that increased strength of the ocean's biological pump was primarily responsible for drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during the early stages of glaciation, and that increased ocean alkalinity (or, more specifically, an increase in the ocean carbonate ion concentration) led to a further reduction of atmospheric CO2 during maximum glaciation. Increased strength of the biological pump is manifest as increasing differences between the carbon isotope composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifera during early stages of glaciation, as predicted a quarter century ago in classic works by Broecker and by Shackleton. Increased carbonate ion concentration is manifest by increased preservation and burial of calcium carbonate in deep equatorial Pacific sediments. The carbon isotope record is noisy, but the pattern is repeated over each of the past three glacial cycles, lending confidence to its reliability. Increased preservation and burial of CaCO3 occurred each time the oxygen isotope composition of benthic foraminifera rose above a threshold value corresponding to a sea level lowering of roughly 70 m below present. This relationship is reproduced systematically throughout the past 450 kyr, again lending confidence to the finding and supporting the view that shelf-basin fractionation, or the shift in CaCO3 deposition from

  4. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  5. Interaction Between CO2-Rich Sulfate Solutions and Carbonate Reservoir Rocks from Atmospheric to Supercritical CO2 Conditions: Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, J.; Garcia-Rios, M.; Luquot, L.; Soler Matamala, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A test site for CO2 geological storage is situated in Hontomín (Spain) with a reservoir rock that is mainly composed of limestone. During and after CO2 injection, the resulting CO2-rich acid brine gives rise to the dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and gypsum (or anhydrite at depth) may precipitate since the reservoir brine contains sulfate. Experiments using columns filled with crushed limestone or dolostone were conducted under different P-pCO2 conditions (atmospheric: 1-10-3.5 bar; subcritical: 10-10 bar; and supercritical: 150-34 bar), T (25, 40 and 60 ºC) and input solution compositions (gypsum-undersaturated and gypsum-equilibrated solutions). We evaluated the effect of these parameters on the coupled reactions of calcite/dolomite dissolution and gypsum/anhydrite precipitation. The CrunchFlow and PhreeqC (v.3) numerical codes were used to perform reactive transport simulations of the experiments. Under the P-pCO2-T conditions, the volume of precipitated gypsum was smaller than the volume of dissolved carbonate minerals, yielding an increase in porosity (Δporosity up to ≈ 4%). A decrease in T favored limestone dissolution regardless of pCO2 owing to increasing undersaturation with decreasing temperature. However, gypsum precipitation was favored at high T and under atmospheric pCO2 conditions but not at high T and under 10 bar of pCO2 conditions. The increase in limestone dissolution with pCO2 was directly attributed to pH, which was more acidic at higher pCO2. Increasing pCO2, carbonate dissolution occurred along the column whereas it was localized in the very inlet under atmospheric conditions. This was due to the buffer capacity of the carbonic acid, which maintains pH at around 5 and keeps the solution undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite along the column. 1D reactive transport simulations reproduced the experimental data (carbonate dissolution and gypsum precipitation for different P-pCO2-T conditions). Drawing

  6. A review of elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on plant growth and water relations: implications for horticulture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Empirical records provide incontestable evidence for the global rise in CO2 concentration in the earth's atmosphere. Plant growth can be stimulated by elevation of CO2; photosynthesis increases and economic yield is often enhanced. The application of more CO2 can increase plant water use efficiency ...

  7. 2-micron Double Pulsed IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke; Scola, Tory

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a high energy pulsed 2-micron IPDA lidar instrument to measure the atmospheric CO2 column density. The IPDA lidar is operated on the long wavelength wing of R(30) CO2 line at 2050.967 nm (4875.749 cm-1) in the side-line operation mode. The R(30) line is an excellent absorption line for the measurements of CO2 in 2µm wavelength region with regard to the strength of the absorption lines, low susceptibility to atmospheric temperature variability, and freedom from problematic interference with other absorption lines. The Ho:Tm:YLF laser transmitter is designed to be operated in a unique double pulse format that can produce two-pulse pair in 10 Hz operation. Typically, the output energies of the laser transmitter are 100mJ and 45mJ for the first pulse and the second pulse, respectively. We injection seed the first pulse with on-line frequency and the second pulse with off-line frequency. The IPDA lidar instrument size, weight and power consumption were restricted to small research aircraft payload requirements. The airborne IPDA lidar instrument measures the total integrated column content of CO2 from the instrument to the ground but with weighting that can be tuned by controlling the transmitted wavelengths. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. The 2-μm CO2 IPDA lidar airborne demonstration was conducted during March 20, 2014 through April 10, 2014. IPDA lidar airborne flights included various operating and environmental conditions. Environmental conditions included different flight altitude up to 8.3 km, different ground target conditions such as vegetation, soil, ocean, snow and sand and different cloud conditions. Besides, some flights targeted power plant incinerators for investigating the IPDA sensitivity to CO2 plums. The lidar instrument is robust during all of the flights. This paper describes

  8. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-01-06

    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO 2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO 2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO 2 . Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO 2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO 2 . Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO 2 -enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates. The sample enrichment strategy and data analysis used here enabled the identification of all enzymes and most protein isoforms involved in the Calvin-Benson-Bessham cycle in Eucalyptus urophylla. Upon growth in CO 2 -enriched chambers, Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets responded by reducing the vascular bundle area and stomatal aperture size and by increasing the abundance of six of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation. Our proteome approach provides an estimate on how a commercially important C3-type plant would respond to an increase in CO 2 concentrations. Additionally, confirmation at the protein level of the predicted genes involved in

  9. Towards a regional CO2 budget for New Zealand from atmospheric measurements and backward Lagrangian modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, K.; Mikaloff-Fletcher, S.; Brailsford, G. W.; Moore, S.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1990 and 2011, the reported average annual growth in total greenhouse gas emissions had been 1.0% for New Zealand, with emissions reaching 73 Mt CO2-e in 2011. At the same time the net emissions (total plus LULUCF) grew by 4.2% each year on average and reached 59 Mt CO2-e in 2011, according to the Ministry for the Environment. This implies a shrinking sink for greenhouse gases in areas of land use/ land use change and forests (LULUCF). The uptake of CO2 by forests is the largest contributor to this sink and, therefore, plays a crucial role in New Zealand's carbon budget. Yet, it is among the least well-known components. In this study, we aim to develop a regional atmosphere inversion system to estimate net CO2 uptake by land areas in 2011 and 2012. This will serve as an alternative to the bottom-up estimates outlined above. We use the UK Met Office's Lagrangian dispersion model NAME III to link CO2 measurements at stations directly to atmospheric transport and potential source regions at the surface. By running the model in backward mode, we identify the degree to which potential regional sources of CO2 contribute to observed mid-afternoon mixing ratios, i.e., the footprint of a station. Footprints are computed over 2011-2012 for three stations across New Zealand: Baring Head, Lauder and Rainbow Mountain. NAME III uses hourly meteorological input from the regional forecast model NZLAM-12 over a domain covering New Zealand and the Tasman Sea at a horizontal resolution of 12 km. The footprints are then used in a regional inversion to find the optimal distribution of CO2 sources and sinks, i.e., the one leading to the best match with the measurements at all stations. We present results from the footprint analysis and show that the three stations are sensitive to distinct source regions that do not overlap and, together, cover large parts of New Zealand. Hence, the data from the stations carry complementary information on CO2 sinks in sources throughout the

  10. Increasing atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration alleviate forest mortality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanlan; Parolari, Anthony J.; Kumar, Mukesh

    Climate-induced forest mortality is being increasingly observed throughout the globe. Alarmingly, it is expected to exacerbate under climate change due to shifting precipitation patterns and rising air temperature. However, the impact of concomitant changes in atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration through their influence on stomatal kinetics remains a subject of debate and inquiry. By using a dynamic soil–plant–atmosphere model, mortality risks associated with hydraulic failure and stomatal closure for 13 temperate and tropical forest biomes across the globe are analyzed. The mortality risk is evaluated in response to both individual and combined changes in precipitation amounts and their seasonalmore » distribution, mean air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Model results show that the risk is predicted to significantly increase due to changes in precipitation and air temperature regime for the period 2050–2069. However, this increase may largely get alleviated by concurrent increases in atmospheric specific humidity and CO 2 concentration. The increase in mortality risk is expected to be higher for needleleaf forests than for broadleaf forests, as a result of disparity in hydraulic traits. These findings will further facilitate decisions about intervention and management of different forest types under changing climate.« less

  11. New Approaches to Quantifying Transport Model Error in Atmospheric CO2 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, L.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Nielsen, J. E.; Collatz, G. J.; Gregg, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in observing CO2 distributions from space. However, the use of these observations to infer source/sink distributions in inversion studies continues to be complicated by difficulty in quantifying atmospheric transport model errors. We will present results from several different experiments designed to quantify different aspects of transport error using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). In the first set of experiments, an ensemble of simulations is constructed using perturbations to parameters in the model s moist physics and turbulence parameterizations that control sub-grid scale transport of trace gases. Analysis of the ensemble spread and scales of temporal and spatial variability among the simulations allows insight into how parameterized, small-scale transport processes influence simulated CO2 distributions. In the second set of experiments, atmospheric tracers representing model error are constructed using observation minus analysis statistics from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The goal of these simulations is to understand how errors in large scale dynamics are distributed, and how they propagate in space and time, affecting trace gas distributions. These simulations will also be compared to results from NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project that quantified the impact of uncertainty in satellite constrained CO2 flux estimates on atmospheric mixing ratios to assess the major factors governing uncertainty in global and regional trace gas distributions.

  12. Increasing atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration alleviate forest mortality risk

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yanlan; Parolari, Anthony J.; Kumar, Mukesh; ...

    2017-08-28

    Climate-induced forest mortality is being increasingly observed throughout the globe. Alarmingly, it is expected to exacerbate under climate change due to shifting precipitation patterns and rising air temperature. However, the impact of concomitant changes in atmospheric humidity and CO 2 concentration through their influence on stomatal kinetics remains a subject of debate and inquiry. By using a dynamic soil–plant–atmosphere model, mortality risks associated with hydraulic failure and stomatal closure for 13 temperate and tropical forest biomes across the globe are analyzed. The mortality risk is evaluated in response to both individual and combined changes in precipitation amounts and their seasonalmore » distribution, mean air temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Model results show that the risk is predicted to significantly increase due to changes in precipitation and air temperature regime for the period 2050–2069. However, this increase may largely get alleviated by concurrent increases in atmospheric specific humidity and CO 2 concentration. The increase in mortality risk is expected to be higher for needleleaf forests than for broadleaf forests, as a result of disparity in hydraulic traits. These findings will further facilitate decisions about intervention and management of different forest types under changing climate.« less

  13. Regional US carbon sinks from three-dimensional atmospheric CO2 sampling

    PubMed Central

    Crevoisier, Cyril; Sweeney, Colm; Gloor, Manuel; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2010-01-01

    Studies diverge substantially on the actual magnitude of the North American carbon budget. This is due to the lack of appropriate data and also stems from the difficulty to properly model all the details of the flux distribution and transport inside the region of interest. To sidestep these difficulties, we use here a simple budgeting approach to estimate land-atmosphere fluxes across North America by balancing the inflow and outflow of CO2 from the troposphere. We base our study on the unique sampling strategy of atmospheric CO2 vertical profiles over North America from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory aircraft network, from which we infer the three-dimensional CO2 distribution over the continent. We find a moderate sink of 0.5 ± 0.4 PgC y-1 for the period 2004–2006 for the coterminous United States, in good agreement with the forest-inventory-based estimate of the first North American State of the Carbon Cycle Report, and averaged climate conditions. We find that the highest uptake occurs in the Midwest and in the Southeast. This partitioning agrees with independent estimates of crop uptake in the Midwest, which proves to be a significant part of the US atmospheric sink, and of secondary forest regrowth in the Southeast. Provided that vertical profile measurements are continued, our study offers an independent means to link regional carbon uptake to climate drivers. PMID:20937899

  14. New ice core records on the glacial/interglacial change in atmospheric δ13CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Schmitt, J.; Schneider, R.; Elsig, J.; Lourantou, A.; Leuenberger, M.; Stocker, T. F.; Koehler, P.; Lavric, J.; Raynaud, D. P.; Chappellaz, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of δ13CO2 using Antarctic ice cores promises a deeper understanding on the causes of past atmospheric CO2 changes. Previous measurements on the Taylor Dome ice core over the last 30,000 years (Smith et al., 1999) indicated marine processes to be dominating the significant δ13CO2 changes over the transition, whereas glacial δ13CO2 was only slightly depleted relative to the Holocene (Leuenberger et al., 1992; Smith et al., 1999). However, significant uncertainty and the low temporal resolution of the Taylor Dome δ13CO2 data prevented a more detailed interpretation. Recently, substantial improvements have been made in the analysis and the resolution of ice core δ13CO2 records (Elsig et al., 2009; Lourantou et al., 2010). With these and new measurements presented here, three independent δ13CO2 data sets over the last glacial/interglacial transition have now been derived from the two EPICA and the Talos Dome ice cores. Two of the methods use traditional dry extraction techniques with a reproducibility of 0.07-0.1‰. The third method uses a novel sublimation technique with a reproducibility of 0.05‰. Here we compare the data sets, their analytical setups and discuss their joint information as well as their differences. The three records provide a more detailed picture on the temporal evolution of δ13CO2 and confirm two pronounced isotope minima between 18-12,000 years BP in parallel to the two major phases of CO2 increase (Lourantou et al., 2010; Smith et al., 1999) as also reflected in marine sediments (Marchitto et al., 2007; Skinner et al., 2010). Accordingly, a release of old carbon from the deep ocean is most likely responsible for a large part of the long-term increase in atmospheric CO2 in this time interval. However, the fast CO2 jumps at a round 12,000 and 14,000 years BP may be partly of terrestrial origin (Elsig, 2009; Köhler et al., 2010b). The new sublimation data set provides also unambiguous δ13CO2 data for clathrate ice in

  15. Stable isotope ratios of atmospheric CO_{2} and CH_{4} over Siberia measured at ZOTTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhina, Anastasiya; Prokushkin, Anatily; Lavric, Jost; Heimann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The boreal and arctic zones of Siberia housing the large amounts of carbon stored in the living biomass of forests and wetlands, as well as in soils and specifically permafrost, play a crucial role in earth's global carbon cycle. The long-term studies of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations are important instruments to analyze the response of these systems to climate warming. In parallel to GHG observations, the measurements of their stable isotopic composition can provide useful information for distinguishing contribution of individual GHG source to their atmospheric variations, since each source has its own isotopic signature. In this study we report first results of laboratory analyses of the CO2 and CH4 concentrations, the stable isotope ratio of δ13C-CO2, δ18O-CO2, δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 measured in one-liter glass flasks which were obtained from 301 height of ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory, near 60° N, 90° E, about 20 km west of the Yenisei River) during 2008 - 2013 and 2010 - 2013 for stable isotope composition of CO2 and CH4. The magnitudes of δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 in a seasonal cycle are -1.4±0.1‰ (-7.6 - -9.0‰) and -2.2±0.2‰ (-0.1 - -2.3‰), respectively. The δ13C-CO2 seasonal pattern opposes the CO2 concentrations, with a gradual enrichment in heavy isotope occurring during May - July, reflecting its discrimination in photosynthesis, and further depletion in August - September as photosynthetic activity decreases comparatively to ecosystem respiration. Relationship between the CO2 concentrations and respective δ13C-CO2 (Keeling plot) reveals isotopic source signature for growing season (May - September) -27.3±1.4‰ and -30.4±2.5‰ for winter (January - March). The behavior of δ18O-CO2 associated with both high photosynthetic rate in the June (enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by 18O as consequence of CO2 equilibrium with "heavy" leaf water) and respiratory activity of forest floor in June - October (depletion of respired CO2 by 18O

  16. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and atmosphere under various CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    A new continuous integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer and an automated soil chamber system were used to investigate the exchange processes of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and the atmosphere under laboratory conditions. The exchange patterns of OCS between soils and the atmosphere were found to be highly dependent on soil moisture and ambient CO2 concentration. With increasing soil moisture, OCS exchange ranged from emission under dry conditions to an uptake within an optimum moisture range, followed again by emission at high soil moisture. Elevated CO2 was found to have a significant impact on the exchange rate and direction as tested with several soils. There is a clear tendency toward a release of OCS at higher CO2 levels (up to 7600 ppm), which are typical for the upper few centimeters within soils. At high soil moisture, the release of OCS increased sharply. Measurements after chloroform vapor application show that there is a biotic component to the observed OCS exchange. Furthermore, soil treatment with the fungi inhibitor nystatin showed that fungi might be the dominant OCS consumers in the soils we examined. We discuss the influence of soil moisture and elevated CO2 on the OCS exchange as a change in the activity of microbial communities. Physical factors such as diffusivity that are governed by soil moisture also play a role. Comparing KM values of the enzymes to projected soil water CO2 concentrations showed that competitive inhibition is unlikely for carbonic anhydrase and PEPCO but might occur for RubisCO at higher CO2 concentrations.

  17. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Rémy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic) with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i) the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii) the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  18. Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport Using NASA MERRA Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    We present our first results of CO2 surface biosphere fluxes and global atmospheric CO2 transport using NASA’s new MERRA reanalysis data. MERRA is the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis For Research And Applications based on the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-5 data assimilation system. After some application testing and analysis, we have generated biospheric CO2 fluxes at 3-hourly temporal resolution from an updated version of the CASA carbon cycle model using the 1x1.25-degree reanalysis data. The experiment covers a period of 9 years from 2000 -2008. The affects of US midwest crop (largely corn and soy) carbon uptake and removal by harvest are explicitly included in this version of CASA. Across the agricultural regions of the Midwest US, USDA crop yield data are used to scale vegetation fluxes producing a strong sink in the growing season and a comparatively weaker source from respiration after harvest. Comparisons of the new fluxes to previous ones generated using GEOS-4 data are provided. The Parameterized Chemistry/Transport Model (PCTM) is then used with the analyzed meteorology in offline CO2 transport. In the simulation of CO2 transport, we have a higher vertical resolution from MERRA (the lowest 56 of 72 levels are used in our simulation). A preliminary analysis of the CO2 simulation results is carried out, including diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variability. We make comparisons of our simulation to continuous CO2 analyzer sites, especially those in agricultural regions. The results show that the model captures reasonably well the observed synoptic variability due to transport changes and biospheric fluxes.

  19. Drivers of multi-century trends in the atmospheric CO2 mean annual cycle in a prognostic ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptak, Jessica; Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Lindsay, Keith

    2017-03-01

    The amplitude of the mean annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 is a diagnostic of seasonal surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Atmospheric observations show that this quantity has increased over most of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics during the last 3 decades, likely from a combination of enhanced atmospheric CO2, climate change, and anthropogenic land use change. Accurate climate prediction requires accounting for long-term interactions between the environment and carbon cycling; thus, analysis of the evolution of the mean annual cycle in a fully prognostic Earth system model may provide insight into the multi-decadal influence of environmental change on the carbon cycle. We analyzed the evolution of the mean annual cycle in atmospheric CO2 simulated by the Community Earth System Model (CESM) from 1950 to 2300 under three scenarios designed to separate the effects of climate change, atmospheric CO2 fertilization, and land use change. The NH CO2 seasonal amplitude increase in the CESM mainly reflected enhanced primary productivity during the growing season due to climate change and the combined effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition over the mid- and high latitudes. However, the simulations revealed shifts in key climate drivers of the atmospheric CO2 seasonality that were not apparent before 2100. CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition in boreal and temperate ecosystems were the largest contributors to mean annual cycle amplification over the midlatitudes for the duration of the simulation (1950-2300). Climate change from boreal ecosystems was the main driver of Arctic CO2 annual cycle amplification between 1950 and 2100, but CO2 fertilization had a stronger effect on the Arctic CO2 annual cycle amplitude during 2100-2300. Prior to 2100, the NH CO2 annual cycle amplitude increased in conjunction with an increase in the NH land carbon sink. However, these trends decoupled after 2100, underscoring that an increasing atmospheric CO2 annual

  20. Plate tectonic controls on atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meer, Douwe G; Zeebe, Richard E; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Sluijs, Appy; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2014-03-25

    Climate trends on timescales of 10s to 100s of millions of years are controlled by changes in solar luminosity, continent distribution, and atmosphere composition. Plate tectonics affect geography, but also atmosphere composition through volcanic degassing of CO2 at subduction zones and midocean ridges. So far, such degassing estimates were based on reconstructions of ocean floor production for the last 150 My and indirectly, through sea level inversion before 150 My. Here we quantitatively estimate CO2 degassing by reconstructing lithosphere subduction evolution, using recent advances in combining global plate reconstructions and present-day structure of the mantle. First, we estimate that since the Triassic (250-200 My) until the present, the total paleosubduction-zone length reached up to ∼200% of the present-day value. Comparing our subduction-zone lengths with previously reconstructed ocean-crust production rates over the past 140 My suggests average global subduction rates have been constant, ∼6 cm/y: Higher ocean-crust production is associated with longer total subduction length. We compute a strontium isotope record based on subduction-zone length, which agrees well with geological records supporting the validity of our approach: The total subduction-zone length is proportional to the summed arc and ridge volcanic CO2 production and thereby to global volcanic degassing at plate boundaries. We therefore use our degassing curve as input for the GEOCARBSULF model to estimate atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic. Our calculated CO2 levels for the mid Mesozoic differ from previous modeling results and are more consistent with available proxy data.

  1. Plate tectonic controls on atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Meer, Douwe G.; Zeebe, Richard E.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Sluijs, Appy; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate trends on timescales of 10s to 100s of millions of years are controlled by changes in solar luminosity, continent distribution, and atmosphere composition. Plate tectonics affect geography, but also atmosphere composition through volcanic degassing of CO2 at subduction zones and midocean ridges. So far, such degassing estimates were based on reconstructions of ocean floor production for the last 150 My and indirectly, through sea level inversion before 150 My. Here we quantitatively estimate CO2 degassing by reconstructing lithosphere subduction evolution, using recent advances in combining global plate reconstructions and present-day structure of the mantle. First, we estimate that since the Triassic (250–200 My) until the present, the total paleosubduction-zone length reached up to ∼200% of the present-day value. Comparing our subduction-zone lengths with previously reconstructed ocean-crust production rates over the past 140 My suggests average global subduction rates have been constant, ∼6 cm/y: Higher ocean-crust production is associated with longer total subduction length. We compute a strontium isotope record based on subduction-zone length, which agrees well with geological records supporting the validity of our approach: The total subduction-zone length is proportional to the summed arc and ridge volcanic CO2 production and thereby to global volcanic degassing at plate boundaries. We therefore use our degassing curve as input for the GEOCARBSULF model to estimate atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic. Our calculated CO2 levels for the mid Mesozoic differ from previous modeling results and are more consistent with available proxy data. PMID:24616495

  2. Atmospheric CO2 observations and models suggest strong carbon uptake by forests in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, Kay; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Smale, Dan; Moore, Stuart; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Mukai, Hitoshi; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-01-01

    A regional atmospheric inversion method has been developed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 sinks and sources across New Zealand for 2011-2013. This approach infers net air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes from measurement records, using back-trajectory simulations from the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) Lagrangian dispersion model, driven by meteorology from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM) weather prediction model. The inversion uses in situ measurements from two fixed sites, Baring Head on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island (41.408° S, 174.871° E) and Lauder from the central South Island (45.038° S, 169.684° E), and ship board data from monthly cruises between Japan, New Zealand, and Australia. A range of scenarios is used to assess the sensitivity of the inversion method to underlying assumptions and to ensure robustness of the results. The results indicate a strong seasonal cycle in terrestrial land fluxes from the South Island of New Zealand, especially in western regions covered by indigenous forest, suggesting higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity than is evident in the current a priori land process model. On the annual scale, the terrestrial biosphere in New Zealand is estimated to be a net CO2 sink, removing 98 (±37) Tg CO2 yr-1 from the atmosphere on average during 2011-2013. This sink is much larger than the reported 27 Tg CO2 yr-1 from the national inventory for the same time period. The difference can be partially reconciled when factors related to forest and agricultural management and exports, fossil fuel emission estimates, hydrologic fluxes, and soil carbon change are considered, but some differences are likely to remain. Baseline uncertainty, model transport uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to the northern half of the North Island are the main contributors to flux uncertainty.

  3. White Mars: A New Model for Mars' Surface and Atmosphere Based on CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Nick

    2000-08-01

    A new model is presented for the Amazonian outburst floods on Mars. Rather than the working fluid being water, with the associated difficulties in achieving warm and wet conditions on Mars and on collecting and removing the water before and after the floods, instead this model suggests that CO 2 is the active agent in the "floods." The flow is not a conventional liquid flood but is instead a gas-supported density flow akin to terrestrial volcanic pyroclastic flows and surges and at cryogenic temperatures with support from degassing of CO 2-bearing ices. The flows are not sourced from volcanic vents, but from the collapse of thick layered regolith containing liquid CO 2 to form zones of chaotic terrain, as shown by R. St. J. Lambert and V. E. Chamberlain (1978, Icarus34, 568-580; 1992, Workshop on the Evolution of the Martian Atmosphere). Submarine turbidites are also analagous in the flow mechanism, but the martian cryogenic flows were both dry and subaerial, so there is no need for a warm and wet epoch nor an ocean on Mars. Armed with this new model for the floods we review the activity of volatiles on the surface of Mars in the context of a cold ice world—"White Mars." We find that many of the recognized paradoxes about Mars' surface and atmosphere are resolved. In particular, the lack of carbonates on Mars is due to the lack of liquid water. The CO 2 of the primordial atmosphere and the H 2O inventory remain largely sequestered in subsurface ices. The distribution of water ice on modern Mars is also reevaluated, with important potential consequences for future Mars exploration. The model for collapse of terrain due to ices that show decompression melting, and the generation of nonaqueous flows in these circumstances may also be applicable to outer Solar System bodies, where CO 2, SO 2, N 2, and other ices are stable.

  4. Elevated atmospheric CO2 negatively impacts photosynthesis through radiative forcing and physiology-mediated climate feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Ciais, Philippe; Welp, Lisa; Li, Wenyu; Xin, Qinchuan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 affects photosynthesis involving directly increasing leaf carboxylation rates, stomatal closure, and climatic effects. The direct effects are generally thought to be positive leading to increased photosynthesis, while its climatic effects can be regionally positive or negative. These effects are usually considered to be independent from each other, but they are in fact coupled through interactions between land surface exchanges of gases and heat and the physical climate system. In particular, stomatal closure reduces evapotranspiration and increases sensible heat emissions from ecosystems, leading to decreased atmospheric moisture and precipitation and local warming. We use a coupled earth system model to attribute the influence of the increase in CO2 on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the period of 1930-2011. In our model, CO2 radiative effects cause climate change that has only a negligible effect on global GPP (a reduction of 0.9 ± 2% during the last 80 years) because of opposite responses between tropical and northern biomes. On the other hand, CO2 physiological effects on GPP are both positive, by increased carboxylation rates and water use efficiency (7.1 ± 0.48% increase), and negative, by vegetation-climate feedback reducing precipitation, as a consequence of decreased transpiration and increased sensible heat in areas without water limitation (2.7 ± 1.76% reduction).When considering the coupled atmosphere-vegetation system, negative climate feedback on photosynthesis and plant growth due to the current level of CO2 opposes 29-38% of the gains from direct fertilization effects.

  5. High Arctic Forests During the Middle Eocene Supported by ~400 ppm Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxbauer, D. P.; Royer, D. L.; LePage, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Paleogene High Arctic deposits provide some of the clearest evidence for greenhouse climates and offer the potential to improve our understanding of Earth system dynamics in a largely ice-free world. One of the most well-known and exquisitely-preserved middle Eocene (47.9-37.8 Myrs ago) polar forest sites, Napartulik, crops out on eastern Axel Heiberg Island (80 °N), Nunavut, Canada. An abundance of data from Napartulik suggest mean annual temperatures of up to 30 °C warmer than today and atmospheric water loads 2× above current levels. Despite this wealth of paleontological and paleoclimatological data, there are currently no direct constraints on atmospheric CO2 levels for Napartulik or any other polar forest site. Here we apply a new plant gas-exchange model to Metasequoia (dawn redwood) leaves to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 from six fossil forests at Napartulik. Individual reconstructions vary between 405-489 ppm with a site mean of 437 ppm (337-564 ppm at 95% confidence). These estimates represent the first direct constraints on CO2 for polar fossil forests and suggest that the temperate conditions present at Napartulik during the middle Eocene were maintained under CO2 concentrations ~1.6× above pre-industrial levels. Our results strongly support the case that long-term climate sensitivity to CO2 in the past was sometimes high, even during largely ice-free periods, highlighting the need to better understand the climate forcing and feedback mechanisms responsible for this amplification.

  6. Phosphorus feedbacks constraining tropical ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of phosphorus (P) availability on carbon (C) cycling in the Amazon region are investigated using CLM-CNP. We demonstrate that the coupling of P dynamics reduces the simulated historical terrestrial C sink due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) by about 26%. Our exploratory simulations show that the response of tropical forest C cycling to increasing [CO2] depends on how elevated CO2 affects phosphatase enzyme production. The effects of warming are more complex, depending on the interactions between humidity, C, and nutrient dynamics. While a simulation with low humidity generally shows the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP), a second simulation with higher humidity suggests overall increases in NPP due to the dominant effects of reduced water stress and more nutrient availability. Our simulations point to the need for (1) new observations on how elevated [CO2] affects phosphatase enzyme production and (2) more tropical leaf-scale measurements under different temperature/humidity conditions with different soil P availability.

  7. Prediction of atmospheric δ 13CO 2 using fossil plant tissues

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hope Jahren; Arens, Nan Crystal; Harbeson, Stephanie A.

    2008-06-30

    To summarize the content: we presented the results of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the relationship between plant tissue δ 13C and δ 13CO 2 values under varying environmental conditions, including differential pCO 2 ranging from 1 to 3 times today’s levels. As predicted, plants grown under elevated pCO2 showed increased average biomass compared to controls grown at the same temperature. Across a very large range in δ 13Ca (≈ 24 ‰) and pCO 2 (≈ 740 ppmv) we observed a consistent correlation between δ13Ca and δ 13Cp (p<0.001). We show an average isotopic depletion of -25.4 ‰ for above-groundmore » tissue and -23.2 ‰ for below-ground tissue of Raphanus sativus L. relative to the composition of the atmosphere under which it formed. For both above- and below-ground tissue, grown at both ~23 °C and ~29 °C, correlation was strong and significant (r2 ≥ 0.98, p<0.001); variation in pCO 2 level had little or no effect on this relationship.« less

  8. Phosphorus feedbacks constraining tropical ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO 2 and climate

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; ...

    2016-07-14

    The effects of phosphorus (P) availability on carbon (C) cycling in the Amazon region are investigated using CLM-CNP. Within this paper, we demonstrate that the coupling of P dynamics reduces the simulated historical terrestrial C sink due to increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2]) by about 26%. Our exploratory simulations show that the response of tropical forest C cycling to increasing [CO 2] depends on how elevated CO 2 affects phosphatase enzyme production. The effects of warming are more complex, depending on the interactions between humidity, C, and nutrient dynamics. While a simulation with low humidity generally shows themore » reduction of net primary productivity (NPP), a second simulation with higher humidity suggests overall increases in NPP due to the dominant effects of reduced water stress and more nutrient availability. Lastly, our simulations point to the need for (1) new observations on how elevated [CO 2] affects phosphatase enzyme production and (2) more tropical leaf-scale measurements under different temperature/humidity conditions with different soil P availability.« less

  9. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  10. A Broad Bank Lidar for Precise Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Huang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. In order to uncover the "missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget the critical precision for a measurement from space needs to be on the order of 1 ppm. To better understand the CO2 budget and to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council (NRC) in its recent decadal survey report (NACP) to NASA recommended a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. That's the goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission - to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Our current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with a high power broadband source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system and considerably reduces the risk of failure. It also tremendously reduces the requirement for wavelength stability in the source putting this responsibility instead on the Fabry- Perot subsystem.

  11. Plant-soil distribution of potentially toxic elements in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Duval, Benjamin D; Dijkstra, Paul; Natali, Susan M; Megonigal, J Patrick; Ketterer, Michael E; Drake, Bert G; Lerdau, Manuel T; Gordon, Gwyneth; Anbar, Ariel D; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of contaminant elements within ecosystems is an environmental concern because of these elements' potential toxicity to animals and plants and their ability to hinder microbial ecosystem services. As with nutrients, contaminants are cycled within and through ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally increases plant productivity and alters nutrient element cycling, but whether CO2 causes similar effects on the cycling of contaminant elements is unknown. Here we show that 11 years of experimental CO2 enrichment in a sandy soil with low organic matter content causes plants to accumulate contaminants in plant biomass, with declines in the extractable contaminant element pools in surface soils. These results indicate that CO2 alters the distribution of contaminant elements in ecosystems, with plant element accumulation and declining soil availability both likely explained by the CO2 stimulation of plant biomass. Our results highlight the interdependence of element cycles and the importance of taking a broad view of the periodic table when the effects of global environmental change on ecosystem biogeochemistry are considered.

  12. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigusa, N.; Liu, S.; Oikawa, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-03-01

    The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3) dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4) and Andropogon virginicus (C4) grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution of C4 plants

  13. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient content of important food crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietterich, Lee H.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Bloom, Arnold J.; Carlisle, Eli; Fernando, Nimesha; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N. Michele; Nelson, Randall L.; Norton, Robert; Ottman, Michael J.; Raboy, Victor; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Sartor, Karla A.; Schwartz, Joel; Seneweera, Saman; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-07-01

    One of the many ways that climate change may affect human health is by altering the nutrient content of food crops. However, previous attempts to study the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop nutrition have been limited by small sample sizes and/or artificial growing conditions. Here we present data from a meta-analysis of the nutritional contents of the edible portions of 41 cultivars of six major crop species grown using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to expose crops to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in otherwise normal field cultivation conditions. This data, collected across three continents, represents over ten times more data on the nutrient content of crops grown in FACE experiments than was previously available. We expect it to be deeply useful to future studies, such as efforts to understand the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on crop macro- and micronutrient concentrations, or attempts to alleviate harmful effects of these changes for the billions of people who depend on these crops for essential nutrients.

  14. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient content of important food crops

    PubMed Central

    Dietterich, Lee H.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Bloom, Arnold J.; Carlisle, Eli; Fernando, Nimesha; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N. Michele; Nelson, Randall L.; Norton, Robert; Ottman, Michael J.; Raboy, Victor; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Sartor, Karla A.; Schwartz, Joel; Seneweera, Saman; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the many ways that climate change may affect human health is by altering the nutrient content of food crops. However, previous attempts to study the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop nutrition have been limited by small sample sizes and/or artificial growing conditions. Here we present data from a meta-analysis of the nutritional contents of the edible portions of 41 cultivars of six major crop species grown using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to expose crops to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in otherwise normal field cultivation conditions. This data, collected across three continents, represents over ten times more data on the nutrient content of crops grown in FACE experiments than was previously available. We expect it to be deeply useful to future studies, such as efforts to understand the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on crop macro- and micronutrient concentrations, or attempts to alleviate harmful effects of these changes for the billions of people who depend on these crops for essential nutrients. PMID:26217490

  15. Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites Operated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environment Research (1978 - 1992)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sladkovic, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; Scheel, H. E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; Seiler, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

    1997-01-01

    The monitoring site at Garmisch-Partenkirchen is considered a grassland valley site. Because of strong local influence (vegetation and meteorology), the CO2 concentrations at Garmisch-Partenkirchen are higher and show greater seasonal amplitudes than the concentrations measured at Wank or Zugspitze. According to the filtered data, the annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Garmisch-Partenkirchen increased from 330.2 ppmv in 1978 to 345.1 ppmv in 1986 and from 347.6 ppmv in 1988 to 354.7 ppmv in 1992. The monitoring site at Wank Peak (WMO-BAPMoN station) is located on the grass-covered, rounded top of the mountain, just above the timberline. The mean annual CO2 concentrations at Wank Peak increased from 334.2 ppmv in 1980 to 348.6 ppmv in 1992. The station at Zugspitze is located near the summit of the highest mountain of the German Alps. In 1990, the site of CO2 sampling was changed from a location 250 m below the summit to a new monitoring station (2937 m above MSL) close to the mountain top. Compatibility of the results was seen from measurements conducted in parallel at the two sites for several months. Because of the high elevation of the mountain station, the CO2 measurements at Zugspitze can be considered free of regional contamination most of the time. The mean annual CO2 concentrations at Zugspitze increased from 333.7 ppmv in 1981 to 349.4 ppmv in 1992.

  16. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR) model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b), we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  17. The 1994 to 2008 concentration variations of atmospheric CO2 observed at Jubany Station (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Veronica; de Simone, Sara; Ciattaglia, Luigi; Rafanelli, Claudio; Diego, Piero

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Italian PNRA (National Research Program in Antarctica) and the Argentina DNA (Direction National de Antartico) have been collecting continuous atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Jubany. The Antarctic station at Jubany (62° 14'S, 58° 40'W) is located in King George Island, in the South Shetland archipelago, north of the Antarctic Peninsula. The laboratory is situated at an elevation of 15 m.s.l. on the SE slope of Potter Bay. The measurements are taken by using a Siemens U5 analyzer based on NDIR (Non Dispersive InfraRed) absorption method. Details are given on the station environment, meteorological conditions, instrumentation, and data selection strategy. The paper presents the first 14 years (1994-2008) of continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements; the interannual and seasonal variations of CO2 data are described

  18. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for Measurements of CO2 in the Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Mclinden, M. L.; Miller, J. H.; Allan, G. R.; Lott, L. E.; Melroy, H. R.; Clarke, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost, miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer for highly sensitive measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric column. In this passive design, sunlight that has undergone absorption by CO2 in the atmosphere is collected and mixed with continuous wave laser light that is step-scanned across the absorption feature centered at 1,573.6 nm. The resulting radio frequency beat signal is collected as a function of laser wavelength, from which the total column mole fraction can be de-convolved. We are expanding this technique to include methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO), and with minor modifications, this technique can be expanded to include species such as water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

  19. Effects of Atmospheric and Surface Dust on the Sublimation Rates of CO2 on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; Wolff, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of our modeling work dedicated to study the effects of atmospheric dust on the sublimation of CO2 on Mars. The purpose of this study is to better understand the extent to which dust storm activity can be a root cause for interannual variability in the planetary CO2 seasonal cycle, through modifying the springtime regression rates of the south polar cap. We obtain calculations of the sublimation fluxes for various types of polar surfaces and different amounts of atmospheric dust. These calculations have been compared qualitatively with the regression patterns observed by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in both visible and infrared wavelengths, for two years of very different dust histories (1999, and 2001).

  20. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Vuillemin, Cyrille; Lopez, Morgan; Lac, Christine; Schmidt, Martina; Delmotte, Marc; Chevallier, Frédéric; Ravetta, François; Perrussel, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Bréon, François-Marie; Broquet, Grégoire; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Ampe, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010-2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou - TRN; Montgé-en-Goële - MON), two are peri-urban (Gonesse - GON; Gif-sur-Yvette - GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010-13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol-1 (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic), the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on

  1. The Effect of Thermal Convection on Earth-Atmosphere CO2 Gas Exchange in Aggregated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganot, Y.; Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.

    2011-12-01

    Gas transport in soils and surface-atmosphere gas exchange are important processes that affect different aspects of soil science such as soil aeration, nutrient bio-availability, sorption kinetics, soil and groundwater pollution and soil remediation. Diffusion and convection are the two main mechanisms that affect gas transport, fate and emissions in the soils and in the upper vadose zone. In this work we studied CO2 soil-atmosphere gas exchange under both day-time and night-time conditions, focusing on the impact of thermal convection (TCV) during the night. Experiments were performed in a climate-controlled laboratory. One meter long columns were packed with matrix of different grain size (sand, gravel and soil aggregates). Air with 2000 ppm CO2 was injected into the bottom of the columns and CO2 concentration within the columns was continuously monitored by an Infra Red Gas Analyzer. Two scenarios were compared for each soil: (1) isothermal conditions, representing day time conditions; and (2) thermal gradient conditions, i.e., atmosphere colder than the soil, representing night time conditions. Our results show that under isothermal conditions, diffusion is the major mechanism for surface-atmosphere gas exchange for all grain sizes; while under night time conditions the prevailing mechanism is dependent on the air permeability of the matrix: for sand and gravel it is diffusion, and for soil aggregates it is TCV. Calculated CO2 flux for the soil aggregates column shows that the TCV flux was three orders of magnitude higher than the diffusive flux.

  2. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23–14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3–4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (∼280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (∼500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene. PMID:26903644

  3. Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements with Clouds from an Airborne Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Numata, K.; Chen, J. R.; Sun, X.; DiGangi, J. P.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space are limited to cloud-free scenes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed, integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations, XCO2, from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate XCO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. We demonstrate this measurement capability using airborne lidar measurements from summer 2017 ASCENDS airborne science campaign in Alaska. We show retrievals of XCO2 to ground and to a variety of cloud tops. We will also demonstrate how the partial column XCO2 to cloud tops and cloud slicing approach help resolving vertical and horizontal gradient of CO2 in cloudy conditions. The XCO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in situ measurements and compared to the Goddard Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM) simulations. Adding this measurement capability to the future lidar mission for XCO2 will provide full global and seasonal data coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This unique facility is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation.

  4. Black spruce family growth performance under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E. Major

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Seedlings from 20 families of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), representing a large range in field productivity, were subjected to a greenhouse retrospective test under ambient (409 ppm – year 1, 384 ppm – year 2) and high (686 ppm – year 1, 711 ppm – year 2) atmospheric CO2 environments. After one and two...

  5. Δ17O Trends of Collected Atmospheric CO2 Resulting from Seasonal Changes in the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, H.; Chakraborty, S.; Pham, T. L. C.; Alvarado, E.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and the carbon cycle as a whole play a critical role in our understanding of global climate change. In order to constrain the carbon budget, the flux of CO2 between major carbon reservoirs, such as the atmosphere and biosphere, should be quantified. The common tracers used to probe the atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles of CO2 are δ13C and δ18O. More recently, the clumped isotopes Δ47 are also being used. The uncommon isotopes of oxygen, such as 17O, are rarely used because of technical challenges. However, it has been argued that the simultaneous utilization of δ17O and δ18O better constrain the fluxes associated with terrestrial processes [1, 2, 3]. Whole air atmospheric samples are collected at UCSD in a 2-liter bulb routinely (about once every week). Using cryogenic techniques, CO2 is separated from the whole air samples, totally dried, then quantified and measured in a mass spectrometer for δ13C and δ18O. Adopting the method developed by Mahata et al., the CO2 sample is equilibrated with an equal amount of ultra high purity oxygen in the presence of platinum at 700 °C in a quartz reactor for two hours [2]. Thereafter, O2 is separated from the CO2 and δ17O and δ18O of O2 are measured. The isotopic composition of the initial unreacted O2 is also measured for each sample, allowing the δ17O and Δ17O (= δ18O - 0.516 × δ17O) values to be calculated via a projection method. Initial test runs show a reproducibility of less than 0.05‰ (1-σ standard deviation). After ten months of data collection, we find a seasonal trend in Δ17O by applying a moving average to the data. The Δ17O values average 0.2‰ during the summer and fall, but depreciate to about -0.3‰ during the winter and spring. This depreciation may be due to San Diego's more frequent rainfall during the winter, causing an increase in both plant life and CO2 turnover. We further analyze the data by applying a Fourier transform to the Δ17O values

  6. Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 for historical simulations in CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, Heather; Allison, Colin E.; Etheridge, David M.; Hammer, Samuel; Keeling, Ralph F.; Levin, Ingeborg; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Rubino, Mauro; Tans, Pieter P.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; White, James W. C.

    2017-12-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs) present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs' component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850-2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) for models simulating carbon isotopes in the ocean or terrestrial biosphere. The data may also be useful for other carbon cycle modelling activities.

  7. Evaluation of the sinks and sources of atmospheric CO2 by artificial upwelling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yiwen; Fan, Wei; Huang, Ting-Hsuan; Wang, Shu-Lun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2015-04-01

    Artificial upwelling is considered a promising way to reduce the accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This practice could transport nutrient-rich deep water to the euphotic zone, enhance phytoplankton growth and consequently increase organic carbon exportation to the deep ocean via the biological pump. However, only a few studies quantitatively assess changes in oceanic CO2 uptake resulting from artificial upwelling. This article uses a simulation to examine the effect of hypothetical artificial upwelling-induced variations of CO2 fugacity in seawater (fCO2) using observed carbon and nutrient data from 14 stations, ranging from 21 to 43°N, in the West Philippine Sea (WPS), the East China Sea (ECS) and the Sea of Japan. Calculations are based on two basic assumptions: First, a near-field mixing of a nutrient-rich deep-ocean water plume in a stratified ocean environment is assumed to form given the presence of an artificial upwelling devise with appropriate technical parameters. Second, it is assumed that photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton could deplete all available nutrients following the stoichiometry of the modified Redfield ratio C/H/O/N/S/P=103.1/181.7/93.4/11.7/2.1/1. Results suggest artificial upwelling has significant effects on regional changes in sea-air differences (ΔfCO2sea-air) and the carbon sequestration potential (ΔfCO2mixed-amb). Large variations of ΔfCO2sea-air and ΔfCO2mixed-amb are shown to be associated with different regions, seasons and technical parameters of the artificial upwelling device. With proper design, it is possible to reverse the contribution of artificial upwelling from a strong CO2 source to sink. Thus, artificial upwelling has the potential to succeed as a geoengineering technique to sequester anthropogenic CO2, with appropriate technical parameters in the right region and season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Refining our estimate of atmospheric CO2 across the Eocene-Oligocene climatic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heureux, Ana M. C.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) followed by Oligocene isotope event 1 (Oi-1) is a dramatic global switch in climate characterized by deep-sea cooling and the first formation of permanent Antarctic ice. Models and proxy evidence suggest that declining partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2atm) below a threshold may explain the onset of global cooling and associated ice formation at Oi-1. However, significant uncertainty remains in the estimated values and salient features of reconstructed CO2atm across this interval. In this study, we present novel carbon isotope records from size separated diatom associated organic matter (δ13Cdiatom) preserved in silica frustules. Physical preservation of this material allows concurrent investigation of isotopic and cell size information, providing two input parameters for biogeochemical models and the reconstruction of CO2atm. We estimate CO2atm in two ways; first we use size and reaction-diffusion kinetics of a cell to calculate a CO2atm threshold. Second we use the calibrated relationship between ɛp(diatom) and carbon dioxide from culture and field studies to create a record of CO2atm prior to and across the transition. Our study, from site 1090 in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, shows CO2atm values fluctuating between 900 and 1700 ± 100 p.p.m.v. across the EOT followed by a drop to values in the order of 700 to 800 ± 100 p.p.m.v. just prior to the onset of Oi-1. Our values and magnitude of CO2atm change differ from previous estimates, but confirm the overall trends inferred from boron isotopes and alkenones, including a marked rebound following Oi-1. Due to the intricate nature of the climate system and complexities in constraining paleo-proxies, this work emphasizes the importance of a multi-proxy approach to estimating of CO2atm in order to elucidate its role in the emplacement of Antarctic ice-sheets at the EOT.

  9. What would dense atmospheric observation networks bring to the quantification of city CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Vogel, Felix; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Remy, Irène; Wang, Yilong

    2016-06-01

    Cities currently covering only a very small portion ( < 3 %) of the world's land surface directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, but they are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we analyze the potential of a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. This monitoring tool is configured for the quantification of the total and sectoral CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area (˜ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 TgC emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. Its performances are evaluated in terms of uncertainty reduction based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). They are analyzed as a function of the number of sampling sites (measuring at 25 m a.g.l.) and as a function of the network design. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive (typically ˜ EUR 50 k per sensor), which has limited the few current pilot city networks to around 10 sites. Larger theoretical networks are studied here to assess the potential benefit of hypothetical operational lower-cost sensors. The setup of our inversion system is based on a number of diagnostics and assumptions from previous city-scale inversion experiences with real data. We find that, given our assumptions underlying the configuration of the OSSEs, with 10 stations only the uncertainty for the total city CO2 emission during 1 month is significantly reduced by the inversion by ˜ 42 %. It can be

  10. The Martian climate: Energy balance models with CO2/H2O atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the development of a multi-reservoir, time dependent energy balance climate model for Mars driven by prescribed insolation at the top of the atmosphere is reported. The first approximately half-year of the program was devoted to assembling and testing components of the full model. Specific accomplishments were made on a longwave radiation code, coupling seasonal solar input to a ground temperature simulation, and conceptualizing an approach to modeling the seasonal pressure waves that develop in the Martian atmosphere as a result of sublimation and condensation of CO2 in polar regions.

  11. The use of forest stand age information in an atmospheric CO2 inversion applied to North America

    Treesearch

    F. Deng; J.M. Chen; Y. Pan; W. Peters; R. Birdsey; K. McCullough; J. Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric inversions have become an important tool in quantifying carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks and sources at a variety of spatiotemporal scales, but associated large uncertainties restrain the inversion research community from reaching agreement on many important subjects. We enhanced an atmospheric inversion of the CO2...

  12. An Analytical Framework for the Steady State Impact of Carbonate Compensation on Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omta, Anne Willem; Ferrari, Raffaele; McGee, David

    2018-04-01

    The deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration impacts the fraction of the marine calcium carbonate production that is buried in sediments. This gives rise to the carbonate compensation feedback, which is thought to restore the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration on multimillennial timescales. We formulate an analytical framework to investigate the impact of carbonate compensation under various changes in the carbon cycle relevant for anthropogenic change and glacial cycles. Using this framework, we show that carbonate compensation amplifies by 15-20% changes in atmospheric CO2 resulting from a redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean (e.g., due to changes in temperature, salinity, or nutrient utilization). A counterintuitive result emerges when the impact of organic matter burial in the ocean is examined. The organic matter burial first leads to a slight decrease in atmospheric CO2 and an increase in the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration. Subsequently, enhanced calcium carbonate burial leads to outgassing of carbon from the ocean to the atmosphere, which is quantified by our framework. Results from simulations with a multibox model including the minor acids and bases important for the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon are consistent with our analytical predictions. We discuss the potential role of carbonate compensation in glacial-interglacial cycles as an example of how our theoretical framework may be applied.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric CO2 over Fire Affected Regions Based on GOSAT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract: The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from biomass burning significantly affect the temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Based on a long-term (July 2009-June 2015) retrieved datasets by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) in four fire affected continental regions were investigated. The results showed Northern Africa had the largest seasonal variations after removing its regional long-term trend of XCO2 with peak-to-peak amplitude of 6.2 ppm within the year, higher than central South America (2.4 ppm), Southern Africa (3.8 ppm) and Australia (1.7 ppm). The detrended regional XCO2 was found to be positively correlated with the fire CO2 emissions during fire activity period and negatively correlated with vegetation photosynthesis activity with different seasonal variabilities. Northern Africa recorded the largest change of seasonal variations of detrended XCO2 with a total of 12.8 ppm during fire seasons, higher than central South America, Southern Africa and Australia with 5.4 ppm, 6.7 ppm and 2.2 ppm, respectively. During fire episode, the positive detrended XCO2 was noticed during June-November in central South America, December-June in Northern Africa, May-November in Southern Africa. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the variations of detrended XCO2 and fire CO2 emissions from GFED4 (Global Fire Emissions Database v4) achieved best correlations in Southern Africa (R=0.77, p<0.05). Meanwhile, Southern Africa also experienced a significant negative relationship between the variations of detrended XCO2 and vegetation activity (R=-0.84, p<0.05). This study revealed that fire CO2 emissions and vegetation activity contributed greatly to the seasonal variations of GOSAT XCO2 dataset.

  14. Progress and Challenges in Predicting Crop Responses to Atmospheric [CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, J.; Paustian, K.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric [CO2] directly accelerates photosynthesis in C3 crops, and indirectly promotes yields by reducing stomatal conductance and associated water losses in C3 and C4 crops. Several decades of experiments have exposed crops to eCO2 in greenhouses and other enclosures and observed yield increases on the order of 33%. FACE systems were developed in the early 1990s to better replicate open-field growing conditions. Some authors contend that FACE results indicate lower crop yield responses than enclosure studies, while others maintain no significant difference or attribute differences to various methodological factors. The crop CO2 response processes in many crop models were developed using results from enclosure experiments. This work tested the ability of one such model, DayCent, to reproduce crop responses to CO2 enrichment from several FACE experiments. DayCent performed well at simulating yield and transpiration responses in C4 crops, but significantly overestimated yield responses in C3 crops. After adjustment of CO2-response parameters, DayCent was able to reproduce mean yield responses for specific crops. However, crop yield responses from FACE experiments vary widely across years and sites, and likely reflect complex interactions between conditions such as weather, soils, cultivars, and biotic stressors. Further experimental work is needed to identify the secondary variables that explain this variability so that models can more reliably forecast crop yields under climate change. Likewise, CO2 impacts on crop outcomes such as belowground biomass allocation and grain N content have implications for agricultural C fluxes and human nutrition, respectively, but are poorly understood and thus difficult to simulate with confidence.

  15. Development of Laser, Detector, and Receiver Systems for an Atmospheric CO2 Lidar Profiling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Abedin, Nurul; Refaat, Tamer; Rubio, Manuel; Singh, Upendra

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is being developed with the capability to measure range-resolved and column amounts of atmospheric CO2. This system is also capable of providing high-resolution aerosol profiles and cloud distributions. It is being developed as part of the NASA Earth Science Technology Office s Instrument Incubator Program. This three year program involves the design, development, evaluation, and fielding of a ground-based CO2 profiling system. At the end of a three-year development this instrument is expected to be capable of making measurements in the lower troposphere and boundary layer where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located. It will be a valuable tool in the validation of NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) measurements of column CO2 and suitable for deployment in the North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional intensive field campaigns. The system can also be used as a test-bed for the evaluation of lidar technologies for space-application. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements.

  16. Laboratory Kinetic Studies of OH and CO2 Relevant to Upper Atmospheric Radiation Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D.; Villalta, Peter; Zahniser, Mark S.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to quantify the rates of two processes which are crucial to our understanding of radiative energy balance in the upper atmosphere. The first process is radiative emission from vibrationally hot OH radicals following the H + O3 reaction in the upper mesosphere. The importance of this process depends strongly on the OH radiative emission coefficients. Our goal was to measure the OH permanent dipole moment in excited vibrational states and to use these measurements to construct an improved OH dipole moment function and improved radiative emission coefficients. Significant progress was made on these experiments including the construction of a supersonic jet source for vibrationally excited OH radicals. Unfortunately, our efforts to transport the OH radicals into a second lower pressure vacuum chamber were not successful, and we were unable to make improved dipole moment measurements for OH. The second key kinetic process which we attempted to quantify during this project is the rate of relaxation of bend-excited CO2 by oxygen atoms. Since excitation of the bending vibrational mode of CO2 is the major cooling mechanism in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, the cooling rate of this region depends crucially on the rate of energy transfer out of this state. It is believed that the most efficient transfer mechanism is via atomic oxygen but the rate for this process has not been directly measured in the laboratory at appropriate temperatures and even the room temperature rate remains controversial. We attempted to directly measure the relaxation rate Of CO2 (010) by oxygen atoms using the discharge flow technique. This experiment was set up at Aerodyne Research. Again, significant progress was achieved in this experiment. A hot CO2 source was set up, bend excited CO2 was detected and the rate of relaxation of bend excited CO2 by He atoms was measured. Unfortunately, the project ran out of time before the oxygen atom kinetic studies could

  17. Variations in atmospheric CO2 growth rates coupled with tropical temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weile; Ciais, Philippe; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Canadell, Josep G.; Piao, Shilong; Sitch, Stephen; White, Michael A.; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Milesi, Cristina; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the occurrence and intensity of El Niño–Southern Oscillation as important drivers of the interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate, but the underlying biogeophysical mechanisms governing such connections remain unclear. Here we show a strong and persistent coupling (r2 ≈ 0.50) between interannual variations of the CO2 growth rate and tropical land–surface air temperature during 1959 to 2011, with a 1 °C tropical temperature anomaly leading to a 3.5 ± 0.6 Petagrams of carbon per year (PgC/y) CO2 growth-rate anomaly on average. Analysis of simulation results from Dynamic Global Vegetation Models suggests that this temperature–CO2 coupling is contributed mainly by the additive responses of heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net primary production (NPP) to temperature variations in tropical ecosystems. However, we find a weaker and less consistent (r2 ≈ 0.25) interannual coupling between CO2 growth rate and tropical land precipitation than diagnosed from the Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, likely resulting from the subtractive responses of tropical Rh and NPP to precipitation anomalies that partly offset each other in the net ecosystem exchange (i.e., net ecosystem exchange ≈ Rh − NPP). Variations in other climate variables (e.g., large-scale cloudiness) and natural disturbances (e.g., volcanic eruptions) may induce transient reductions in the temperature–CO2 coupling, but the relationship is robust during the past 50 y and shows full recovery within a few years after any such major variability event. Therefore, it provides an important diagnostic tool for improved understanding of the contemporary and future global carbon cycle. PMID:23884654

  18. Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites in the Main Geophysical Observatory Air Sampling Network (1983 - 1993)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Brounshtein, A. M. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia; Shaskov, A. A. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia; Paramonova, N. N. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia; Privalov, V. I. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia; Starodubtsev, Y. A. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia

    1997-01-01

    Air samples were collected from five sites in the Main Geophysical Observatory air sampling network to monitor the atmospheric CO2 from 1983 - 1993. Airwas collected generally four times per month in pairs of 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks with one greaseless stainless steel stopcock. Sampling was performed by opening the stopcock of the flasks, which have been evacuated at the central laboratory at the Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO). The air was not dried during sample collection. Attempts were made to obtain samples when the wind speed was >5 m/s and the wind direction corresponded to the predetermined "clean air" sector. The period of record at Bering Island is too short to identify any long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, the yearly mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Bering Island rose from approximately 346 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1986 to 362.6 ppmv in 1993. Measurements from this station are considered indicative of maritime air masses. The period of record at Kotelny Island is too short to identify any long-term trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, the yearly mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Kotelny Island rose from 356.08 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1988 to 358.8 ppmv in 1993. Because Kotelny Island is the northernmost Russian sampling site, measurements from this site serve as a useful comparison to other northern sites (e.g., Alert, Northwest Territories). In late 1989, air sampling began at the Russian site of Kyzylcha, located in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Unfortunately, the desert site at Kyzylcha has been out of operation since mid-1991 due to financial difficulties in Russia. The annual mean value of 359.02 parts per million by volume (ppmv) for 1990, the lone full year of operation, is higher than measurements from other monitoring programs at this latitude [e.g., Niwot Ridge (354.7 ppmv in 1990) and Tae-ahn Peninsula]. Station "C," an open ocean site, in the

  19. Influence of Suprathermal Atoms on the Escape and Evolution of Mars' CO2 Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenegger, H.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Gröller, H.; Tian, F.; Lammer, H.; Noack, L.; Johnstone, C.; Tu, L.

    2017-09-01

    Suprathermal oxygen and carbon atoms are produced by photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Due to their relatively high energies, these particle form an extended corona around Mars and can be picked up by the solar wind and emoved from the planet. The influence of an increased EUV flux, as it prevailed in the past, on the formation of the corona is studied and the corresponding loss rates are estimated. It is shown that the atmospheric loss due to the various processes varies with time and that most of the initial CO2 atmosphere is removed within the first few hundred million years after the formation of the planet. These results are important in order to better understand the atmosphere evolution of terrestrial planets.

  20. On the development of a methodology for extensive in-situ and continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Chang, S.; Jhang, T.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is recognized as the dominating greenhouse gas contributing to anthropogenic global warming. Stringent controls on carbon dioxide emissions are viewed as necessary steps in controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. From the view point of policy making, regulation of carbon dioxide emissions and its monitoring are keys to the success of stringent controls on carbon dioxide emissions. Especially, extensive atmospheric CO2 monitoring is a crucial step to ensure that CO2 emission control strategies are closely followed. In this work we develop a methodology that enables reliable and accurate in-situ and continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring for policy making. The methodology comprises the use of gas filter correlation (GFC) instrument for in-situ CO2 monitoring, the use of CO2 working standards accompanying the continuous measurements, and the use of NOAA WMO CO2 standard gases for calibrating the working standards. The use of GFC instruments enables 1-second data sampling frequency with the interference of water vapor removed from added dryer. The CO2 measurements are conducted in the following timed and cycled manner: zero CO2 measurement, two standard CO2 gases measurements, and ambient air measurements. The standard CO2 gases are calibrated again NOAA WMO CO2 standards. The methodology is used in indoor CO2 measurements in a commercial office (about 120 people working inside), ambient CO2 measurements, and installed in a fleet of in-service commercial cargo ships for monitoring CO2 over global marine boundary layer. These measurements demonstrate our method is reliable, accurate, and traceable to NOAA WMO CO2 standards. The portability of the instrument and the working standards make the method readily applied for large-scale and extensive CO2 measurements.

  1. Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2 - Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Peng; Chou, Ming-Dah; Arking, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The transient response of the climate to increasing CO2 is studied using a modified version of the multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982). The main characteristics of the model are described. Latitudinal and seasonal distributions of planetary albedo, latitude-time distributions of zonal mean temperatures, and latitudinal distributions of evaporation, water vapor transport, and snow cover generated from the model and derived from actual observations are analyzed and compared. It is observed that in response to an atmospheric doubling of CO2, the model reaches within 1/e of the equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 years for the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. For CO2 increases projected by the National Research Council (1983), the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temperatures is 60-75 percent of the corresponding equilibrium response, and the disequilibrium increases with increasing heat diffusivity of the ocean.

  2. Measurements of CO2 Column Abundance in the Low Atmosphere Using Ground Based 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are believed to produce the largest radiative forcing for the current climate system. Accurate predictions of atmospheric CO2 concentration rely on the knowledge of its sinks and sources, transports, and its variability with time. Although this knowledge is currently unsatisfactory, numerical models use it as a way in simulating CO2 fluxes. Validating and improving the global atmospheric transport model, therefore, requires precise measurement of the CO2 concentration profile. There are two further variations on Lidar: the differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) and the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) Lidar. DIAL/IPDA are basically for profile/total column measurement, respectively. IPDA is a special case of DIAL and can measure the total column-averaged mixing ratio of trace gases using return signals from the Earth's surface or from thick clouds based on an airborne or a satellite. We have developed a ground based 1.6 μm DIAL to measure vertical CO2 mixing ratio profiles from 0.4 to 2.5 km altitude. The goals of the CO2 DIAL are to produce atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements with much smaller seasonal and diurnal biases from the ground surface. But, in the ground based lidar, return signals from around ground surface are usually suppressed in order to handle the large dynamic range. To receive the return signals as near as possible from ground surface, namely, the field of view (FOV) of the telescope must be wide enough to reduce the blind range of the lidar. While the return signals from the far distance are very weak, to enhance the sensitivity and heighten the detecting distance, the FOV must be narrow enough to suppress the sky background light, especially during the daytime measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a total column measurement method from the ground surface to 0.4 km altitude. Instead of strong signals from thick clouds such as the IPDA, the proposed method uses

  3. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentration in the ASCENDS 2014 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Chen, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report progress in demonstrating a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line by using 30 wavelength samples distributed across the lube. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations using radiative transfer calculations based on HITRAN, the aircraft altitude, range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. The number of wavelength samples can be reduced in the retrievals. During the ASCENDS airborne campaign in 2013 two flights were made in February over snow in the Rocky Mountains and the Central Plains allowing measurement of snow-covered surface reflectivity. Several improvements were made to the lidar for the 2014 campaign. These included using a new step-locked laser diode source, and incorporating a new HgCdTe APD detector and analog digitizer into the lidar receiver. Testing showed this detector had higher sensitivity, analog response, and a more linear dynamic range than the PMT detector used previously. In 2014 flights were made in late August and early September over the California Central Valley, the redwood forests along the California coast, two desert areas in Nevada and California, and two flights above growing agriculture in Iowa. Two flights were also made under OCO-2 satellite ground tracks. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds and aerosol scattering. The lidar measurements clearly

  4. Rising atmospheric CO2 leads to large impact of biology on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake via changes of the Revelle factor

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, J; Völker, C

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Ocean is a key region for global carbon uptake and is characterized by a strong seasonality with the annual CO2 uptake being mediated by biological carbon drawdown in summer. Here we show that the contribution of biology to CO2 uptake will become even more important until 2100. This is the case even if biological production remains unaltered and can be explained by the decreasing buffer capacity of the ocean as its carbon content increases. The same amount of biological carbon drawdown leads to a more than twice as large reduction in CO2(aq) concentration and hence to a larger CO2 gradient between ocean and atmosphere that drives the gas exchange. While the winter uptake south of 44°S changes little, the summer uptake increases largely and is responsible for the annual mean response. The combination of decreasing buffer capacity and strong seasonality of biological carbon drawdown introduces a strong and increasing seasonality in the anthropogenic carbon uptake. Key Points Decrease of buffer capacity leads to stronger summer CO2 uptake in the future Biology will contribute more to future CO2 uptake in Southern Ocean Seasonality affects anthropogenic carbon uptake strongly PMID:26074650

  5. Effects of salinity and short-term elevated atmospheric CO2 on the chemical equilibrium between CO2 fixation and photosynthetic electron transport of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Sayed; Geissler, Nicole; El-Far, Mervat M M; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2017-09-01

    The effect of water salinity on plant growth and photosynthetic traits of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated to determine its level and mechanisms of salinity tolerance. It was also attempted to assess how short-term elevated CO 2 concentration would influence the boundaries and mechanisms of its photosynthetic capacity. The plants were grown in gravel/hydroponic system under controlled greenhouse conditions and irrigated with four different salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mol m -3 NaCl). Low salinity did not significantly alter the plant fresh weight, which was substantially decreased by 67% at high salinity treatment. Salinity tolerance threshold was reached at 50 mol m -3  NaCl while C50 was between 50 and 100 mol m -3  NaCl, indicating that S. rebaudiana is a moderate salt tolerant species. Salt-induced growth reduction was apparently linked to a significant decline of about 47% in the photosynthetic rates (A net ) at high salinity treatment, leading consequently to a disequilibrium between CO 2 -assimilation and electron transport rates (indicated by enhanced ETR max /A gross ratio). Elevated atmospheric CO 2 enhanced CO 2 assimilation rates by 65% and 80% for control and high-salt-stressed plants respectively, likely due to significant increases in intercellular CO 2 concentration (indicated by enhanced C i /C a ). The priority for Stevia under elevated atmospheric CO 2 was not to save water but to maximize photosynthesis so that the PWUE was progressively improved and the threat of oxidative stress was diminished (decline in ETR max /A gross ). The results imply that elevated CO 2 level could ameliorate some of the detrimental effects of salinity, conferring higher tolerance and survival of S. rebaudiana, a highlydesired feature with the forthcoming era of global changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Will elevated atmospheric CO2 boost the growth of an invasive submerged macrophyte Cabomba caroliniana under the interference of phytoplankton?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Han, Yanqing; Zhu, Jinge; Deng, Jiancai; Hu, Weiping; da Silva, Thomaz Edson Veloso

    2018-01-01

    The growth of most submerged macrophytes is likely to be limited by the availability of carbon resource, and this is especially true for the obligatory carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) users. A mesocosm experiment was performed to investigate the physiological, photophysiological, and biochemical responses of Cabomba caroliniana, an invasive macrophyte specie in the Lake Taihu Basin, to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (1000 μmol mol -1 ); we also examined the possible impacts of interferences derived from the phytoplankton proliferation and its concomitant disturbances on the growth of C. caroliniana. The results demonstrated that elevated atmospheric CO 2 significantly enhanced the biomass, relative growth rate, and photosynthate accumulation of C. caroliniana. C. caroliniana exposed to elevated atmospheric CO 2 exhibited a higher relative maximum electron transport rate and photosynthetic efficiency, compared to those exposed to ambient atmospheric CO 2 . However, the positive effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on C. caroliniana were gradually compromised as time went by, and the down-regulations of the relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthetic activity were coupled with phytoplankton proliferation under elevated atmospheric CO 2 . This study demonstrated that the growth of C. caroliniana under the phytoplankton interference can be greatly affected, directly and indirectly, by the increasing atmospheric CO 2 .

  7. CO2 Removal and Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for Next Generation Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, Bernadette; Mulloth, Lila M.; Varghese, Mini M.; Hogan, John Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Removal of metabolic CO2 from breathing air is a vital process for life support in all crewed space missions. A CO2 removal processor called the Low Power CO2 Removal (LPCOR) system is being developed in the Bioengineering Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. LPCOR utilizes advanced adsorption and membrane gas separation processes to achieve substantial power and mass reduction when compared to the state-of-the-art carbon dioxide removal assembly (CORA) of the US segment of the International Space Station (ISS). LPCOR is an attractive alternative for use in commercial spacecraft for short-duration missions and can easily be adapted for closed-loop life support applications. NASA envisions a next-generation closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system that integrates advanced CO2 removal, O2 recovery, and trace contaminant control processes to improve overall system efficiency. LPCOR will serve as the front end to such a system. LPCOR is a reliable air revitalization technology that can serve both the near-term and long-term human space flight needs of NASA and its commercial partners.

  8. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (NDP-073)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Michael H [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Curtis, Peter S [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Cushman, Robert M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brenkert, Antoinette L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled from the published literature. Seventy-eight independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and 6 response parameters, did not report variances. This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP- 072, which provides similar information for woody vegetation. This numeric data package contains a 30-field data set of CO2- exposure experiment responses by herbaceous plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO2-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data sets, and this documentation file (which includes SAS and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file; SAS is a registered trademark of the SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27511).

  9. Subarctic weathering of mineral wastes provides a sink for atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Siobhan A; Dipple, Gregory M; Power, Ian M; Barker, Shaun L L; Fallon, Stewart J; Southam, Gordon

    2011-09-15

    The mineral waste from some mines has the capacity to trap and store CO(2) within secondary carbonate minerals via the process of silicate weathering. Nesquehonite [MgCO(3)·3H(2)O] forms by weathering of Mg-silicate minerals in kimberlitic mine tailings at the Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Less abundant Na- and Ca-carbonate minerals precipitate from sewage treatment effluent deposited in the tailings storage facility. Radiocarbon and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes are used to assess the ability of mine tailings to trap and store modern CO(2) within these minerals in the arid, subarctic climate at Diavik. Stable isotopic data cannot always uniquely identify the source of carbon stored within minerals in this setting; however, radiocarbon isotopic data provide a reliable quantitative estimate for sequestration of modern carbon. At least 89% of the carbon trapped within secondary carbonate minerals at Diavik is derived from a modern source, either by direct uptake of atmospheric CO(2) or indirect uptake though the biosphere. Silicate weathering at Diavik is trapping 102-114 g C/m(2)/y within nesquehonite, which corresponds to a 2 orders of magnitude increase over the background rate of CO(2) uptake predicted from arctic and subarctic river catchment data.

  10. Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Bakwin, P. S.; Jacob, D. J.; Anderson, S. M.; Kebabian, P. L.; Mcmanus, J. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation flux measurements and concentration profiles of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO2 were combined to provide a comprehensive record of atmosphere-biosphere exchange for these gases over a 30-day period in July-August 1988 in the Yukon-Kuskokwin River Delta of Alaska. Over 90 percent of net ecosystem exchanges of THC were due to methane. Lakes and wet meadow tundra provided the major sources of methane. The average fluxes from lake, dry tundra, and wet tundra were 11 +/- 3, 29 +/- 3, and 57 +/- 6 mg CH4/sq m/d, respectively. The mean remission rate for the site was 25 mg/sq m/d. Maximum uptake of CO2 by the tundra was 1.4 gC/sq m/d between 1000 and 1500 hrs, and nocturnal respiration averaged 0.73 gC/sq m/d. Net uptake of CO2 was 0.30 gC/sq m/d for the 30 days of measurement; methane flux accounted for 6 percent of CO2 net uptake.

  11. Conversion of CO2 to CO using radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Alexander; Dedrick, James; O'Connell, Deborah; North, Michael; Gans, Timo

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature plasmas can be used for the in situ generation of CO, from relatively non-toxic CO2 . CO is very useful in many industrial chemical processes and so, via low temperature plasmas, CO2, a waste product, can be converted into a valuable chemical. The key challenges in using this method, for CO production, are optimising the energy efficiency, maximising the conversion of CO2 into CO and then separating the CO from the other species produced in the plasma. Very high yields of CO, greater than 90%, have been achieved at atmospheric pressure using argon as a carrier gas with admixtures up to 1.5% with energy efficiencies of up to 4%. The plasma generated in continuous and spatially homogeneous and is driven at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. A zero dimensional global model has also been used to simulate the chemical kinetics of the plasma to determine the dominant dissociation processes and is in good agreement with the experimentally determined yields. The model is used to determine how important a role the vibrational states of CO2 are, in a highly collisional plasma, to the production of CO and there can provide insight into how to improve the energy efficiency and suppress unwanted reactions.

  12. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  13. Effects of elevated atmospherical CO2 concentration and nitrogen fertilisation on priming effects in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohm, H.; Marschner, B.

    2009-04-01

    It is expected that the biomass production and thus the input of organic carbon to the soil will increase in response to elevated CO¬2 concentrations in the atmosphere. It remains unclear whether this will lead to a long term increased carbon pool, because only little is known about the stability of the additional carbon inputs. The soil samples were taken on an agricultural field at the experimental farm of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig, Germany. A Free-Air Carbon-dioxide Enrichment (FACE) system was installed here in May 2000. It consists of rings with 20 m diameter. Two rings were operated with CO2 enriched air (550 ppm), another two rings received ambient air (370 ppm). One half of each ring received the full amount of nitrogen fertiliser, the remainder received only half of this N-amount. The soil samples were taken after 6 years of operation and were incubated with 14C-labeled fructose and alanine for 21 days. Furthermore, combined additions with the respective substrate and ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate alone were conducted. The microbial biomass was determined after 2 and 21 days. In the untreated controls the SOC mineralisation amounted to 0.59 to 0.68%. The addition of fructose, fructose+NH4NO3, alanine and alanine+NH4NO3 to the different soil samples increased SOC mineralization and thus caused priming effects of different extents. For NH4NO3 no priming effects occurred. The addition of fructose induced positive priming effects in all samples. The lowest priming effect was observed in the sample ambient CO2+50% N (+50%), either with fructose alone or in combination with NH4NO3. The addition of alanine caused similar priming effects in the ambient CO2+100% N and the elevated CO2+100% N samples (+92.4 and +95.6%, respectively). Again, the lowest priming effect was observed in the sample ambient CO2+50% N. The microbial biomass showed a clear increase in the substrate treated samples compared to the controls. The

  14. The Increasing Concentrations of Atmospheric CO2: How Much, When and Why?

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marland, Gregg [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boden, Tom [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01

    There is now a sense that the world community has achieved a broad consensus that: 1.) the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing, 2.) this increase is due largely to the combustion of fossil fuels, and 3.) this increase is likely to lead to changes in the global climate. This consensus is sufficiently strong that virtually all countries are involved in trying to achieve a functioning agreement on how to confront, and mitigate, these changes in climate. This paper reviews the first two of these components in a quantitative way. We look at the data on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and on the magnitude of fossil-fuel combustion, and we examine the trends in both. We review the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Finally, we look at scenarios for the future use of fossil fuels and what these portend for the future of atmospheric chemistry. Along the way we examine how and where fossil fuels are used on the Earth and some of the issues that are raised by any effort to reduce fossil-fuel use.

  15. Passive Q-switching of a Tm:YLF laser with a Co2+ doped silver halide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Harel; Burshtein, Zeev; Katzir, Abraham; Noach, Salman; Sokol, Maxim; Frumker, Eugene; Galun, Ehud; Ishaaya, Amiel A.

    2017-02-01

    We report a successful passive Q-switching of a Tm:YLF laser operating at λ = 1.9 μm, using a Co2+:AgCl0.5Br0.5 saturable absorber. Approximately 200-ns long, 150 μJ pulses were obtained. Increase in pump energy resulted in repetitive pulsing, with a repetition rate approximately proportional to the pump pulse energy. Room-temperature optical transmission saturation curves measured in ∼1-mm thick Co2+:AgCl0.5Br0.5 plates yielded a ground state absorption cross section σgs =(7.8 ± 0.5) ×10-18 cm2 , and an excited state absorption cross section σes =(3.3 ± 0.3) ×10-18 cm2 , at λ = 1.9 μm. The lifetime of the A2(4F) second excited-state of the octahedral O symmetry was τ∗ =(0.6 ± 0.06) ns .

  16. Modelling global CO2 emissions into the atmosphere from crown, ground, and peat fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Chernokulsky, Alexander V.

    2015-04-01

    The scheme for natural fires implemented in the climate model (CM) developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP RAS) is extended by a module accounting for ground and peat fires. With the IAP RAS CM, the simulations are performed for 1700-2300 in accordance with the CMIP5 (Coupled Models Intercomparison Project, phase 5) protocol. The modelled present-day burnt area, BA, and the corresponding CO2 emissions into the atmosphere E agree with the GFED-3.1 estimates at most regions. In the 21st century, under the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios, the global BA increases by 10-41% depending on scenario, and E increases by 11-39%. Under the mitigation scenario RCP 2.6, both BA and E slightly decrease in the 22nd-23rd centuries. For scenarios RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5, they continue to increase in these two centuries. All these changes are mostly due to changes in natural fires activity in the boreal regions. Ground and peat fires contribute significantly to the total emissions of CO2 from natural fires (20-25% at the global scale depending on scenario and calendar year). Peat fires markedly intensify interannual variability of regional CO2 emissions from natural fires.

  17. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert

    2007-10-19

    Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures warmed by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean warming by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water warming does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this warming.

  18. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles.

  19. The changing phenology of the land carbon fluxes as derived from atmospheric CO2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescatti, A.; Alkama, R.; Forzieri, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Zaehle, S.; Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Nabel, J.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Koven, C.; Zeng, N.; Ciais, P.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models and atmospheric observations of CO2 concentration point to a large increase of the global terrestrial carbon uptake over the recent decades. However, they disagree on the key regions, on the seasonality and on the processes underlying such a persistent increase. In particular, the role of the changing plant phenology on the global carbon budget is still unknown. To investigate these issues we explored the temporal dynamic of the land carbon fluxes over 1981-2014 using the Jena CarboScope atmospheric CO2 inversion and an ensemble of land surface models (TRENDY). Using these datasets the temporal extent and timing of the land carbon uptake and carbon release period have been investigated in four different latitudinal bands (75N-45N; 45N-15N; 15N-15S; 15S-45S) to explore the recent changes in the phenology of the vegetation CO2 exchange across different climates and biomes. The impact of phenological changes on the land carbon flux has been investigated by factoring out the signal due to the length of the growing season from the other signals. Estimates retrieved from the atmospheric inversion have been compared with the prediction of the ensemble of vegetation models. Results shows that the changes in the global carbon fluxes occurred in the last three decades are dominated by the duration and intensification of the uptake during the growing season. Interestingly, the seasonality of the trends shows a consistent pattern at all latitudinal bands, with a systematic advancement of the onset and minor changes of the end dates of the growing season. According to the atmospheric inversion the increasing trend in the land sink is driven about equally by the changes in phenology (due to the earlier onset and later offset) and by the intensification of the daily uptake. The increased annual carbon uptake revealed by the atmospheric inversion is about 60% larger than the model predictions, possibly due to the model underestimation of land use flues

  20. Earth 2075 (CO2) - can Ocean-Amplified Carbon Capture (oacc) Impart Atmospheric CO2-SINKING Ability to CCS Fossil Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, R.; Routh, M.; Chaudhuri, S.; Fry, S.; Ison, M.; Hughes, S.; Komor, C.; Klabunde, K.; Sethi, V.; Collins, D.; Polkinghorn, W.; Wroobel, B.; Hughes, J.; Gower, G.; Shkolnik, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous attempts to capture atmospheric CO2 by algal blooming were stalled by ocean viruses, zooplankton feeding, and/or bacterial decomposition of surface blooms, re-releasing captured CO2 instead of exporting it to seafloor. CCS fossil energy coupling could bypass algal bloom limits—enabling capture of 10 GtC/yr atmospheric CO2 by selective emiliania huxleyi (EHUX) blooming in mid-latitude open oceans, far from coastal waters and polar seas. This could enable a 500 GtC drawdown, 350 ppm restoration by 2050, 280 ppm CO2 by 2075, and ocean pH 8.2. White EHUX blooms could also reflect sunlight back into outer space and seed extra ocean cloud cover, via DMS release, to raise albedo 1.8%—restoring preindustrial temperature (ΔT = 0°C) by 2030. Open oceans would avoid post-bloom anoxia, exclusively a coastal water phenomenon. The EHUX calcification reaction initially sources CO2, but net sinking prevails in follow-up equilibration reactions. Heavier-than-water EHUX sink captured CO2 to the sea floor before surface decomposition occurs. Seeding EHUX high on their nonlinear growth curve could accelerate short-cycle secondary open-ocean blooming—overwhelming mid-latitude viruses, zooplankton, and competition from other algae. Mid-latitude "ocean deserts" exhibit low viral, zooplankton, and bacterial counts. Thermocline prevents nutrient upwelling that would otherwise promote competing algae. Adding nitrogen nutrient would foster exclusive EHUX blooming. Elevated EHUX seed levels could arise from sealed, pH-buffered, floating, seed-production bioreactors infused with 10% CO2 from carbon feedstock supplied by inland CCS fossil power plants capturing 90% of emissions as liquid CO2. Deep-water SPAR platforms extract natural gas from beneath the sea floor. On-platform Haber and pH processing could convert extracted CH4 to buffered NH4+ nutrient, enabling ≥0.7 GtC/yr of bioreactor seed production and 10 GtC/yr of amplified secondary open-ocean CO2 capture—making CCS

  1. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H.; Edgar, Kirsty M.; Foster, Gavin L.; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N.; Pancost, Richard D.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-05-01

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ11B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  2. Increasing atmospheric CO2 reduces metabolic and physiological differences between isoprene- and non-isoprene-emitting poplars.

    PubMed

    Way, Danielle A; Ghirardo, Andrea; Kanawati, Basem; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Monson, Russell K; Jackson, Robert B; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Isoprene, a volatile organic compound produced by some plant species, enhances abiotic stress tolerance under current atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its biosynthesis is negatively correlated with CO2 concentrations. We hypothesized that losing the capacity to produce isoprene would require stronger up-regulation of other stress tolerance mechanisms at low CO2 than at higher CO2 concentrations. We compared metabolite profiles and physiological performance in poplars (Populus × canescens) with either wild-type or RNAi-suppressed isoprene emission capacity grown at pre-industrial low, current atmospheric, and future high CO2 concentrations (190, 390 and 590 ppm CO2 , respectively). Suppression of isoprene biosynthesis led to significant rearrangement of the leaf metabolome, increasing stress tolerance responses such as xanthophyll cycle pigment de-epoxidation and antioxidant levels, as well as altering lipid, carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Metabolic and physiological differences between isoprene-emitting and suppressed lines diminished as growth CO2 concentrations rose. The CO2 dependence of our results indicates that the effects of isoprene biosynthesis are strongest at pre-industrial CO2 concentrations. Rising CO2 may reduce the beneficial effects of biogenic isoprene emission, with implications for species competition. This has potential consequences for future climate warming, as isoprene emitted from vegetation has strong effects on global atmospheric chemistry. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawlins, M.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Kimball, J.S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J.C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-01-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m−2 yr−2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model

  4. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO 2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    DOE PAGES

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; ...

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climatemore » model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO 2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO 2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO 2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements

  5. Scheduling the blended solution as industrial CO2 absorber in separation process by back-propagation artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Zakaria, Azmi; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Bin Mohd; Islam, Aminul; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-11-05

    It is believe that 80% industrial of carbon dioxide can be controlled by separation and storage technologies which use the blended ionic liquids absorber. Among the blended absorbers, the mixture of water, N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and guanidinium trifluoromethane sulfonate (gua) has presented the superior stripping qualities. However, the blended solution has illustrated high viscosity that affects the cost of separation process. In this work, the blended fabrication was scheduled with is the process arranging, controlling and optimizing. Therefore, the blend's components and operating temperature were modeled and optimized as input effective variables to minimize its viscosity as the final output by using back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN). The modeling was carried out by four mathematical algorithms with individual experimental design to obtain the optimum topology using root mean squared error (RMSE), R-squared (R(2)) and absolute average deviation (AAD). As a result, the final model (QP-4-8-1) with minimum RMSE and AAD as well as the highest R(2) was selected to navigate the fabrication of the blended solution. Therefore, the model was applied to obtain the optimum initial level of the input variables which were included temperature 303-323 K, x[gua], 0-0.033, x[MDAE], 0.3-0.4, and x[H2O], 0.7-1.0. Moreover, the model has obtained the relative importance ordered of the variables which included x[gua]>temperature>x[MDEA]>x[H2O]. Therefore, none of the variables was negligible in the fabrication. Furthermore, the model predicted the optimum points of the variables to minimize the viscosity which was validated by further experiments. The validated results confirmed the model schedulability. Accordingly, ANN succeeds to model the initial components of the blended solutions as absorber of CO2 capture in separation technologies that is able to industries scale up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric CO2 at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Boynton, William V.; Hoffman, John H.; Ming, Douglas W.; Hamara, Dave

    2010-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is a primary component of the martian atmosphere and reacts readily with water and silicate rocks. Thus, the stable isotopic composition of CO2 can reveal much about the history of volatiles on the planet. The Mars Phoenix spacecraft measurements of carbon isotopes [referenced to the Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB)] [δ13CVPDB = -2.5 ± 4.3 per mil (‰)] and oxygen isotopes [referenced to the Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] (δ18OVSMOW = 31.0 ± 5.7‰), reported here, indicate that CO2 is heavily influenced by modern volcanic degassing and equilibration with liquid water. When combined with data from the martian meteorites, a general model can be constructed that constrains the history of water, volcanism, atmospheric evolution, and weathering on Mars. This suggests that low-temperature water-rock interaction has been dominant throughout martian history, carbonate formation is active and ongoing, and recent volcanic degassing has played a substantial role in the composition of the modern atmosphere.

  7. Oxygen isotope anomaly in tropospheric CO2 and implications for CO2 residence time in the atmosphere and gross primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Mahata, Sasadhar; Laskar, Amzad H; Thiemens, Mark H; Newman, Sally

    2017-10-13

    The abundance variations of near surface atmospheric CO 2 isotopologues (primarily 16 O 12 C 16 O, 16 O 13 C 16 O, 17 O 12 C 16 O, and 18 O 12 C 16 O) represent an integrated signal from anthropogenic/biogeochemical processes, including fossil fuel burning, biospheric photosynthesis and respiration, hydrospheric isotope exchange with water, and stratospheric photochemistry. Oxygen isotopes, in particular, are affected by the carbon and water cycles. Being a useful tracer that directly probes governing processes in CO 2 biogeochemical cycles, Δ 17 O (=ln(1 + δ 17 O) - 0.516 × ln(1 + δ 18 O)) provides an alternative constraint on the strengths of the associated cycles involving CO 2 . Here, we analyze Δ 17 O data from four places (Taipei, Taiwan; South China Sea; La Jolla, United States; Jerusalem, Israel) in the northern hemisphere (with a total of 455 measurements) and find a rather narrow range (0.326 ± 0.005‰). A conservative estimate places a lower limit of 345 ± 70 PgC year -1 on the cycling flux between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere and infers a residence time of CO 2 of 1.9 ± 0.3 years (upper limit) in the atmosphere. A Monte Carlo simulation that takes various plant uptake scenarios into account yields a terrestrial gross primary productivity of 120 ± 30 PgC year -1 and soil invasion of 110 ± 30 PgC year -1 , providing a quantitative assessment utilizing the oxygen isotope anomaly for quantifying CO 2 cycling.

  8. Differences in the response sensitivity of stomatal index to atmospheric CO2 among four genera of Cupressaceae conifers.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Heath, James; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2010-03-01

    The inverse relationship between stomatal density (SD: number of stomata per mm(2) leaf area) and atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) permits the use of plants as proxies of palaeo-atmospheric CO2. Many stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2] are based upon multiple fossil species. However, it is unclear how plants respond to [CO2] across genus, family or ecotype in terms of SD or stomatal index (SI: ratio of stomata to epidermal cells). This study analysed the stomatal numbers of conifers from the ancient family Cupressaceae, in order to examine the nature of the SI-[CO2] relationship, and potential implications for stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2]. Methods Stomatal frequency measurements were taken from historical herbarium specimens of Athrotaxis cupressoides, Tetraclinis articulata and four Callitris species, and live A. cupressoides grown under CO2-enrichment (370, 470, 570 and 670 p.p.m. CO2). T. articulata, C. columnaris and C. rhomboidea displayed