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Sample records for absorb concentrated sunlight

  1. Uniform sunlight concentration reflectors for photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Rabady, Rabi Ibrahim

    2014-03-20

    Sunlight concentration is essential to reach high temperatures of a working fluid in solar-thermal applications and to reduce the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation systems. Commonly, sunlight concentration is realized by parabolic or cylindrical reflectors, which do not provide uniform concentration on the receiver finite surface. Uniform concentration of sunlight is favored especially for the PV conversion applications since it not only enhances the conversion efficiency of sunlight but also reduces the thermal variations along the receiving PV cell, which can be a performance and life-span limiting factor. In this paper a reflector profile that uniformly infiltrates the concentrated sunlight into the receiving unit is attempted. The new design accounts for all factors that contribute to the nonuniform concentration, like the reflector curvature, which spatially reflects the sunlight nonuniformly, and the angular dependency of both the reflector reflectivity and the sunlight transmission through the PV cell.

  2. Solar concentrator/absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Collector/energy converter, consisting of dual-slope optical concentrator and counterflow thermal energy absorber, is attached to multiaxis support structure. Efficient over wide range of illumination levels, device may be used to generate high temperature steam, serve as solar powered dryer, or power absorption cycle cooler.

  3. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A.; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2011-06-01

    Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5-15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine cell, after 30 min exposure at 5 suns and after 30 min of rest in the dark. High intensity exposure introduced a major performance decrease for all solar intensities, followed by a partial recovery of the lost performance over time: at 1 sun only 6% of the initial performance was conserved after the high intensity exposure, while after rest the performance had recovered to 60% of the initial value. The timescale of the recovery effect was studied by monitoring the cell performance at 1 sun after high intensity exposure. This showed that cell performance was almost completely restored after 180 min. The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process, and care has to be taken to allow for a sound accelerated lifetime assessment based on concentrated sunlight.

  4. Absorption and scattering properties of carbon nanohorn-based nanofluids for direct sunlight absorbers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the scattering and spectrally resolved absorption properties of nanofluids consisting in aqueous and glycol suspensions of single-wall carbon nanohorns. The characteristics of these nanofluids were evaluated in view of their use as sunlight absorber fluids in a solar device. The observed nanoparticle-induced differences in optical properties appeared promising, leading to a considerably higher sunlight absorption with respect to the pure base fluids. Scattered light was found to be not more than about 5% with respect to the total attenuation of light. Both these effects, together with the possible chemical functionalization of carbon nanohorns, make this new kind of nanofluids very interesting for increasing the overall efficiency of the sunlight exploiting device. PACS 78.40.Ri, 78.35.+c, 78.67.Bf, 88.40.fh, 88.40.fr, 81.05.U. PMID:21711795

  5. Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledyne’s liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting parts—instead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

  6. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  7. Investigation of terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model of the silicon solar cells for high illumination is being used to design cells for different concentration factors. It is shown that a cell design using one centimeter length grid fingers would have an efficiency at 100 suns that is 90% of the efficiency of a typical cell at one sun. This may require about 30 fingers per centimeter. A decrease in efficiency comes from the greater coverage of the surface with grids as the concentration increases. The importance of base material resistivity on cell design for high concentration is outlined.

  8. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  9. The influence of sunlight and oxidative treatment on measured PAH concentrations in biochar.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Fathima N M; Klarup, Doug

    2015-09-01

    The concentration changes of 18 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two different biochars were assessed after (1) chemical oxidative treatment with a solution of H2O2 and Na2S2O8, (2) exposure to sunlight with intermittent wetting, and (3) exposure to sunlight with intermittent wetting after mixing in ZnO and Na2S2O8. Chemical oxidative treatment of biochars derived from gasified wood biochar and a gasified wood/Arundo donax mixture led to decreases in six-ring PAHs, but overall significant increases in measured PAH concentration sums for both biochars (from 225 ± 7 to 312 ± 18 μg g(-1) for wood-derived and 165 ± 3 to 244 ± 7 μg g(-1) for mixture-derived). Sunlight exposure of the mixture-derived biochar led to increases in some three- and four-ring PAHs, but overall decreases in summed PAH concentrations (165 ± 3 to 60 ± 1 μg g(-1) with wetting only and 165 ± 3 to 41 ± 4 μg g(-1) when Na2S2O8 and ZnO were included). The mass losses in the sunlight-exposed samples primarily were due to losses of low molar mass (two-ring) PAHs, though high molar mass (five- and six-ring) PAH concentrations also decreased. This result implies sun and rain exposure to biochar, prior to agricultural application, will help reduce potential PAH soil contamination from the biochar.

  10. Temperature- and Component-Dependent Degradation of Perovskite Photovoltaic Materials under Concentrated Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ravi K; Aharon, Sigalit; Li, Baili; Mogilyansky, Dmitri; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Etgar, Lioz; Katz, Eugene A

    2015-02-01

    We report on accelerated degradation testing of MAPbX3 films (X = I or Br) by exposure to concentrated sunlight of 100 suns and show that the evolution of light absorption and the corresponding structural modifications are dependent on the type of halide ion and the exposure temperature. One hour of such exposure provides a photon dose equivalent to that of one sun exposure for 100 hours. The degradation in absorption of MAPbI3 films after exposure to 100 suns for 60 min at elevated sample temperature (∼45-55 °C), due to decomposition of the hybrid perovskite material, is documented. No degradation was observed after exposure to the same sunlight concentration but at a lower sample temperature (∼25 °C). No photobleaching or decomposition of MAPbBr3 films was observed after exposure to similar stress conditions (light intensity, dose, and temperatures). Our results indicate that the degradation is highly dependent on the hybrid perovskite composition and can be light- and thermally enhanced. PMID:26261941

  11. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  12. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  13. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.; Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  14. Determination of optimum sunlight concentration level in space for 3-4 cascade solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum range of concentration in space for III-V cascade cells has been calculated using a realistic solar cell diode equation. Temperature was varied with concentration using several models and ranged from 55 deg at one sun to between 80 deg and 200 deg C at 100 suns. A variety of series resistance and internal resistances were used. Coefficients of the diffusion and recombination terms are strongly temperature dependent. The study indicates that the maximum efficiency of 30 percent occurs in the 50 to 100 X sun concentration range provided series resistance is below 0.015 ohm sq cm and cell temperature is about 80 C at 100 suns.

  15. Determination of optimum sunlight concentration level in space for 3-5 cascade solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum range of concentration levels in space for III-V cascade cells was calculated using a realistic solar cell diode equation. Temperature was varied with concentration using several models and ranged from 55 C at 1 sun to between 80 and 200 C at 100 suns. A variety of series resistance and internal resistances were used. Coefficients of the diffusion and recombination terms are strongly temperature dependent. The study indicates that the maximum efficiency of 30 percent occurs in the 50 to 100 sun concentration range provided series resistance is below 0.015 ohm-sq cm and cell temperature is about 80 C at 100 suns.

  16. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations in Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni) exposed to natural sunlight and two artificial ultraviolet radiation sources.

    PubMed

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2012-11-01

    Objective-To determine the effect of various UVB radiation sources on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations in Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Animals-18 healthy Hermann's tortoises. Procedures-Tortoises were exposed to sunlight in an outdoor enclosure located in the natural geographic range of Hermann's tortoises (n = 6 tortoises) or a self-ballasted mercury-vapor lamp (6) or fluorescent UVB-emitting lamp (6) in an indoor enclosure for 35 days. Plasma samples were obtained from each tortoise on the first (day 0) and last (day 35) days of the study, and concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) were determined. Amount of UVB radiation in enclosures was measured. Results-Mean ± SD plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations for tortoises exposed to the mercury-vapor and fluorescent lamps were significantly lower on day 35 (155.69 ± 80.71 nmol/L and 134.42 ± 51.42 nmol/L, respectively) than they were on day 0 (368.02 ± 119.34 nmol/L and 313.69 ± 109.54 nmol/L, respectively). Mean ± SD plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentration for tortoises exposed to sunlight did not differ significantly between days 0 (387.74 ± 114.56 nmol/L) and 35 (411.51 ± 189.75 nmol/L). Mean day 35 plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentration was significantly higher for tortoises exposed to sunlight versus those exposed to mercury-vapor or fluorescent lamps. Sunlight provided significantly more UVB radiation than did the mercury-vapor or fluorescent lamps. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations differed between tortoises exposed to sunlight and those exposed to artificial UVB sources. Exposure to sunlight at a latitude similar to that of the natural geographic range is recommended for healthy and calcium-deficient tortoises.

  17. Determination of optimum sunlight concentration level in space for 3-5 cascade solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Current-voltage curves were calculated for each cell in a cascade structure using a solar cell diode equation and superposition. Terms for the light generated current, diffusion current, space charge recombination current and series and shunt resistance are included. Individual current voltage curves are added in series with ohmic resistance losses for the cell interconnects to obtain the cascade cell performance. Temperature was varied with concentration, using several models, and ranged from 55 C at one Sun to between 80 and 200 C at 100 Suns. A variety of series resistance and internal resistances were used. Coefficients of the diffusion and recombination terms are strongly temperature dependent. The study indicates that maximum efficiency (30%) occurs in the 50 to 100X Sun concentration range, provided series resistance is below 0.015 ohm-sq cm and cell temperature is 80 C at 100 Suns.

  18. Quantification of protein concentration using UV absorbance and Coomassie dyes.

    PubMed

    Noble, James E

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of a solubilized protein concentration in solution is an important assay in biochemistry research and development labs for applications ranging from enzymatic studies to providing data for biopharmaceutical lot release. Spectrophotometric protein quantification assays are methods that use UV and visible spectroscopy to rapidly determine the concentration of protein, relative to a standard, or using an assigned extinction coefficient. Where multiple samples need measurement, and/or the sample volume and concentration is limited, preparations of the Coomassie dye commonly known as the Bradford assay can be used. PMID:24423263

  19. Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1983-01-01

    A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).

  20. Nonimaging secondary concentrators for large rim angle parabolic troughs with tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Spirkl, W

    1996-05-01

    For parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers, we design new tailored secondary concentrators. The design is applicable for any rim angle of a parabolic reflector. With the secondary, the concentration can be increased by a factor of more than 2 with a compact secondary reflector consisting of a single piece, even for the important case of a rim angle of 90 deg. The parabolic reflector can be used without changes; the reduced absorber is still tubular but smaller than the original absorber and slightly displaced toward the primary.

  1. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  2. Fall in inspired oxygen and anaesthetic agent concentrations during change of soda lime absorber.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Byrappa; Gopalakrishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah; Umamaheswara Rao, Ganne S

    2015-06-01

    Following an episode of reduction in inspired oxygen concentration (FiO(2)) and inhalational agent concentration (Fi agent) during the changing of a soda lime absorber, We conducted an in vitro experiment to understand the impact of disconnection of the absorber on inspired gas dilution at different fresh gas flows. We found that both in Dräger Fabius GS and Primus anaesthesia work stations, disconnection of the absorber caused progressive reduction in FiO(2) and Fi agent as the FGF was decreased. The operating principle of fresh gas decoupling (FGD) valve is a potential source of this complication, which must be kept in mind while changing the soda lime during the course of surgery where an anaesthetic work stations utilizing FGD valves are used.

  3. Experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in a low-profile, concentrated solar thermal collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiyuan; Zheng, Cheng; Mesgari, Sara; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha L.; Hjerrild, Natasha; Crisostomo, Felipe; Morrison, Karl; Woffenden, Albert; Rosengarten, Gary; Scott, Jason A.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies [1-3] have demonstrated that nanotechnology, in the form of nanoparticles suspended in water and organic liquids, can be employed to enhance solar collection via direct volumetric absorbers. However, current nanofluid solar collector experimental studies are either relevant to low-temperature flat plate solar collectors (<100 °C) [4] or higher temperature (>100 °C) indoor laboratory-scale concentrating solar collectors [1, 5]. Moreover, many of these studies involve in thermal properties of nanofluid (such as thermal conductivity) enhancement in solar collectors by using conventional selective coated steel/copper tube receivers [6], and no full-scale concentrating collector has been tested at outdoor condition by employing nanofluid absorber [2, 6]. Thus, there is a need of experimental researches to evaluate the exact performance of full-scale concentrating solar collector by employing nanofluids absorber at outdoor condition. As reported previously [7-9], a low profile (<10 cm height) solar thermal concentrating collector was designed and analysed which can potentially supply thermal energy in the 100-250 °C range (an application currently met by gas and electricity). The present study focuses on the design and experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in this newly designed collector. The nanofluid absorber consists of glass tubes used to contain chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in DI water. MWCNTs (average diameter of 6-13 nm and average length of 2.5-20 μm) were functionalized by potassium persulfate as an oxidant. The nanofluids were prepared with a MCWNT concentration of 50 +/- 0.1 mg/L to form a balance between solar absorption depth and viscosity (e.g. pumping power). Moreover, experimentally comparison of the thermal efficiency between two receivers (a black chrome-coated copper tube versus a MWCNT nanofluid contained within a glass tubetube) is investigated. Thermal

  4. Spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon concentration in a residential area impacted by woodsmoke.

    PubMed

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Ström, Johan

    2010-03-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations in a residential neighborhood (Lycksele, Sweden) where RWC is a major air pollution source during winter. The measurement analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, coefficient of divergence, linear regression, concentration roses, diurnal pattern, and weekend versus weekday concentration ratios. Hourly RWC and road traffic contributions to MLAC were simulated with a Gaussian dispersion model to assess whether the model was able to mimic the observations. Hourly mean and standard deviation concentrations measured at six sites ranged from 0.58 to 0.74 microg m(-3) and from 0.59 to 0.79 microg m(-3), respectively. The temporal and spatial variability decreased with increasing averaging time. Low-wind periods with relatively high MLAC concentrations correlated more strongly than high-wind periods with low concentrations. On average, the model overestimated the observations by 3- to 5-fold and explained less than 10% of the measured hourly variability at all sites. Large residual concentrations were associated with weak winds and relatively high MLAC loadings. The explanation of the observed variability increased to 31-45% when daily mean concentrations were compared. When the contribution from the boilers within the neighborhood was excluded from the simulations, the model overestimation decreased to 16-71%. When assessing the exposure to light-absorbing carbon particles using this type of model, the authors suggest using a longer averaging period (i.e., daily concentrations) in a larger area with an updated and very detailed emission inventory. PMID:20397565

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon concentration in a residential area impacted by woodsmoke.

    PubMed

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Ström, Johan

    2010-03-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is responsible for 33% of the total carbon mass emitted in Europe. With the new European targets to increase the use of renewable energy, there is a growing concern that the population exposure to woodsmoke will also increase. This study investigates observed and simulated light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations in a residential neighborhood (Lycksele, Sweden) where RWC is a major air pollution source during winter. The measurement analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, coefficient of divergence, linear regression, concentration roses, diurnal pattern, and weekend versus weekday concentration ratios. Hourly RWC and road traffic contributions to MLAC were simulated with a Gaussian dispersion model to assess whether the model was able to mimic the observations. Hourly mean and standard deviation concentrations measured at six sites ranged from 0.58 to 0.74 microg m(-3) and from 0.59 to 0.79 microg m(-3), respectively. The temporal and spatial variability decreased with increasing averaging time. Low-wind periods with relatively high MLAC concentrations correlated more strongly than high-wind periods with low concentrations. On average, the model overestimated the observations by 3- to 5-fold and explained less than 10% of the measured hourly variability at all sites. Large residual concentrations were associated with weak winds and relatively high MLAC loadings. The explanation of the observed variability increased to 31-45% when daily mean concentrations were compared. When the contribution from the boilers within the neighborhood was excluded from the simulations, the model overestimation decreased to 16-71%. When assessing the exposure to light-absorbing carbon particles using this type of model, the authors suggest using a longer averaging period (i.e., daily concentrations) in a larger area with an updated and very detailed emission inventory.

  6. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  7. Temperature and Exciton Concentration Induced Excimer Emission of 4,4'-Bis(4''-Triphenylsilyl) Phenyl-1,1'-Binaphthalene and Application for Sunlight-Like White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Li, Weiling; Gao, Xicun; Sun, Chang; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Chunya; Zhu, Wenqing; Wei, Bin

    2016-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of temperature, exciton concentration, and electron transportation layers on the excimer emission of a novel deep-blue material: 4,4'-bis(4''-triphenylsilyl) phenyl-1,1'-binaphthalene (SiBN), by studying the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of SiBN-based film. We have further developed sunlight-like and warm-light white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with high efficiency and wide-range spectra, using SiBN and bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato- N,C2')iridium(acetylacetonate) (bt2Ir(acac)) as the blue excimer and yellow materials, respectively. The resulting device exhibited an excellent spectra overlap ratio of 82.9 % with sunlight, while the device peak current efficiency, external quantum efficiency, and power efficiency were 18.5 cd/A, 6.34 %, and 11.68 lm/W, respectively, for sunlight-like WOLEDs.

  8. Temperature and Exciton Concentration Induced Excimer Emission of 4,4'-Bis(4''-Triphenylsilyl) Phenyl-1,1'-Binaphthalene and Application for Sunlight-Like White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Li, Weiling; Gao, Xicun; Sun, Chang; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Chunya; Zhu, Wenqing; Wei, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of temperature, exciton concentration, and electron transportation layers on the excimer emission of a novel deep-blue material: 4,4'-bis(4''-triphenylsilyl) phenyl-1,1'-binaphthalene (SiBN), by studying the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of SiBN-based film. We have further developed sunlight-like and warm-light white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with high efficiency and wide-range spectra, using SiBN and bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')iridium(acetylacetonate) (bt2Ir(acac)) as the blue excimer and yellow materials, respectively. The resulting device exhibited an excellent spectra overlap ratio of 82.9 % with sunlight, while the device peak current efficiency, external quantum efficiency, and power efficiency were 18.5 cd/A, 6.34 %, and 11.68 lm/W, respectively, for sunlight-like WOLEDs.

  9. Temperature and Exciton Concentration Induced Excimer Emission of 4,4'-Bis(4''-Triphenylsilyl) Phenyl-1,1'-Binaphthalene and Application for Sunlight-Like White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Li, Weiling; Gao, Xicun; Sun, Chang; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Chunya; Zhu, Wenqing; Wei, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of temperature, exciton concentration, and electron transportation layers on the excimer emission of a novel deep-blue material: 4,4'-bis(4''-triphenylsilyl) phenyl-1,1'-binaphthalene (SiBN), by studying the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of SiBN-based film. We have further developed sunlight-like and warm-light white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with high efficiency and wide-range spectra, using SiBN and bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')iridium(acetylacetonate) (bt2Ir(acac)) as the blue excimer and yellow materials, respectively. The resulting device exhibited an excellent spectra overlap ratio of 82.9 % with sunlight, while the device peak current efficiency, external quantum efficiency, and power efficiency were 18.5 cd/A, 6.34 %, and 11.68 lm/W, respectively, for sunlight-like WOLEDs. PMID:27562015

  10. Broadband and energy-concentrating terahertz coherent perfect absorber based on a self-complementary metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakata, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that a self-complementary checkerboard-like metasurface works as a broadband coherent perfect absorber (CPA) when symmetrically illuminated by two counter-propagating incident waves. A theoretical analysis based on wave interference and results of numerical simulations of the proposed metasurface are provided. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the proposed CPA in the terahertz regime by using a time-domain spectroscopy technique. We observe that the metasurface can work as a CPA below its lowest diffraction frequency. The size of the absorptive areas of the proposed CPA can be much smaller than the incident wavelength. Unlike conventional CPAs, the presented one simultaneously achieves the broadband operation and energy concentration of electromagnetic waves at the deep-subwavelength scale.

  11. Effect of aerosol concentration and absorbing aerosol on the radiation fog life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalick, Z.; Kühn, T.; Korhonen, H.; Kokkola, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Analogous to cloud formation, the formation and life cycle of fogs is largely influenced by aerosol particles. The objective of this work is to analyze how changes in aerosol properties affect the fog life cycle, with special emphasis on how droplet concentrations change with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and on the effect that absorbing black carbon (BC) particles have on fog dissipation. For our simulation case study, we chose a typical fall time radiation fog at mid-latitudes (45° north) in fairly highly polluted conditions. Our results show that CCN concentrations have a strong influence on the fog lifetime. This is because the immediate effect of CCN on cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) is enhanced through two positive feedback loops: (1) Higher CDNC leads to more radiative cooling at the fog top, which leads to even stronger activation and (2) if CDNC is higher, the average droplet size is smaller, which slows down droplet removal through sedimentation. The effect that radiation fogs have on solar surface irradiation is large - the daily mean can change by 50% if CCN concentrations are doubled or halved (considering a reference CCN mixing ratio of 800 #/mg). With the same changes in CCN, the total fog lifetime increases 160 min or decreases 65 min, respectively. Although BC has a noticeable effect on fog height and dissipation time, its relative effect compared to CCN is small, even if BC concentrations are high. The fog formation is very sensitive to initial meteorological conditions which may be altered considerably if fog was present the previous day. This effect was neglected here, and future simulations, which span several days, may thus be a valuable extension of this study.

  12. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, M. R. I.; Saha, Manabendra; Beg, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  13. Visible absorbance spectra: A basis for in situ and passive remote sensing of phytoplankton concentration and community composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Brown, C. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration and composition of phytoplankton populations are measured by an optical method which can be used either in situ or remotely. This method is based upon the in vivo light absorption characteristics of phytoplankton. To provide a data base for testing assumptions relative to the proposed method, visible absorbance spectra of pure cultures of 20 marine phytoplankton were obtained under laboratory conditions. Descriptive and analytical statistics were computed for the absorbance spectra and were used to make comparisons between members of major taxonomic groups and between groups. Spectral variation between the members of the major taxonomic groups was observed to be considerably less than the spectral variation between these groups. In several cases the differences between the mean absorbance spectra of major taxonomic groups are significant enough to be detected with passive remote sensing techniques.

  14. Increasing dust-absorbing equipment operation efficiency using the automatic laser instrument for solid particle concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Vadim V.; Shemanin, Valery G.; Charty, Pavel V.

    2003-06-01

    The technological process of cement production, which side effect is dust generating and its exhausting to atmosphere, is not stopped as a rule when some faults were origin in dust-absorbing equipment (DAE). The analysis in reference one shows that longtime conducting of the technological process at DAE refusal or fault leads to its working efficiency reduction, which reveals itself in significant excess of nominal values of the dust output concentrations. The number of the most typical refusals and damages and algorithms of their searching were analyzed in work in reference 2 for the most wide-spread dust-absorber types: blanch and electrostatic filters. This work goal are the estimation of DAE working efficiency and choosing of the optimum way of its increasing with using of the automatic laser instrument for aerosol particles concentration measuring in the dust-air flows.

  15. Intra- and inter-specific comparisons of leaf UV-B absorbing-compound concentration of southern broadleaf trees in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Gao, Wei; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-06-01

    Increased concentration of leaf UV-B absorbing-compounds due to exposure to UV-B radiation is widely accepted as one of the plant adaptations to resist enhanced UV-B radiation. This paper reports a field comparative study of dynamics and temporal changes of UV-B absorbing-compound concentration in 35 southern broadleaf trees over a growing season. Leaf UV-B absorbing-compound, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf thickness were measured from the sun-exposed leaves of 35 tree species collected monthly from individual trees growing within the city of Baton Rouge, Louisiana from April to October in 2000. The USDA UV-B Monitoring Network Baton Rouge Station provided the ambient UV-B radiation data. Leaf UV-B absorbing-compound concentration varied significantly with leaf age and species. Intra-specifically, leaf UV-B absorbing-compound concentration exhibited a generally increasing trend during leaf growth and development in response to the increased exposure to natural UV-B/solar radiation during the growing season. Inter-specifically, significant differences existed in leaf UV-B absorbing-compound concentration. The species were compared and ranked based on the growing season averages of the leaf total UV-B absorbing-compound concentration. The species were further classified into three levels (high, medium, and low) based on the magnitude of UV-B absorbing-compound concentration.

  16. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  17. "Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  18. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  19. Sunlight-Induced Coloration of Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ya; Tang, Bin; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2016-06-01

    Silk fabrics were colored by gold nanoparticles (NPs) that were in situ synthesized through the induction of sunlight. Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold NPs, the treated silk fabrics presented vivid colors. The photo-induced synthesis of gold NPs was also realized on wet silk through adsorbing gold ions out of solution, which provides a water-saving coloration method for textiles. Besides, the patterning of silk was feasible using this simple sunlight-induced coloration approach. The key factors of coloration including gold ion concentration, pH value, and irradiation time were investigated. Moreover, it was demonstrated that either ultraviolet (UV) light or visible light could induce the generation of gold NPs on silk fabrics. The silk fabrics with gold NPs exhibited high light resistance including great UV-blocking property and excellent fastness to sunlight.

  20. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Bingham, Carl; Goggin, Rita; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Netter, Judy C.

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  1. Sunlight-Induced Coloration of Silk.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ya; Tang, Bin; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2016-12-01

    Silk fabrics were colored by gold nanoparticles (NPs) that were in situ synthesized through the induction of sunlight. Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold NPs, the treated silk fabrics presented vivid colors. The photo-induced synthesis of gold NPs was also realized on wet silk through adsorbing gold ions out of solution, which provides a water-saving coloration method for textiles. Besides, the patterning of silk was feasible using this simple sunlight-induced coloration approach. The key factors of coloration including gold ion concentration, pH value, and irradiation time were investigated. Moreover, it was demonstrated that either ultraviolet (UV) light or visible light could induce the generation of gold NPs on silk fabrics. The silk fabrics with gold NPs exhibited high light resistance including great UV-blocking property and excellent fastness to sunlight.

  2. Transcriptional response of Enterococcus faecalis to sunlight.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Ramsey, Matthew M; Gilmore, Michael S; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-01-01

    Microarrays were used to investigate the transcriptional response of Enterococcus faecalis to photostress. E. faecalis are Gram-positive bacteria used as indicators of water quality and have been shown to vary diurnally in response to sunlight. E. faecalis in filtered seawater microcosms were exposed to artificial sunlight for 12h and then placed in the dark for 12h. Transcript abundance was measured at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24h in the sunlit microcosm and a dark control using microarrays. Culturable E. faecalis concentrations decreased 6-7 orders of magnitude within the first 6h of light exposure. After 12h in the dark, no evidence of dark-repair was observed. Expression data collected after 12h of sunlight exposure revealed a difference in transcript abundance in the light relative to dark microcosms for 35 unique ORFs, 33 ORFs showed increased transcript abundance and 2 ORFs showed reduced transcript abundance. A majority (51%) of the ORFs with increased transcript abundance in the sunlit relative to dark microcosms encoded hypothetical proteins; others were associated with protein synthesis, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Results suggest that E. faecalis exposed to sunlight actively transcribe RNA in response to photostress.

  3. Ceres' sunlight atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Centurión, M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Astronomical research dealing with accurate radial velocity measurements need reliable astronomical standards to calibrate the spectrographs and to assess possible systematics. Stellar radial velocity standards offer a reference at the level of a few hundred m s-1 and are not adequate for most present needs. Aims: We aim to show that sunlight reflected by asteroids is a fairly accessible way to record a high-resolution solar spectrum from the whole disk, which can therefore be used as a radial velocity standard and can improve the uncertainties of solar line positions. Methods: We used solar light reflected by the asteroid Ceres observed with HARPS to measure solar lines' wavelengths. Results: We provide a new solar atlas with 491 line wavelengths in the range 540-690 nm and 222 lines in the range 400-410 nm obtained from reflected solar spectrum of Ceres. These measurements are consistent with those of Allende Prieto & Garcia Lopez (1998b) based on FTS solar atlases but with a factor 3 higher precision. Conclusions: This atlas provides a benchmark for wavelength calibration to check radial velocity accuracy down to 44 m s-1 locally and a few m s-1 globally. The asteroid-based technique could provide a new way to track radial velocity shifts with solar activity cycle, as well as to derive convective shifts suitable for comparison with theoretical atmospheric models. It could also be used to study radial velocity deviations in spectrographs such as those recently detected in HIRES and UVES. Dedicated HARPS observations of other asteroids could improve present results substantially and these investigations have been solicited. Full Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/525/A74

  4. Influence of the concentration of CO2 and SO2 on the absorption of CO2 by a lithium orthosilicate-based absorbent.

    PubMed

    Pacciani, R; Torres, J; Solsona, P; Coe, C; Quinn, R; Hufton, J; Golden, T; Vega, L F

    2011-08-15

    A novel, high temperature solid absorbent based on lithium orthosilicate (Li(4)SiO(4)) has shown promise for postcombustion CO(2) capture. Previous studies utilizing a clean, synthetic flue gas have shown that the absorbent has a high CO(2) capacity, >25 wt %, along with high absorption rates, lower heat of absorption and lower regeneration temperature than other solids such as calcium oxide. The current effort was aimed at evaluating the Li(4)SiO(4) based absorbent in the presence of contaminants found in typical flue gas, specifically SO(2), by cyclic exposure to gas mixtures containing CO(2), H(2)O (up to 25 vol. %), and SO(2) (up to 0.95 vol. %). In the absence of SO(2), a stable CO(2) capacity of ∼ 25 wt % over 25 cycles at 550 °C was achieved. The presence of SO(2), even at concentrations as low as 0.002 vol. %, resulted in an irreversible reaction with the absorbent and a decrease in CO(2) capacity. Analysis of SO(2)-exposed samples revealed that the absorbent reacted chemically and irreversibly with SO(2) at 550 °C forming Li(2)SO(4). Thus, industrial application would require desulfurization of flue gas prior to contacting the absorbent. Reactivity with SO(2) is not unique to the lithium orthosilicate material, so similar steps would be required for other absorbents that chemically react with SO(2). PMID:21756001

  5. Photochemical formation of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in natural waters exposed to sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.J.; Zika, R.G.; Petasne, R.G.; Plane, J.M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is formed in most natural waters when they are exposed to sunlight. The rate at which H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ accumulates is related to the concentration of light-absorbing (>295 nm) organic substances in these waters. The photochemical accumulation rate of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in sunlight has been measured for several surface waters and ground waters and was found to be 2.7 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ to 48 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ mol L/sup /minus/1/ h/sup /minus/1/, in waters ranging from 0.53 to 18 mgL/sup -1/ dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively. These rates were determined in midday sunlight, 0.4 W m/sup /minus/2/ (295-385 nm), latitude 24.3/degrees/ N. Apparent quantum yields of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ have been determined for natural waters at different wavelengths. These quantum yields decreased with increasing wavelength, from 10/sup /minus/3/ in the near-ultraviolet to 10/sup /minus/6/ in the visible spectral range. The quantum yields have been used in a photochemical model to calculate H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ accumulation rates of natural water samples. Model calculations agree with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ accumulation rates obtained from exposing three different water samples to sunlight.

  6. MODIS Measures Fraction of Sunlight Absorbed by Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  7. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  8. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the indirect (or sensitized) photoreaction of dissolved organic chemicals. This reactivity is imparted by dissolved organic material (DOM) in the form of humic substances. These materials absorb sunlight... can be diluted to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and uv-visible absorbance typical of...

  9. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the indirect (or sensitized) photoreaction of dissolved organic chemicals. This reactivity is imparted by dissolved organic material (DOM) in the form of humic substances. These materials absorb sunlight... can be diluted to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and uv-visible absorbance typical of...

  10. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the indirect (or sensitized) photoreaction of dissolved organic chemicals. This reactivity is imparted by dissolved organic material (DOM) in the form of humic substances. These materials absorb sunlight... can be diluted to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and uv-visible absorbance typical of...

  11. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the indirect (or sensitized) photoreaction of dissolved organic chemicals. This reactivity is imparted by dissolved organic material (DOM) in the form of humic substances. These materials absorb sunlight... can be diluted to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and uv-visible absorbance typical of...

  12. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the indirect (or sensitized) photoreaction of dissolved organic chemicals. This reactivity is imparted by dissolved organic material (DOM) in the form of humic substances. These materials absorb sunlight... can be diluted to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and uv-visible absorbance typical of...

  13. How much sunlight is enough?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Scott N

    2014-06-01

    Living on a sun-drenched planet has necessitated adaption to and protection from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly skin cancer. However, convincing epidemiological and recent empirical evidence also supports a protective effect of UV against a range of diseases including multiple sclerosis, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Despite years of research attention into the biological effects of sunlight exposure, we are still far from being able to fully answer the question: How much sunlight is enough? This is probably because the answer is dependent on many complex and interacting variables. Many talented researchers are focused on exploring whether UV-induced vitamin D explains some of these effects. This perspectives article proposes an alternative hypothesis, namely that targeting UV-induced immune suppression by affecting the activation of regulatory cells and molecules will be of therapeutic benefit.

  14. Two new methods used to simulate the circumferential solar flux density concentrated on the absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Sun, Feihu

    2016-05-01

    The optical efficiencies of a solar trough concentrator are important to the whole thermal performance of the solar collector, and the outer surface of the tube absorber is a key interface of energy flux. So it is necessary to simulate and analyze the concentrated solar flux density distributions on the tube absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector for various sun beam incident angles, with main optical errors considered. Since the solar trough concentrators are linear focusing, it is much of interest to investigate the solar flux density distribution on the cross-section profile of the tube absorber, rather than the flux density distribution along the focal line direction. Although a few integral approaches based on the "solar cone" concept were developed to compute the concentrated flux density for some simple trough concentrator geometries, all those integral approaches needed special integration routines, meanwhile, the optical parameters and geometrical properties of collectors also couldn't be changed conveniently. Flexible Monte Carlo ray trace (MCRT) methods are widely used to simulate the more accurate concentrated flux density distribution for compound parabolic solar trough concentrators, while generally they are quite time consuming. In this paper, we first mainly introduce a new backward ray tracing (BRT) method combined with the lumped effective solar cone, to simulate the cross-section flux density on the region of interest of the tube absorber. For BRT, bundles of rays are launched at absorber-surface points of interest, directly go through the glass cover of the absorber, strike on the uniformly sampled mirror segment centers in the close-related surface region of the parabolic reflector, and then direct to the effective solar cone around the incident sun beam direction after the virtual backward reflection. All the optical errors are convoluted into the effective solar cone. The brightness distribution of the effective solar cone is supposed

  15. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  16. The effects of bergapten and sunlight on cutaneous pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Levine, N; Don, S; Owens, C; Rogers, D T; Kligman, A M; Forlot, P

    1989-09-01

    The effects of bergapten-containing preparations in sunlight-induced skin pigmentation were evaluated. Oil and lotion vehicles with bergapten/UV-B sunscreen or sunscreen alone were applied to the backs of subjects twice weekly for 4 weeks and the subjects were exposed to gradually increasing doses of midday sunlight. The degree of skin darkening was assessed by clinical examination, reflectometry, and light microscopy of skin biopsy specimens. At 5 weeks, 1 week after the last sunlight exposure, the sites treated with either the bergapten/UV-B sunscreen lotion or the lotion vehicle were significantly darker than the sites treated with the sunscreen lotions without bergapten. Oil preparations produced less clearcut results, possibly because of a less potent sunscreen or because the bergapten did not leave the vehicle and absorb into the epidermis. In type I skin, the bergapten/sunscreen and the oil vehicle alone produced the same amount of tanning; both yielded more tanning than the sunscreen in oil by clinical examination. The findings were not confirmed by reflectometry or by light microscopy. Thus, we conclude that bergapten added to a UV-B sunscreen lotion preparation can increase skin pigmentation over the sunscreen alone when one is exposed to sunlight. The bergapten/UV-B sunscreen combination is a potentially useful product since one can develop a psoralen and UV-A-induced tan while being protected from UV-B-induced sunburn by the UV-B sunscreen incorporated into the formulation.

  17. Sunlight inactivation of viruses in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Andrea I; Nguyen, Mi T; Schilling, Iris E; Wenk, Jannis; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-03-01

    Sunlight inactivation is an important mode of disinfection for viruses in surface waters. In constructed wetlands, for example, open-water cells can be used to promote sunlight disinfection and remove pathogenic viruses from wastewater. To aid in the design of these systems, we developed predictive models of virus attenuation that account for endogenous and exogenous sunlight-mediated inactivation mechanisms. Inactivation rate models were developed for two viruses, MS2 and poliovirus type 3; laboratory- and field-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the models' ability to estimate inactivation rates in a pilot-scale, open-water, unit-process wetland cell. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using either photoaction spectra or total, incident UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation rates were modeled on the basis of virus susceptibilities to singlet oxygen. Results from both laboratory- and field-scale experiments showed good agreement between measured and modeled inactivation rates. The modeling approach presented here can be applied to any sunlit surface water and utilizes easily measured inputs such as depth, solar irradiance, water matrix absorbance, singlet oxygen concentration, and the virus-specific apparent second-order rate constant with singlet oxygen (k2). Interestingly, the MS2 k2 in the open-water wetland was found to be significantly larger than k2 observed in other waters in previous studies. Examples of how the model can be used to design and optimize natural treatment systems for virus inactivation are provided.

  18. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2003-08-12

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS to deliver a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in chamber means that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  19. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2004-11-23

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  20. Growing Hyperbranched Polymers Using Natural Sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun-Jie; Sun, Jiao-Tong; You, Ye-Zi; Wu, De-Cheng; Hong, Chun-Yan

    2013-01-01

    In nature, a sapling can grow into a big tree under irradiation of sunlight. In chemistry, a similar concept that a small molecule only exposing to sunlight grows into a hyperbranched macromolecule has not been realized by now. The achievement of the concept will be fascinating and valuable for polymer synthesis wherein sunlight is inexpensive, abundant, renewable, and nonpolluting. Herein, we report a new strategy in which small monomers can directly grow into big hyperbranched macromolecule under irradiation of sunlight without any catalyst. PMID:24100948

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of the diffuse transmission of light through highly concentrated absorbing and scattering materials. Part I: Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressel, L.; Reich, O.

    2014-10-01

    In many technical materials and commercial products like sunscreen or paint high particle and absorber concentrations are present. An important parameter for slabs of these materials is the diffuse transmission of light, which quantifies the total amount of directly and diffusely transmitted light. Due to the high content of scattering particles not only multiple scattering but also additional dependent scattering occurs. Hence, simple analytical models cannot be applied to calculate the diffuse transmission. In this work a Monte-Carlo program for the calculation of the diffuse transmission of light through dispersions in slab-like geometry containing high concentrations of scattering particles and absorbers is presented and discussed in detail. Mie theory is applied for the calculation of the scattering properties of the samples. Additionally, dependent scattering is considered in two different models, the well-known hard sphere model in the Percus-Yevick approximation (HSPYA) and the Yukawa model in the Mean Spherical Approximation (YMSA). Comparative experiments will show the accurateness of the program as well as its applicability to real samples [1].

  2. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  3. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-10-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities.

  4. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-10-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  5. The concept of effective film thickness for the determination of bond concentrations from IR spectra of weakly absorbing thin films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendel, R.

    1991-06-01

    Thin-film bond concentrations can be determined from infrared transmission and reflection spectra. Simply using the Lambert-Beer law can lead to errors of 80%. The concept of effective film thickness presented here avoids these errors and still allows a quick determination of the absorption coefficient without using a computer. It fully takes into account the effects of multiple reflections. For weakly absorbing thin films on silicon the effective film thickness was calculated numerically (i) for normal incidence transmission spectra and (ii) for 20° reflection spectra with a mirror behind the sample. The latter method is of general interest for the investigation of weak absorptions as it avoids the disturbing interference oscillations and its sensitivity is about twice that of a transmission measurement. The numerical results are verified experimentally for Si-H and N-H vibrations in plasma silicon nitride and analytically for the thin-film limit.

  6. Technique to separate lidar signal and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R

    2016-06-13

    Sunlight contamination dominates the backscatter noise in space-based lidar measurements during daytime. The background scattered sunlight is highly variable and dependent upon the surface and atmospheric albedo. The scattered sunlight contribution to noise increases over land and snow surfaces where surface albedos are high and thus overwhelm lidar backscatter from optically thin atmospheric constituents like aerosols and thin clouds. In this work, we developed a novel lidar remote sensing concept that potentially can eliminate sunlight induced noise. The new lidar concept requires: (1) a transmitted laser light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM); and (2) a photon sieve (PS) diffractive filter that separates scattered sunlight from laser light backscattered from the atmosphere, ocean and solid surfaces. The method is based on numerical modeling of the focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beam and plane-wave light by a PS. The model results show that after passing through a PS, laser light that carries the OAM is focused on a ring (called "focal ring" here) on the focal plane of the PS filter, very little energy arrives at the center of the focal plane. However, scattered sunlight, as a plane wave without the OAM, focuses at the center of the focal plane and thus can be effectively blocked or ducted out. We also find that the radius of the "focal ring" increases with the increase of azimuthal mode (L) of LG laser light, thus increasing L can more effectively separate the lidar signal away from the sunlight noise.

  7. Technique to separate lidar signal and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R

    2016-06-13

    Sunlight contamination dominates the backscatter noise in space-based lidar measurements during daytime. The background scattered sunlight is highly variable and dependent upon the surface and atmospheric albedo. The scattered sunlight contribution to noise increases over land and snow surfaces where surface albedos are high and thus overwhelm lidar backscatter from optically thin atmospheric constituents like aerosols and thin clouds. In this work, we developed a novel lidar remote sensing concept that potentially can eliminate sunlight induced noise. The new lidar concept requires: (1) a transmitted laser light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM); and (2) a photon sieve (PS) diffractive filter that separates scattered sunlight from laser light backscattered from the atmosphere, ocean and solid surfaces. The method is based on numerical modeling of the focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beam and plane-wave light by a PS. The model results show that after passing through a PS, laser light that carries the OAM is focused on a ring (called "focal ring" here) on the focal plane of the PS filter, very little energy arrives at the center of the focal plane. However, scattered sunlight, as a plane wave without the OAM, focuses at the center of the focal plane and thus can be effectively blocked or ducted out. We also find that the radius of the "focal ring" increases with the increase of azimuthal mode (L) of LG laser light, thus increasing L can more effectively separate the lidar signal away from the sunlight noise. PMID:27410314

  8. Transparent sunlight conversion film based on carboxymethyl cellulose and carbon dots.

    PubMed

    You, Yaqin; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-10-20

    Transparent sunlight conversion film based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carbon dots (CDs) has been developed for the first time through dispersion of CDs in CMC aqueous solution. Due to the hydrogen bonds interaction, CMC can effectively absorb the CDs, whose surfaces are functionalized by lots of polar groups. The results from atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirm that the composite film possesses a homogeneous and compact structure. Besides, the CMC matrix neither competes for absorbing excitation light nor absorbs the emissions of CDs, which reserves the inherent optical properties of the individual CDs. The composite films can efficiently convert ultraviolet light to blue light. What's more, the film is transparent and possesses excellent mechanical properties, expected to apply in the field of agricultural planting for sunlight conversion.

  9. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  10. Spectral comparisons of sunlight and different lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deitzer, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    The tables in this report were compiled to characterize the spectra of available lamp types and provide comparison to the spectra of sunlight. Table 1 reports the spectral distributions for various lamp sources and compares them to those measured for sunlight. Table 2 provides the amount of energy in Wm(exp -2) relative to the number of photons of PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) (400-700 nm) for each light source.

  11. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. Petroleum films exposed to sunlight produce hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-05-01

    Sunlight exposed oil films on seawater or pure water produced substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical as a result of irradiation. Oil was collected from the surface of the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon spill and exposed to simulated sunlight in thin films over water. Photochemical production of hydroxyl radical was measured with benzoic acid as a selective chemical probe in the aqueous layer. Total hydroxyl radical formation was studied using high benzoic acid concentrations and varying exposure time. The total amount of hydroxyl radical produced in 24 h irradiations of thin oil films over Gulf of Mexico water and pure water were 3.7×10(-7) and 4.2×10(-7) moles respectively. Steady state concentrations of hydroxyl radical were measured using a competition kinetics approach. Hydroxyl radical concentrations of 1.2×10(-16) to 2.4×10(-16) M were observed for seawater and pure water under oil films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials were added to the system in an effort to determine if the photocatalyst would enhance oil photodegradation. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically changed the observed formation rate of hydroxyl radical in the systems with NP water at pH 3, showing increased formation rate in many cases. With photocatalyst, the steady state concentration of radical decreased, predominantly due to an increase in the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate with oxide present. This study illustrates that oil is a strong and important source of hydroxyl radical when exposed to sunlight. The fate of oil and other dissolved species following oil spills will be heavily dependent on the formation and fate of hydroxyl radical.

  13. Petroleum films exposed to sunlight produce hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-05-01

    Sunlight exposed oil films on seawater or pure water produced substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical as a result of irradiation. Oil was collected from the surface of the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon spill and exposed to simulated sunlight in thin films over water. Photochemical production of hydroxyl radical was measured with benzoic acid as a selective chemical probe in the aqueous layer. Total hydroxyl radical formation was studied using high benzoic acid concentrations and varying exposure time. The total amount of hydroxyl radical produced in 24 h irradiations of thin oil films over Gulf of Mexico water and pure water were 3.7×10(-7) and 4.2×10(-7) moles respectively. Steady state concentrations of hydroxyl radical were measured using a competition kinetics approach. Hydroxyl radical concentrations of 1.2×10(-16) to 2.4×10(-16) M were observed for seawater and pure water under oil films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials were added to the system in an effort to determine if the photocatalyst would enhance oil photodegradation. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically changed the observed formation rate of hydroxyl radical in the systems with NP water at pH 3, showing increased formation rate in many cases. With photocatalyst, the steady state concentration of radical decreased, predominantly due to an increase in the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate with oxide present. This study illustrates that oil is a strong and important source of hydroxyl radical when exposed to sunlight. The fate of oil and other dissolved species following oil spills will be heavily dependent on the formation and fate of hydroxyl radical. PMID:24405967

  14. Sunlight Diffusing Tent for Lunar Worksite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleson, Blair; Clark, Todd; Deese, Todd; Gentry, Ernest; Samad, Abdul

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a solution to problems astronauts encounter with sunlight on the lunar surface. Due to the absence of an atmosphere the Moon is subjected to intense sunlight creating problems with color and contrast. This problem can be overcome by providing a way to reduce intensity and diffuse the light in a working environment. The solution to the problem utilizes an umbrella, tent-like structure covered with a diffusing material. The design takes into account structural materials, stresses, fabrics, and deployment.

  15. Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Birgit; Landelius, Tomas; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Machida, Nanako; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2014-07-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), rather than by microbial respiration during DOC decomposition. Also, it is unknown on larger spatial and temporal scales how photochemical mineralization compares to other C fluxes in the inland water C cycle. We combined field and laboratory data with atmospheric radiative transfer modeling to parameterize a photochemical rate model for each day of the year 2009, for 1086 lakes situated between latitudes from 55°N to 69°N in Sweden. The sunlight-induced production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) averaged 3.8 ± 0.04 g C m-2 yr-1, which is a flux comparable in size to the organic carbon burial in the lake sediments. Countrywide, 151 ± 1 kt C yr-1 was produced by photochemical mineralization, corresponding to about 12% of total annual mean CO2 emissions from Swedish lakes. With a median depth of 3.2 m, the lakes were generally deep enough that incoming, photochemically active photons were absorbed in the water column. This resulted in a linear positive relationship between DIC photoproduction and the incoming photon flux, which corresponds to the absorbed photons. Therefore, the slope of the regression line represents the wavelength- and depth-integrated apparent quantum yield of DIC photoproduction. We used this relationship to obtain a first estimate of DIC photoproduction in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Global DIC photoproduction amounted to 13 and 35 Mt C yr-1 under overcast and clear sky, respectively. Consequently, these directly sunlight-induced CO2 emissions contribute up to about one tenth to the global CO2 emissions from lakes and reservoirs, corroborating that microbial respiration contributes a substantially larger share than formerly thought, and generate annual C fluxes similar in

  16. Photochemical Transformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    EPA Science Inventory

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene derivative that is more easily manufactured in large scale and used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with properties analogous to graphene. In this study, we investigate the photochemical fate of GO under sunlight conditions. The resu...

  17. Photochemical transformation of graphene oxide in sunlight.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Che; Chowdhury, Indranil; Goodwin, David G; Henderson, W Matthew; Fairbrother, D Howard; Bouchard, Dermont; Zepp, Richard G

    2015-03-17

    Graphene oxide (GO) is promising in scalable production and has useful properties that include semiconducting behavior, catalytic reactivity, and aqueous dispersibility. In this study, we investigated the photochemical fate of GO under environmentally relevant sunlight conditions. The results indicate that GO readily photoreacts under simulated sunlight with the potential involvement of electron-hole pair creation. GO was shown to photodisproportionate to CO2, reduced materials similar to reduced GO (rGO) that are fragmented compared to the starting material, and low molecular-weight (LMW) species. Kinetic studies show that the rate of the initially rapid photoreaction of GO is insensitive to the dissolved oxygen content. In contrast, at longer time points (>10 h), the presence of dissolved oxygen led to a greater production of CO2 than the same GO material under N2-saturated conditions. Regardless, the rGO species themselves persist after extended irradiation equivalent to 2 months in natural sunlight, even in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Overall, our findings indicate that GO phototransforms rapidly under sunlight exposure, resulting in chemically reduced and persistent photoproducts that are likely to exhibit transport and toxic properties unique from parent GO.

  18. Technical-economic feasibility of orbiting sunlight reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alferov, Z.; Minin, V.

    1986-02-01

    The use of deflectors in orbit as a means of providing artificial illumination is examined. Considerations of technical and economic feasibility are addressed. Three main areas of application are distinguished: reflecting sunlight onto the surface of the Earth; concentration of the flow of solar energy on an orbiting receiver; and retransmission of optical radiation. The advantages of the artificial Earth illumination application of the orbiting reflector scheme in terms of energy savings in lighting cities, and additional daylight time for critical periods of farming operations are discussed.

  19. Sunlight vitamin D and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rebecca S; Reichrath, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Today, there is a controversial debate in many scientific and public communities on how much sunlight is appropriate to balance between the positive and negative effects of solar UV-exposure. UV exposure undoubtedly causes DNA damage of skin cells and is a major environmental risk factor for all types of skin cancers. In geographic terms, living in parts of the world with increased erythemal UV or high average annual bright sun results in increased risks of skin cancers, with the greatest increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma and then melanoma. On the other hand, sunlight exerts positive effects on human health, that are mediated in part via UV-B-mediated cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. It has been estimated that at present, approximately 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D-deficient or -insufficient. This epidemic causes serious health problems that are still widely under-recognized. Vitamin D deficiency leads to well documented problems for bone and muscle function. There are also associations between vitamin D-deficiency and increased incidence of and/or unfavourable outcome for a broad variety of independent diseases, including various types of malignancies (e.g. colon-, skin-, and breast cancer), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the present literature is analyzed to summarize our present knowledge about the important relationship of sunlight, vitamin D and skin cancer.

  20. Detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using a miniaturised fibre-optic spectroscopy system and the ambient sunlight.

    PubMed

    Morales, J A; Walsh, J E

    2005-07-01

    A miniaturised fibre-optic spectrometer based system is presented for direct detection of one of the major atmospheric pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, by absorption spectroscopy using the ambient sunlight as light source. The detection system consists of a 10 cm collimator assembly, a fibre-optic cable and a portable diode-array spectrometer. The absorbance spectrum of the open-path is calculated using a reference spectrum recorded when the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration in the atmosphere is low. The relative concentration of the pollutant is calculated normalising the detected spectra and subtracting the background broadband spectrum from the specific NO2 absorbance features, since the broadband spectrum changes according to atmospheric conditions and solar intensity. Wavelengths between 400 and 500 nm are used in order to maximise sensitivity and to avoid interference from other species. Calibration is carried out using Tedlar sample bags of known concentration of the pollutant. A commercial differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system is used as a reference standard detection system to compare the results with the new system. Results show that detection of NO2 at typical urban atmospheric levels has been achieved using an inexpensive field based fibre-optic spectrometer and a readily available, easy to align, light source. In addition the new system can be used to get a semi-quantitative estimation of the nitrogen dioxide concentration within errors of 20%. While keeping the typical benefits of open-path techniques, the new system has important advantages over them such as cost, simplicity and portability. PMID:15911394

  1. Facile multifunctional plasmonic sunlight harvesting with tapered triangle nanopatterning of thin films.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-10-21

    Plasmonic absorbers have recently become important for a broad spectrum of sunlight-harvesting applications exploiting either heat generation, such as in thermal photovoltaics and solar thermoelectrics, or hot-electron generation, such as in photochemical and solid state devices. So far, despite impressive progress, combining the needed high performance with fabrication simplicity and scalability remains a serious challenge. Here, we report on a novel solar absorber concept, where we demonstrate and exploit simultaneously a host of absorption phenomena in tapered triangle arrays integrated in a metal-insulator-metal configuration to achieve ultrabroadband (88% average absorption in the range of 380-980 nm), wide-angle and polarization-insensitive absorption. Furthermore, this absorber is subwavelength in thickness (260 nm) and its fabrication is based on a facile, low-cost and potentially scalable method. In addition, the geometry of our design makes it compatible for both heat and hot electron generation.

  2. Facile multifunctional plasmonic sunlight harvesting with tapered triangle nanopatterning of thin films.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giulia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-10-21

    Plasmonic absorbers have recently become important for a broad spectrum of sunlight-harvesting applications exploiting either heat generation, such as in thermal photovoltaics and solar thermoelectrics, or hot-electron generation, such as in photochemical and solid state devices. So far, despite impressive progress, combining the needed high performance with fabrication simplicity and scalability remains a serious challenge. Here, we report on a novel solar absorber concept, where we demonstrate and exploit simultaneously a host of absorption phenomena in tapered triangle arrays integrated in a metal-insulator-metal configuration to achieve ultrabroadband (88% average absorption in the range of 380-980 nm), wide-angle and polarization-insensitive absorption. Furthermore, this absorber is subwavelength in thickness (260 nm) and its fabrication is based on a facile, low-cost and potentially scalable method. In addition, the geometry of our design makes it compatible for both heat and hot electron generation. PMID:23989122

  3. Energy from Water and Sunlight: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Sun Catalytix is developing wireless energy-storage devices that convert sunlight and water into renewable fuel. Learning from nature, one such device mimics the ability of a tree leaf to convert sunlight into storable energy. It is comprised of a silicon solar cell coated with catalytic materials, which help speed up the energy conversion process. When this cell is placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, it splits the water into bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen and oxygen can later be recombined to create electricity, when the sun goes down for example. The Sun Catalytix device is novel in many ways: it consists primarily of low-cost, earth-abundant materials where other attempts have required more expensive materials like platinum. Its operating conditions also facilitate the use of less costly construction materials, whereas other efforts have required extremely corrosive conditions.

  4. Toxic photoproducts of phenanthrene and anthracene in sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, C.L.; McConkey, B.J.; Mallakin, A.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    Phenanthrene and anthracene, two of the most prevalent PAHs, undergo significant increases in toxicity on exposure to sunlight. Over a period of several days exposure to light, the toxicity of an aqueous solution of phenanthrene or anthracene increased dramatically. This increase in toxicity is largely due to the primary products formed by these two PAHs due to light exposure. These compounds are more toxic than the parent compounds at equimolar concentrations. Although anthracene is a potent photosensitizer, phenanthrene did not exhibit a significant increase in toxicity due to photosensitization. Photo-oxidation was the principal cause of photoinduced toxicity, with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone being the primary product. This compound is more water soluble than phenanthrene increasing its bioavailability. In addition, mixtures of phenanthrene and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone exhibited toxicity similar to the quinone added alone. This was shown by joint toxicity testing using Lemna gibba and Daphnia magna. These two organisms are currently being used in the lab to further test individual oxidized products of anthracene and phenanthrene that occur as a result of exposure to sunlight.

  5. Ocean color remote sensing using polarization properties of reflected sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, R.; Pouliquen, E.; Breon, F.-M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.

  6. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  7. Does suicide have a stronger association with seasonality than sunlight?

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Lambert, Gavin W; Miller, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Suicide rates have widely been reported to peak in spring and summer. A frequent hypothesis is that increased sunlight exposure alters biological mechanisms. However, few attempts have been made to systematically untangle the putative suicidogenic risk of sunlight exposure from that of seasonality. We examined whether average hours of daily sunlight in a month confer additional risk over month of year when predicting monthly suicide rates. Design Historical population-based ecological longitudinal study. Setting and participants We used 3 longitudinal studies (n=31 060 suicides) with monthly suicide and meteorological data from Greece (1992–2001), Victoria, Australia (1990–1998) and Norway (1969–2009). Intervention We used a negative binomial regression to observe (1) the association of month of year with suicides, adjusting for different sunlight exposures, and (2) the association of sunlight exposure with suicides, adjusting for month of year. We then investigated claims that suicides were associated with daily sunlight exposures, defined by us as 2550 sunlight exposure combinations corresponding to a 1–50 days exposure window with lags of 0–50 days. Results Using monthly data, the association between month of year and suicides remained after adjusting for mean daily hours of sunlight and change in the mean daily hours of sunlight. Adjusted for month of year, the associations between sunlight exposure and suicides became non-significant and attenuated towards the null (the coefficient estimate for mean daily hours of sunlight decreased in absolute magnitude by 72%). The findings were consistent across all 3 cohorts, both when analysed separately and combined. When investigating daily sunlight exposures, we found no significant results after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Using monthly data, the robustness of our month of year effects, combined with the transient and modest nature of our sunlight effects, suggested that the

  8. Natural sunlight NO(3)(-)/NO(2)(-)-induced photo-degradation of phenylurea herbicides in water.

    PubMed

    Shankar, M V; Nélieu, S; Kerhoas, L; Einhorn, J

    2008-04-01

    The nitrate-induced photodegradation of phenylureas in water was demonstrated to occur efficiently using natural sunlight irradiation. The kinetics of disappearance was found to be dependent on the inducer and substrate concentrations, the phenylurea structure and the origin and composition of the aqueous matrix including the presence of nitrite. The measured effects under sunlight were of the same order of those measured previously in the lab using our solar light simulated system. However, by-product distribution might differ substantially particularly considering the nitration pathway. PMID:18262593

  9. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight. PMID:22466529

  10. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight.

  11. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  12. PROPHIS: parabolic trough-facility for organic photochemical syntheses in sunlight.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Funken, Karl-Heinz; Ortner, Jürgen

    2005-05-01

    The PROPHIS facility is an efficient tool for the synthesis of chemicals with moderately concentrated sunlight on a semi-technical scale. The feasibility of selected solar photochemical reaction classes--including heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions--has been demonstrated using various set-ups of the plant. This paper outlines the potential of solar photochemistry by representative examples.

  13. Sunlight readability of displays: a numerical scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Robert; Cartwright, Colin M.; Gillespie, W. Allan; Vassie, Ken; Christopher, W. Colin

    2003-07-01

    There is a great deal of interest in the sunlight readability of displays. How to quantify this, particularly on a numerical scale rather than pass/fail is an important consideration. Some military standards exist e.g. MIL-L-85762A but are these appropriate to non-military products? We report the use of a method developed by BAE SYSTEMS, the model is based on our ability to see things by virtue of a difference in either luminance or chrominance, or both. The model uses a method called PJND (Perceptible Just Noticeable Difference), based on LJND (Luminance Just Noticeable Difference) and CJND (Chrominance Just Noticeable Difference) thresholds. The basis of this model is a series of acceptance criteria established by subjects in a realistic environment; BAE SYSTEMS have an Ambient Lighting Facility (ALF) which simulates many lighting scenarios that are likely to be encountered in real life. Product mock-ups were taken into this environment and subjects were asked to choose levels of acceptance for differing screen presentations and various lighting geometries. The method results in a single figure of readability, which in effect summarizes the task and environment. This figure can then form the basis of a specification between display supplier and vendor. We plan to develop the model such that it should be possible to predict the best combination of treatments to apply to the display surface to give the optimum and most cost effective sunlight readable display for a given application and product.

  14. Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product Formation Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product formation potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) Formation Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and predicted maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.

  15. Luminescent Solar Concentrators--a review of recent results.

    PubMed

    van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Barnham, Keith W J; Slooff, Lenneke H; Chatten, Amanda J; Büchtemann, Andreas; Meyer, Andreas; McCormack, Sarah J; Koole, Rolf; Farrell, Daniel J; Bose, Rahul; Bende, Evert E; Burgers, Antonius R; Budel, Tristram; Quilitz, Jana; Kennedy, Manus; Meyer, Toby; Donegá, C De Mello; Meijerink, Andries; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2008-12-22

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species. Incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted with high quantum efficiency, such that emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where it can be collected by solar cells. LSCs offer potentially lower cost per Wp. This paper reviews results mainly obtained within the framework of the Full-spectrum project. Two modeling approaches are presented, i.e., a thermodynamic and a ray-trace one, as well as experimental results, with a focus on LSC stability.

  16. Photovoltaic -- Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Subhendu

    2010-04-01

    The world is in the midst of an energy systems transformation with concern about energy security, pollution and climate change. Photovoltaic (PV), the conversion of sunlight to electricity, has been getting a great deal of attention as a viable clean energy source. The global shipment for PV increased by more than a factor of four in the last four years; the shipment was about 6 GW in 2009 which is about a 20 billion market. Most of the applications have been in countries that have given special incentives for the use of solar electricity. Reaching grid parity is the focus of many solar companies, and in this talk I shall discuss the innovative efforts that are underway all over the world to bring down the cost of solar electricity.

  17. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone.

  18. A comparative study of different concentrations of pure Zn powder effects on synthesis, structure, magnetic and microwave-absorbing properties in mechanically-alloyed Ni-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajalilou, Abdollah; Mazlan, Saiful Amri; Shameli, Kamyar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a powder mixture of Zn, Fe2O3 and NiO was used to produce different compositions of Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.36, 0.5 and 0.64) nanopowders. High-energy ball milling with a subsequent heat treatment method was carried out. The XRD results indicated that for the content of Zn, x=0.64 a single phase of Ni-Zn ferrite was produced after 30 h milling while for the contents of Zn, x=0.36 and 0.5, the desired ferrite was formed after sintering the 30 h-milled powders at 500 °C. The average crystallite size decreased with increase in the Zn content. A DC electrical resistivity of the Ni-Zn ferrite, however, decreased with increase in the Zn content, its value was much higher than those samples prepared by the conventional ceramic route by using ZnO instead of Zn. This is attributed to smaller grains size which were obtained by using Zn. The FT-IR results suggested two absorption bands for octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the range of 350-700 cm-1. The VSM results revealed that by increasing the Zn content from 0.36 to 0.5, a saturation magnetization reached its maximum value; afterwards, a decrease was observed for Zn with x=0.64. Finally, magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity were studied by using vector network analyzer to explore microwave-absorbing properties in X-band frequency. The minimum reflection loss value obtained for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples, about -34 dB at 9.7 GHz, making them the best candidates for high frequency applications.

  19. Converting Sunlight to Electricity--Some Practical Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic panel can convert sunlight directly into electricity. If one connects enough of them in a series-parallel arrangement called a solar array, they can provide about half of a home's annual electricity needs. The panels comprise specially treated electronic materials that when exposed to sunlight will give up electrons freely, and…

  20. Proteomic analysis of grape berry skin responding to sunlight exclusion.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ning; Cao, Yuegang; Duan, Wei; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2013-05-15

    The most obvious effect of sunlight exclusion from grape clusters is the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin so that no color develops. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was used to characterize the proteins isolated from berry skins that developed under sunlight exclusion versus those from sunlight-exposed berries. Among more than 1500 spots resolved in stained gels, the accumulation patterns of 96 spots differed significantly between sunlight-excluded berry skin and that of sunlight-exposed control berries. Seventy-two proteins, including 35 down-regulated and 37 up-regulated proteins, were identified and categorized. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and secondary metabolism, especially UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the key step for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin, were accumulated less in the absence of sunlight. Several isoforms of heat shock proteins were also down-regulated. The proteins that were over-accumulated in sunlight-excluded berry skin were more often related to energy production, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, protein synthesis and biogenesis of cellular components. Their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance to sunlight exclusion processes.

  1. Structural and optical properties of copper-coated substrates for solar thermal absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratesi, Stefano; De Lucia, Maurizio; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Spectral selectivity, i.e. merging a high absorbance at sunlight wavelengths to a low emittance at the wavelengths of thermal spectrum, is a key characteristics for materials to be used for solar thermal receivers. It is known that spectrally selective absorbers can raise the receiver efficiency for all solar thermal technologies. Tubular sunlight receivers for parabolic trough collector (PTC) systems can be improved by the use of spectrally selective coatings. Their absorbance is increased by deposing black films, while the thermal emittance is minimized by the use of properly-prepared substrates. In this work we describe the intermediate step in the fabrication of black-chrome coated solar absorbers, namely the fabrication and characterization of copper coatings on previously nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. We investigate the copper surface features and optical properties, correlating them to the coating thickness and to the deposition process, in the perspective to assess optimal conditions for solar absorber applications.

  2. Photolysis of brominated flame retardants in textiles exposed to natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Desborough, Jennifer; Harrad, Stuart; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2013-03-01

    Photolytic transformation profiles of technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and technical decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) in flame-retarded textiles exposed to natural sunlight were compared. Textiles that contained approximately 4% HBCDs by weight showed no substantial loss of any of the HBCD diastereomers during the entire exposure period (371 days), indicating that they were resistant to sunlight, that is, that debromination and isomerization of HBCD diastereomers did not occur under the experimental conditions. Exposure of a textile treated with technical DecaBDE resulted in the formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as products of photodecomposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers present in the technical DecaBDE. After 329 days of exposure, the total PBDF concentration reached a maximum of 27 000 ng g(-1), which was approximately 10 times the initial concentration. During the experiment, di- to hexa-BDF congener concentrations increased continuously. Although the concentrations of PBDFs in the textiles were 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, it is important to note that PBDFs were formed as a result of sunlight exposure during normal use of products treated with technical DecaBDE.

  3. Utilizing vertically aligned CdSe/CdS nanorods within a luminescent solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martyn; Farrell, Daniel; Zanella, Marco; Lupi, Antonio; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Chatten, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Optical characterisation methodologies are employed to validate a nanorod self-alignment technique for use in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The nanorods utilised in this work were CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, and the self-alignment technique relied on the evaporation of a highly concentrated nanorod/xylene solution onto a glass substrate. Position and angular dependent light absorptivity measurements revealed evidence of vertical nanorod alignment over a limited region at the centre of the LSC sample. Vertical nanorod alignment is beneficial for absorbing diffuse/scattered sunlight and provides for a high light trapping efficiency in the LSC.

  4. Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2006-01-31

    Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a "four-stroke" synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is approximately 10 micros, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 micros. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to approximately 12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 10(3) cycles.

  5. Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a “four-stroke” synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is ≈10 μs, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 μs. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to ≈12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles. PMID:16432207

  6. Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. Results The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4 days was 0.60 (p < 0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p = 0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p = 0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p = 0.01) in winters. Conclusions The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure. PMID:22682277

  7. Graphene-based Recyclable Photo-Absorbers for High-Efficiency Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangqing; Ou, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2016-04-13

    Today's scientific advances in water desalination dramatically increase our ability to transform seawater into fresh water. As an important source of renewable energy, solar power holds great potential to drive the desalination of seawater. Previously, solar assisted evaporation systems usually relied on highly concentrated sunlight or were not suitable to treat seawater or wastewater, severely limiting the large scale application of solar evaporation technology. Thus, a new strategy is urgently required in order to overcome these problems. In this study, we developed a solar thermal evaporation system based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Because this material can absorb over 95% of sunlight, we achieved high evaporation efficiency up to 70% under only 1 kW m(-2) irradiation. Moreover, it could be separated from seawater under the action of magnetic force by decorated with MNPs. Thus, this system provides an advantage of recyclability, which can significantly reduce the material consumptions. Additionally, by using photoabsorbing bulk or layer materials, the deposition of solutes offen occurs in pores of materials during seawater desalination, leading to the decrease of efficiency. However, this problem can be easily solved by using MNPs, which suggests this system can be used in not only pure water system but also high-salinity wastewater system. This study shows good prospects of graphene-based materials for seawater desalination and high-salinity wastewater treatment.

  8. Graphene-based Recyclable Photo-Absorbers for High-Efficiency Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangqing; Ou, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2016-04-13

    Today's scientific advances in water desalination dramatically increase our ability to transform seawater into fresh water. As an important source of renewable energy, solar power holds great potential to drive the desalination of seawater. Previously, solar assisted evaporation systems usually relied on highly concentrated sunlight or were not suitable to treat seawater or wastewater, severely limiting the large scale application of solar evaporation technology. Thus, a new strategy is urgently required in order to overcome these problems. In this study, we developed a solar thermal evaporation system based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Because this material can absorb over 95% of sunlight, we achieved high evaporation efficiency up to 70% under only 1 kW m(-2) irradiation. Moreover, it could be separated from seawater under the action of magnetic force by decorated with MNPs. Thus, this system provides an advantage of recyclability, which can significantly reduce the material consumptions. Additionally, by using photoabsorbing bulk or layer materials, the deposition of solutes offen occurs in pores of materials during seawater desalination, leading to the decrease of efficiency. However, this problem can be easily solved by using MNPs, which suggests this system can be used in not only pure water system but also high-salinity wastewater system. This study shows good prospects of graphene-based materials for seawater desalination and high-salinity wastewater treatment. PMID:27019007

  9. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  10. Photochemical formation of hydrogen peroxide in surface and ground waters exposed to sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.J.; Zika, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    A rapid increase in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was observed when samples of natural surface and ground water from various locations in the United States were exposed to sunlight. The hydrogen peroxide is photochemically generated from organic constitutents present in the water; humic materials are believed to be the primary agent producing the peroxide. Studies with superoxide dismutase suggest that the superoxide anion is the precursor of the peroxide.

  11. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  12. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  13. Sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer: how much sunlight do we need?

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin for good reason. During exposure to sunlight, the UV B photons enter the skin and photolyze 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 which in turn is isomerized by the body's temperature to vitamin D3. Most humans have depended on sun for their vitamin D requirement. Skin pigment, sunscreen use, aging, time of day, season and latitude dramatically affect previtamin 13 synthesis. Vitamin D deficiency was thought to have been conquered, but it is now recognized that more than 50% of the world's population is at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency is in part due to the inadequate fortification of foods with vitamin D and the misconception that a healthy diet contains an adequate amount of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency causes growth retardation and rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis and increase risk of fracture in adults. The vitamin D deficiency has been associated pandemic with other serious consequences including increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with their vitamin D requirement for health.

  14. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  15. Charles Burchfield: "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Gaynell

    1986-01-01

    Based on Charles Burchfield's watercolor, "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods," the goal of this lesson is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to Burchfield's use of symbolism. (JDH)

  16. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  17. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  18. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  19. Degradation of emerging contaminants from water under natural sunlight: The effect of season, pH, humic acids and nitrate and identification of photodegradation by-products.

    PubMed

    Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Eftaxias, Alexander; Stratogianni, Georgia

    2015-11-01

    Both photodegradation and hydrolysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were investigated in order to evaluate their photochemical fate in aquatic environment and to assess the effect of season and specific characteristics of water (pH, humic acids and nitrate concentration) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through photodegradation. An additional objective was the identification of the photodegradation by-products of specific NSAIDs and their dependence on irradiation time. Selected compounds' transformation was investigated under natural sunlight radiation while control experiments were conducted in the dark. As expected, most of compounds' degradation rate decreased with decreasing light intensity between two different experimental periods. Most of the tested compounds exhibited different rates of degradation during direct and indirect photolysis. The degradation rate of the selected compounds increased in the presence of NO3(-) and the photodegradation rate was higher for some compounds in alkaline than in acidic solution. The effect of humic acids' presence in the water depends on the absorbance spectrum of the compound and the produced photosensitizers. More specifically, humic acids act as inner filter toward most of the selected NSAIDs and as photosensitizers toward most of the EDCs. The results of the irradiation experiments in the presence of both humic acids and NO3(-), indicate that the direct photolysis is much more efficient than indirect photochemical processes. Finally, several degradation by-products of ketoprofen and diclofenac were identified in the samples, exposed to sunlight. The dependence of these by-products on radiation time is also demonstrated.

  20. Plant uptake-assisted round-the-clock photocatalysis for complete purification of aquaculture wastewater using sunlight.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhenfeng; Cao, Fenglei; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2015-02-17

    A novel reactor equipped with solar batteries, Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst, and celery plant was designed and used for purification of aquaculture wastewater. The Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst started photocatalytic degradation of organonitrogen compounds under irradiation of sunlight. Meanwhile, the solar batteries absorbed and converted excess sunlight into electric energy and then started UV lamps at night, leading to round-the-clock photocatalysis. Subsequently, the inorganic nitrogen species including NH4(+), NO2(-), and NO3(-) resulting from photocatalytic degradation of the organonitrogen compounds could subsequently be uptaken by the celery plant as the fertilizer to reduce the secondary pollution. It was found that, after 24 h circulation, both organonitrogen compounds and NO2(-) species were completely removed, while NH4(+) and NO3(-) contents also decreased by 30% and 50%, respectively. The reactor could be used repetitively, showing a good potential in practical application. PMID:25625860

  1. Plant uptake-assisted round-the-clock photocatalysis for complete purification of aquaculture wastewater using sunlight.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhenfeng; Cao, Fenglei; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2015-02-17

    A novel reactor equipped with solar batteries, Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst, and celery plant was designed and used for purification of aquaculture wastewater. The Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst started photocatalytic degradation of organonitrogen compounds under irradiation of sunlight. Meanwhile, the solar batteries absorbed and converted excess sunlight into electric energy and then started UV lamps at night, leading to round-the-clock photocatalysis. Subsequently, the inorganic nitrogen species including NH4(+), NO2(-), and NO3(-) resulting from photocatalytic degradation of the organonitrogen compounds could subsequently be uptaken by the celery plant as the fertilizer to reduce the secondary pollution. It was found that, after 24 h circulation, both organonitrogen compounds and NO2(-) species were completely removed, while NH4(+) and NO3(-) contents also decreased by 30% and 50%, respectively. The reactor could be used repetitively, showing a good potential in practical application.

  2. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  3. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  4. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  5. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. PMID:20452021

  6. The etiology of sunlight-induced melanoma in Xiphophorus hybrid fish.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Sanchez, Guillermo; Trono, David; Nairn, Rodney

    2007-08-01

    In contrast to sunlight-induced squamous cell carcinoma the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is not well understood. In particular, the role that sunlight exposure and DNA damage play in the initiation of this deadly form of cancer is an open question. Early UV carcinogenesis studies in the Xiphophorus backcross hybrid fish model by Richard Setlow indicated that direct DNA damage caused by exposure to the UVB component of sunlight is necessary and sufficient for melanoma formation. Subsequent studies by Setlow suggested that monochromatic UVA radiation that is not directly absorbed by DNA was also sufficient for melanoma induction in Xiphophorus and was, indeed, primarily responsible for initiating human melanoma. These results had significant public health consequences, suggesting that although sunscreens may inhibit UVB-induced erythema they may actually increase exposure to the UVA wavelengths that cause cancer. An intensive worldwide public debate on sunscreen use and "abuse" ensued. Our data do not support a major role of free radical chemistry in melanoma induction. We find evidence that the direct damage caused by the absorption of UVB wavelengths by DNA (e.g., the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or CPD) is required for CMM formation and that the ability to repair these lesions plays a significant role in tumor susceptibility. Using the Xiphophorus backcross hybrid fish we are currently in the process of re-evaluating the wavelength- and DNA damage-dependence of UV-induced melanoma and the role nucleotide excision repair and the genes controlling DNA repair and the UV response play in melanoma resistance. From these studies we hope to define the effective solar wavelength boundaries of melanoma, identify the class of critical DNA damage and elucidate the role of DNA repair in tumor suppression.

  7. High-Temperature, High-Concentration Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Emily; Baranowski, Lauryn; Olsen, Michele; Ndione, Paul; Netter, Judy; Goodrich, Alan; Gray, Matthew; Parilla, Philip; Ginley, David; Toberer, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) powered with concentrated solar energy have potential for use as primary energy converters or as topping-cycles for more conventional concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. Modeling based on current record modules from JPL suggests thermoelectric efficiencies of 18 % could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000 - 100°C. Integrating these state-of-the-art TEGs with a concentrating solar receiver requires simultaneous optimization of optical, thermal, and thermoelectric systems. This talk will discuss the modeling, design, and experimental testing of STEG devices under concentrated sunlight. We have developed a model that combines thermal circuit modeling with optical ray tracing to design selective absorber coatings and cavities to minimize radiation losses from the system. We have fabricated selective absorber coatings and demonstrated that these selective absorber films can minimize blackbody radiation losses at high temperature and are stable after thermal cycling to 1000°C. On-sun testing of STEG devices and thermal simulators is ongoing and preliminary results will be discussed.

  8. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  9. SiC7 siligraphene: a novel donor material with extraordinary sunlight absorption.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Zhou, Liujiang; Frauenheim, Thomas; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2016-04-01

    The SiC7 siligraphene (g-SiC7) is a novel 2D nanomaterial with a graphene-like structure. Based on theoretical calculations, we have systematically investigated the structure, stability, electronic and optical properties of g-SiC7 siligraphene. The calculated results reveal that g-SiC7 siligraphene is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.13 eV, which can be easily tuned by applying biaxial strain or a perpendicular electric field. Such a g-SiC7 siligraphene shows superior sunlight optical absorbance and is better than g-SiC2 siligraphene and single-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene) in near infrared and visible photon ranges, thus holding great potential for photovoltaics applications as a light donor material. PMID:26980670

  10. Contribution of UVB radiation to bacterial inactivation by natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2012-10-01

    The contribution of different components of sunlight to the lethal action exerted by this radiation on bacteria was studied using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 as a model organism. When solar UVB was excluded from the incident radiation by filtering it through a naphthalene solution (cut off 327 nm), significant modifications were observed in the cell-death kinetics. These modifications were comparable to those expected for a reduction of 27-32% in the dose rate, according to the model used in the analysis of the survival curves, and were also observed when the effects of sunlight filtered through polyethylene terephthalate (cut off 331 nm) or polystyrene (cut off 298 nm) were compared. Viability of P. aeruginosa remained almost unchanged when the incident radiation was filtered through a sodium nitrite solution (cut off 406 nm) in order to exclude the UVA and UVB components of sunlight. Nevertheless, a delay in colony formation was detected in bacteria treated in this way, suggesting that a non-lethal effect was exerted by visible light. The results are not consistent with a generally accepted notion which attributes the lethal action of sunlight to the radiation with wavelengths above 320 nm. The characterization of UVB contribution to the lethal effect of sunlight on bacteria is relevant for understanding of the mechanism of cell death, and for improvement of dosimetry techniques and irradiation procedures. PMID:22819168

  11. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  12. Exposure of organic extracts of air particulates to sunlight leads to metabolic activation independence for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    al-Khodairy, F; Hannan, M A

    1997-06-13

    Air particulates were collected on Whatman, GFA glass fibre filters using a RADECO constant-flow air sampler from a car-parking basement and an open roadside adjacent to the basement. While the basement was not exposed to sunlight, the roadside from where air samples were collected was exposed to regular daylight in the month of July (peak summer month). The filters were soaked and sonicated in acetone to dislodge the particulates and then a residue was obtained after evaporation of acetone. The residues were either held in dark or exposed to natural sunlight or germicidal UV light before being tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella tester strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The results showed that the addition of S9 mix resulted in only a slight increase in the frequency of histidine revertants/plate in the case of daylight-exposed roadside air samples. On the other hand, a considerable increase in mutagenicity was observed in the case of the basement air samples, particularly at higher concentrations of the organic extracts when S9 mix was added. However, a pre-exposure of the organic extract of air from the basement to sunlight abrogated the need for S9 mix for showing mutagenic activity. A pre-exposure of the same extracts to germicidal UV light failed to produce a similar effect. These results suggested that long wavelengths of natural sunlight could be responsible for the conversion of certain promutagens in air particulates into direct-acting mutagens. The environmental impact of solar radiation as a modifier of air particulate mutagens in high-sun countries like Saudi Arabia needs to be carefully considered for assessment of air pollution-related health risks. PMID:9219550

  13. Photo-induced toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, C M; Alloy, M M; Hamilton, J; Verbeck, G F; Newton, K; Klaine, S J; Roberts, A P

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are one of the most abundantly utilized nanoparticles in the world. Studies have demonstrated the ability of the anatase crystal of TiO2 NP to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a co-exposure likely to occur in aquatic ecosystems. The goal of this study was to examine the photo-induced toxicity of anatase TiO2 NP under natural sunlight to Daphnia magna. D. magna were exposed to a range of UVR intensities and anatase TiO2 concentrations in an outdoor exposure system using the sun as the source of UVR. Different UVR intensities were achieved using UVR opaque and transparent plastics. AnataseTiO2-NP demonstrated the reciprocal relationship seen in other phototoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at higher UVR treatments. The calculated 8h LC50 of anatase TiO2 NP was 139 ppb under full intensity ambient natural sunlight, 778 ppb under 50% natural sunlight, and >500 ppm under 10% natural sunlight. Mortality was also compared between animals allowed to accumulate a body burden of anatase TiO2 for 1h and organisms whose first exposure to anatase TiO2 aqueous suspensions occurred under UVR. A significantly greater toxic effect was observed in aqueous, low body burden suspensions than that of TiO2 1h body burdens, which is dissimilar from the model presented in PAHs. Anatase TiO2 presents a unique photo-induced toxic model that is different than that of established phototoxic compounds.

  14. Modeling of light absorbing particles in atmosphere, snow and ice in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, N.; Kulkarni, S.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric particles from mid-latitude sources to the Arctic is the main contributor to the Arctic aerosol loadings and deposition. Black Carbon (BC), Brown Carbon (BrC) and dust are considered of great climatic importance and are the main absorbers of sunlight in the atmosphere. Furthermore, wet and dry deposition of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on snow and ice cause reduction of snow and ice albedo. LAPs have significant radiative forcing and effect on snow albedo. There are high uncertainties in estimating radiative forcing of LAPs. We studied the potential effect of LAPs from different emission source regions and sectors on snow albedo in the Arctic. The transport pathway of LAPs to the Arctic is studies for different high pollution episodes. In this study a modeling framework including Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the University of Iowa's Sulfur Transport and dEpostion model(STEM) is used to predict the transport of LAPs from different geographical sources and sectors (i.e. transportation, residential, industry, biomass burning and power) to the Arctic. For assessing the effect of LAP deposition on snow single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online) model was used to derive snow albedo values for snow albedo reduction causes by BC deposition. To evaluate the simulated values we compared the BC concentration in snow with observed values from previous studies including Doherty et al. 2010.

  15. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, J R B; Spector, L G

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the possible association between cancer incidence and vitamin D through its role as a regulator of cell growth and differentiation. Epidemiological studies in adults and one paediatric study suggest an inverse association between sunlight exposure and cancer incidence. Methods: We carried out an ecological study using childhood cancer registry data and two population-level surrogates of sunlight exposure, (1) latitude of the registry city or population centroid of the registry nation and (2) annual solar radiation. All models were adjusted for nation-level socioeconomic status using socioeconomic indicators. Results: Latitude and radiation were significantly associated with cancer incidence, and the direction of association was consistent between the surrogates. Findings were not consistent across tumour types. Conclusion: Our ecological study offers some evidence to support an association between sunlight exposure and risk of childhood cancer. PMID:21102587

  16. Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, Henry

    1977-01-01

    A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

  17. Effect of Sunlight on Liquid Structure of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Shigezo; Yokono, Tetsuro; Yokono, Makio; Yokokawa, Toshio; Araiso, Tsunehisa

    2007-01-01

    As an extension of an X-ray diffraction study of infrared (IR) effects on liquid water, the water was exposed to sunlight. A peak at s'=\\sinθ/λ=1.6 nm-1, which is a characteristic of liquid water, showed a similar change as in a previous study. In addition to this, exposure for 30 min to 1 h gave rise to a definite solidlike peak of X-ray diffraction at s'=0.7 nm-1. The radial distribution function analyses along with the solidlike peak lead us to conclude that a clathrate-like ordering was induced with sunlight.

  18. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  19. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  20. Effects of sunlight on behavior and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in two species of Old World fruit bats

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, Lizabeth O.; Holick, Michael F.; Chen, Tai C.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that most vertebrate animals meet their vitamin D requirements from exposure of skin to UV-B (UV-B) radiation. Many factors affect this endogenous synthesis of vitamin D, including season, latitude, time of day, age, presence of hair, and degree of skin pigmentation. Most bats roost in dark places by day and forage at night, and thus have little or no potential for sunlight exposure. Notwithstanding, some tropical species are diurnal and are known to roost in the canopy of trees where they may be exposed to sunlight for up to 12 h each day. In this study, two species of captive tropical bats (both species are active at night but one, Rousettus aegyptiacus, roosts in caves, tombs, and buildings, whereas the other, Pteropus hypomelanus, roosts in trees) were evaluated for their ability to endogenously synthesize vitamin D. Following timed periods of sunlight exposure, blood plasma was analyzed using a competitive protein binding assay (CPBA) to determine concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating vitamin D metabolite. The ability to photoconvert provitamin D (7-dehydrocholesterol, 7-DHC) in the sub-tropical winter was determined using sunlight exposed borosilicate samples of 7-DHC in hourly increments. Finally, both species were evaluated in their preference for a roost site by the release of individuals into sunlight or shade in timed trials. Our results support the hypotheses: (1) when exposed to natural sunlight, both species exhibited an ability to endogenously synthesize vitamin D, although significant differences were found between the two, (2) photoconversion of 7-DHC to previtamin D3 is possible during the mid-day hours of a sub-tropical winter day and (3) captive, cave roosting R. aegyptiacus will choose shaded roost sites while captive P. hypomelanus will show no preference for either shade or sun. PMID:24494054

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of humic substances in aqueous solution using Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles under natural sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Safari, Mahdi; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Daraei, Hiua; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated as an efficient synthesized catalyst for photodegradation of humic substances in aqueous solution under natural sunlight irradiation. Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst was prepared through mild hydrothermal method and was characterized using FT-IR, powder XRD and SEM techniques. The effect of operating parameters such as doping ratio, initial pH, catalyst dosage, initial concentrations of humic substances and sunlight illuminance were studied on humic substances degradation efficiency. The results of characterization analyses of samples confirmed the proper synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst. The experimental results indicated the highest degradation efficiency of HS (99.2%) observed using 1.5% Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles at reaction time of 120 min. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of HS in a neutral and acidic pH was much higher than that at alkaline pH. Photocatalytic degradation of HS was enhanced with increasing the catalyst dosage and sunlight illuminance, while increasing the initial HS concentration led to decrease in the degradation efficiency of HS. Conclusively, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a promising and efficient catalyst for degradation of HS under natural sunlight irradiation. PMID:26104905

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of humic substances in aqueous solution using Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles under natural sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Safari, Mahdi; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Daraei, Hiua; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated as an efficient synthesized catalyst for photodegradation of humic substances in aqueous solution under natural sunlight irradiation. Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst was prepared through mild hydrothermal method and was characterized using FT-IR, powder XRD and SEM techniques. The effect of operating parameters such as doping ratio, initial pH, catalyst dosage, initial concentrations of humic substances and sunlight illuminance were studied on humic substances degradation efficiency. The results of characterization analyses of samples confirmed the proper synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO nanocatalyst. The experimental results indicated the highest degradation efficiency of HS (99.2%) observed using 1.5% Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles at reaction time of 120 min. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of HS in a neutral and acidic pH was much higher than that at alkaline pH. Photocatalytic degradation of HS was enhanced with increasing the catalyst dosage and sunlight illuminance, while increasing the initial HS concentration led to decrease in the degradation efficiency of HS. Conclusively, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a promising and efficient catalyst for degradation of HS under natural sunlight irradiation.

  3. Antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in salt-treated olive plants under contrasting sunlight irradiance.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Guidi, Lucia; Remorini, Damiano; Agati, Giovanni; Degl'innocenti, Elena; Castelli, Silvana; Camilla Baratto, Maria; Faraloni, Cecilia; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2009-09-01

    The interactive effects of root-zone salinity and sunlight on leaf biochemistry, with special emphasis on antioxidant defences, were analysed in Olea europaea L. cv. Allora, during the summer period. Plants were grown outside under 15% (shade plants) or 100% sunlight (sun plants) and supplied with 0 or 125 mM NaCl. The following measurements were performed: (1) the contribution of ions and soluble carbohydrates to osmotic potentials; (2) the photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and the photosynthetic pigment concentration; (3) the concentration and the tissue-specific distribution of leaf flavonoids; (4) the activity of antioxidant enzymes; and (5) the leaf oxidative damage. The concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were significantly greater in sun than in shade leaves, as also observed for the concentration of the 'antioxidant' sugar-alcohol mannitol. The de-epoxidation state of violaxanthin-cycle pigments increased in response to salinity stress in sun leaves. This finding agrees with a greater maximal PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) at midday, detected in salt-treated than in control plants, growing in full sunshine. By contrast, salt-treated plants in the shade suffered from midday depression in F(v)/F(m) to a greater degree than that observed in control plants. The high concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in sun leaves suggests that zeaxanthin may protect the chloroplast from photo-oxidative damage, rather than dissipating excess excitation energy via non-photochemical quenching mechanisms. Dihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoid glycosides accumulate greatly in the mesophyll, not only in the epidermal cells, in response to high sunlight. The activity of antioxidant enzymes varied little because of sunlight irradiance, but declined sharply in response to high salinity in shade leaves. Interestingly, control and particularly salt-treated plants in the shade underwent greater oxidative damage than their sunny counterparts. These findings, which conform to

  4. The First Picosecond after Sunlight Absorption in Si, GaAs, and CdTe from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    Sunlight absorption in semiconducting materials generates out-of-equilibrium electron populations - also known as hot carriers - relaxing towards equilibrium through a host of scattering processes at the subpicosecond time scale. While such dissipation processes typically result in the loss of more than half of the energy associated with the absorbed sunlight, a microscopic understanding of this ultrafast regime is still missing. In this talk, we provide a detailed picture of the first picosecond after sunlight absorption in semiconductors of wide use in photovoltaics (PV) such as Si, GaAs, and CdTe. Our results are based on ab initio calculations combining density functional theory and the GW plus Bethe-Salpeter Equation (GW-BSE) approach together with electron-phonon interactions. We computed the lifetimes and k-space dependence of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering events responsible for ultrafast solar energy dissipation. Using this information, we simulated the ultrafast dynamics of hot carriers using an empirical-parameter-free formulation of the Boltzmann equation. A clear understanding of hot carrier dynamics emerges for several materials of interest in PV, and novel engineering paradigms are suggested.

  5. Ultraviolet absorbance screening for DNAPL site compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Misquitta, N.; Foster, D.; Coll, F.; Brourman, M.

    1997-12-31

    The UV Absorbance Effectiveness Demonstration was developed to evaluate the feasibility of using UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease methods of measuring the concentration of coal tar-related constituents in groundwater. Since the current oil & grease method via Freon{reg_sign} extraction is being phased out, a new alternative oil & grease method using a hexane extraction will be introduced in the near future. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to compare the two oil & grease methods, as they relate to facility groundwater, in order to demonstrate the overall robustness of UV absorbance as a surrogate for oil & grease analysis, regardless of the method of extraction.

  6. Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in natural waters for the remote sensing of chlorophyll a via in vivo fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1979-01-01

    In attempting to measure remotely the constituents of the ocean through spectral analysis of diffusely reflected sunlight, it is important to know the depth over which constituent concentrations can be estimated. Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the use of sunlight-excited fluorescence of chlorophyll a contained in photoplankton (in vivo) to determine remotely the chlorophyll a concentration in surface waters. In the present paper an estimate is provided for the depth to which chlorophyll a concentration can be determined from observations of the fluorescence.

  7. [Most common skin disorders caused by excessive exposure to sunlight].

    PubMed

    Zitás, Éva; Mészáros, Judit

    2016-01-17

    The healing properties of sunlight has been known for millennia, however the gradual deterioration of the ozone layer and the increased use of sun tanning beds in recent decades are causing an increase in skin damaging ultraviolet exposure. In this article the most common photodermatoses and the principles of their treatments are reviewed. PMID:26750730

  8. Photochemical transformation of graphene oxide in sunlight (journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene derivative that is more easily manufactured in large scale and used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with properties analogous to graphene. In this study, we investigate the photochemical fate of GO under sunlight conditions. The resu...

  9. Sunlight Photochemistry: The Preparation of Dicarbonyl (n5-methylcyclopentadienyl) Triphenylphosphinemanganese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabro, David C.; Lichtenberger, Dennis L.

    1982-01-01

    Background information, materials/procedures, and results are provided for an undergraduate laboratory experiment on a photochemical ligand substitution reaction using sunlight. The experiment illustrates demonstration of photochemistry and basic mechanisms of transition metal reactions using inexpensive materials and is easily followed by…

  10. [Most common skin disorders caused by excessive exposure to sunlight].

    PubMed

    Zitás, Éva; Mészáros, Judit

    2016-01-17

    The healing properties of sunlight has been known for millennia, however the gradual deterioration of the ozone layer and the increased use of sun tanning beds in recent decades are causing an increase in skin damaging ultraviolet exposure. In this article the most common photodermatoses and the principles of their treatments are reviewed.

  11. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  12. Greenhouse effect: temperature of a metal sphere surrounded by a glass shell and heated by sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the z-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the greenhouse effect given by Kittel and Kroemer (1980 Thermal Physics (San Francisco: Freeman)) and can serve as a very simple model demonstrating the much more complex Earth greenhouse effect. Solution of the model problem provides an excellent pedagogical tool at the Junior/Senior undergraduate level.

  13. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  14. Degradation of methyl and ethyl mercury by singlet oxygen generated from sea water exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Suda, I; Suda, M; Hirayama, K

    1993-01-01

    Photodegradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) in sea water was studied by sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, and by determining inorganic Hg produced by degradation. Sea water containing 1 microM MeHg or EtHg was exposed to sunlight or UV light. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine was added to the solution for preventing Hg loss during the light exposure. MeHg and EtHg in sea water were degraded by sunlight (> 280 nm), UV light A (320-400 nm) and UV light B (280-320 nm), though the amounts of inorganic Hg produced from MeHg were 1/6th to 1/12th those from EtHg. Inorganic Hg production was greater with increasing concentration of sea water. Degradation of MeHg and EtHg by the UV light A exposure was inhibited by singlet oxygen (1O2) trappers such as NaN3, 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane, histidine, methionine and 2,5-dimethylfuran. On the other hand, inhibitors or scavengers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radical did not inhibit the photodegradation of alkyl Hg. These results suggested that 1O2 generated from sea water exposed to sunlight, UV light A or UV light B was the reactive oxygen species mainly responsible for the degradation of MeHg and EtHg.

  15. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  16. Unidirectional perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  17. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  18. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  19. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-09-12

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.

  20. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part 3, Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 33 absorbers from four variations of a 3:1 dilution of Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) simulant: Part 4, The effects of varying dilution ratios on the distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 12 absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at USDOE facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. Objective of this study was to measure effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on sorption of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu and Am onto 33 absorbers that in the absence of these organic compounds offer high sorption of these elements. The elements were in a generic simulant for Hanford complexant concentrate supernate that initially contained six organic complexants: EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, citrate, gluconate, and iminodiacetate. This simulant was tested as prepared and after gamma-irradiation to approximately 34 Mrads. Two other variations consisted of the unirradiated and irradiated simulants after treatment at 450C and 15,000 psi in a hydrothermal organic-destruction process. These experiments were conducted with a 3:1 water-to-simulant dilution of each of the four simulant variations. To determine effects of varying dilution ratios on the sorption of these five elements from the unirradiated and gamma-irradiated simulants that were not treated with the hydrothermal process, we measured their distribution from a 1:1 dilution, using 1 M NaOH as the diluent, onto the 12 best-performing absorbers. We then measured the sorption of these five elements from solutions having diluent-simulant ratios of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 onto the three absorbers that performed best for sorbing Sr, Pu and Am from the 1:1 dilution. For each of 900 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about absorber stability and sorption kinetics. The 5400 measured Kd values indicate that the sorption of Sr, Pu, and Am is significantly decreased by the organic complexants in these simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of Cs and Tc is much less affected.

  1. Development of an absorbance-based response model for monitoring the growth rates of Arcobacter butzleri as a function of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth of Arcobacter butzleri in poultry was evaluated as a function of storage temperature (5, 22.5, and 40°C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and NaCl concentration (0, 4, and 8%). A predictive model was developed using the absorbance-based response surface methodology to describe the growth rate. The primary model was obtained to predict a growth rate with a good fit (R2≥0.95), and the secondary model was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis and calculated as follows: Growth rate=-2.267274-0.024181 (Temp)+0.6459384 (pH)+0.1926227 (NaCl)+0.0024661 (Temp×pH)-0.001312 (Temp×NaCl)-0.018802 (pH×NaCl)+0.000467 (Temp2)-0.041711 (pH2)- 0.007426 (NaCl2). Our data showed that the growth of A. butzleri can be completely inhibited at a pH of 5 (in the absence of NaCl, at 5°C) and at a pH of 9 (in the presence of 8% NaCl, at 5°C). The surface response model was statistically significant, with P<0.0001, as evident from the Fisher F test and from coefficient determination (R2, 0.95). This model was also verified by the bias factor (Bf, 0.839), accuracy factor (Af, 1.343), and mean square error (MSE, 0.0138). The newly developed secondary models of growth rate for A. butzleri could possibly be incorporated into a tertiary modeling program such as Pathogen Modeling Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]) and Food Micro Model (in the United Kingdom). As a result, they could be used to predict the growth kinetics of A. butzleri as a function of a combination of environmental factors. Ultimately, the developed model can be used to reduce A. butzleri in poultry production, processing, and distribution, thereby enhancing food safety.

  2. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2°C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies. PMID:26448613

  3. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jacob A; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2°C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies.

  4. Estimation of sunlight penetration in the sea for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    There is a need for a simple theoretical approach to the calculation of sunlight penetration depths suitable for passive multispectral remote sensing of water resources. An earlier paper presented an approach which is readily adapted to this calculation and which provides reasonably good agreement with more accurate but time-consuming radiative transfer models. The needed modifications are described and the model is used to calculate the penetration of sunlight into clear ocean water at several wavelengths throughout the visible portion of the spectrum. Calculations for both clear and turbid water are carried out for the two visible channels of the multispectral scanner on NASA's ERTS-1 satellite. The effect of a reflective bottom on the upwelling light field is discussed. Measurement parameters needed for the passive remote determination of water depths are identified and the use of submerged reflective panels for surface truth measurements is discussed.

  5. A chaotic self-oscillating sunlight-driven polymer actuator

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Knie, Christopher; Bléger, David; Peletier, Mark A.; Friedrich, Heiner; Hecht, Stefan; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides much inspiration for the design of materials capable of motion upon exposure to external stimuli, and many examples of such active systems have been created in the laboratory. However, to achieve continuous motion driven by an unchanging, constant stimulus has proven extremely challenging. Here we describe a liquid crystalline polymer film doped with a visible light responsive fluorinated azobenzene capable of continuous chaotic oscillatory motion when exposed to ambient sunlight in air. The presence of simultaneous illumination by blue and green light is necessary for the oscillating behaviour to occur, suggesting that the dynamics of continuous forward and backward switching are causing the observed effect. Our work constitutes an important step towards the realization of autonomous, persistently self-propelling machines and self-cleaning surfaces powered by sunlight. PMID:27375235

  6. Overall Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting using Tandem Cell under Simulated Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    A stand-alone photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting system driven only by sunlight was demonstrated with a tandem-scheme of Pt/CdS/CuGa3 Se5 /(Ag,Cu)GaSe2 photocathode and NiOOH/FeOOH/Mo:BiVO4 photoanode in a neutral phosphate buffer solution as an electrolyte. The as-prepared semi-transparent Mo:BiVO4 layer allows sunlight to pass through the top photoanode and reach the bottom photocathode. Consequently, the tandem cell showed stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen evolution with a solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency of 0.67 % over 2 h without degradation. The stability and STH efficiency are the highest among similar configuration of PEC tandem cells.

  7. A chaotic self-oscillating sunlight-driven polymer actuator.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Knie, Christopher; Bléger, David; Peletier, Mark A; Friedrich, Heiner; Hecht, Stefan; Broer, Dirk J; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides much inspiration for the design of materials capable of motion upon exposure to external stimuli, and many examples of such active systems have been created in the laboratory. However, to achieve continuous motion driven by an unchanging, constant stimulus has proven extremely challenging. Here we describe a liquid crystalline polymer film doped with a visible light responsive fluorinated azobenzene capable of continuous chaotic oscillatory motion when exposed to ambient sunlight in air. The presence of simultaneous illumination by blue and green light is necessary for the oscillating behaviour to occur, suggesting that the dynamics of continuous forward and backward switching are causing the observed effect. Our work constitutes an important step towards the realization of autonomous, persistently self-propelling machines and self-cleaning surfaces powered by sunlight. PMID:27375235

  8. A chaotic self-oscillating sunlight-driven polymer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Knie, Christopher; Bléger, David; Peletier, Mark A.; Friedrich, Heiner; Hecht, Stefan; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2016-07-01

    Nature provides much inspiration for the design of materials capable of motion upon exposure to external stimuli, and many examples of such active systems have been created in the laboratory. However, to achieve continuous motion driven by an unchanging, constant stimulus has proven extremely challenging. Here we describe a liquid crystalline polymer film doped with a visible light responsive fluorinated azobenzene capable of continuous chaotic oscillatory motion when exposed to ambient sunlight in air. The presence of simultaneous illumination by blue and green light is necessary for the oscillating behaviour to occur, suggesting that the dynamics of continuous forward and backward switching are causing the observed effect. Our work constitutes an important step towards the realization of autonomous, persistently self-propelling machines and self-cleaning surfaces powered by sunlight.

  9. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  10. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  11. Sunlight Exposure and Breast Density: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; So, Edwin; Lam, Tsz-ping; Woo, Jean; Yuen, PY; Qin, Ling; Ku, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to assess the association of sunlight exposure with breast cancer risk, measured by the breast density assessed from Tabár's mammographic pattern in Chinese women. Methods A total of 676 premenopausal women were recruited to participate in this study, in which 650 completed a validated sunlight exposure questionnaire via telephone. The mammograms were classified according to Tabár's classification for parenchyma, and patterns IV & V and I, II & III indicated respectively high and low risk mammographic patterns for breast cancer. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sun exposure-related variables were estimated using unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Among 646 participants, women with high breast cancer risk (Tabár's patterns IV &V) had less hours spent in the sun than those with low risk (I, II & III) at any age stage. A higher level of sunlight exposure was associated with a significantly lower risk having high risk Tabár's pattern. Women aged 40 to 44 years who were in the highest tertile of lifetime total hours spent in the sun had a multi-adjusted OR of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.18-0.92; p for trend=0.03) compared with those in the lowest tertile (>2.19 hr/day vs. <1.32 hr/day). For hours spent in the sun across the ages of 6 to 12 years, the comparable OR was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.15-0.91; p for trend=0.03). Conclusion These findings suggest that higher sunlight exposure is related to a lower risk of having high risk breast density pattern in premenopausal women. Our results also suggest the most relevant period of exposure is during earlier life. PMID:23843849

  12. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  13. Some basic considerations of measurements involving collimated direct sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    The geometry of collimators for devices or instruments dealing with terrestrial direct sunlight is discussed. Effects of the opening angle and slope angle of a collimator on the measurements are investigated with regard to variations of turbidity and air mass. Based on this investigation, geometric dimensions for collimators and certain realistic terrestrial reference conditions are recommended for the purpose of solar cell calibration in terrestrial applications.

  14. Bactericidal Effect of Solar Water Disinfection under Real Sunlight Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, M.; Sichel, C.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Arias-Quiroz, G. B.; Iriarte-Puña, M.; Mercado, A.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; McGuigan, K. G.

    2008-01-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, ∼1,050 W m−2 ± 10 W m−2) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process. PMID:18359829

  15. Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Arias-Quiroz, G B; Iriarte-Puña, M; Mercado, A; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G

    2008-05-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, approximately 1,050 W m(-2) +/- 10 W m(-2)) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process.

  16. Contributions of visible and ultraviolet parts of sunlight to photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Hakala-Yatkin, Marja; Mäntysaari, Mika; Mattila, Heta; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2010-10-01

    Photoinhibition is light-induced inactivation of PSII, and action spectrum measurements have shown that UV light causes photoinhibition much more efficiently than visible light. In the present study, we quantified the contribution of the UV part of sunlight in photoinhibition of PSII in leaves. Greenhouse-grown pumpkin leaves were pretreated with lincomycin to block the repair of photoinhibited PSII, and exposed to sunlight behind a UV-permeable or UV-blocking filter. Oxygen evolution and Chl fluorescence measurements showed that photoinhibition proceeds 35% more slowly under the UV-blocking than under the UV-permeable filter. Experiments with a filter that blocks UV-B but transmits UV-A and visible light revealed that UV-A light is almost fully responsible for the UV effect. The difference between leaves illuminated through a UV-blocking and UV-transparent filter disappeared when leaves of field-grown pumpkin plants were used. Thylakoids isolated from field-grown and greenhouse-grown plants were equally sensitive to UV light, and measurements of UV-induced fluorescence from leaves indicated that the protection of the field-grown plants was caused by substances that block the passage of UV light to the chloroplasts. Thus, the UV part of sunlight, especially the UV-A part, is potentially highly important in photoinhibition of PSII but the UV-screening compounds of plant leaves may offer almost complete protection against UV-induced photoinhibition.

  17. Effects of sunlight exposure on grapevine powdery mildew development.

    PubMed

    Austin, Craig N; Wilcox, Wayne F

    2012-09-01

    Natural and artificially induced shade increased grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) severity in the vineyard, with foliar disease severity 49 to 75% higher relative to leaves in full sun, depending on the level of natural shading experienced and the individual experiment. Cluster disease severities increased by 20 to 40% relative to those on check vines when ultraviolet (UV) radiation was filtered from sunlight reaching vines in artificial shading experiments. Surface temperatures of leaves in full sunlight averaged 5 to 8°C higher than those in natural shade, and in one experiment, filtering 80% of all wavelengths of solar radiation, including longer wavelengths responsible for heating irradiated tissues, increased disease more than filtering UV alone. In controlled environment experiments, UV-B radiation reduced germination of E. necator conidia and inhibited both colony establishment (hyphal formation and elongation) and maturity (latent period). Inhibitory effects of UV-B radiation were significantly greater at 30°C than at 20 or 25°C. Thus, sunlight appears to inhibit powdery mildew development through at least two mechanisms, i.e., (i) UV radiation's damaging effects on exposed conidia and thalli of the pathogen; and (ii) elevating temperatures of irradiated tissues to a level supraoptimal or inhibitory for pathogen development. Furthermore, these effects are synergistic at temperatures near the upper threshold for disease development.

  18. DNA damage profiles induced by sunlight at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Yagura, Teiti; Makita, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; MacMahon, Ricardo Monreal; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-04-01

    Despite growing knowledge on the biological effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human health and ecosystems, it is still difficult to predict the negative impacts of the increasing incidence of solar UV radiation in a scenario of global warming and climate changes. Hence, the development and application of DNA-based biological sensors to monitor the solar UV radiation under different environmental conditions is of increasing importance. With a mind to rendering a molecular view-point of the genotoxic impact of sunlight, field experiments were undertaken with a DNA-dosimeter system in parallel with physical photometry of solar UVB/UVA radiation, at various latitudes in South America. On applying biochemical and immunological approaches based on specific DNA-repair enzymes and antibodies, for evaluating sunlight-induced DNA damage profiles, it became clear that the genotoxic potential of sunlight does indeed vary according to latitude. Notwithstanding, while induction of oxidized DNA bases is directly dependent on an increase in latitude, the generation of 6-4PPs is inversely so, whereby the latter can be regarded as a biomolecular marker of UVB incidence. This molecular DNA lesion-pattern largely reflects the relative incidence of UVA and UVB energy at any specific latitude. Hereby is demonstrated the applicability of this DNA-based biosensor for additional, continuous field experiments, as a means of registering variations in the genotoxic impact of solar UV radiation.

  19. Delayed fluorescence spectra of intact leaves photoexcited by sunlight measured with a multichannel Fourier-transform chemiluminescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Saeka; Yano, Ayako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Satoh, Chikahiro; Akai, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Munetaka

    2013-06-01

    Delayed fluorescence spectra of intact leaves of Green pak choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were measured with a multichannel Fourier-transform chemiluminescence spectrometer, which we developed recently. The intact samples, photoexcited by sunlight without artificial light sources, showed delayed fluorescence around 740 nm with a lifetime of ˜6 s. The observed spectra were deconvoluted into two Gaussian bands: the delayed fluorescence from photosystem II and photosystem I complexes. Their relative intensities depended on the chlorophyll concentration, but their wavelengths were unchanged.

  20. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  1. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  4. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  5. Enhancing the efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Khalaji; Hanaei, H.; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Saidur, R.; Bakhoda, Shokoufeh; Bashiri, Robabeh; Moayedfar, M.

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in the endeavor to enhance the efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are presented in this paper along with an analysis of LSC devices. In recent years, several experimental and numerical research works have been carried out to improve the performance of LSCs in different ways. LSCs date back to the 1970s and comprise an extremely interesting notion of solar cells for various reasons. First, LSCs are cost-competitive and function in diffuse light, and as such, it is not necessary to use expensive solar tracking devices. Second, luminescence facilitates the cells to gather only cold light, which results in higher PV efficiency. LSCs generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species. The luminescent species absorb incident sunlight and emit it with high quantum efficiency, such that the emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where the solar cells can collect it.

  6. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  7. Mixing states of light-absorbing particles measured using a transmission electron microscope and a single-particle soot photometer in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2016-08-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as carbonaceous particles influence the climate through absorbing sunlight. The mixing states of these aerosol particles affect their optical properties. This study examines the changes in the mixing states and abundance of strongly light absorbing carbonaceous particles by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle soot photometer (SP2), as well as of iron oxide particles, in Tokyo, Japan. TEM and SP2 use fundamentally different detection techniques for the same light-absorbing particles. TEM allows characterization of the morphological, chemical, and structural features of individual particles, whereas SP2 optically measures the number, size, and mixing states of black carbon (BC). A comparison of the results obtained using these two techniques indicates that the peaks of high soot (nanosphere soot (ns-soot)) concentration periods agree with those of the BC concentrations determined by SP2 and that the high Fe-bearing particle fraction periods measured by TEM agree with that of high number concentrations of iron oxide particles measured using SP2 during the first half of the observation campaign. The results also show that the changes in the ns-soot/BC mixing states primarily correlate with the air mass sources, wind speed, precipitation, and photochemical processes. Nano-sized, aggregated, iron oxide particles mixed with other particles were commonly observed by using TEM during the high iron oxide particle periods. We conclude that although further quantitative comparison between TEM and SP2 data will be needed, the morphologically and optically defined ns-soot and BC, respectively, are essentially the same substance and that their mixing states are generally consistent across the techniques.

  8. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to sunlight resembles the phenom of persistence.

    PubMed

    Forte Giacobone, Ana F; Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2015-01-01

    During exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stationary phase cells to natural solar radiation, a reduction in the rate of loss of bacterial viability was observed when survival fractions were lower than 1/10,000. This reduction was independent of the growth medium used and of the initial bacterial concentration, and was also observed when irradiation was performed with artificial UVA radiation (365nm, 47Wm(-2)). These results indicate the presence of a small bacterial subpopulation with increased tolerance to radiation. Such a tolerance is non-heritable, since survival curves comparable to those of the parental strain were obtained from survivors to long-term exposure to radiation. The radiation response described here resembles the phenomenon called persistence, which consists of the presence of a small subpopulation of slow-growing cells which are able to survive antibiotic treatment within a susceptible bacterial population. The condition of persister cells is acquired via a reversible switch and involves active defense systems towards oxidative stress. Persistence is probably responsible for biphasic responses of bacteria to several stress conditions, one of which may be exposure to sunlight. The models currently used to analyze the lethal action of sunlight overestimate the effect of high-dose irradiation. These models could be improved by including the potential formation of persister cells. PMID:25553385

  9. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.

  10. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Clark L.; Pitts, John Roland; King, David E.; Hale, Mary Jane; Bingham, Carl E.; Lewandowski, Allan A.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  11. Sunlight photolysis of benzotriazoles - Identification of transformation products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Weidauer, Cindy; Davis, Caroline; Raeke, Julia; Seiwert, Bettina; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Benzotriazoles (BTs) are widely used corrosion inhibitors, incompletely removed in municipal wastewater treatment. The photochemical fate of the three BTs 1H-benzotriazole (1H-BT), 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (4Me-BT) and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5Me-BT) and of three microbial metabolites, was studied under simulated sunlight (290-800 nm) at neutral pH in aqueous solution for 24 h. The half-life, the quantum yield and the reaction rate were determined and a total of 36 photolysis products were detected and identified using liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry. The half-lives of all six BTs were in the range of 6-24 h under the experimental conditions. Though the quantum yields were comparatively low (0.0007-0.0021), the environmental half-lives ranged from 2.4 to 8 d, suggesting that sunlight photolysis is still a relevant degradation process of BTs in surface waters. The photolysis pathway of 1H-BT under simulated sunlight differed from that suggested for UV-radiation, in that aminophenol is formed directly rather than via aniline. Similar pathways were found for the other BTs, except for 4-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole (4OH-BT). Most identified transformation products of the BTs showed a high reactivity and appear not to persist in the environment. Upon co-photolysis of BTs with dissolved organic matter (DOM), however, series of reaction products were determined by Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance - mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) which are formed by reaction of photolysis intermediates of the BTs with DOM. PMID:27081795

  12. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  13. Sunlight Damage To The Solitary Ascidian Chelyosoma productum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, E.

    2004-12-01

    Chelyosoma productum (Stimpson) is a temperate solitary ascidian commonly found in Puget Sound and the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, USA. Adult populations are restricted to deeper subtidal regions or shaded shallow-water habitats, such as docks in shaded marinas. C. productum adults have a thin translucent outer tunic that may provide very little if any protection from solar damage. I hypothesized that sunlight may be setting limits on the distribution of this species. Since adult ascidians are sessile and rely on earlier life stages for their distribution, all life stages of Chelyosoma productum were tested. In this study, I examined the effects of sunlight exposure in embryos, larvae, juveniles and adults of Chelyosoma productum. I isolated the PAR, UVA and UVB portions of the spectrum and exposed all life stages using natural sunlight. I also sampled shallow-water dock habitats to see how adult distributions were related to light exposure. The embryonic development in C. productum was negatively affected by any solar exposure. Most embryos exposed to UV light failed to develop normally and those that did could not subsequently settle. This species produces embryos of different colors; two (purple and brown) were observed in my experiments. Damage from light exposure differed between the color morphs. Overall, the brown morph was more tolerant of light exposure than was the purple morph across all life stages. The only exception to this general pattern was that purple embryos were remarkably resistant to light damage. The distribution of C. productum is restricted to areas with no direct solar exposure. However, even within shaded environments where they were abundant, subpopulations related to the color dimorphism were observed. The significance of the brown and purple pigments in embryos and larvae remains largely unknown. However, adults with brown eggs were found to be more prevalent in edge environments where there was higher light exposure. Purple

  14. The effect of photosensitizer on diclofenac photodegradation under simulated sunlight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Liu, G G; Liu, H J; Wang, Y L; Li, T

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of photosensitizer (acetone, H(2)O(2), surfactant and pigment) on photodegradation of diclofenac (DCF) under simulated sunlight. The results demonstrate that degradation pathways proceed via pseudo first-order kinetics in all cases. The photodegradation rate was found to increase with increasing acetone and H(2)O(2). Surfactant and pigment inhibited the photodegradation of DCF. Finally, four kinds of main degradation products were observed by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and their chemical structures were suggested.

  15. Benign skin changes associated with chronic sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L H; Altman, A

    1984-07-01

    Chronic and heavy sun exposure will insidiously induce changes in human skin during the course of many years. These changes include wrinkles, atrophy, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, yellow papules and plaques of the face, colloid milium, telangiectasis, diffuse erythema, diffuse brown pigmentation, ecchymoses, freckles, actinic lentigo, nevi, Favre-Racouchot syndrome, poikiloderma of Civatte, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, actinic lichen planus, actinic reticuloid, porphyria cutanea tarda, and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In particular, we describe the clinical appearance of the benign changes caused by chronic sunlight exposure.

  16. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  17. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  18. Studies on oxidation of benzo [a] pyrene by sunlight and ozone.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, R; Vohra, K G; Rao, A M

    1983-03-01

    The destruction of the carcinogen benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) by light is well known; laboratory workers are routinely advised to cover fluorescent lamps with yellow filters while treating samples containing BaP. However until recently the mechanism of oxidation by sunlight and ozone had not been studied in detail. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in urban air are in the range of 5-10 micrograms/1000 m3. Oxidant concentrations (predominantly in the form of ozone) are reported to be in the range of 0.01 ppm (22 micrograms per m3). Thus a sampling system with a filter paper would filter about 22,000 micrograms of ozone passing through and collect about 5 micrograms of BaP for analysis. The effect of interactions of such large ozone concentrations with BaP deposited on the filter paper is reported; data for the oxidation rates for benzo[a]pyrene coated on quartz surface and exposed to ozone or sunlight are presented. The oxidation products were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. From about eight products detected in these experiments, three have been identified as quinones based on UV-absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Oxidation rates as high as 100% per hour of exposure are observed when less than 0.1 micrograms of BaP is coated inside the quartz tubes and exposed to ozone or sunlight. Oxidation rates for benzo[a]pyrene (using tritiated BaP) were determined for two types of experimental conditions. In the first set, tritiated BaP was spotted onto a glass fibre paper and sampling continued for 24 h; the loss of BaP was found to be 88%. In the second set tritiated BaP was spotted at intervals of one hour, for eight hours, while sampling is being carried out and the loss of BaP during the period was estimated to be 50%.

  19. Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.

  20. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  1. Effect of Sunlight Exposure on Bone Mineral Density in Children with Severe Disability.

    PubMed

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Kazuo; Sano, Fumikazu; Yagasaki, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of sunlight exposure for increasing bone mineral density (BMD) in children with severe disability. The subjects were five children with severe disability, aged 6 to 8 years. BMD was measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of starting sunlight exposure. All caregivers of patients were instructed to create opportunities to stay outdoors. Daily sunlight exposure time was defined as hours of staying outdoors. Mean hours of sunbathing per day were calculated at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of starting sunlight exposure. Sunlight exposure tended to be longer after starting than before starting in all patients, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.052). Along with the increase in sunlight exposure, BMD increased significantly after the start of sunlight exposure in all patients (p < 0.01). The serum values of total alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased and that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly increased 12 months after starting sunlight exposure. No patients had bone fractures after the start of sunlight exposure. These results suggest that sunlight exposure increased BMD, and that this may reduce the risk of bone fracture in children with disability.

  2. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  3. Identification of toxic products of anthracene photomodification in simulated sunlight.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Küster, Eberhard; Meissner, Bettina; Wenzel, Klaus-Dieter; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2003-10-01

    Currently, the evidence of a rapid photomodification of anthracene under sunlight resulting in enhanced toxicity exists; however, the chemical causes of toxicity are still unknown. The present study aimed at filling this gap by irradiation of an anthracene suspension with simulated sunlight and subsequent effect-directed fractionation and analysis of toxic products with respect to the inhibition of bacterial energy metabolism of Vibrio fischeri, reproduction of the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and genotoxicity in the umuC test. Algal toxicity of anthracene was hardly modified by irradiation prior to testing and distributed over all fractions with emphasis on the fractions containing anthracene-9,10-dione and a photometabolite suggested to be 10-hydroxyanthrone. Bacterial toxicity and genotoxicity in contrast emerged only when anthracene was irradiated. Anthracene-1,4-dione, a so-far-unknown trace photometabolite, was identified as a very potent toxicant dominating the toxicity of photomodified anthracene to V. fischeri. In genotoxic fractions, 1-hydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione and 1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione were identified and confirmed as genotoxicants. The results stress the potential of effect-directed analysis approaches in contrast to mere chemical analysis in studies aiming at toxicologically relevant photomodified substances.

  4. Can skin exposure to sunlight prevent liver inflammation?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Black, Lucinda J; Feelisch, Martin; Hart, Prue H; Weller, Richard

    2015-05-05

    Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  5. Genotoxic effects of sunlight-activated waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Natural sunlight induces a genotoxic response in cultured CHO cells pre-treated with shale oil retort process water. Near ultraviolet light (NUV) component of the solar spectrum is the apparent radiation responsible for photoactivation. Cultured human skin fibroblasts are acutely sensitive to the genotoxic effects of photoactivated process water. The mutagenic potential of photoactivated process water in human cells is the same as that witnessed for an equivalent killing dose of the potent skin carcinogen FUV. DNA repair processes are involved in modulating genotoxic effects of this photo-induced process. The exact magnitude of the potential health-related and environmental risks resulting from photoactivation of retort process waters and other oil shale by-products is unassessed at this time. Our demonstration that a significant rate of mutation occurs in cultured human cells exposed to high dilutions of process waters and fluences of NUV comparable to that encountered during nominal exposure to sunlight suggests that such assessment is a prerequisite to minimal risk development of our oil shale resources.

  6. Sunlight-driven formation and dissociation of a dynamic mixed-valence thallium(III)/thallium(I) porphyrin complex.

    PubMed

    Ndoyom, Victoria; Fusaro, Luca; Dorcet, Vincent; Boitrel, Bernard; Le Gac, Stéphane

    2015-03-16

    Inspired by a Newton's cradle device and interested in the development of redox-controllable bimetallic molecular switches, a mixed-valence thallium(III)/thallium(I) bis-strap porphyrin complex, with Tl(III) bound out of the plane of the N core and Tl(I) hung to a strap on the opposite side, was formed by the addition of TlOAc to the free base and exposure to indirect sunlight. In this process, oxygen photosensitization by the porphyrin allows the oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III). The bimetallic complex is dynamic as the metals exchange their positions symmetrically to the porphyrin plane with Tl(III) funneling through the macrocycle. Further exposure of the complex to direct sunlight leads to thallium dissociation and to total recovery of the free base. Hence, the porphyrin plays a key role at all stages of the cycle of the complex: It hosts two metal ions, and by absorbing light, it allows the formation and dissociation of Tl(III). These results constitute the basis for the further design of innovative light-driven bimetallic molecular devices.

  7. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  8. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  9. Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

    2005-08-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

  10. Sunlight activation of shale-oil byproducts as measured by genotoxic effects in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Activation of certain classes of promutagens/procarcinogens can be accomplished by exposure to various radiation sources. Retort processes currently in use in the production of shale oil generate significant quantities of process waters which contain a wide spectrum of uv-absorbing, organic material. Photoactivation of these waters with an artificial source of NUV results in genotoxic events in cultured mammalian cells. Since significant amounts (2 to 4%) of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is NUV, we were concerned about potential biological effects resulting from solar-irradiated waste streams. This paper summarizes new and previously published data concerning the induction of both cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cultured Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) after their exposure to a particular oil shale retort process water and natural sunlight.

  11. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-01-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight. PMID:24603617

  12. Mass Spectrometry of Flavonoid Vicenin-2, Based Sunlight Barriers in Lychnophora species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Turatti, Izabel Cristina Casanova; Gouveia, Dayana Rubio; Ernst, Madeleine; Teixeira, Simone Pádua; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2014-03-01

    Lychnophora salicifolia plants collected from four different places in Brazil (three states: Goias, Minas Gerais and Bahia) revealed a conserved accumulation of vicenin-2, a di-C-glycosyl flavonoid. Quantitative studies by UPLC-MS/MS showed high concentration of vicenin-2 in leaves from sixty specimens of six Lychnophora species. So the tissue distributions of vicenin-2 were evaluated in wild Lychnophora leaves (Asteraceae) by laser based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to propose its distributions and possible functions for the species analyzed. Mass spectrometric imaging revealed that vicenin-2, unlike other flavonoids, was produced at the top of the leaves. The combination of localization and UV absorption properties of vicenin-2 suggests that it could act as a UV light barrier to protect the plants, since plants are sessile organisms that have to protect themselves from harsh external conditions such as intense sunlight.

  13. Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G W; Reid, C; Kaye, D M; Jennings, G L; Esler, M D

    2002-12-01

    Alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain are thought to underlie seasonal variations in mood, behaviour, and affective disorders. We took blood samples from internal jugular veins in 101 healthy men, to assess the relation between concentration of serotonin metabolite in these samples and weather conditions and season. We showed that turnover of serotonin by the brain was lowest in winter (p=0.013). Moreover, the rate of production of serotonin by the brain was directly related to the prevailing duration of bright sunlight (r=0.294, p=0.010), and rose rapidly with increased luminosity. Our findings are further evidence for the notion that changes in release of serotonin by the brain underlie mood seasonality and seasonal affective disorder.

  14. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  15. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mi T; Jasper, Justin T; Boehm, Alexandria B; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-10-15

    A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). The removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci in the open-water wetland receiving non-disinfected secondary municipal wastewater reached 3 logs and 2 logs in summer time, respectively. Pigmented enterococci were shown to be significantly more resistant to sunlight inactivation than non-pigmented enterococci. A model was developed to predict the inactivation of E. coli, and pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci that accounts for endogenous and exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanisms and dark processes. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using the sum of UVA and UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation was only significant for enterococci, and was modeled as a function of steady-state singlet oxygen concentration. The rate constants were determined from lab experiments and an empirical correction factor was used to account for differences between lab and field conditions. The model was used to predict removal rate constants for FIB in the pilot-scale wetland; considering the variability of the monitoring data, there was general agreement between the modeled values and those determined from measurements. Using the model, we estimate that open-water wetlands at 40° latitude with practical sizes can achieve 3-log (99.9%) removal of E. coli and non-pigmented enterococci throughout the year [5.5 ha and 7.0 ha per million gallons of wastewater effluent per day (MGD), respectively]. Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments.

  16. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mi T; Jasper, Justin T; Boehm, Alexandria B; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-10-15

    A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). The removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci in the open-water wetland receiving non-disinfected secondary municipal wastewater reached 3 logs and 2 logs in summer time, respectively. Pigmented enterococci were shown to be significantly more resistant to sunlight inactivation than non-pigmented enterococci. A model was developed to predict the inactivation of E. coli, and pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci that accounts for endogenous and exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanisms and dark processes. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using the sum of UVA and UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation was only significant for enterococci, and was modeled as a function of steady-state singlet oxygen concentration. The rate constants were determined from lab experiments and an empirical correction factor was used to account for differences between lab and field conditions. The model was used to predict removal rate constants for FIB in the pilot-scale wetland; considering the variability of the monitoring data, there was general agreement between the modeled values and those determined from measurements. Using the model, we estimate that open-water wetlands at 40° latitude with practical sizes can achieve 3-log (99.9%) removal of E. coli and non-pigmented enterococci throughout the year [5.5 ha and 7.0 ha per million gallons of wastewater effluent per day (MGD), respectively]. Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments. PMID:26164800

  17. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation.

  18. Sunlight exclusion from Muscat grape alters volatile profiles during berry development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haohao; Fan, Peige; Liu, Cuixia; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of sunlight exclusion on the volatile profiles of grapes during different stages of berry development were investigated by placing clusters of grapes in special boxes. Terpenes and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in the ripe 'Jingxiangyu' berries. Sunlight exclusion was found to change volatile profiles at any stage. Sunlight exclusion from berries significantly inhibited the synthesis and accumulation of terpenes, which contribute to the characteristic aroma of Muscat grapes. However, sunlight exclusion during berry formation and veraison promoted the accumulation of aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones during the ripening stage. These results may provide important information regarding the metabolism of volatile compounds in grapes.

  19. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-08-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A/sub 233//A/sub 215/, and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X.

  20. Circadian clocks optimally adapt to sunlight for reliable synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Circadian oscillation provides selection advantages through synchronization to the daylight cycle. However, a reliable clock must be designed through two conflicting properties: entrainability to synchronize internal time with periodic stimuli such as sunlight, and regularity to oscillate with a precise period. These two aspects do not easily coexist, because better entrainability favours higher sensitivity which may sacrifice regularity. To investigate conditions for satisfying the two properties, we analytically calculated the optimal phase–response curve with a variational method. Our results indicate an existence of a dead zone, i.e. a time period during which input stimuli neither advance nor delay the clock. A dead zone appears only when input stimuli obey the time course of actual solar radiation, but a simple sine curve cannot yield a dead zone. Our calculation demonstrates that every circadian clock with a dead zone is optimally adapted to the daylight cycle. PMID:24352677

  1. Asteroid thermal modeling in the presence of reflected sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    This study addresses thermal modeling of asteroids with a new derivation of the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal (NEATM) model which correctly accounts for the presence of reflected sunlight in short wave IR bands. Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation applies to this case and has important implications. New insight is provided into the ???? parameter in the NEATM model and it is extended to thermal models besides NEATM. The role of surface material properties on ???? is examined using laboratory spectra of meteorites and other asteroid compositional proxies; the common assumption that emissivity ????=0.9 in asteroid thermal models may not be justified and can lead to misestimating physical parameters. In addition, indeterminacy in thermal modeling can limit its ability to uniquely determine temperature and other physical properties. A new curve-fitting approach allows thermal modeling to be done independently of visible-band observational parameters, such as the absolute magnitude ????.

  2. Persistence of Bacteroides ovatus under simulated sunlight irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. Results UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. Conclusion The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination. PMID:24993443

  3. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7 mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple λ/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  5. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  6. Sunlight Inactivation of Fecal Bacteriophages and Bacteria in Sewage-Polluted Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Lester W.; Finlay, Rochelle K.; Lynch, Philippa A.

    1999-01-01

    Sunlight inactivation rates of somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages), and fecal coliforms were compared in seven summer and three winter survival experiments. Experiments were conducted outdoors, using 300-liter 2% (vol/vol) sewage-seawater mixtures held in open-top chambers. Dark inactivation rates (kDs), measured from exponential survival curves in enclosed (control) chambers, were higher in summer (temperature range: 14 to 20°C) than in winter (temperature range: 8 to 10°C). Winter kDs were highest for fecal coliforms and lowest for F-RNA phages but were the same or similar for all three indicators in summer. Sunlight inactivation rates (kS), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were all higher than the kDs with a consistent kS ranking (from greatest to least) as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages. Phage inactivation was exponential, but bacterial curves typically exhibited a shoulder. Phages from raw sewage exhibited kSs similar to those from waste stabilization pond effluent, but raw sewage fecal coliforms were inactivated faster than pond effluent fecal coliforms. In an experiment which included F-DNA phages and Bacteroides fragilis phages, the kS ranking (from greatest to least) was as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, B. fragilis phages, F-DNA phages, and somatic coliphages. In a 2-day experiment which included enterococci, the initial concentration ranking (from greatest to least: fecal coliforms, enterococci, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages) was reversed during sunlight exposure, with only the phages remaining detectable by the end of day 2. Inactivation rates under different optical filters decreased with the increase in spectral cutoff wavelength (50% light transmission) and indicated that F-RNA phages and fecal coliforms are more susceptible than somatic coliphages to longer solar wavelengths, which predominate in seawater. The consistently superior survival

  7. Sunlight inactivation of somatic coliphage in the presence of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen-Xi; Kitajima, Masaaki; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2016-01-15

    Long wavelengths of sunlight spectrum (UVA and visible light), as well as natural organic matter (NOM) are important environmental factors affecting survival of viruses in aquatic environment through direct and indirect inactivation. In order to understand the virus inactivation kinetics under such conditions, this study investigated the effects of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) on the inactivation of a somatic coliphage, phiX174, by UVA and visible light. Experiments were carried out to examine the virucidal effects of UVA/visible light, assess the influence of SRNOM at different concentrations, and identify the effective ROS in virus inactivation. The results from this study showed that the presence of NOM could either enhance virus inactivation or reduce virus inactivation depending on the concentration, where the inactivation rate followed a parabolic relationship against NOM concentration. The results indicated that moderate levels of NOM (11 ppm) had the strongest antiviral activity, while very low or very high NOM concentrations prolonged virus survival. The results also showed that OH▪ was the primary ROS in causing phiX174 (ssDNA virus) inactivation, unlike previous findings where (1)O2 was the primary ROS causing MS2 (ssRNA virus) inactivation. The phiX174 inactivation by OH∙ could be described as k=3.7 ✕ 10(13)[OH∙]+1.404 (R(2)=0.8527).

  8. Effect of artificial sunlight on the retention of external calcein marks on lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kehler, T.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    When choosing a fish marking technique to address fishery related questions, it is important to consider factors that affect mark retention. Calcein, a chemical marking agent, is under investigation for potential use on fish. Two laboratory trials were conducted with calcein-marked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to determine the effect of artificial sunlight on calcein mark intensity. In trial 1, fish exposed to 18,000 lx for 7 d lost 90% or more of the calcein mark intensity (relative to the colorimetric key, mg/L) on the head, body, ventral region, and pectoral fins relative to mark intensity in fish that were maintained in darkness. In trial 2, light intensity was reduced 2.5-3.0-fold. After 7 d of light exposure, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 40-45% relative to mark intensity in fish that were held in darkness; by day 14, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 55-60% relative to that of dark-treated fish. No further decline was observed in light-exposed fish, and head mark intensity values did not differ among days 14, 21, and 28 for this treatment group. Of the four areas evaluated, the head and pectoral fin were more easily read using a colorimetric key than the lateral or ventral regions of the fish. The concentration of calcein spotted on filter paper to devise the colorimetric key ranged from 1 to 100 mg/L. A difference of approximately 7 mg/L in apparent calcein mark intensity means for the head region could be detected using the colorimetric key. These trials showed that calcein mark intensity on lake trout declined when fish were exposed to artificial sunlight, and the use of a colorimetric key improved the objectivity of calcein mark intensity assessment.

  9. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1980-01-01

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  10. Optimization of ramified absorber networks doing desalination.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Martin S; Heiss, Gregor; Hübler, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    An iterated function system is used to generate fractal-like ramified graph networks of absorbers, which are optimized for desalination performance. The diffusion equation is solved for the boundary case of constant pressure difference at the absorbers and a constant ambient salt concentration far from the absorbers, while constraining both the total length of the network and the total area of the absorbers to be constant as functions of generation G. A linearized form of the solution was put in dimensionless form which depends only on a dimensionless membrane resistance, a dimensionless inverse svelteness ratio, and G. For each of the first nine generations G=2,…,10, the optimal graph shapes were obtained. Total water production rate increases parabolically as a function of generation, with a maximum at G=7. Total water production rate is shown to be approximately linearly related to the power consumed, for a fixed generation. Branching ratios which are optimal for desalination asymptote decreasingly to r=0.510 for large G, while branching angles which are optimal for desalination asymptote decreasingly to 1.17 radians. Asymmetric graphs were found to be less efficient for desalination than symmetric graphs. The geometry which is optimal for desalination does not depend strongly on the dimensionless parameters, but the optimal water production does. The optimal generation was found to increase with the inverse svelteness ratio.

  11. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  12. Hydraulic shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic shock absorber including a piston reciprocating in a cylinder, a piston upper chamber and a piston lower chamber which are oil-tightly separated by the piston, piston ports formed through the piston in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber, and return ports formed outside of the piston ports in a circle for communicating the piston upper chamber with the piston lower chamber. It also includes a sheet ring-like non-return valve provided above the piston and fitted to a piston rod, valve holes formed through the non-return valve in opposed relation with the piston ports. A ring-like non-return valve stopper fixed to the piston rod on an upper side of the non-return valve with a small spaced defined between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper, and a spring is interposed between the non-return valve and the non-return valve stopper for normally urging the non-return valve to an upper surface of the piston. Movement of the piston to the piston upper chamber allows oil to flow from the piston upper chamber through the piston ports to the piston lower chamber, while the return ports are closed by the non-return valve to generate a vibration damping force by resistance upon pass of the oil through the piston parts. The improvement described here comprises a groove formed in an upper surface of the piston facing the non-return valve and aligned with the valve holes, the groove being in the circle where the piston ports lie and being in communication with the piston ports.

  13. Sunlight and health: attitudes of older people living in intermediate care facilities in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Seeta; Kok, Cindy; Sambrook, Philip N; Cumming, Robert G; Lord, Stephen R; March, Lynette M; Mason, Rebecca S; Seibel, Markus J; Simpson, Judy M; Cameron, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Older people have a high prevalence of falls and fractures, partly due to vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight is a major source of vitamin D, but many older people living in intermediate care facilities have inadequate sunlight exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the sun exposure practices and attitudes to sunlight in this population. Fifty-seven older residents of intermediate care facilities in Sydney, Australia were interviewed to determine their sun exposure practices, their views on sunlight and health and whether these have changed over their lives, factors affecting sunlight exposure and their knowledge of vitamin D. Sixty percent of the participants preferred to be outdoors, despite more than 92% believing that sunlight was healthy. In their youth however, almost 90% had preferred to be outdoors. Poor health, physical constraints and a sense of lack of ownership of outdoor spaces were barriers to sunlight exposure. Improved physical access, more outdoor leisure activities and promotion of greater autonomy may improve safe and appropriate sunlight exposure in this population.

  14. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  15. The broadband dynamic vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. B.; Nissen, J.-C.

    1982-08-01

    The limited effectiveness of the linear passive dynamic vibration absorber is described. This is followed by an analysis producing the response of a primary system when a non-linear softening Belleville spring is used in the absorber. It is shown that the suppression bandwidth can be doubled by this means.

  16. Prevalence and sunlight photolysis of controlled and chemotherapeutic drugs in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Lin, Yen-Ching; Lee, Wan-Ning

    2014-04-01

    This study addresses the occurrences and natural fates of chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs when found together in hospital effluents and surface waters. The results revealed the presence of 11 out of 16 drugs in hospital effluents, and the maximum detected concentrations were at the μg L(-1) level in the hospital effluents and the ng L(-1) level in surface waters. The highest concentrations corresponded to meperidine, morphine, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. The sunlight photolysis of the target compounds was investigated, and the results indicated that morphine and codeine can be significantly attenuated, with half-lives of 0.27 and 2.5 h, respectively, in natural waters. Photolysis can lower the detected environmental concentrations, also lowering the estimated environmental risks of the target drugs to human health. Nevertheless, 5-fluorouracil and codeine were found to have a high risk quotient (RQ), demonstrating the high risks of directly releasing hospital wastewater into the environment. PMID:24508644

  17. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products.

  18. Sunlight-driven reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticle by organic matter mitigates the acute toxicity of silver to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoya; Shen, Mohai; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingfu

    2015-09-01

    Due to the unique antibacterial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used in commercial products. Anthropogenic activities have released considerable AgNPs as well as highly toxic silver ion (Ag(+)) into the aquatic environment. Our recent study revealed that ubiquitous natural organic matter (NOM) could reduce Ag(+) to AgNP under natural sunlight. However, the toxic effect of this process is not well understood. In this work, we prepared mixture solution of Ag(+) and AgNPs with varied Ag(+)% through the sunlight-driven reduction of Ag(+) by NOM and investigated the acute toxicity of the solutions on Daphnia magna. Formation of AgNPs was demonstrated and characterized by comprehensive techniques and the fraction of unconverted Ag(+) was determined by ultrafiltration-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. The formation of AgNPs enhanced significantly with the increasing of solution pH and cumulative photosynthetically active radiation of sunlight. The toxicity of the resulting solution was further investigated by using freshwater crustacean D. magna as a model and an 8hr-median lethal concentration (LC50) demonstrated that the reduction of Ag(+) by NOM to AgNPs significantly mitigated the acute toxicity of silver. These results highlight the importance of sunlight and NOM in the fate, transformation and toxicity of Ag(+) and AgNPs, and further indicate that the acute toxicity of AgNPs should be mainly ascribed to the dissolved Ag(+) from AgNPs.

  19. High spacecraft potentials on ISEE-1 in sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.; Olsen, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Data from two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE-1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiment show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of space charge. The stringent electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE made the presence of differential charging seem unlikely, if these precautions were effective. Modeling of the event to determine if the barrier was produced by the presence of space charge suggested that this could not explain the observed barrier. The angular shape of the distribution could be successfully modeled as a product of differential charging on the solar arrays. This implies that the conductive coating was not completely effective in preventing differential charging, and that differential charging did occur.

  20. Sunlight-Driven, Water-Mediated Generation of Prebiotic Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapf, R.; Griffith, E. C.; Perkins, R. J.; Vaida, V.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of chemically complex biomolecules from simple, organic molecules under prebiotic conditions is both a thermodynamic and kinetic challenge. Synthesis of such molecules and their subsequent self-assembly into ordered structures requires a favorable source of energy as well as a favorable entropic environment. Our approach couples two such auspicious conditions, using sunlight as the energetic driver and air-water interfaces as the reaction medium. The Sun provides a large, prebiotically relevant source of energy to fuel synthetic photochemistry. Air-water interfaces are widely prevalent on oceans, lakes, and atmospheric aerosols and provide unique reaction environments that ameliorate some of the thermodynamic challenges of the aqueous bulk. Using these experimental principles, we demonstrate the ability to generate chemical complexity via in situ observation of non-enzymatic peptide bond synthesis at the surface of water. Additionally, we will discuss the photochemical formation of a double-tailed membrane component in aqueous solution, which subsequently self-assembles into ordered, three-dimensional structures.

  1. Sunlight assisted photodegradation by tin oxide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajira, P. S.; Prabhu, V. Ganeshchandra; Bushiri, M. Junaid

    2015-12-01

    Rutile phase of SnO2 quantum dots of average size of 2.5 nm were synthesized at a growth temperature of 70 °C and characterized with XRD, TEM, FTIR and Raman analysis. The effective strain within the lattice of SnO2 quantum dots was calculated by Williamson-Hall method. The broad peaks in XRD as well as Raman spectra and the presence of Raman bands at 569 and 432 cm-1 are due to lower crystallinity of nanoparticles. The optical band gap of SnO2 quantum dots was increased to 3.75 eV attributed to the quantum size effect. SnO2 quantum dots were annealed in air atmosphere and the crystallite size of the particles increased with annealing temperature. Sunlight assisted photodegration property of SnO2 quantum dots was investigated with vanillin as a model system and it shows the photodegradation efficiency of 87%. The photoluminescence and photodegradation efficiency of nanocrystallite SnO2 decreases with increase of crystallite size contributed to the reduction in population of defects and surface area.

  2. Sunlight and skin cancer: lessons from the immune system.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-08-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer, and the cost of treating skin cancer in the United States (both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer) is estimated to be in excess of $2.9 billion a year. In addition to causing skin cancer, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. Recent studies in my laboratory have focused on understanding the initial molecular events that induce immune suppression. We made two novel observations: first UV-induced keratinocyte-derived platelet activating factor plays a role in the induction of immune suppression. Second, cis-urocanic acid, a skin-derived immunosuppressive compound mediates immune suppression by binding to serotonin receptors on target cells. Recent findings suggest that blocking the binding of these compounds to their receptors not only inhibits UV-induced immune suppression but it also interferes with skin cancer induction.

  3. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  4. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  5. Development and application of rotary shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kozo; Yamada, Toshihiro; Fukuyama, Katsura

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, rear suspension systems with a single shock absorber unit placed behind the engine, have been used primarily in the middle and large classes of motorcycles. Some features such as the longer rear wheel travel, progressive response characteristics and mass concentration at the center part of motorcycle are effective in improving maneuverability of the motorcycle. In the 1980s, the systems were introduced first in the off-road motorcycles and then in the on-road motorcycles. Performance of the systems are excellent, but there are demands for further improvement of suspension characteristics and space utility at the center part of motorcycle. For this purpose, the authors have developed a prototype of a rotary shock absorber and studied the applicability to modern motorcycles.

  6. Solar absorber material stability under high solar flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Zajac, G.; Smith, G. B.

    1982-04-01

    Solar absorbing Black Chrome coatings have been exposed to high temperatures (350-400 C) under high solar fluxes (0.4 to 2.0 MW/sq m) to test for their stability under actual operating conditions. Field tests at the White Sands Solar Furnace have shown higher stability than expected from oven tested samples. Laboratory studies utilizing spectrally selective concentrated solar simulated radiation have indicated that the cause of the higher stability under solar irradiation is photo-stimulated desorption of oxygen bearing species at the absorber surface and resultant reduced oxidation of the absorber.

  7. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  8. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  9. Sunlight Controls Water Column Processing of Carbon in Arctic Freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Ward, C. P.; Crump, B. C.; Kling, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon (C) in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change, yet controls on its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic C (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, but we recently showed that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70-95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. While the overall dominance of photochemical processing in streams and lakes remained, the fate of DOC varied consistently by water type. In small streams DOC was mainly mineralized by sunlight to CO2, while in lakes the main fate of DOC was partial photo-oxidation. Large rivers were intermediate between these end members, and photo-mineralization to CO2 was about equal to or less than partial photo-oxidation. We suggest this pattern is a result of light-exposure history, where DOC leached from soils into headwater streams has little prior light exposure and is labile to complete photo-oxidation, but as light exposure increases moving downstream and into lakes with longer residence times the DOC photo-lability declines. Thus as easily photo-mineralized moieties are removed, DOC fate shifts toward partial photo-oxidation and downstream export in rivers and lakes. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one third of the total CO2 released from surface waters, and is thus an important, newly measured component of the Arctic C budget. We also suggest that these photochemical transformations of DOC will occur in any shallow surface water, and could be important for better understanding inland water carbon cycling.

  10. Vitamin D, sunlight, and the epidemiology of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of clinical prostate cancer has stimulated an extensive body of research. Ecologic studies have shown that mortality rates from prostate cancer are inversely correlated with levels of ultraviolet radiation, the principal source of vitamin D. Human prostate cells express receptors for 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D which exerts pleitropic anticancer effects on these cells in vitro and in animal models. Moreover, normal prostate cells synthesize 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D from circulating levels of 25-OHD, whose levels are dependent on exposure to ultraviolet light. Analytic epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and prostate cancer have focused on polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), on serum vitamin D levels, and on solar exposure. A role for VDR polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk and progression is established. Prospective studies of serum 25(OH)D do not support a protective role for higher levels of 25(OH)D on prostate cancer risk overall, but a role for vitamin D deficiency is supported by several studies. Conversely, a growing body of evidence implicates low levels of 25-OHD with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. The results of most epidemiologic studies of sunlight exposure are consistent with a protective effect of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The discrepancy between the results of studies of solar exposure and studies of serum 25-OHD may be related to methodological differences and to uncertainties regarding the critical period for vitamin D exposure. Additionally, both high dietary intake of calcium and high levels of calcium in serum are positively associated with prostate cancer risk. The relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of prostate cancer may differ by calcium intake.

  11. Satellite power system (SPS) brightness due to reflected sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The development and operation of a Satellite Power System would place very large structures in orbit around earth for several decades. Sunlight reflected off such structures, particularly specular components from large flat areas, is expected to create ground illumination that will attract observers. In order to assure that this illumination does not exceed the irradiance tolerances of the eye, reflections from these satellites must be carefully controlled by vehicle orientation and surface specifications. The solar power satellite (SPS) at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) has 55 km/sup 2/ of glass covered solar cells that are oriented normal to the sun, as well as a 1 km/sup 2/ microwave antenna. Transportation of construction materials from low earth orbit (LEO) to GEO requires 23 Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) that have 1.6 km/sup 2/ solar panels oriented normal to the sun during their 6 month transits. The Staging Base (SB) at LEO, that accommodates OTV fabrication and cargo transfer, consists of 0.5 km arms protruding from a .44 km/sup 2/ open grid aligned with its orbit plane. Diffuse reflections would make the SB/OTVs readily discernible in the daytime and the OTVs and SPSs observable all night (except during eclipse). Sporadic specular glints would appear on the ground from the OTVs and SPSs near the midnight meridian, from the solar panel surfaces of OTVs during LEO fabrication around midday, and from OTVs near LEO at dawn and dusk. The ground level irradiance has been evaluated for several unusually bright configurations using the present system design. Procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  12. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. PMID:26977036

  13. Concentric Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the interior of a typical crater in northern Acidalia Planitia. The floor is covered by material that forms an almost concentric pattern. In this case, the semi-concentric rings might be an expression of eroded layered material, although this interpretation is uncertain. The crater is located near 44.0oN, 27.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system using diffractive spectrum-splitting and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, N.; Schulz, M.; Wang, P.; Menon, R.

    2016-09-01

    In a single-bandgap absorber, photons having energy less than the bandgap are not absorbed, while those having energy larger than the bandgap lose the excess energy via thermalization. We present outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system that overcomes these losses via spectrum splitting and concentration using a planar diffractive optic. The system was comprised of the diffractive optic coupled with GaInP and CIGS solar cells. The optic provides a geometric concentration of 3X for each solar cell. It is easily fabricated by single-step grayscale lithography and it is ultra-thin with a maximum thickness of only 2.5 μ m. Electrical measurements under direct sunlight demonstrated an increase of ˜25 % in total output power compared to the reference case without spectrum splitting and concentration. Since different bandgaps are in the same plane, the proposed photovoltaic system successfully circumvents the lattice-matching and current-matching issues in conventional tandem multi-junction solar cells. This system is also tolerant to solar spectrum variation and fill-factor degradation of constitutive solar cells.

  15. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  16. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions. PMID:22513094

  17. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  18. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-02-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans.

  19. Photolysis study of fluorinated ketones under natural sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Notario, Alberto; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Bravo, Iván

    2015-09-21

    UV-visible absorption cross-sections are reported for CF3C(O)CH3, CF3C(O)CH2CH3, and CH3CH2C(O)CH(CH3)2. The photolysis rate constants of CF3C(O)CH3, CF3C(O)CH2CH3, and CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2 were measured from smog-chamber experiments carried out in a 400 L Teflon-bag reactor under sunlight irradiation. Actinic radiation profiles from the "Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation Model" were used to obtain quantum efficiencies of photolysis: 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.24 ± 0.06, and (4.4 ± 0.6) × 10(-2) for CF3C(O)CH3, CF3C(O)CH2CH3, and CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2, respectively. These values correspond to wavelength ranges of 295-345 nm (for CF3C(O)CH3 and CF3C(O)CH2CH3) and 295-360 nm (for CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2). The photolysis rate constants change significantly with the seasons, with the yearly averages being (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10(-6), (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10(-6), and (2.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-6) s(-1) for CF3C(O)CH3, CF3C(O)CH2CH3, and CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2, respectively. Photolysis processes are fast and responsible for the short gas-phase lifetimes of the studied ketones, which are 5.1 ± 2.2, 6.5 ± 2.5 and 5.5 ± 1.5 days. The radiative forcing efficiencies are provided to assess the contribution of emissions of these gases to climate change. As a result of the short atmospheric lifetimes, their global warming potentials are negligible. Theoretical calculations involving ground and excited states justify the higher photolysis quantum efficiencies of CF3C(O)CH3 and CF3C(O)CH2CH3 compared to CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2, which shows increased photolysis rate constants in the absence of O2. PMID:26270890

  20. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  1. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  2. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  3. Nonventing, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, regenerable heat absorber (RHA), developed for rejecting metabolic heat from a space suit, may also be useful on Earth for short-term cooling of heavy protective garments. Unlike prior space-suit-cooling systems, a system that includes this RHA does not vent water. The closed system contains water reservoirs, tubes through which water is circulated to absorb heat, an evaporator, and an absorber/radiator. The radiator includes a solution of LiCl contained in a porous material in titanium tubes. The evaporator cools water that circulates through a liquid-cooled garment. Water vapor produced in the evaporator enters the radiator tubes where it is absorbed into the LiCl solution, releasing heat. Much of the heat of absorption is rejected to the environment via the radiator. After use, the RHA is regenerated by heating it to a temperature of 100 C for about 2 hours to drive the absorbed water back to the evaporator. A system including a prototype of the RHA was found to be capable of maintaining a temperature of 20 C while removing heat at a rate of 200 W for 6 hours.

  4. Study of enhanced photogalvanic effect of Naphthol Green B in natural sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koli, Pooran

    2015-07-01

    The photogalvanic cells based on Naphthol Green B sensitizer-Fructose reductant-Sodium Lauryl Sulphate surfactant has been studied in natural sunlight. The cell has been found workable in natural sunlight with greatly enhanced optimum cell performance. The 1159.2 μW power, 4500 μA short-circuit current, 1070 mV open-circuit potential, 14.49% efficiency and 240 min storage capacity (as half change time) has been observed in optimum cell fabrication conditions.

  5. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  6. Indigenous Microbiota and Habitat Influence Escherichia coli Survival More than Sunlight in Simulated Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Korajkic, Asja; Wanjugi, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The reported fate of Escherichia coli in the environment ranges from extended persistence to rapid decline. Incomplete understanding of factors that influence survival hinders risk assessment and modeling of the fate of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. FIB persistence in subtropical aquatic environments was explored in outdoor mesocosms inoculated with five E. coli strains. The manipulated environmental factors were (i) presence or absence of indigenous microbiota (attained by natural, disinfected, and cycloheximide treatments), (ii) freshwater versus seawater, and (iii) water column versus sediment matrices. When indigenous microbes were removed (disinfected), E. coli concentrations decreased little despite exposure to sunlight. Conversely, under conditions that included the indigenous microbiota (natural), significantly greater declines in E. coli occurred regardless of the habitat. The presence of indigenous microbiota and matrix significantly influenced E. coli decline, but their relative importance differed in freshwater versus seawater. Cycloheximide, which inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes, significantly diminished the magnitude of E. coli decline in water but not in sediments. The inactivation of protozoa and bacterial competitors (disinfected) caused a greater decline in E. coli than cycloheximide alone in water and sediments. These results indicate that the autochthonous microbiota are an important contributor to the decline of E. coli in fresh and seawater subtropical systems, but their relative contribution is habitat dependent. This work advances our understanding of how interactions with autochthonous microbiota influence the fate of E. coli in aquatic environments and provides the framework for studies of the ecology of enteric pathogens and other allochthonous bacteria in similar environments. PMID:23811514

  7. First field-based atmospheric observation of the reduction of reactive mercury driven by sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, Benjamin; Tong, Yindong; Yin, Xiufeng; Zhang, Wei; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Wang, Xuejun; Schauer, James J.

    2016-06-01

    Hourly speciated measurements of atmospheric mercury made in a remote, high-altitude site in the Tibetan Plateau revealed the first field observations of the reduction of reactive mercury in the presence of sunlight in the atmosphere. Measurements were collected over four winter months on the shore of Nam Co Lake in the inland Tibetan Plateau. The data was analyzed to identify sources and atmospheric transformations of the speciated mercury compounds. The absence of local anthropogenic sources provided a unique opportunity to examine chemical transformations of mercury. An optimization algorithm was used to determine the parameters of a chemical box model that would match the measured reactive mercury concentrations. This required the presence of a photolytic reduction reaction previously observed in laboratory studies and in power plant plumes. In addition, the model estimated the role of vertical mixing in diluting reactive gaseous mercury during the day, and the role of bromine chemistry in oxidizing gaseous elemental mercury to produce reactive gaseous mercury. This work provides further evidence of the need to add the photolytic reduction reaction of oxidized mercury into atmospheric transport models in order to better simulate mercury deposition.

  8. Sunlight-promoted photocatalytic hydrogen gas evolution from water-suspended cellulose: a systematic study.

    PubMed

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Dondi, Daniele; Annovazzi, Enrico; Maraschi, Federica; Caratto, Valentina; Profumo, Antonella; Buttafava, Armando

    2014-10-01

    This work presents a systematic study of cellulose (CLS) as a sacrificial biomass for photocatalytic H2 evolution from water. The idea is indeed to couple a largely available and not expensive biomass, and water, with a renewable energy like solar radiation. An aqueous CLS suspension irradiated either at 366 nm (UV-A) or under sunlight in the presence of Pt/TiO2 behaves as a H2 evolving system. The effects of irradiation time, catalyst and CLS concentrations, pH and water salinity are studied. Addition of CLS to the sample significantly improved H2 evolution from water splitting, with yields up to ten fold higher than those observed in neat water. The mechanism of the photocatalytic process relies on the TiO2-mediated CLS hydrolysis, under irradiation. The polysaccharide depolymerisation generates water-soluble species and intermediates, among them 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was identified. These intermediates are readily oxidized following the glucose photoreforming, thus enhancing water hydrogen ion reduction to give gas-phase H2. The formation of "colored" by-products from HMF self-polymerization involves a sort of "in situ dye sensitization" that allows an effective photoreaction even under solar light. The procedure is evaluated and successfully extended on cellulosic biomasses, i.e. rice husk and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems, not previously investigated for this application.

  9. Indigenous microbiota and habitat influence Escherichia coli survival more than sunlight in simulated aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; Wanjugi, Pauline; Harwood, Valerie J

    2013-09-01

    The reported fate of Escherichia coli in the environment ranges from extended persistence to rapid decline. Incomplete understanding of factors that influence survival hinders risk assessment and modeling of the fate of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. FIB persistence in subtropical aquatic environments was explored in outdoor mesocosms inoculated with five E. coli strains. The manipulated environmental factors were (i) presence or absence of indigenous microbiota (attained by natural, disinfected, and cycloheximide treatments), (ii) freshwater versus seawater, and (iii) water column versus sediment matrices. When indigenous microbes were removed (disinfected), E. coli concentrations decreased little despite exposure to sunlight. Conversely, under conditions that included the indigenous microbiota (natural), significantly greater declines in E. coli occurred regardless of the habitat. The presence of indigenous microbiota and matrix significantly influenced E. coli decline, but their relative importance differed in freshwater versus seawater. Cycloheximide, which inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotes, significantly diminished the magnitude of E. coli decline in water but not in sediments. The inactivation of protozoa and bacterial competitors (disinfected) caused a greater decline in E. coli than cycloheximide alone in water and sediments. These results indicate that the autochthonous microbiota are an important contributor to the decline of E. coli in fresh and seawater subtropical systems, but their relative contribution is habitat dependent. This work advances our understanding of how interactions with autochthonous microbiota influence the fate of E. coli in aquatic environments and provides the framework for studies of the ecology of enteric pathogens and other allochthonous bacteria in similar environments.

  10. Attenuation of methyl tert-butyl ether in water using sunlight and a photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Sahle-Demessie, E; Enriquez, J; Gupta, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in increasing pollution of groundwater. Most of the conventional treatment technologies are inefficient or costly when the initial concentration of MTBE is low (< 200 microg/L). To find an ecology friendly and inexpensive method for MTBE remediation, we used solar radiation with titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst. For synthetic samples, almost complete degradation (99+%) of MTBE was observed at the end of 5-hour test run with 0.05 g/L of slurry TiO2. Intermediate products detected were tertiary butyl formate, tertiary butyl alcohol, and trace amounts of acetone. Studies conducted using contaminated groundwater samples with TiO2 and sunlight showed that aromatic organic species benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were degraded up to a factor of 10 times faster than MTBE. However, dissolved metals (Fe2+) and chloride ions in contaminated waters decreased the photo-activity of TiO2 for the degradation of MTBE. Reducing the pH of the groundwater samples increased the MTBE degradation rate threefold. Photocatalysis accelerates the solar degradation of MTBE and reduces its half-life by more than 3 orders of magnitude. The study indicated that solar degradation is a low-cost and effective alternative to attenuate MTBE in drinking water supplies.

  11. 30% Efficient InGaP/GaAs/GaSb Cell-Interconnected-Circuits For Line-Focus Concentrator Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Iles, Peter; Chu, Charlie; Piszczor, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 1989, Fraas and Avery demonstrated a world-record 31% efficient AM0 GaAs/GaSb tandem solar cell. This record efficiency still holds today. However, the GaAs/GaSb mechanical-stacked cell was designed to work with concentrated sunlight and at that time, the space community had no experience with concentrated sunlight solar arrays.

  12. Atmosphere of venus: implications of venera 8 sunlight measurements.

    PubMed

    Lacis, A A; Hansen, J E

    1974-05-31

    Venera 8 measurements of solar illumination within the atmnosphere of Venus are quantitatively analyzed by using a multilayer model atmosphere. The analysis shows that there are at least three different scattering layers it the atmosphere of Venus and the total cloud optical thickness is [unknown] 10. However, because of the nature of the observations it is not possible to determine the vertical distributiont of absorbed solar energy, which would reveal the drive for the atmospheric dynamics and the strength of the greenhouse effect. Future spacecraft observations should be designed to (i) measure both upward and downward solar fluxes, (ii) include measurements of the highest clold lavers. and (iii) employ narrow-band and broad-banzd sensors.

  13. Laser and sunlight-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.; Brown, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescence properties of chlorophyll pigment bearing plant foliage utilizing a 337 nm nitrogen laser and integrating sphere were studied. Measured yields, in terms of number of photons emitted per 100 photons absorbed, range from 1.5 to 0.1 for the 685 nm peak, and from 4.2 to 0.2 for the 730 nm peak. Decreasing order of magnitude puts herbaceous leaves ahead of all others followed by broad leaves of hardwoods and coniferous needles. Meaningful quantization for the fluorescence peaks at 430 and 530 nm could not be attained. Passive monitoring of these fluorescence peaks is successful only for the 685 nm from the ocean surface. Field data show the reflectance changes at 685 nm due to the algae presence amounts to 1% at most.

  14. Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 by causing its photodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.R.; DeCosta, B.R.; Holick, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    Exposure to sunlight initiates the formation of vitamin D3 in skin as the UV B radiation in the solar spectrum causes the photoconversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3. A heat-induced isomerization then converts previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 over a period of days. A number of irradiation products of vitamin D3 are known to form upon irradiation with high intensity UV radiation, but the effect of subsequent exposures to sunlight on the vitamin D3 formed in skin is not known. To investigate this phenomenon, human skin containing vitamin D3 was exposed to sunlight in Boston. A model system of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D3 in methanol was also used to study the effects of sunlight on vitamin D3 throughout the year. Vitamin D3 proved to be exquisitely sensitive to sunlight, and once formed in the skin, exposure to sunlight resulted in its rapid photodegradation to a variety of photoproducts, including 5,6-transvitamin D3, suprasterol I, and suprasterol II.

  15. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  16. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  17. Waveform-Dependent Absorbing Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Sanghoon; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high-power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high-power pulses but not for high-power continuous waves (CW’s), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e., CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  18. Fluorescence and absorbance of polystyrene in dilute and semidilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Torkelson, J.M.; Lipsky, S.; Tirrell, M.; Tirrell, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The fluorescence and absorbance of polystyrene in solution have been measured over a wide concentration range for several molecular weights and solvents (cyclohexane, 1,2 dichloroethane). The absorbance at wavelengths below 280 nm for these molecular weights and solvents is found to be insensitive to the transition between dilute and semidilute solutions. Self-absorption of the fluorescence results in a much reduced observed monomer emission at high concentration. When this is corrected, the ratio of excimer to monomer fluorescence intensity, I/sub E//I/sub M/, is essentially constant at low concentrations and at most increases only very slowly and smoothly at higher concentrations. No significant molecular weight or solvent effects on the concentration dependence of I/sub E//I/sub M/ are manifested for these molecular weights and solvents over the concentration range studied. Contrary to previous reports, fluorescence spectroscopy reveals no abrupt transition between dilute and semidilute solutions. 30 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Adaptations of Phytoplankton to Sunlight and Other Optical Properties of Aquatic Ecosystem Particles Detected With a Portable Integrating Sphere Version of QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, B. R.

    2006-12-01

    Suspended particles in aquatic ecosystems include autotrophic and heterotrophic micro-organisms, organic detritus, and suspended mineral particles. Spectral optical properties of these particles can be useful in characterizing the attenuation of sunlight underwater, the distribution and types of organisms, and their biological response to the underwater physical gradients, including photosynthesis and the release of dissolved organic matter. Recent measurements of spectral absorption of phytoplankton exposed to strong ultraviolet radiation (UVR) near the surface and declining irradiance with depth have shown a tendency to produce natural UV-B sunscreen compounds (MAA's) in proportion to the intensity of exposure to UV-B. A down-regulation of chlorophyll-a pigment with increasing intensity of visible wavelengths is well known. Some recent data also suggest a negative correlation between phytoplankton biomass and water column exposure to UV-B as mediated by stratospheric ozone. The standard method of characterizing the spectral optical properties of particles in aquatic ecosystems is the Quantitative Filterpad Technique (QFT) in which a water sample is concentrated on a fine glass fiber filter (GFF) and its optical density is then measured in the beam of a scanning spectrophotometer. An improved QFT method (QFT-TR) established in the past decade involves laboratory measurement of both transmittance and reflectance for each sample using an integrating sphere attachment in a scanning spectrophotometer. Both methods have disadvantages. Particle spectral data from a number of freshwater ecosystems were collected using a new battery-powered instrument that combines integrating sphere, lamp, and fiber optic spectrometer to create a portable improved QFT (pQFT-TR). Transmittance, reflectances, and absorbance spectra for particles from streams (rich in mineral particles) and lakes (some with humic particles, others with predominantly phytoplankton) are compared using the old

  20. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  1. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  2. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  3. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, B F; Andreani, T; Gavina, A; Vieira, M N; Pereira, C M; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, R

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same aggregation behaviour after sunlight exposure was observed for bare QDs. These results further emphasize that the shell of QDs seems to make them less harmful to aquatic biota, both under standard environmental conditions and after the exposure to a relevant abiotic factor like sunlight. PMID:27162069

  4. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, B F; Andreani, T; Gavina, A; Vieira, M N; Pereira, C M; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, R

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same aggregation behaviour after sunlight exposure was observed for bare QDs. These results further emphasize that the shell of QDs seems to make them less harmful to aquatic biota, both under standard environmental conditions and after the exposure to a relevant abiotic factor like sunlight.

  5. PRKCZ methylation is associated with sunlight exposure in a North American but not a Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Dashti, Hassan S; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sha, Jin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhi, Degui; Bandinelli, Stefania; Borecki, Ingrid B; Absher, Devin M; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovas, Jose M

    2014-11-01

    Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. Since epigenetic changes establish gene expression profiles, changes in DNA methylation induced by sunlight exposure warrant investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sunlight exposure on CD4+ T-cell methylation patterns on an epigenome-wide scale in a North American population of European origin (n=991). In addition, we investigated the genetic contribution to epigenetic variation (methylQTL). We used linear regression to test the associations between methylation scores at 461,281 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and sunlight exposure, followed by a genome-wide association analysis (methylQTL) to test for associations between methylation at the top CpG locus and common genetic variants, assuming an additive genetic model. We observed an epigenome-wide significant association between sunlight exposure and methylation status at cg26930596 (p=9.2×10(-8)), a CpG site located in protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ), a gene previously shown to be entrained by light. MethylQTL analysis resulted in significant associations between cg26930596 and two intergenic single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 3, rs4574216 (p=1.5×10(-10)) and rs4405858 (p=1.9×10(-9)). These common genetic variants reside downstream of WWTR1, a transcriptional co-activator of PRKCZ. Associations observed in the North American population, however, did not replicate in an independent Mediterranean cohort. Our preliminary results support the role of sunlight exposure in epigenetic processes, and lay the groundwork for future studies of the molecular link between sunlight and physiologic processes such as tumorigenesis and metabolism.

  6. Wintering birds avoid warm sunshine: predation and the costs of foraging in sunlight.

    PubMed

    Carr, Jennie M; Lima, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    Wintering birds can gain significant thermal benefits by foraging in direct sunlight. However, exposure to bright sunlight might make birds easier to detect by predators and may also cause visual glare that can reduce a bird's ability to monitor the environment. Thus, birds likely experience a trade-off between the thermal benefits and predation-related costs of foraging in direct sunlight. To examine this possible thermoregulation-predation trade-off, we monitored the behavior of mixed-species flocks of wintering emberizid sparrows foraging in alternating strips of sunlight and shade. On average, these sparrows routinely preferred to forage in the shade, despite midday air temperatures as much as 30 °C below their thermoneutral zone. This preference for shade was strongest at relatively high temperatures when the thermal benefits of foraging in sunlight were reduced, suggesting a thermoregulation-predation trade-off. Glare could be reduced if birds faced away from the sun while feeding in direct sunlight, but we found that foraging birds tended to face southward (the direction of the sun). We speculate that other factors, such as the likely direction of predator approach, may explain this southerly orientation, particularly if predators use solar glare to their advantage during an attack. This interpretation is supported by the fact that birds had the weakest southerly orientation on cloudy days. Wintering birds may generally avoid foraging in direct sunlight to minimize their risk of predation. However, given the thermal benefits of sunshine, such birds may benefit from foraging in habitats that provide a mosaic of sunlit and shaded microhabitats.

  7. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters. PMID:26648916

  8. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters. PMID:26648916

  9. PRKCZ methylation is associated with sunlight exposure in a North American but not a Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Dashti, Hassan S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sha, Jin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhi, Degui; Bandinelli, Stefania; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Absher, Devin M.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. Since epigenetic changes establish gene expression profiles, changes in DNA methylation induced by sunlight exposure warrant investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sunlight exposure on CD4+ T-cell methylation patterns on an epigenome-wide scale in a North American population of European origin (n = 991). In addition, we investigated the genetic contribution to epigenetic variation (methylQTL). We used linear regression to test the associations between methylation scores at 461 281 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and sunlight exposure, followed by a genome-wide association analysis (methylQTL) to test for associations between methylation at the top CpG locus and common genetic variants, assuming an additive genetic model. We observed an epigenome-wide significant association between sunlight exposure and methylation status at cg26930596 (p = 9.2 × 10−8), a CpG site located in protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ), a gene previously shown to be entrained by light. MethylQTL analysis resulted in significant associations between cg26930596 and two intergenic single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 3, rs4574216 (p = 1.5 × 10−10) and rs4405858 (p = 1.9 × 10−9). These common genetic variants reside downstream of WWTR1, a transcriptional co-activator of PRKCZ. Associations observed in the North American population, however, did not replicate in an independent Mediterranean cohort. Our preliminary results support the role of sunlight exposure in epigenetic processes, and lay the groundwork for future studies of the molecular link between sunlight and physiologic processes such as tumorigenesis and metabolism. PMID:25075435

  10. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  11. Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposure in Newly-Diagnosed Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yu, Yu; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo

    2016-03-04

    Circulating vitamin D has previously been found to be lower in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), while the effects of sunlight exposure have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between serum vitamin D, vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure, and newly-diagnosed PD patients in a Chinese population. This case-control study measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and sunlight exposure in 201 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and 199 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. Data on vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels, sunlight exposure, and PD. Adjustments were made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, BMI, and vitamin D intake. There were significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D (20.6 ± 6.5 ng/mL), daily vitamin D intake (8.3 ± 3.7 g/day), and sunlight exposure (9.7 ± 4.1 h/week) in patients with PD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for PD in the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 1 (reference), 0.710 (0.401, 1.257), 0.631 (0.348, 1.209), and 0.483 (0.267, 0.874), respectively. Crude ORs for PD in quartiles of sunlight exposure were 1 (reference), 0.809 (0.454, 1.443), 0.623 (0.345, 1.124) and 0.533 (0.294, 0.966), respectively. A significant positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure was found, but serum 25(OH)D was not correlated with daily vitamin D intake. This study indicates that lower levels of serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure are significantly associated with an increased risk for PD.

  12. Analysis of daylight performance of solar light pipes influenced by size and shape of sunlight captures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Jin, Rendong; Zhang, Wenming; Liu, Li; Zou, Dachao

    2009-11-01

    Experimental investigations on three different sunlight captures with diameter 150mm, 212mm, 300mm were carried out under different conditions such as sunny conditions, cloudy conditions and overcast conditions and the two different size solar light pipes with diameter 360mm and 160mm under sunny conditions. The illuminance in the middle of the sunlight capture have relationship with its size, but not linear. To improve the efficiency of the solar light pipes, the structure and the performance of the sunlight capture must be enhanced. For example, University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium, Beijing 2008 Olympic events of Judo and Taekwondo, 148 solar light pipes were installed with the diameter 530mm for each light pipe. Two sunlight captures with different shape were installed and tested. From the measuring results of the illuminance on the work plane of the gymnasium, the improvement sunlight captures have better effects with the size of augmenting and the machining of the internal surface at the same time, so that the refraction increased and the efficiency of solar light pipes improved. The better effects of supplementary lighting for the gymnasium have been achieved.

  13. Sunlight and sunburn in human skin cancer: p53, apoptosis, and tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Brash, D E; Ziegler, A; Jonason, A S; Simon, J A; Kunala, S; Leffell, D J

    1996-04-01

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Epidemiology indicates that most carcinogenic sunlight exposure takes place several decades before the tumor arises. Some of the early events have been identified by searching for genes having ultraviolet (UV)-specific mutations. Over 90% of squamous cell carcinomas and more than 50% of basal cell carcinomas from New England patients contain UV-like mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. From the mutation pattern, it can be concluded that the carcinogenic DNA lesions were pyrimidine-cytosine photoproducts caused by the UVB portion of sunlight. Particular codons of the p53 gene are most susceptible, apparently because of slower DNA repair at specific sites. Sunlight is sufficiently mutagenic often to mutate both p53 alleles. These mutations are also found in the precancer for squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, implying an early role. The function of p53 in normal skin is indicated by the observation that inactivating p53 in mouse skin reduces the appearance of sunburn cells, apoptotic keratinocytes generated by UV overexposure. Skin thus appears to possess a p53-dependent "cellular proofreading" response to DNA damage in which precancerous cells self-destruct. If this response is reduced in a single cell by a prior p53 mutation, sunburn can thereafter select for clonal expansion of the p53-mutated cell into an actinic keratosis. Sunlight appears to act twice: as tumor initiator and as tumor promoter.

  14. Stainless steel in coastal seawater: sunlight counteracts biologically enhanced cathodic kinetics.

    PubMed

    Eashwar, M; Lakshman Kumar, A; Sreedhar, G; Kennedy, J; Suresh Bapu, R H

    2014-09-01

    The influence of sunlight of varying intensity on the performance of UNS S30400 stainless steel (SS) was explored under conditions of natural biofilm development in coastal seawater. In a series of tests performed outdoors under an opaque roof, a range of shades were fashioned to impart varied amounts of diurnal light. These were an ambient level where the underwater illumination was ~ 5% of full sunlight, two intermediate ranges of lighting with ~ 2.5% and ~ 1% of the daylight, and a condition of full darkness. In comparison with the dark, increments of sunlight rendered the SS progressively less aggressive as cathodes in galvanic couples with UNS C70600 alloy. Likewise, welded SS with pre-initiated localized corrosion sites exhibited substantially lower rates of propagation with light. Thus, biofilms and sunlight affected cathodic kinetics in opposite ways. Surface analytical tests showed that the accumulation of manganese (Mn) within the biofilms was small relative to reports from waters of lower salinity. These results not only reveal that extremely low amounts of sunlight are adequate to offset the microbial effect, but also highlight the lack of convincing evidence for Mn cycling as a potent mechanism for enhanced cathodic kinetics in full-strength seawater.

  15. Risk assessment of combined photogenotoxic effects of sunlight and food additives.

    PubMed

    Salih, Fadhil M

    2006-06-01

    The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect on viability and mutation induction (kanamycin resistant) was also seen when cells were kept in contact with any of the additives for 80 min in the dark. However, when the relevant additive was present in cell suspension during sunlight exposure the number of induced mutations was increased to varying extents over that seen with sunlight alone. Raspberry and peach increased the number of mutations in a dose dependent manner, while vanilla produced mutations in an additive fashion. Nitrite, nitrate, benzoate, sorbate and benzoic acid increased mutation somewhat additively over that of sunlight. Sodium chloride and citric acid were not effective. The impact of this investigation reflects the significance of combination of sunlight and chemical food additives as potential risk, which requires special attention and necessitates further investigations to evaluate the risk.

  16. Thermal analysis of the crotch absorber in APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Howell, J.

    1992-10-01

    A crotch absorber design for use in the Advanced Photon source (APS) has been proposed and analyzed. the absorber is placed downstream of sectors S2 and S4 in the curved storage ring chamber and will be subjected to a peak power of 120 W/mm{sup 2} per 100mA synchrotron radiation. A beryllium ring is brazed on the GlidCop cooling cylinder in order to diffuse the concentrated bending magnet heating. One concentric water channel and two annular return water channels are arranged in the GlidCop cylinder to enhance the cooling. A Bodner-Partom thermoviscoplastic constitutive equation and a modified Manson-Coffin fatigue relation are proposed to simulate the cyclic thermal loading, as well as to predict the thermal fatigue life of the crotch absorber. Results of temperature and stress using finite element computations are displayed and series of e-beam welder tests and microstructure measurements are reported.

  17. Thermal analysis of the crotch absorber in APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Howell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A crotch absorber design for use in the Advanced Photon source (APS) has been proposed and analyzed. the absorber is placed downstream of sectors S2 and S4 in the curved storage ring chamber and will be subjected to a peak power of 120 W/mm{sup 2} per 100mA synchrotron radiation. A beryllium ring is brazed on the GlidCop cooling cylinder in order to diffuse the concentrated bending magnet heating. One concentric water channel and two annular return water channels are arranged in the GlidCop cylinder to enhance the cooling. A Bodner-Partom thermoviscoplastic constitutive equation and a modified Manson-Coffin fatigue relation are proposed to simulate the cyclic thermal loading, as well as to predict the thermal fatigue life of the crotch absorber. Results of temperature and stress using finite element computations are displayed and series of e-beam welder tests and microstructure measurements are reported.

  18. Dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system using non-imaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Wong, Chee-Woon; Tan, Ming-Hui; Tan, Woei-Chong; Lai, An-Chow; Lim, Boon-Han; Lau, Sing-Liong; Rahman, Faidz Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solar concentrating device plays an important role by making use of optical technology in the design, which can be either reflector or lens to deliver high flux of sunlight onto the Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) module receiver ranging from hundreds to thousand suns. To be more competitive compared with fossil fuel, the current CPV systems using Fresnel lens and Parabolic dish as solar concentrator that are widely deployed in United States, Australia and Europe are facing great challenge to produce uniformly focused sunlight on the solar cells as to reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The concept of non-imaging optics is not new, but it has not fully explored by the researchers over the world especially in solving the problem of high concentration solar energy, which application is only limited to be a secondary focusing device or low concentration device using Compound Parabolic Concentrator. With the current advancement in the computer processing power, we has successfully invented the non-imaging dish concentrator (NIDC) using numerical simulation method to replace the current parabolic dish as primary focusing device with high solar concentration ratio (more than 400 suns) and large collective area (from 25 to 125 m2). In this paper, we disclose our research and development on dense array CPV system based on non-imaging optics. The geometry of the NIDC is determined using a special computational method. In addition, an array of secondary concentrators, namely crossed compound parabolic concentrators, is also proposed to further focus the concentrated sunlight by the NIDC onto active area of solar cells of the concentrator photovoltaic receiver. The invention maximizes the absorption of concentrated sunlight for the electric power generation system.

  19. Sunlight-induced changes in chromophores and fluorophores of wastewater-derived organic matter in receiving waters--the role of salinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofang; Meng, Fangang; Huang, Guocheng; Sun, Li; Lin, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Wastewater-derived organic matter (WOM) is an important constituent of discharge to urban rivers and is suspected of altering the naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water systems. This study investigated sunlight-induced changes in chromophores and fluorophores of WOM with different salinities (S = 0, 10, 20 and 30) that were collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP-A and WWTP-B). The results showed that exposure to sunlight for 5.3 × 10(5) J/m(2) caused significant decreases in UV254-absorbing WOM (45-59% loss) compared to gross dissolved organic carbon (<15% loss). An increase in salinity accelerated the overall photo-degradation rates of the UV254-absorbing chromophores from both WOM and natural DOM. In addition, irradiated WOM at a higher salinity had a larger molecular size than that at a lower salinity. However, natural DOM did not display such behavior. Parallel factor analysis of the excitation-emission matrix determined the presence of two humic-like components (C1 and C2) and two protein-like components (C3 and C4). All the components in WOM followed second-order kinetics, except for the C4 component in WWTP-A, which fit zero-order photoreaction kinetics. The photo-degradation of the C1 component in both WWTPs appeared to be independent of salinity; however, the photo-degradation rates of the C2 and C3 components in both WWTPs and C4 in WWTP-B increased significantly with increasing salinity. In comparison, the photo-degradation of the C1 component was significantly facilitated by increased salinity in natural DOM, fitting first-order photoreaction kinetics. As such, the current knowledge concerning the photo-degradation of naturally occurring DOM cannot be extrapolated for the understanding of WOM photo-degradation.

  20. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  1. Self-tracking phase change concentrator device demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagolla, V.; Tremblay, E.; Moser, C.

    2014-10-01

    Concentration photovoltaic systems uses free-space optics to concentrate sunlight onto photovoltaic cells, using mechanical trackers to accurately track the sun's position and keep the focal spot on the PV cell. We recently proposed and demonstrated a proof-of concept of a self-tracking mechanism using a phase-change material to greatly extend the acceptance angle of the concentration device. The light responsive mechanism allows for efficient waveguide coupling and light concentration independent of the angle of incidence inside its angular range of acceptance. The system uses a lens pair to achieve a flat Petzval field curvature over the acceptance angle range. A waveguide slab acts as the concentrating device. The use of a dichroic prism membrane separates the solar spectrum into two parts, lower wavelengths (<750nm) are coupled into the waveguide, while the energy of higher wavelengths (>750nm) is used to power the self-tracking mechanism. The energy in this part of the spectrum is absorbed by a carbon black paraffin wax mixture that undergoes a phase change and subsequently creates a coupling feature due to thermal expansion which allows the lower wavelength part to be coupled into the waveguide. We show the extension of our proof-of concept to a device-like demonstrator, featuring the extension to a lens array and much larger dimensions. All parts of the proof-of-concept device have been upscaled to meet the requirements of a larger scale demonstrator. The demonstrator has an acceptance angle of +/- 16 degrees and can achieve an effective concentration factor of 20x. We present experimental and simulation results of the demonstration device.

  2. Inactivation of MS2 coliphage in Fenton and Fenton-like systems: role of transition metals, hydrogen peroxide and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Juarez, Jessica I; Pierzchła, Katarzyna; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Kohn, Tamar

    2010-05-01

    The inactivation of coliphage MS2 by iron- and copper-catalyzed Fenton systems was studied to assess the importance of this process for virus inactivation in natural systems and during water treatment by advanced oxidation processes. The influence of H(2)O(2) (3-50 microM) and metal (1-10 microM) concentrations, HO(*) production, and sunlight on inactivation was investigated. Inactivation was first order with respect to H(2)O(2), but the dependence on the metal concentration was more complex. In the Cu/H(2)O(2) system, the inactivation rate constant k(obs) increased with added Cu up to 2.5 microM, and then leveled off. This was consistent with Cu saturation of the solution, indicating that only soluble Cu contributed to inactivation. In contrast, inactivation in the Fe/H(2)O(2) system was governed by colloidal iron. Irradiation by sunlight only affected the Fe/H(2)O(2) system, leading to a 5.5-fold increase in k(obs) (up to 3.1 min(-1)). HO(*) production, measured by electron spin resonance, could not account for the observed inactivation in the Fe/H(2)O(2) system. Other oxidants, such as ferryl species, must therefore play a role. Experiments using bulk oxidant scavengers revealed that inactivation occurred by a caged mechanism involving oxidant production by metals located in close proximity to the virus. Overall, our results show that the Fenton/photo-Fenton process may serve as an efficient technology for virus disinfection.

  3. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  4. Optical modeling of sunlight by using partially coherent sources in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Alaibakhsh, Hamzeh; Darvish, Ghafar

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effects of coherent and partially coherent sources in optical modeling of organic solar cells. Two different organic solar cells are investigated: one without substrate and the other with a millimeter-sized glass substrate. The coherent light absorption is calculated with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The result of this method is convolved with a distribution function to calculate the partially coherent light absorption. We propose a new formulation to accurately model sunlight as a set of partially coherent sources. In the structure with glass substrate, the accurate sunlight modeling results in the elimination of coherent effects in the thick substrate, but the coherency in other layers is not affected. Using partially coherent sources instead of coherent sources for simulations with sunlight results in a smoother absorption spectrum, but the change in the absorption efficiency is negligible. PMID:26974647

  5. Rapid destruction of organic chemicals in groundwater using sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Haslund, C.A.; Pacheco, J.E.; Holmes, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    We are currently investigating a solar-driven photocatalytic process that promises to destroy low concentrations of hazardous organic molecules in large volumes of contaminated groundwater or industrial waste streams. Preliminary results of laboratory-scale screening tests using a model compound, salicylic acid, and titanium dioxide catalyst have shown that no measurable reaction occurs without both uv light and catalyst; no measurable volatilization of the salicylic acid occurs at room temperature; salicylic acid destruction rates depend on catalyst supplier and concentration and on uv light intensity; and some intermediates are being formed and subsequently destroyed. Observed reaction rates are consistent with those observed in an initial pilot-scale solar test of a falling-film reactor, although further testing will be required to quantify the comparison. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. The 3D heat flux density distribution on a novel parabolic trough wavy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demagh, Yassine; Kabar, Yassine; Bordja, Lyes; Noui, Samira

    2016-05-01

    The non-uniform concentrated solar flux distribution on the outer surface of the absorber pipe can lead to large circumferential gradient temperature and high concentrated temperature of the absorber pipe wall, which is one of the primary causes of parabolic trough solar receiver breakdown. In this study, a novel shape of the parabolic trough absorber pipe is proposed as a solution to well homogenize the solar flux distribution, as well as, the temperature in the absorber wall. The conventional straight absorber located along the focal line of the parabola is replaced by wavy one (invention patent by Y. Demagh [1]) for which the heat flux density distribution on the outer surface varies in both axial and azimuthal directions (3D) while it varies only in the azimuthal direction on the former (2D). As far as we know, there is not previous study which has used a longitudinally wavy pipe as an absorber into the parabolic trough collector unit.

  7. A Fluidically Tunable Metasurface Absorber for Flexible Large-Scale Wireless Ethanol Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel flexible tunable metasurface absorber is proposed for large-scale remote ethanol sensor applications. The proposed metasurface absorber consists of periodic split-ring-cross resonators (SRCRs) and microfluidic channels. The SRCR patterns are inkjet-printed on paper using silver nanoparticle inks. The microfluidic channels are laser-etched on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can detect changes in the effective permittivity for different liquids. Therefore, the absorber can be used for a remote chemical sensor by detecting changes in the resonant frequencies. The performance of the proposed absorber is demonstrated with full-wave simulation and measurement results. The experimental results show the resonant frequency increases from 8.9 GHz to 10.04 GHz when the concentration of ethanol is changed from 0% to 100%. In addition, the proposed absorber shows linear frequency shift from 20% to 80% of the different concentrations of ethanol. PMID:27509498

  8. A Fluidically Tunable Metasurface Absorber for Flexible Large-Scale Wireless Ethanol Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel flexible tunable metasurface absorber is proposed for large-scale remote ethanol sensor applications. The proposed metasurface absorber consists of periodic split-ring-cross resonators (SRCRs) and microfluidic channels. The SRCR patterns are inkjet-printed on paper using silver nanoparticle inks. The microfluidic channels are laser-etched on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can detect changes in the effective permittivity for different liquids. Therefore, the absorber can be used for a remote chemical sensor by detecting changes in the resonant frequencies. The performance of the proposed absorber is demonstrated with full-wave simulation and measurement results. The experimental results show the resonant frequency increases from 8.9 GHz to 10.04 GHz when the concentration of ethanol is changed from 0% to 100%. In addition, the proposed absorber shows linear frequency shift from 20% to 80% of the different concentrations of ethanol. PMID:27509498

  9. Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.

  10. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers prepared by grading magnetic powder density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Terada, Masao; Shogano, Fumiyoshi; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2010-09-01

    Resin compacts including iron-based magnetic powders were prepared using a centrifugal molding technique. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses demonstrated the formation of a concentration gradient of the magnetic powder in the resin compacts. The resultant concentration-graded resin compacts exhibited better broadband electromagnetic wave absorption than the homogeneous resin compacts prepared as a reference. This absorption ability was further enhanced by attaching a urethane foam plate to the absorber surface.

  13. Quasiperiodicity in lasers with saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Erneux, T.; Mandel, P.; Magnan, J.F.

    1984-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the mean-field equations for the laser with a saturable absorber (LSA) and concentrate on the low-intensity solutions. We show that the LSA equations may admit two successive bifurcations. The first bifurcation corresponds to the transition from the zero-intensity state to time-periodic intensities and is a Hopf bifurcation. The second bifurcation corresponds to the transition from these time-periodic intensities to quasiperiodic intensities which are characterized by two incommensurable frequencies. In order to describe these transitions, we investigate a particular limit of the parameters and propose a new perturbation method for solving the LSA equations. We give analytical conditions for the existence of both the primary and secondary bifurcations.

  14. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  15. Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov

    2009-05-15

    The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

  16. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  17. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  18. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  19. Haloalkaline Bioconversions for Methane Production from Microalgae Grown on Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Sorokin, Dimitry; Kruse, Olaf; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Strous, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Microalgal biomass can be converted to biofuels to replace nonsustainable fossil fuels, but the widespread use of microalgal biofuels remains hampered by the high energetic and monetary costs related to carbon dioxide supply and downstream processing. Growing microalgae in mixed culture biofilms reduces energy demands for mixing, maintaining axenic conditions, and biomass concentration. Furthermore, maintaining a high pH improves carbon dioxide absorption rates and inorganic carbon solubility, thus overcoming the carbon limitation and increasing the volumetric productivity of the microalgal biomass. Digesting the microalgal biomass anaerobically at high pH results in biogas that is enriched in methane, while the dissolved carbon dioxide is recycled to the phototrophic reactor. All of the required haloalkaline conversions are known in nature. PMID:26968613

  20. SUNLIGHT AND IRON(III)-INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVED GASEOUS MERCURY IN FRESHWATER. (R827632)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic understanding of sunlight-induced natural processes for
    production of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in freshwaters has remained
    limited, and few direct field tests of the mechanistic hypotheses are available.
    We exposed ferric iron salt-spiked fresh s...

  1. Facile synthesis of sunlight-driven AgCI:Ag plasmonic nanophotocatalyst.

    SciTech Connect

    An, C.; Peng, S.; Sun, Y.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois

    2010-06-18

    Highly efficient plasmonic photocatalysts of AgCl:Ag hybrid nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via a one-pot synthetic approach involving a precipitation reaction followed by polyol reduction. The as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibit high catalytic performance under visible light and sunlight for decomposing organics, such as methylene blue.

  2. A simple method to synthesize N-doped rutile titania with enhanced photocatalytic activity in sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhe, Aditi R.; Fernandes, Julio B. . E-mail: juliofernandes@rediffmail.com

    2005-09-15

    This study demonstrates a simple route for the synthesis of nanocrystalline N doped rutile titania by calcination of acidified TiCl{sub 3} in presence of urea. Urea was used as a source of nitrogen. The N doped rutile titania was yellow in colour and showed excellent photocatalytic activity in sunlight.

  3. [The Impact of Sunlight Exposure on the Health of Older Adults].

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Chia; Liao, Yen-Chi

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate exposure to sunlight not only contributes to the production of vitamin D, which has been associated with enhanced bone health, mood, and cognitive functions, but also regulates the secretion of melatonin, which has been associated with the mediation of circadian rhythms, improved sleep quality, and optimized physical and social activity in the elderly. However, damage to the skin, eyes, and immune system has also been widely associated with long-term exposure to sunlight. Several studies have shown that many elderly, especially those that reside in institutions, do not receive sufficient sunlight exposure. Institutionalized elderly tend to participate in indoor activities and spend significant periods of time alone and asleep in front of the television. Furthermore, factors such as poor health, environmental design, indoor/outdoor preference, and activity design may impact the access of institutionalized elderly to sunlight more than their non-institutionalized peers. Therefore, we suggest that in addition to obtaining sufficient levels of vitamin D from their diet and from supplements, the elderly should perform outdoor activities for 20-30 minutes a day for five days each week. Furthermore, we suggest that the environment of the care facility should be made be more accessible and that some activities should be held outdoors. PMID:27492302

  4. Inactivation of enteropathogenic E. coli by solar disinfection (SODIS) under simulated sunlight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; Boyle, M. A. R.; McGuigan, K. G.

    2008-02-01

    Solar Disinfection (SODIS) is a low cost water treatment method currently used in communities that do not have year round access to safe water. However, there is still reluctance in widespread adoption of this treatment method due to a number of limitations. An important limitation is the lack of SODIS inactivation studies on some waterborne pathogens in the developing world. SODIS inactivation of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), a major cause of infantile diarrhoea is reported for the first time under simulated sunlight conditions and following a natural temperature profile. EPEC was exposed to simulated sunlight (885Wm-2) for periods up to a cumulative time of 4 hours. Inactivation was determined by a log reduction in growth of the organisms. The temperature (°C) of the water was taken at every time point. After 4 hours exposure EPEC was completely inactivated (7 log reduction) by SODIS. Imposing a realistic water temperature profile (min-max) concomitant with irradiation produces a greater kill of EPEC. Maintaining simulated sunlight experiments at a high fixed temperature may result in over --estimation of inactivation. Following a natural water temperature profile will result in more reliable inactivation comparable with those that might be obtained under natural sunlight conditions.

  5. Effect of Humic Acid and Sunlight on the Generation of aqu/C60

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the effect of sunlight and natural organic matter, such as humic acid, on the aqueous suspension of fullerene C60. This knowledge gap limits our ability to determine the environmental impact of potential environmental releases of these materials. Aqueous sus...

  6. Effect of sunlight on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in seawater.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Abid M; Telser, Lital; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in seawater can result in waterborne and food borne outbreaks. This study was performed to determine the effect of sunlight and salinity on the die-off of Cryptosporidium parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and MS2 coliphage were seeded into tap water and seawater samples and then exposed to sunlight. The die-off of C. parvum in seawater, as measured by infectivity, was greater under sunlight (-3.08 log10) than under dark conditions (-1.31 log10). While, no significant difference was recorded in the die-off of C. parvum, under dark conditions, in tap water as compared to seawater (P < 0.05), indicating that the synergistic effect of salinity and sunlight was responsible for the enhanced die-off in seawater. The die-off of MS2 coliphage and E. coli was greater than that observed for C. parvum under all tested conditions. This indicates that these microorganisms cannot serve as indicators for the presence of C. parvum oocysts in seawaters. The results of the study suggest that C. parvum can persist as infectious oocysts for a long time in seawater and can thus pose a serious hazard by direct and indirect contact with humans.

  7. Competitive Interaction of Axonopus compressus and Asystasia gangetica under Contrasting Sunlight Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Samedani, B.; Juraimi, A. S.; Anwar, M. P.; Rafii, M. Y.; Sheikh Awadz, S. H.; Anuar, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Axonopus compressus is one of the native soft grass species in oil palm in Malaysia which can be used as a cover crop. The competitive ability of A. compressus to overcome A. gangetica was studied using multiple-density, multiple-proportion replacements series under a glasshouse and full sunlight conditions in a poly bag for 10 weeks. A. compressus produced more dry weight and leaf area when competing against A. gangetica than in monoculture at both densities in the full sunlight and at high density in the shade. Moreover, the relative yield and relative crowding coefficients also indicated A. compressus is a stronger competitor than A. gangetica at both densities in the full sunlight and high density in the shade. It seemed that A. gangetica plants in the shade did not compete with each other and were more competitive against A. compressus as could influence A. compressus height in the shade. It is concluded that although suppression of A. gangetica by A. compressus occurred under full sunlight, irrespective of plant density, this ability reduced under shade as A. compressus density decreased. The result suggests that A. compressus in high density could be considered as a candidate for cover crops under oil palm canopy. PMID:24163618

  8. Preventive role of lens antioxidant defense mechanism against riboflavin-mediated sunlight damaging of lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Anbaraki, Afrooz; Khoshaman, Kazem; Ghasemi, Younes; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The main components of sunlight reaching the eye lens are UVA and visible light exerting their photo-damaging effects indirectly by the aid of endogenous photosensitizer molecules such as riboflavin (RF). In this study, lens proteins solutions were incubated with RF and exposed to the sunlight. Then, gel mobility shift analysis and different spectroscopic assessments were applied to examine the structural damaging effects of solar radiation on these proteins. Exposure of lens proteins to direct sunlight, in the presence of RF, leads to marked structural crosslinking, oligomerization and proteolytic instability. These structural damages were also accompanied with reduction in the emission fluorescence of Trp and Tyr and appearance of a new absorption peak between 300 and 400nm which can be related to formation of new chromophores. Also, photo-oxidation of lens crystallins increases their oligomeric size distribution as examined by dynamic light scattering analysis. The above mentioned structural insults, as potential sources of sunlight-induced senile cataract and blindness, were significantly attenuated in the presence of ascorbic acid and glutathione which are two important components of lens antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the powerful antioxidant defense mechanism of eye lens is an important barrier against molecular photo-damaging effects of solar radiations during the life span. PMID:27316765

  9. The Double Absorbing Boundary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Givoli, Dan; Rabinovich, Daniel; Bielak, Jacobo

    2014-02-01

    A new approach is devised for solving wave problems in unbounded domains. It has common features to each of two types of existing techniques: local high-order Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) and Perfectly Matched Layers (PML). However, it is different from both and enjoys relative advantages with respect to both. The new method, called the Double Absorbing Boundary (DAB) method, is based on truncating the unbounded domain to produce a finite computational domain Ω, and on applying a local high-order ABC on two parallel artificial boundaries, which are a small distance apart, and thus form a thin non-reflecting layer. Auxiliary variables are defined on the two boundaries and inside the layer bounded by them, and participate in the numerical scheme. The DAB method is first introduced in general terms, using the 2D scalar time-dependent wave equation as a model. Then it is applied to the 1D Klein-Gordon equation, using finite difference discretization in space and time, and to the 2D wave equation in a wave guide, using finite element discretization in space and dissipative time stepping. The computational aspects of the method are discussed, and numerical experiments demonstrate its performance.

  10. Performance of a new carbon dioxide absorbent, Yabashi lime® as compared to conventional carbon dioxide absorbent during sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kei; Atiba, Ayman; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Shizuko; Miwa, Takashi; Katsumata, Teruya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we compare a new carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent, Yabashi lime(®) with a conventional CO2 absorbent, Sodasorb(®) as a control CO2 absorbent for Compound A (CA) and Carbon monoxide (CO) productions. Four dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with four preparations, Yabashi lime(®) with high or low-flow rate of oxygen and control CO2 absorbent with high or low-flow rate. CA and CO concentrations in the anesthetic circuit, canister temperature and carbooxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration in the blood were measured. Yabashi lime(®) did not produce CA. Control CO2 absorbent generated CA, and its concentration was significantly higher in low-flow rate than a high-flow rate. CO was generated only in low-flow rate groups, but there was no significance between Yabashi lime(®) groups and control CO2 absorbent groups. However, the CO concentration in the circuit could not be detected (≤5ppm), and no change was found in COHb level. Canister temperature was significantly higher in low-flow rate groups than high-flow rate groups. Furthermore, in low-flow rate groups, the lower layer of canister temperature in control CO2 absorbent group was significantly higher than Yabashi lime(®) group. CA and CO productions are thought to be related to the composition of CO2 absorbent, flow rate and canister temperature. Though CO concentration is equal, it might be safer to use Yabashi lime(®) with sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs than conventional CO2 absorbent at the point of CA production.

  11. A simple model for the design of vertical tube absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Patnaik, V.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ryan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The absorption of water vapor in aqueous solutions of lithium bromide is modelled for a falling-film, vertical-tube absorber. The model is based on the solution of three ordinary differential equations to calculate solution bulk and interface concentration and temperature distributions and the coolant temperature distribution. The heat and mass transfer coefficients employed in the equations are extracted from the literature. In this way, the model incorporates recent information on wavy-laminar flows. Under certain conditions, the solution exhibits instabilities in the entrance region of the absorber tube, which are corrected by the introduction of a dampening factor incorporating relevant thermophysical properties. The usefulness of the model for generating absorber performance charts is demonstrated.

  12. Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S. J.; Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Brandt, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities in snow can dominate the absorption of solar radiation at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow, contributing to the surface energy budget and leading to earlier snowmelt. In this study Arctic snow is surveyed for its content of light-absorbing impurities, expanding and updating the 1983-1984 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean during 1998 and 2005-2009, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack is accessible for sampling. Sampling was carried out in summer on the Greenland Ice Sheet and on the Arctic Ocean, of melting glacier snow and sea ice as well as cold snow. About 1200 snow samples have been analyzed for this study. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a specially designed spectrophotometer system to infer the concentration of black carbon (BC), the fraction of absorption due to non-BC light-absorbing constituents and the absorption Ångstrom exponent of all particles. This is done using BC calibration standards having a mass absorption efficiency of 6.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm and by making an assumption that the absorption Angstrom exponent for BC is 1.0 and for non-BC light-absorbing aerosol is 5.0. The reduction of snow albedo is primarily due to BC, but other impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. The meltwater from selected snow samples was saved for chemical analysis to identify sources of the impurities. Median BC amounts in surface snow are as follows (nanograms of carbon per gram of snow): Greenland 3, Arctic Ocean snow 7, melting sea ice 8, Arctic Canada 8, subarctic Canada 14

  13. A polarization-independent broadband terahertz absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Cheng; Zang, XiaoFei E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn; Wang, YiQiao; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn

    2014-07-21

    A highly efficient broadband terahertz absorber is designed, fabricated, and experimentally as well as theoretically evaluated. The absorber comprises a heavily doped silicon substrate and a well-designed two-dimensional grating. Due to the destructive interference of waves and diffraction, the absorber can achieve over 95% absorption in a broad frequency range from 1 to 2 THz and for angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. Such a terahertz absorber is also polarization-independent due to its symmetrical structure. This omnidirectional and broadband absorber have potential applications in anti-reflection coatings, imaging systems, and so on.

  14. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  15. Degradation of ethylparaben under simulated sunlight using photo-Fenton.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Benítez, Henry; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Ethylparaben (EPB) has been classified by different research groups as a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical, implying that it can potentially interfere with the normal balance of the endocrine system of living beings, which with its presence in different effluents, including drinking water, generates the need to seek methods that allow its removal from different water bodies. Advanced oxidation processes have been employed widely to remove organic compounds from different matrices. In this way, Fenton technology (process based on the reaction between ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide) has been able to degrade different substrates, but due to the Fe(2+) requirements to carry out the reaction optimally, combination of the conventional Fenton process with visible light radiation (photo-Fenton) is an alternative used in the treatment of pollution due to the presence of chemicals. In this way, the effectiveness of photo-Fenton on EPB degradation was assessed using a face-centered central composite experimental design that allowed assessment of the effects of Fe(2+) and H2O2 initial concentrations on process. In general, results indicated that after 180 min of reaction almost all EPB was eliminated, the dissolved organic carbon in solution was reduced and the sample biodegradability index was increased. PMID:26901724

  16. Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...

  17. 78 FR 45521 - Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Desert Sunlight 250, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 78 FR 45922 - Desert Sunlight 300, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Sunlight 300, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Desert Sunlight 300, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P < 0.03) 6 months postexposure. Fish fed calcein for 15 d (11.26 lm) were more brilliant (P < 0.002) than fish fed for either 5 d (3.02 lm) or 10 d (5.11 lm). Post hoc comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  20. Photosensitized rose Bengal-induced phototoxicity on human melanoma cell line under natural sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Ajeet K; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Dwivedi, Ashish; Amar, Saroj K; Goyal, Shruti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari N; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2016-03-01

    Rose Bengal (RB) is an anionic water-soluble xanthene dye, which used for many years to assess eye cornea and conjunctiva damage. RB showed strong absorption maxima (λmax) under visible light followed by UV-B and UV-A. RB under sunlight exposure showed a time-dependent photodegradation. Our results show that photosensitized RB generates (1)O2 via Type-II photodynamic pathway and induced DNA damage under sunlight/UV-R exposure. 2'dGuO degradation, micronuclei formation, and single- and double-strand breakage were the outcome of photogenotoxicity caused by RB. Quenching studies with NaN3 advocate the involvement of (1)O2 in RB photogenotoxicity. RB induced linoleic acid photoperoxidation, which was parallel to (1)O2-mediated DNA damage. Oxidative stress in A375 cell line (human melanoma cell line) was detected through DCF-DA assay. Photosensitized RB decreased maximum cellular viability under sunlight followed by UV-B and UV-A exposures. Apoptosis was detected as a pattern of cell death through the increased of caspase-3 activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and PS translocation through inner to outer plasma membrane. Increased cytosolic levels of Bax also advocate the apoptotic cell death. We propose a p53-mediated apoptosis via increased expression of Bax gene and protein. Thus, the exact mechanism behind RB phototoxicity was the involvement of (1)O2, which induced oxidative stress-mediated DNA and membrane damage, finally apoptotic cell death under natural sunlight exposure. The study suggests that after the use of RB, sunlight exposure may avoid to prevent from its harmful effects.

  1. The relationships among birth season, sunlight exposure during infancy, and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Min; Oh, Se Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases is hypothetically attributed to immune dysregulation in turn caused by a reduction in exposure to sunlight. We explored relationships between birth season, sunlight exposure, exercise duration, and an allergic disease. Methods We performed a questionnaire-based survey on allergic diseases among elementary school students. Birth time was categorized according to the season (summer and winter). Results The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) "symptoms ever" was higher in the children born in winter than in those born in summer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.49; P=0.024). Birth in winter was associated with an increase in the "symptoms in the past 12 months" prevalence of food allergy (FA) (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24; P=0.015). The lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases except FA was higher in the children whose parents considered their sunlight exposure prior to 24 months of ageas inadequate than those who considered their exposure as adequate ("diagnosis ever" asthma: aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.17-1.67; P<0.001; allergic rhinitis [AR]: aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.17-1.67; P<0.001; AD: aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.51; P=0.01). Neither recent sunlight exposure nor exercise duration was associated with the prevalence of an allergic disease. Conclusion Birth in winter may be associated with development of AD and FA. Inadequate sunlight exposure before the age of 24 months might possibly increase the risks of development of asthma, AR, and AD. PMID:27279886

  2. The influence of sunlight irradiation on the characteristics of InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiumei; Zhu, Yaoming; Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao; Gong, Haimei

    2014-10-01

    InGaAs ternary compound is suitable for detector applications in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Due to the advantages of good stability, low cooling requirements and high detectivity, InGaAs detectors have been applied widely in the space remote sensing area. However, InGaAs detectors would be affected by strong sunlight direct irradiation in space application. In this paper, a mesa-type InGaAs detector with large sensitive area of diameter 5mm was designed based on InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP epitaxial material, which is lattice-matched to InP substrate. The InGaAs detectors were fabricated by ICP etching, and packaged in a Kovar shell. The relative spectral response is in the range of 0.9μm to 1.7μm. The mechanism of the sunlight direct irradiation on InGaAs detector performance was studied. The sunlight were focalized by lens and irradiated directly on the detector. A piece of epitaxial material was investigated at the same time which was cleaved from a 2 inch wafer, same to the detector material. The real time testing was taken out to observe the output signal of the detector. After the irradiation experiment, the I-V curves and the relative response were tested immediately. The dark current of the detector increased temporarily, but come back to the original level after 24 hours. The response spectrum was nearly not affected. The XRD testing of the epitaxial material sample was carried out before and after sunlight direct irradiation. The sunlight irradiation causes thermal stress degradation. The thermal electrons were produced by the absorption of a great deal of visible light, leading to local enhancement of temperature and the lattice degeneration of the material.

  3. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  4. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  5. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  6. Development of optical tool for the characterization of selective solar absorber tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braillon, Julien; Stollo, Alessio; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    In the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, selective solar absorbers, which have a cylindrical geometry, are submitted to strong environmental constraints. The degradation of their optical properties (total solar absorbance and total emittance) has a direct impact on the performances. In order to know optical properties of absorber tubes, we present in this article a new optical tool developed by our laboratory which fit onto commercial spectrometers. Total solar absorbance and total emittance are calculated from total reflectance spectra measured by UV-Vis and IR spectrophotometry. To verify and validate the measurement method, we performed a comparative study between flat and cylindrical samples with same surface properties.

  7. One dimensional CdS nanowire@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell as high performance photocatalyst for fast degradation of dye pollutants under visible and sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Abbas; Salimi, Abdollah

    2016-10-01

    In this study, one-dimensional CdS nanowires@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell structures (1D CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical-solvothermal method. The different aspects of the properties of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs were surveyed by using a comprehensive range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The as-prepared nanostructure was applied as an effective photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible and sunlight irradiation. The results indicated significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs for degradation of MO, MB and Rh B compared to CdS NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enhanced sunlight absorbance and the efficient charge separation of the formed heterostructure between CdS NWs and TiO2. The results showed that MO, Rh B and MB were almost completely degraded after 2, 2 and 3min of exposure to sunlight, respectively; while under visible light irradiation (3W blue LED lamp) the dyes were decomposed with less half degradation rate. The catalytic activity was retained even after three degradation cycles of organic dyes, demonstrating that the proposed nanocomposite can be effectively used as efficient photocatalyst for removal of environmental pollutions caused by organic dyes under sunlight irradiation and it could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. We hope the present study may open a new window of such 1-D semiconductor nanocomposites to be used as visible light photocatalysts in the promising field of organic dyes degradation. PMID:27348482

  8. One dimensional CdS nanowire@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell as high performance photocatalyst for fast degradation of dye pollutants under visible and sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Abbas; Salimi, Abdollah

    2016-10-01

    In this study, one-dimensional CdS nanowires@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell structures (1D CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical-solvothermal method. The different aspects of the properties of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs were surveyed by using a comprehensive range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The as-prepared nanostructure was applied as an effective photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible and sunlight irradiation. The results indicated significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs for degradation of MO, MB and Rh B compared to CdS NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enhanced sunlight absorbance and the efficient charge separation of the formed heterostructure between CdS NWs and TiO2. The results showed that MO, Rh B and MB were almost completely degraded after 2, 2 and 3min of exposure to sunlight, respectively; while under visible light irradiation (3W blue LED lamp) the dyes were decomposed with less half degradation rate. The catalytic activity was retained even after three degradation cycles of organic dyes, demonstrating that the proposed nanocomposite can be effectively used as efficient photocatalyst for removal of environmental pollutions caused by organic dyes under sunlight irradiation and it could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. We hope the present study may open a new window of such 1-D semiconductor nanocomposites to be used as visible light photocatalysts in the promising field of organic dyes degradation.

  9. Harnessing and storing visible light using a heterojunction of WO3 and CdS for sunlight-free catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Yiseul; Kim, Wooyul; Park, Hyunwoong

    2016-08-01

    CdS and WO3 (CdS/WO3) bilayer film electrodes are fabricated to harness solar visible light (λ > 420 nm) and store photogenerated electrons for possible use during periods of unavailable sunlight. The overall film thickness is approximately 50-60 μm, while the CdS underlayer is slightly thinner than WO3 owing to a packing effect. The energetics of CdS and WO3 determined by optical and electrochemical analyses enables cascaded electron transfer from CdS to WO3. The open circuit potential (EOCP) of CdS/WO3 under visible light (approximately -0.35 V vs. SCE) is nearly maintained even in the absence of light, with a marginal decrease (∼0.15 V) in ∼20 h of darkness. Neither CdS nor WO3 alone exhibits such behavior. The electron lifetimes (τ) of CdS and WO3 are each less than 100 s, whereas coupling of the two increases τ to ∼2500 s at the EOCP. In the absence of dissolved O2, τ further increases, suggesting that O2 is the primary electron acceptor. In spite of oxic conditions, CdS/WO3 is capable of continuously reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) and Ag(+) to Ag(0) after removal of visible light. The number of utilized (i.e., stored) electrons in the reductions of Cr(6+) and Ag(+) are estimated to be ∼1.08 × 10(17) and ∼0.87 × 10(17), respectively. The primary role of CdS is to be a visible-light absorber in the 420-565 nm wavelength range, transferring the photogenerated electrons to WO3. The electrons stored in WO3 are gradually released to electron acceptors with suitable redox potentials. PMID:27411566

  10. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  11. Effect of sunlight exposure on cognitive function among depressed and non-depressed participants: a REGARDS cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Possible physiological causes for the effect of sunlight on mood are through the suprachiasmatic nuclei and evidenced by serotonin and melatonin regulation and its associations with depression. Cognitive function involved in these same pathways may potentially be affected by sunlight exposure. We evaluated whether the amount of sunlight exposure (i.e. insolation) affects cognitive function and examined the effect of season on this relationship. Methods We obtained insolation data for residential regions of 16,800 participants from a national cohort study of blacks and whites, aged 45+. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a validated six-item screener questionnaire and depression status was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to find whether same-day or two-week average sunlight exposure was related to cognitive function and whether this relationship differed by depression status. Results Among depressed participants, a dose-response relationship was found between sunlight exposure and cognitive function, with lower levels of sunlight associated with impaired cognitive status (odds ratio = 2.58; 95% CI 1.43–6.69). While both season and sunlight were correlated with cognitive function, a significant relation remained between each of them and cognitive impairment after controlling for their joint effects. Conclusion The study found an association between decreased exposure to sunlight and increased probability of cognitive impairment using a novel data source. We are the first to examine the effects of two-week exposure to sunlight on cognition, as well as the first to look at sunlight's effects on cognition in a large cohort study. PMID:19638195

  12. Residential and occupational exposure to sunlight and mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: composite (threefold) case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, D. M.; Zahm, S. H.; Dosemeci, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality is associated with sunlight exposure. DESIGN: Three case-control studies based on death certificates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and skin cancer mortality examining associations with potential sunlight exposure from residence and occupation. SETTING: 24 states in the United States. SUBJECTS: All cases were deaths from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and non-melanotic skin cancer between 1984 and 1991. Two age, sex, and race frequency matched controls per case were selected from non-cancer deaths. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and skin cancer from residential and occupational sunlight exposure adjusted for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and farming occupation. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality was not positively associated with sunlight exposure based on residence. Both melanoma and skin cancer were positively associated with residential sunlight exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for residing in states with the highest sunlight exposure were 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.86) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1.12 (1.06 to 1.19) for melanoma, and 1.30 (1.18 to 1.43) for skin cancer. In addition, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality was not positively associated with occupational sunlight exposure (odds ratio 0.88; 0.81 to 0.96). Skin cancer was slightly positively associated with occupational sunlight exposure (1.14; 0.96 to 1.36). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike skin cancer and to some extent melanoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality was not positively associated with exposure to sunlight. The findings do not therefore support the hypothesis that sunlight exposure contributes to the rising rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:9167561

  13. Decreased UV absorbance as an indicator of micropollutant removal efficiency in wastewater treated with ozone.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, A; Heisele, A; McArdell, C S; Böhler, M; Longree, P; Siegrist, H

    2015-01-01

    Ozone transforms various organic compounds that absorb light within the UV and visible spectra. UV absorbance can therefore be used to detect the transformation of chemicals during ozonation. In wastewater, decolourisation can be observed after ozonation. This study investigates the correlation of the UV absorbance difference between the ozonation inlet and outlet and the removal efficiency of micropollutants in wastewater. The absorbance at 254 and 366 nm was measured at the ozonation inlet and outlet, as was the concentration of 24 representative micropollutants and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The results clearly showed that the relative decrease of absorbance (ΔAbs) is positively correlated with the relative removal efficiency of micropollutants. We therefore suggest that UV absorbance can be used as a feedback control parameter to achieve optimal ozone dosage in wastewater treatment plants and to gain a fast insight into the process efficiency and stability of the ozonation.

  14. Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.

    1986-02-01

    Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

  15. Decreased UV absorbance as an indicator of micropollutant removal efficiency in wastewater treated with ozone.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, A; Heisele, A; McArdell, C S; Böhler, M; Longree, P; Siegrist, H

    2015-01-01

    Ozone transforms various organic compounds that absorb light within the UV and visible spectra. UV absorbance can therefore be used to detect the transformation of chemicals during ozonation. In wastewater, decolourisation can be observed after ozonation. This study investigates the correlation of the UV absorbance difference between the ozonation inlet and outlet and the removal efficiency of micropollutants in wastewater. The absorbance at 254 and 366 nm was measured at the ozonation inlet and outlet, as was the concentration of 24 representative micropollutants and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The results clearly showed that the relative decrease of absorbance (ΔAbs) is positively correlated with the relative removal efficiency of micropollutants. We therefore suggest that UV absorbance can be used as a feedback control parameter to achieve optimal ozone dosage in wastewater treatment plants and to gain a fast insight into the process efficiency and stability of the ozonation. PMID:25860699

  16. Results from the Sunlight Absorption on the Greenland Ice Sheet Experiment (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, C.; Dibb, J. E.; Flanner, M.; Courville, Z.; Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    MODIS observations indicate that albedo of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) has been declining since 2001, with important implications for energy balance and surface melt. The SAGE project seeks to understand the relative roles played by grain size changes, black carbon (BC), dust, and surface melt in decreasing the albedo of the high elevation areas of the GIS. Traverses were conducted in 2013 and 2014, sampling a total of 67 snow pits across much of northwestern Greenland to characterize snow microphysics and the deposition of absorbing impurities over the prior 1-2 annual cycles, with particular attention paid to sampling the 2012 melt layer. Results show elevated biomass burning derived BC levels in summer 2012 and elevated dust concentrations in spring 2013 at some sites, both particularly in the central areas of the ice sheet. Observations and modeling results indicate, however, that the albedo impact of these modest enhancements in impurity concentrations was very minimal (<<1%) in the dry snow environment. Grain metamorphosis in dry snow and surface wetting/grain growth occurring when melt extends to higher elevations appear to be the most important processes controlling albedo change across the high elevations of the Greenland ice sheet.

  17. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-05-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

  18. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. PMID:21532584

  19. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  20. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers. PMID:23842256

  1. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers.

  2. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  3. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  4. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  5. Sensitivity studies for space-based measurement of atmospheric total column carbon dioxide by reflected sunlight.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S Randolph

    2004-02-01

    The feasibility of making space-based carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon-cycle studies is explored. With the proposed detection method, we use absorption of reflected sunlight near 1.58 microm. The results indicate that the small (degrees 1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable provided that an adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable. Modification of the sunlight path by scattering of aerosols and cirrus clouds could, however, lead to systematic errors in the CO2 column retrieval; therefore ancillary aerosol and cloud data are important to reduce errors. Precise measurement of surface pressure and good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile are also required.

  6. Semiconductor nanoparticle-based hydrogels prepared via self-initiated polymerization under sunlight, even visible light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Yang, Jinhu; Bao, Song; Wu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qigang

    2013-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have used photosynthesized wood, bamboo, and cotton as building and clothing materials. The advantages of photo polymerization include the mild and easy process. However, the direct use of available sunlight for the preparation of materials is still a challenge due to its rather dilute intensity. Here, we show that semiconductor nanoparticles can be used for initiating monomer polymerization under sunlight and for cross-linking to form nanocomposite hydrogels with the aid of clay nanosheets. Hydrogels are an emerging multifunctional platform because they can be easily prepared using solar energy, retain semiconductor nanoparticle properties after immobilization, exhibit excellent mechanical strength (maximum compressive strength of 4.153 MPa and tensile strength 1.535 MPa) and high elasticity (maximum elongation of 2784%), and enable recyclable photodegradation of pollutants. This work suggests that functional nanoparticles can be immobilized in hydrogels for their collective application after combining their mechanical and physiochemical properties. PMID:23466566

  7. Conical solar absorber/thruster for space propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Strumpf, H.J.; Borghese, J.B.; Keating, R.F.

    1995-11-01

    Solar-powered space propulsion uses solar heating of a propellant such as hydrogen to impart thrust to a rocket when the hydrogen exists through an appropriately designed nozzle. Because of the low molecular weight of hydrogen, exhaust velocities, and hence specific impulses, can potentially be much greater than for chemical combustion of fuel. A very efficient solar thermal absorber design has been developed. The design consists of two interwound helical coils of rhenium tubing, through which the propellant flows to be heated before being exhausted out a rhenium nozzle. The conical absorbing surface is configured to conform to the extreme solar rays from a solar concentrator; i.e., the receiver apex angle is designed to match the concentrator apex angle. This shape helps to minimize the amount of reflected or emitted energy lost through the receiver aperture.

  8. Production of Bio-Energy from Pig Manure: A Focus on the Dynamics Change of Four Parameters under Sunlight-Dark Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Wei; Zhai, Ningning; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Wang, Xiaojiao; Han, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sunlight-dark conditions on volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), total alkalinity (TA) and pH during pig manure (PM) digestion and then the subsequent influence on biogas yield of PM. PM1 and PM2 were performed in a transparent reactor and a non-transparent reactor, respectively. Two sets of experiments were conducted with a temperature of 35.0±2.0 °C and a total solid concentration of 8.0% to the digestion material. The dynamic change of the four parameters in response to sunlight-dark conditions resulted in variations of the physiological properties in the digester and affected the cumulative biogas production (CBP). PM1 obtained higher CBP (15020.0 mL) with a more stable pH and a lower TAN concentration (1414.5 mg/L) compared to PM2 (2675.0 mL and 1670.0 mg/L, respectively). The direct path coefficients and indirect path coefficients between the four parameters and CBP were also analyzed.

  9. Sunlight-driven photochemical halogenation of dissolved organic matter in seawater: a natural abiotic source of organobromine and organoiodine.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Díaz, José Diego; Shimabuku, Kyle K; Ma, Jing; Enumah, Zachary O; Pignatello, Joseph J; Mitch, William A; Dodd, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with photochemically generated reactive halogen species (RHS) may represent an important natural source of organohalogens within surface seawaters. However, investigation of such processes has been limited by difficulties in quantifying low dissolved organohalogen concentrations in the presence of background inorganic halides. In this work, sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) and silver-form cation exchange filtration were utilized to desalt and preconcentrate seawater DOM prior to nonspecific organohalogen analysis by ICP-MS. Using this approach, native organobromine and organoiodine contents were found to range from 3.2-6.4 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C and 1.1-3.8 × 10(-4) mol I/mol C (or 19-160 nmol Br L(-1) and 6-36 nmol I L(-1)) within a wide variety of natural seawater samples, compared with 0.6-1.2 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C and 0.6-1.1 × 10(-5) mol I/mol C in terrestrial natural organic matter (NOM) isolates. Together with a chemical probe method specific for RHS, the SPE+ICP-MS approach was also employed to demonstrate formation of nanomolar levels of organobromine and organoiodine during simulated and natural solar irradiation of DOM in artificial and natural seawaters. In a typical experiment, the organobromine content of 2.1 × 10(-4) mol C L(-1) (2.5 mg C L(-1)) of Suwannee River NOM in artificial seawater increased by 69% (from 5.9 × 10(-5) to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C) during exposure to 24 h of simulated sunlight. Increasing I(-) concentrations (up to 2.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1)) promoted increases of up to 460% in organoiodine content (from 8.5 × 10(-6) to 4.8 × 10(-5) mol I/mol C) at the expense of organobromine formation under the same conditions. The results reported herein suggest that sunlight-driven reactions of RHS with DOM may play a significant role in marine bromine and iodine cycling.

  10. Sunlight-driven photochemical halogenation of dissolved organic matter in seawater: a natural abiotic source of organobromine and organoiodine.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Díaz, José Diego; Shimabuku, Kyle K; Ma, Jing; Enumah, Zachary O; Pignatello, Joseph J; Mitch, William A; Dodd, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with photochemically generated reactive halogen species (RHS) may represent an important natural source of organohalogens within surface seawaters. However, investigation of such processes has been limited by difficulties in quantifying low dissolved organohalogen concentrations in the presence of background inorganic halides. In this work, sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) and silver-form cation exchange filtration were utilized to desalt and preconcentrate seawater DOM prior to nonspecific organohalogen analysis by ICP-MS. Using this approach, native organobromine and organoiodine contents were found to range from 3.2-6.4 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C and 1.1-3.8 × 10(-4) mol I/mol C (or 19-160 nmol Br L(-1) and 6-36 nmol I L(-1)) within a wide variety of natural seawater samples, compared with 0.6-1.2 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C and 0.6-1.1 × 10(-5) mol I/mol C in terrestrial natural organic matter (NOM) isolates. Together with a chemical probe method specific for RHS, the SPE+ICP-MS approach was also employed to demonstrate formation of nanomolar levels of organobromine and organoiodine during simulated and natural solar irradiation of DOM in artificial and natural seawaters. In a typical experiment, the organobromine content of 2.1 × 10(-4) mol C L(-1) (2.5 mg C L(-1)) of Suwannee River NOM in artificial seawater increased by 69% (from 5.9 × 10(-5) to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol Br/mol C) during exposure to 24 h of simulated sunlight. Increasing I(-) concentrations (up to 2.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1)) promoted increases of up to 460% in organoiodine content (from 8.5 × 10(-6) to 4.8 × 10(-5) mol I/mol C) at the expense of organobromine formation under the same conditions. The results reported herein suggest that sunlight-driven reactions of RHS with DOM may play a significant role in marine bromine and iodine cycling. PMID:24933183

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Filtered Sunlight in Treatment of Jaundice in African Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Vreman, Hendrik J.; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Wong, Ronald J.; Brearley, Ann M.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Stevenson, David K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluate safety and efficacy of filtered-sunlight phototherapy (FS-PT). METHODS: Term/late preterm infants ≤14 days old with clinically significant jaundice, assessed by total bilirubin (TB) levels, were recruited from a maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Sunlight was filtered with commercial window-tinting films that remove most UV and significant levels of infrared light and transmit effective levels of therapeutic blue light. After placing infants under an FS-PT canopy, hourly measurements of axillary temperatures, monitoring for sunburn, dehydration, and irradiances of filtered sunlight were performed. Treatment was deemed safe and efficacious if infants were able to stay in FS-PT for ≥5 hours and rate of rise of TB was <0.2 mg/dL/h for infants ≤72 hours of age or TB decreased for infants >72 hours of age. RESULTS: A total of 227 infants received 258 days of FS-PT. No infant developed sunburn or dehydration. On 85 (33%) of 258 treatment days, infants were removed briefly from FS-PT due to minor temperature-related adverse events. No infant met study exit criteria. FS-PT was efficacious in 92% (181/197) of evaluable treatment days. Mean ± SD TB change was –0.06 ± 0.19 mg/dL/h. The mean ± SD (range) irradiance of FS-PT was 38 ± 22 (2–115) µW/cm2/nm, measured by the BiliBlanket Meter II. CONCLUSIONS: With appropriate monitoring, filtered sunlight is a novel, practical, and inexpensive method of PT that potentially offers safe and efficacious treatment strategy for management of neonatal jaundice in tropical countries where conventional PT treatment is not available. PMID:24864170

  12. Mechanism, kinetics, and pathways of self-sensitized sunlight photodegradation of phenylarsonic compounds.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiande; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-06-01

    Being highly water-soluble, phenylarsonic feed additives discharged in animal wastes can easily accumulate in surface water bodies. The photodegradation mechanism, kinetics, and pathways of p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA), 4-hydrophenylarsonic acid (4-HPAA), and phenylarsonic acid (PAA) in water under simulated and natural sunlight irradiation were investigated. The -AsO(OH)2 group was cleaved from the aromatic ring during photodegradation, and p-benzoquinone and p-hydroquinone were formed as the major organic degradation intermediates. Experimental results did not indicate any significant direct photolysis of the phenylarsonic compounds under simulated and natural sunlight irradiation, but consistently showed that they sensitized the formation of singlet oxygen, which was responsible for their photodegradation and oxidation of the As(III) released. A simple (1)O2-based "heterogeneous" model was developed, which could well describe the kinetics of (1)O2 formation and phenylarsonic compound photodegradation under various conditions. Indirect photolysis caused by inorganic ions commonly present in natural waters was negligible, while natural organic matter could significantly inhibit their photodegradation. The half-lives of p-ASA, 4-HPAA, and PAA photodegradation under simulated sunlight irradiation (765 W m(-2), 25 °C) were 11.82 ± 0.19, 20.06 ± 0.10, and 135 ± 6.0 min, respectively, while their degradation rates under natural sunlight in the Pearl River Delta of southern China were 5 times slower due to lower irradiation intensity and water temperatures (19-23 °C). PMID:27038583

  13. Attitude of future healthcare provider towards vitamin D significance in relation to sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Aysha Zia; Zia, Zubia; Gitay, Mehnaz Nuruddin; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Khan, Muhammad Saad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nature is the kindest of all to provide man with all the necessary components for a healthy life at easily accessible lengths. The deprivation arises with unawareness and lack of correct measures to extract the benefits. Medical education makes the youth aware of the numerous disorders and diseases, as well as their preventions and treatments. This awareness needs to be realized and implemented in the society, and it is not possible without the advisers acting on the same lines. Since doctors are the most trusted and their advice is adopted without much thought, it is extremely inevitable to analyze the attitude of medical students of various levels to understand the cause of their negligence toward their own deficiencies, the focus for this study being vitamin D (VD). Method: A cross sectional descriptive study was done on undergraduate medical students of health profession from different universities of Pakistan to access the awareness regarding VD deficiency associated with sunlight. Informed consent was duly signed by each participant after which self-constructed questionnaire was provided to them and data are collected. SPSS 17 was used for Statistical analysis. Results: Final students are well aware of VD significance, take food rich in VD but still suffer from fatigue and muscular pain. No treatment was taken for fatigue and muscular pain by majority of these sufferers and those who took treatment were VD supplement. The health sufferers were mostly those who avoided sunlight highlighting the role of VD in maintaining an active lifestyle as well as the significance of sunlight in maintaining VD levels. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in spite of awareness, the role of sunlight exposure and the proper time and duration of exposure cannot be ignored to create a healthy and active society. PMID:26594118

  14. Nanoscience at Work: Creating Energy from Sunlight (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2007-05-14

    Paul Alivisatos, co-leader of Berkeley Lab's Helios Project, is the Associate Director for Physical Sciences and director of the Materials Sciences Division at Berkeley Lab. In the Helios Project, Alivisatos will use nanotechnology in the efficient capture of sunlight and its conversion to electricity to drive economical fuel production processes. He is an authority on artificial nanostructure synthesis and inventor of the quantum dot technology.

  15. Nanoscience at Work: Creating Energy from Sunlight (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Paul Alivisatos, co-leader of Berkeley Lab's Helios Project, is the Associate Director for Physical Sciences and director of the Materials Sciences Division at Berkeley Lab. In the Helios Project, Alivisatos will use nanotechnology in the efficient capture of sunlight and its conversion to electricity to drive economical fuel production processes. He is an authority on artificial nanostructure synthesis and inventor of the quantum dot technology.

  16. Space station solar concentrator materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will represent the first time that a solar dynamic power system will be used to generate electrical power in space. In a system such as this, sunlight is collected and focused by a solar concentrator onto the receiver of a heat engine which converts the energy into electricity. The concentrator must be capable of collecting and focusing as much of the incident sunlight as possible, and it must also withstand the atomic oxygen bombardment which occurs in low Earth orbit (LEO). This has led to the development of a system of thin film coatings applied to the concentrator facet surface in a chamber designed especially for this purpose. The system of thin film coatings employed gives both the necessary degree of reflectance and the required protection from the LEO atomic oxygen environment.

  17. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  18. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  19. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  20. Photolytic dehalogenation of disinfection byproducts in water by natural sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui

    2016-09-01

    The aqueous photolysis of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) by natural sunlight irradiation was studied to determine their photolytic dehalogenation kinetics. Total organic halogen analysis was used to quantify the dehalogenation extents of DBPs during outdoor photolysis experiments. Dichloroacetamide, chloral hydrate, chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile, monochloro-, monobromo-, dichloro-, dibromo-, and trichloroacetic acids were generally resistant to photolytic dehalogenation and showed less than 10% reduction after 6 h sunlight irradiation. Monoiodoacetic acid, tribromoacetic acid, bromoform, dibromoacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane showed moderate to high dehalogenation degrees with half-lives of 4.0-19.3 h. Diiodoacetic acid, triiodoacetic acid, and iodoform degraded rapidly under the sunlight irradiation and exhibited half-lives of 5.3-10.2 min. In general, the photosensitive cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds of DBPs increased with increasing number of halogens (tri- > di- > mono-halogenated) and size of the substituted halogens (I > Br > Cl). Nitrate, nitrite, and pH had little impact on the photodehalogenation of DBPs under typical levels in surface waters. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) inhibited the photodehalogenation of DBPs by light screening. The NOM inhibiting effects were more pronounced for the fast degrading iodinated DBPs. The results of this study improve our understanding about the photolytic dehalogenation of wastewater-derived DBPs in surface waters during water reuse. PMID:27289205

  1. Spore sensitivity to sunlight and freezing can restrict dispersal in wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Norros, Veera; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at -25°C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges. PMID:26380666

  2. Spore sensitivity to sunlight and freezing can restrict dispersal in wood-decay fungi

    PubMed Central

    Norros, Veera; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at −25°C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges. PMID:26380666

  3. Worst case earth charging environment. [geosynchronous plasma environment in sunlight for predicting spacecraft potential in eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.-J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) geosynchronous satellite charged up to -2200 V in sunlight on day 178, 1974. This event, being the highest known spacecraft charging event in sunlight, is used to estimate a worst case geosynchronous plasma environment for predicting the spacecraft potential in eclipse. The advantage of using this sunlight spectrum as opposed to an eclipse case is that the ion and electron fluxes to the detectors are shifted only slightly due to the spacecraft potential. After correcting the available data for satellite potential and missing data above 81 KeV, it is found that the plasma can be characterized by a single Maxwellian approximation having an electron density of 1.22/cu cm, electron temperature of 16 KeV, hydrogen ion density of 0.24/cu cm, and hydrogen ion temperature of 29 KeV. In eclipse the spacecraft would have charged up to -28 kV, the highest estimated potential to date in the earth's plasma environment.

  4. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps: Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  5. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps - Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard L.

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer, and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  6. Catching Sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Alan

    Everyone knows that astronomy is done in the dark. Astronomers are creatures of the night, like vampires, sleeping during the day and working all night long to catch the faint light of their elusive prey.

  7. Direct measurement of pure absorbance spectra of living phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Göbel, F

    1978-02-01

    The pure absorbance of turbid cell suspensions of various phototrophic microorganisms were determined by collecting the scattered light. A conventional spectrophotometer was used, equipped with an intergrating sphere as receiver unit, which allowed precise measurements of the absorbance in the range from zero to 0.1. In the wavelength range 300--1100 nm, where photosynthesis occurs, light scattered only once by a bacterial cell retains predominantly the forward direction. This allows measurements of pure absorption, when the concentration of cells which the light has to pass through is small. For example, by comparison of measurements of pigmented and nonpigmented cell suspensions of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, it was shown that the total sum of scattered light can be collected. The best results were obtained using cuvettes with a light path of 0.1 cm or 0.2 cm to measure cell suspensions of about 0.2 mg dry weight per ml. For R. acidophila this corresponds to 1--3 cell layers. Extinction-, absorbance- and scattering spectra for R. acidophila are presented, in addition to the absorbance spectra for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Aphanocapsa and Scenedesmus.

  8. Biological amplification factor for sunlight-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer at high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Moan, J; Dahlback, A; Henriksen, T; Magnus, K

    1989-09-15

    Data for the incidence of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin, registered for six regions of Norway during 10 years (1976-1985), were used to evaluate the biological amplification factor Ab for induction of these cancers by sunlight. Ab is the ratio of the increment in skin cancer production to the increment in causative sunlight exposure. Two different approximations were used for the action spectrum for carcinogenesis: an erythema action spectrum; and an action spectrum for mutagenesis of cells in the basal layer of the skin. These two fundamentally different approaches yielded Ab values that were similar to within about 10%: 2.1-2.3 for BCCs; and 1.6-1.8 for SCCs. Using a radiation amplification factor for ozone depletion of 0.8-1.1, we find that the total amplification factor for BCCs is within the range 1.6-2.1 and that that for SCCs is within the range 1.3-1.7 at northern latitudes of 60-70 degrees. Thus, an ozone depletion of 1% will result in an increase in the incidence of BCCs by 1.6-2.1% and of SCCs by 1.3-1.7%. There were no significant differences between the values for men and women. Neither was there any significant difference between Ab values found for skin commonly exposed to sunlight (face) and for skin sites normally covered by clothes and therefore receiving much lower exposures, in spite of the fact that the tumor density per unit skin area was a factor of 20 or more larger at the former sites. This observation, as well as the curves relating cancer incidence with annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight, supports a power law relationship between cancer incidence and annual sun exposure. Sunlight appears to be the main cause of BCCs and SCCs even at the high latitudes of Northern Norway. All over, BCCs were found to be about 6 times more frequent than SCCs. The ratio of the incidence of BCCs to that of SCCs seemed to be independent of the latitude. Finally, BCCs were found to be equally frequent among

  9. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  10. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  16. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes.

    PubMed

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings.

  17. Sunlight-Driven Reduction of Silver Ions by Natural Organic Matter: Formation and Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photobiogeochemical reactions involving metal species can be a source of naturally occurring nanoscale materials in the aquatic environment. This study demonstrates that, under simulated sunlight exposure, ionic Ag is photoreduced in river water or synthetic natural water samples...

  18. Air Ambient-Operated pNIPAM-Based Flexible Actuators Stimulated by Human Body Temperature and Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Kanao, Kenichiro; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-05-27

    Harnessing a natural power source such as the human body temperature or sunlight should realize ultimate low-power devices. In particular, macroscale and flexible actuators that do not require an artificial power source have tremendous potential. Here we propose and demonstrate electrically powerless polymer-based actuators operated at ambient conditions using a packaging technique in which the stimulating power source is produced by heat from the human body or sunlight. The actuating angle, force, and reliability are discussed as functions of temperature and exposure to sunlight. Furthermore, a wearable device platform and a smart curtain actuated by the temperature of human skin and sunlight, respectively, are demonstrated as the first proof-of-concepts. These nature-powered actuators should realize a new class of ultimate low-power devices.

  19. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes.

    PubMed

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings. PMID:27214041

  20. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M.; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings. PMID:27214041

  1. THz ATR Spectroscopy for Inline Monitoring of Highly Absorbing Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Amin; Busch, Stefan F.; Plew, Patrick; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We present a THz attenuated total reflection (ATR) setup which allows for inline measurements of highly absorbing liquids. As a proof of principle, we investigate a mixture of water and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) from 5 to 40 wt%. Inline measurements prove that our THz ATR setup allows for the distinction of various concentrations. As an example, we show inline THz ATR measurements for 30 to 40 wt% for GCC watery solution, as this concentration range is of technical relevance. We obtain a sensitivity better than 2 wt%.

  2. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  3. Protein oxidative damage and heme oxygenase in sunlight-exposed human skin: roles of MAPK responses to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Takekoshi, Susumu; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Toriumi, Kentarou; Ikoma, Norihiro; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Tamiya, Shiho; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira

    2010-12-20

    Oxidative stress derived from ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight induces different hazardous effects in the skin, including sunburn, photo-aging and DNA mutagenesis. In this study, the protein-bound lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) were investigated in chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skins using immunohistochemistry. The levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 and 2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase, were also examined. Oxidative stress is also implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Therefore, the expression and distribution of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed. Skin specimens were obtained from the surgical margins. Chronically sunlight-exposed skin samples were taken from the ante-auricular (n = 10) and sunlight-protected skin samples were taken from the post-auricular (n = 10). HNE was increased in the chronically sunlight-exposed skin but not in the sunlight-protected skin. The expression of heme oxygenase-2 was markedly increased in the sunlight-exposed skin compared with the sun-protected skin. In contrast, the intensity of immunostaining of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase was not different between the two areas. Phosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated JNK accumulated in the ante-auricular dermis and epidermis, respectively. These data show that particular anti-oxidative enzymes function as protective factors in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin. Taken together, our results suggest (1) antioxidative effects of heme oxygenase-2 in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin, and that (2) activation of p38 MAPK may be responsible for oxidative stress.

  4. A review of the factors affecting sunlight inactivation of micro-organisms in waste stabilisation ponds: preliminary results for enterococci.

    PubMed

    Bolton, N F; Cromar, N J; Hallsworth, P; Fallowfield, H J

    2010-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are efficient, cost-effective methods of treating wastewater in rural and remote communities in Australia. It is recognised that sunlight plays a significant role in their disinfection, however, due to the poor penetration of light in turbid waters it has been hypothesised that other mechanisms may also contribute to disinfection in WSPs. To date, studies have reported various and conflicting results with regards to the relative contributions of UVA, UVB, PAR and environmental factors including pH, DO and photo-sensitisers on micro-organism disinfection. Initially we investigated the role of these environmental factors on the solar disinfection of enterococci in buffered distilled water to control for potential confounding factors within the wastewater. Die-off rate constants were measured, in sterile buffered distilled water at varying pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations, for enterococci irradiated with UVA and UVB. Enterococci were found to be predominantly inactivated by UVB (p<0.001), however, UVA was also observed to increase inactivation rates relative to the dark control (p<0.001). DO and pH were found to have no effect on inactivation rate when enterococci were irradiated with UVB (p>0.05), however, when irradiated with UVA, both DO and pH were observed to further increase inactivation rates (p<0.01). PMID:20182066

  5. A review of the factors affecting sunlight inactivation of micro-organisms in waste stabilisation ponds: preliminary results for enterococci.

    PubMed

    Bolton, N F; Cromar, N J; Hallsworth, P; Fallowfield, H J

    2010-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are efficient, cost-effective methods of treating wastewater in rural and remote communities in Australia. It is recognised that sunlight plays a significant role in their disinfection, however, due to the poor penetration of light in turbid waters it has been hypothesised that other mechanisms may also contribute to disinfection in WSPs. To date, studies have reported various and conflicting results with regards to the relative contributions of UVA, UVB, PAR and environmental factors including pH, DO and photo-sensitisers on micro-organism disinfection. Initially we investigated the role of these environmental factors on the solar disinfection of enterococci in buffered distilled water to control for potential confounding factors within the wastewater. Die-off rate constants were measured, in sterile buffered distilled water at varying pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations, for enterococci irradiated with UVA and UVB. Enterococci were found to be predominantly inactivated by UVB (p<0.001), however, UVA was also observed to increase inactivation rates relative to the dark control (p<0.001). DO and pH were found to have no effect on inactivation rate when enterococci were irradiated with UVB (p>0.05), however, when irradiated with UVA, both DO and pH were observed to further increase inactivation rates (p<0.01).

  6. Sunlight-driven photocatalytic degradation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug based on TiO₂ quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amandeep; Umar, Ahmad; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis, characterization and solar-light driven photocatalytic degradation of TiO2 quantum dots (QDs). The TiO2 QDs were synthesized by a facile ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal process and characterized in terms of their structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic properties. The detailed studies confirmed that the prepared QDs are well-crystalline, grown in high density and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the prepared QDs were efficiently used as effective photocatalyst for the sun-light driven photocatalytic degradation of ketorolac tromethamine, a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). To optimize the photocatalytic degradation conditions, various dose-dependent, pH-dependent, and initial drug-concentration dependent experiments were performed. The detailed solar-light driven photocatalytic experiments revealed that ∼99% photodegradation of ketorolac tromethamine drug solution (10 mg L(-1)) was observed with optimized amount of TiO2 QDs and pH (0.5 g L(-1) and 4.4, respectively) under solar-light irradiations. The observed results demonstrate that simply synthesized TiO2 QDs can efficiently be used for the solar-light driven photocatalytic degradation of harmful drugs and chemicals.

  7. Sunlight inactivation of MS2 coliphage in the absence of photosensitizers: modeling the endogenous inactivation rate using a photoaction spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mi T; Silverman, Andrea I; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-04-01

    The endogenous sunlight inactivation rates of MS2 coliphage in photosensitizer-free water were measured (kobs) under different light conditions and compared to modeled inactivation rates (kmod) computed using a previously published action spectrum. Experiments were conducted under simulated and natural sunlight. There was generally good agreement between modeled and observed MS2 sunlight inactivation rates in the summer and winter, suggesting that the action spectrum can be used to predict changes in the inactivation rate caused by diurnal and seasonal changes in natural sunlight irradiance. However, we show that a major source of uncertainty in the predictions is the ability to accurately measure or model the comparatively weak and highly variable solar irradiance between 280 and 300 nm, a range to which the inactivation rate is very sensitive. The action spectrum was also used to predict the endogenous inactivation rates of MS2 at different depths in a column of strongly humic-colored [i.e., solar ultraviolet (UV)-attenuating] wetland water under simulated sunlight; we observed fairly good agreement between kobs and kmod, suggesting that the action spectrum can be used to estimate the decrease in the endogenous inactivation rate caused by spectrally selective sunlight attenuation in the water column.

  8. Measured absorbed dose rates from semi-infinite hemispherical volumes of 133Xe.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Barber, D E; Howley, J R

    1986-07-01

    Surface absorbed dose rates from different hemispheric volumes of 133Xe have been measured directly with an extrapolation chamber. The results indicate that a linear relationship exists between the radius of the cloud volume and the surface absorbed dose rate for radii between 0 and 23 cm. If cloud volumes with radii larger than 23 cm are taken to be infinite with respect to the range of the charged particles emitted, the absorbed dose rate calculated based on that assumption will be within the uncertainty of any measurement of absorbed dose rate that might be made. For hemispheric volumes having radii less than or equal to 23 cm, the surface absorbed dose rate in tissue-equivalent material, in mGy h-1, is approximated (+/- 20%) by the product of [1.30 mGy h-1 cm-1 kBq-1 cm3] X [cloud radius, cm] X [cloud activity concentration, kBq cm-3].

  9. Sunlight mediated diesel degradation under saline conditions using ionic silver coated sand via nanoreduction: use of impregnated form of thiourea modified chitosan membranes for ex situ application.

    PubMed

    Das, Devlina; Das, Nilanjana

    2014-08-15

    The present research investigates the use of ionic silver coated sand dust (ISSD) for the sunlight mediated degradation of diesel under saline conditions. Sand dust was used as a template for reduction of silver ions by effective removal of chloride ions. Diesel degradation was estimated in terms of degradation (%), chloride removal, volume reduction and nanoparticle synthesis, respectively. The process was optimized using a 7-level Box-Behnken design. Among several factors, time (B), Tween 80 (C), ISSD dosage (D) and silver(I) concentration (F) were found to be most significant. Maximum diesel degradation 99.8% was obtained in a period of 14 h which was analyzed by gas chromatography. XPS analysis confirmed silver reduction as the underlying phenomena. TEM analysis and albeit first approximation method confirmed that enhanced degradation occurred due to physical contact between diesel components and ISSD. First order kinetic model exhibited the best fit. Light microscopy results showed the various stages in diesel degradation by a reduction in bubble size. Ex situ application was carried out using ISSD impregnated thiourea modified chitosan/PVA membranes by surface floatation technique for the remediation of diesel contaminated sea water. Complete diesel degradation was noted after 48 h of sunlight exposure.

  10. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  11. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  12. Bond integrity of microwave absorbers for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    A. Ananda; Y. Verma; B.T. Smith; P.H. Johnson; I.E. Campisi; K.E. Finger

    1992-10-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses superconducting niobium cavities. Specially developed microwave absorbing ceramics are used in the cavities to absorb the higher order mode power. The ceramic absorbers are brazed to copper mounts. The structural integrity and the thermal contact of the braze joints are essential. The ultrasonic reflection signal from the various bonds is evaluated to locate voids and partial braze surfaces. The acoustic wave properties of the four components of the structure are used as input to an ultrasonic transmission line model which is compared to the experimental data. There is good correlation between the ultrasonic reflection data and destructive testing of the bonds.

  13. Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Raga, G.

    2004-03-01

    Recent measurements of light absorbing particles in the Arctic lower stratosphere show significantly higher mass concentrations of black carbon than were measured in 1992. The difference is primarily a result of measurements with a more quantitative and accurate technique than was previously used. We attribute the large amount of light absorbing material to transport from lower latitude, tropospheric sources rather than increases in aircraft emissions. The calculated heating rate in this aerosol layer, as compared to an atmosphere consisting of only gases, increases by 12% during the winter. This is a result of light absorption by the particles and could perturb the altitude of the local tropopause and affect tropospheric/stratospheric exchange processes.

  14. Evaluation of absorbed dose in Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Gayane; Djuraeva, Gulnara; Kim, Andrey; Koblik, Yuriy; Kulabdullaev, Gairatulla; Rakhmonov, Turdimukhammad; Saytjanov, Shavkat

    2015-02-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is used for treatment of radioresistant malignant tumors. The absorbed dose in GdNCT can be divided into four primary dose components: thermal neutron, fast neutron, photon and natural gadolinium doses. The most significant is the dose created by natural gadolinium. The amount of gadolinium at the irradiated region is changeable and depends on the gadolinium delivery agent and on the structure of the location where the agent is injected. To de- fine the time dependence of the gadolinium concentration ρ(t) in the irradiated region the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium delivery agent (Magnevist) was studied at intratumoral injection in mice and intramuscular injection in rats. A polynomial approximation was applied to the experimental data and the influence of ρ(t) on the relative change of the absorbed dose of gadolinium was studied.

  15. The genotoxic effects of DNA lesions induced by artificial UV-radiation and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2010-06-01

    Solar radiation sustains and affects all life forms on Earth. The increase in solar UV-radiation at environmental levels, due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, highlights serious issues of social concern. This becomes still more dramatic in tropical and subtropical regions where radiation-intensity is still higher. Thus, there is the need to evaluate the harmful effects of solar UV-radiation on the DNA molecule as a basis for assessing the risks involved for human health, biological productivity and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the profile of DNA damage induced by this form of radiation and its genotoxic effects, plasmid DNA samples were exposed to artificial-UV lamps and directly to sunlight. The induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photoproducts (CPDs) and oxidative DNA damage in these molecules were evaluated by means of specific DNA repair enzymes. On the other hand, the biological effects of such lesions were determined through the analysis of the DNA inactivation rate and mutation frequency, after replication of the damaged pCMUT vector in an Escherichia coliMBL50 strain. The results indicated the induction of a significant number of CPDs after exposure to increasing doses of UVC, UVB, UVA radiation and sunlight. Interestingly, these photoproducts are those lesions that better correlate with plasmid inactivation as well as mutagenesis, and the oxidative DNA damages induced present very low correlation with these effects. The results indicated that DNA photoproducts play the main role in the induction of genotoxic effects by artificial UV-radiation sources and sunlight.

  16. Technoeconomic analysis of different options for the production of hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Amos, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    To determine their technical and economic viability and to provide insight into where each technology is in its development cycle, different options to produce hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass were studied. Additionally, costs for storing and transporting hydrogen were determined for different hydrogen quantities and storage times. The analysis of hydrogen from sunlight examined the selling price of hydrogen from two technologies: direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight and photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. The wind analysis was based on wind-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. In addition to the base case analyses, which assume that hydrogen is the sole product, three alternative scenarios explore the economic impact of integrating the PV- and wind-based systems with the electric utility grid. Results show that PEC hydrogen production has the potential to be economically feasible. Additionally, the economics of the PV and wind electrolysis systems are improved by interaction with the grid. The analysis of hydrogen from biomass focused on three gasification technologies. The systems are: low pressure, indirectly-heated gasification followed by steam reforming; high pressure, oxygen-blown gasification followed by steam reforming; and pyrolysis followed by partial oxidation. For each of the systems studied, the downstream process steps include shift conversion followed by hydrogen purification. Only the low pressure system produces hydrogen within the range of the current industry selling prices (typically $0.7--$2/kg, or $5--14/GJ on a HHV basis). A sensitivity analysis showed that, for the other two systems, in order to bring the hydrogen selling price down to $2/kg, negative-priced feedstocks would be required.

  17. Environmentally relevant impacts of nano-TiO2 on abiotic degradation of bisphenol A under sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Zhu, Lingyan; Yue, Longfei; Xiang, Qian; Zhang, Yinqing; Li, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of nano-TiO2 particles on the environmental behaviors of organic pollutants in natural aquatic environments is of paramount importance considering that large amount of nano-TiO2 is being released in the environment. In this study, the effect of nano-TiO2 on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in water was investigated under simulated solar light irradiation. The results indicated that nano-TiO2 at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mg/L) could significantly facilitate the abiotic degradation of BPA (also at low concentration) under mild solar light irradiation, with the pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) for BPA degradation raised by 1-2 orders of magnitude. As reflected by the inhibition experiments, hydroxyl radicals (OHs) and superoxide radical species were the predominant active species responsible for BPA degradation. The reaction was affected by water pH, and the degradation rate was higher at acidic or alkaline conditions than that at neutral condition. Humic acid (HA) also affected the reaction rate, depending on its concentration. At lower concentration (the mass ratio of HA/nano-TiO2 was 0.1:1), HA improved the dispersion and stability of nano-TiO2 in aquatic environment. As a result, the yield of OHs by nano-TiO2 under sunlight irradiation increased and BPA degradation was facilitated. When the HA concentration increased, a coating of HA formed on the surface of nano-TiO2. Although nano-TiO2 became more stable, the light absorption by nano-TiO2 was significantly reduced due to the strong light absorption of the HA coated on the surface. As a consequence, the yield of OH decreased and BPA degradation was depressed. The results imply that nano-TiO2 at low concentration may distinctly mediate BPA degradation, and can contribute to the natural attenuation of some organic pollutants in aquatic environment with low level of HA. However, this process would be significantly reduced in the presence of high level of HA. PMID

  18. Nighttime HOx chemistry in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006: intense oxidation without sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Brauers, T.; Dlugi, R.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the absence of sunlight, unexpected high nighttime OH concentrations reported in previous field studies are of high interest for in-depth understanding of trace gas removal and reaction kinetics. In summer 2006, within the framework of PRIDE-PRD2006 and CAREBEIJING2006, we performed intensive in-situ measurements for HOx radicals and ancillary parameters at two non-urban sites in Pearl River Delta and Beijing, respectively. During nighttime, quite similar features for both campaigns were observed. Measured nighttime OH and HO2 concentrations were about 0.5 - 3-106cm-3 and 0.2 - 5-108cm-3, respectively. A box model with the established chemical mechanism (RACM-MIM-GK) underestimated these observed OH concentrations by an order of magnitude while reproduced the observed HO2 taking into account the known interference from ambient RO2 radicals (Fuchs et al. 2011). By testing the recently proposed recycling mechanisms applied for daytime chemistry, we found both a small primary source and a secondary source of OH radicals, the last one comparable to daytime observations (Lu et al., 2011, Hofzumahaus et al., 2009). Interestingly, the widely applied LIM0 and MIM2+ showed marginal impacts on the modeled nighttime OH concentrations under high isoprene concentrations. With the help of a simple 1 d simulation, we found that direct input of ROx radicals by vertical transport was negligible while the input of PAN and MPAN could be of significance. Averaged nighttime pollutant turnover rates by OH were as high as 8 ppb/h and 4 ppb/h for PRD and Beijing, respectively, dominating nighttime oxidation processes. Fuchs, H., et al. Detection of HO2 by laser-induced fluorescence: calibration and interferences from RO2 radicals, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1209-1225, 2011. Hofzumahaus, A. et al. Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere, Science, 324, 1702-1704, 2009. Lu, K. D. et al. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing

  19. Environmentally relevant impacts of nano-TiO2 on abiotic degradation of bisphenol A under sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Zhu, Lingyan; Yue, Longfei; Xiang, Qian; Zhang, Yinqing; Li, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of nano-TiO2 particles on the environmental behaviors of organic pollutants in natural aquatic environments is of paramount importance considering that large amount of nano-TiO2 is being released in the environment. In this study, the effect of nano-TiO2 on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in water was investigated under simulated solar light irradiation. The results indicated that nano-TiO2 at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mg/L) could significantly facilitate the abiotic degradation of BPA (also at low concentration) under mild solar light irradiation, with the pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) for BPA degradation raised by 1-2 orders of magnitude. As reflected by the inhibition experiments, hydroxyl radicals (OHs) and superoxide radical species were the predominant active species responsible for BPA degradation. The reaction was affected by water pH, and the degradation rate was higher at acidic or alkaline conditions than that at neutral condition. Humic acid (HA) also affected the reaction rate, depending on its concentration. At lower concentration (the mass ratio of HA/nano-TiO2 was 0.1:1), HA improved the dispersion and stability of nano-TiO2 in aquatic environment. As a result, the yield of OHs by nano-TiO2 under sunlight irradiation increased and BPA degradation was facilitated. When the HA concentration increased, a coating of HA formed on the surface of nano-TiO2. Although nano-TiO2 became more stable, the light absorption by nano-TiO2 was significantly reduced due to the strong light absorption of the HA coated on the surface. As a consequence, the yield of OH decreased and BPA degradation was depressed. The results imply that nano-TiO2 at low concentration may distinctly mediate BPA degradation, and can contribute to the natural attenuation of some organic pollutants in aquatic environment with low level of HA. However, this process would be significantly reduced in the presence of high level of HA.

  20. Influence of Sound Wave Stimulation on the Growth of Strawberry in Sunlight Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lirong; Teng, Guanghui; Hou, Tianzhen; Zhu, Baoying; Liu, Xiaona

    In this paper, we adopt the QGWA-03 plant audio apparatus to investigate the sound effects on strawberry in the leaf area, the photosynthetic characteristics and other physiological indexes. It was found that when there were no significant differences between the circumstances of the two sunlight greenhouses, the strawberry after the sound wave stimulation grew stronger than in the control and its leaf were deeper green, and shifted to an earlier time about one week to blossom and bear fruit. It was also found that the resistance of strawberry against disease and insect pest were enhanced. The experiment results show that sound wave stimulation can certainly promote the growth of plants.

  1. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), an effective way to characterize the thermal performance of a photovoltaic module in natural sunlight, is developed. NOCT measurements for more than twenty different modules are presented. Changes in NOCT reflect changes in module design, residential roof mounting, and dirt accumulation. Other test results show that electrical performance is improved by cooling modules with water and by use of a phase change wax. Electrical degradation resulting from the marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules is demonstrated. Cost-effectiveness of each of these techniques is evaluated.

  2. Direct sunlight responsive Ag-ZnO heterostructure photocatalyst: Enhanced degradation of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongju; Wang, Lijing; Sun, Dewu; Han, Donglai; Qi, Bing; Li, Xiuyan; Chang, Limin; Yang, Jinghai

    2015-03-01

    The catalytic activity of Ag-ZnO heterostructure on the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B was investigated. It demonstrated that Ag-ZnO heterostructure exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles under direct sunlight. The possible factors to the photocatalytic acitivity of the sample were explored, including Ag content, dispersity and calcination temperature. It was shown that the sample dispersed by PVP, with 5% mol ratio Ag content, calcined at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic acitivity and this catalyst was reusable.

  3. On the origin of the coherence of sunlight on the earth.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sriram; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that the observed far-field behavior of sunlight on the earth's surface, located in the near-field region, is due to the small angular width it subtends at the center of the sun. The investigation of the angular behavior of the cross-spectral density function explicitly leads to Bessel-like far-zone behavior for a small angle without any restriction on the value of l. Our general analysis for the spherical source can be easily extended to other geometries. PMID:27628362

  4. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  5. Freshwater DOM quantity and quality from a two-component model of UV absorbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Heather T.; Tipping, Edward; Koprivnjak, Jean-Francois; Miller, Matthew P.; Cookson, Brenda; Hamilton-Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    We present a model that considers UV-absorbing dissolved organic matter (DOM) to consist of two components (A and B), each with a distinct and constant spectrum. Component A absorbs UV light strongly, and is therefore presumed to possess aromatic chromophores and hydrophobic character, whereas B absorbs weakly and can be assumed hydrophilic. We parameterised the model with dissolved organic carbon concentrations [DOC] and corresponding UV spectra for c. 1700 filtered surface water samples from North America and the United Kingdom, by optimising extinction coefficients for A and B, together with a small constant concentration of non-absorbing DOM (0.80 mg DOC L-1). Good unbiased predictions of [DOC] from absorbance data at 270 and 350 nm were obtained (r2 = 0.98), the sum of squared residuals in [DOC] being reduced by 66% compared to a regression model fitted to absorbance at 270 nm alone. The parameterised model can use measured optical absorbance values at any pair of suitable wavelengths to calculate both [DOC] and the relative amounts of A and B in a water sample, i.e. measures of quantity and quality. Blind prediction of [DOC] was satisfactory for 9 of 11 independent data sets (181 of 213 individual samples).

  6. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  7. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  8. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. )

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  9. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  10. Detection of Organic Compounds in Water by an Optical Absorbance Method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chihoon; Eom, Joo Beom; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optical method which allows determination of the organic compound concentration in water by measurement of the UV (ultraviolet) absorption at a wavelength of 250 nm~300 nm. The UV absorbance was analyzed by means of a multiple linear regression model for estimation of the total organic carbon contents in water, which showed a close correlation with the UV absorbance, demonstrating a high adjusted coefficient of determination, 0.997. The comparison of the TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations for real samples (tab water, sea, and river) calculated from the UV absorbance spectra, and those measured by a conventional TOC analyzer indicates that the higher the TOC value the better the agreement. This UV absorbance method can be easily configured for real-time monitoring water pollution, and built into a compact system applicable to industry areas. PMID:26742043

  11. Development of a prototype regeneration carbon dioxide absorber. [for use in EVA conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, P. S.; Baker, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber was developed to maintain the environmental quality of the portable life support system. The absorber works on the alkali metal carbonate-bicarbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The prototype sorber module was designed, fabricated, and tested at simulated extravehicular activity conditions to arrive at optimum design. The unit maintains sorber outlet concentration below 5 mm Hg. An optimization study was made with respect to heat transfer, temperature control, sorbent utilization, sorber life and regenerability, and final size of the module. Important parameters influencing the capacity of the final absorber unit were identified and recommendations for improvement were made.

  12. Porous absorber for solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.A.

    1980-09-10

    A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

  13. Taming electromagnetic metamaterials for isotropic perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Doan Tung; Viet, Do Thanh; Trang, Pham Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Quy, Ho Quang; Hieu, Nguyen Van; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Conventional metamaterial absorbers, which consist of a dielectric spacer sandwiched between metamaterial resonators and a metallic ground plane, have been inherently anisotropic. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for isotropic perfect absorbers using symmetric metamaterial structures. We show that by systematically manipulating the electrically and magnetically induced losses, one can achieve a desired absorption without breaking the structural homogeneity. Finite integration simulations and standard retrieval method are performed to elaborate on our idea.

  14. Structured metal film as a perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2013-08-01

    A new type of absorber, a four-tined fish-spear-like resonator (FFR), constructed by the two-photon polymerization process, is reported. An absorbance of more than 90% is experimentally realized and the resonance occurs in the space between the tines. Since a continuous layer of metallic thin film covers the structure, it is perfectly thermo- and electroconductive, which is the mostly desired feature for many applications. PMID:23661582

  15. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  16. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  17. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2.

    PubMed

    Chang Chien, S W; Chang, C H; Chen, S H; Wang, M C; Madhava Rao, M; Satya Veni, S

    2011-09-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO(2) in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO(2) was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO(2)) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO(2) and the photooxidation (without TiO(2)) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO(2)-enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO(2)) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO(2) in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO(2)-enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand>red soil>alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO(2)-enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO(2)) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO(2)-enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated.

  18. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  19. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

  20. Radar Absorbing Materials for Cube Stealth Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, D.; Pastore, R.; Vricella, A.; Marchetti, M.

    A Cube Stealth Satellite is proposed for potential applications in defense system. Particularly, the faces of the satellite exposed to the Earth are made of nanostructured materials able to absorb radar surveillance electromagnetic waves, conferring stealth capability to the cube satellite. Microwave absorbing and shielding material tiles are proposed using composite materials consisting in epoxy-resin and carbon nanotubes filler. The electric permittivity of the composite nanostructured materials is measured and discussed. Such data are used by the modeling algorithm to design the microwave absorbing and the shielding faces of the cube satellite. The electromagnetic modeling takes into account for several incidence angles (0-80°), extended frequency band (2-18 GHz), and for the minimization of the electromagnetic reflection coefficient. The evolutionary algorithm used for microwave layered microwave absorber modeling is the recently developed Winning Particle Optimization. The mathematical model of the absorbing structure is finally experimentally validated by comparing the electromagnetic simulation to the measurement of the manufactured radar absorber tile. Nanostructured composite materials manufacturing process and electromagnetic reflection measurements methods are described. Finally, a finite element method analysis of the electromagnetic scattering by cube stealth satellite is performed.

  1. Influence of pH, Oxygen, and Humic Substances on Ability of Sunlight To Damage Fecal Coliforms in Waste Stabilization Pond Water

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas P.; Mara, D. Duncan; Silva, Salomao A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple beaker experiments established that light damages fecal coliforms in waste stabilization ponds by an oxygen-mediated exogenous photosensitization. Wavelengths of up to 700 nm were able to damage bacteria. The ability of wavelengths of >425 nm to damage fecal coliforms was dependent on the presence of dissolved sensitizers. The sensitizers were ubiquitous in raw sewage, unaffected by sewage treatment, not derivatives of bacteriochlorophyll or chlorophyll, absorbed well in UV light, and had a slight yellowish color; they are therefore believed to be humic substances. The ability of light to damage fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to, and completely dependent on, oxygen. Scavengers of H2O2 and singlet oxygen could protect the bacteria from the effects of sunlight, but scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and superoxides could not. Light-mediated damage of fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to elevated pH values, which also enabled light with wavelengths of >425 nm (in the presence of the sensitizer) to damage the bacteria. We conclude that humic substances, pH, and dissolved oxygen are important variables in the process by which light damages microorganisms in this and other environments and that these variables should be considered in future research on, and models of, the effects of light. PMID:16348698

  2. Evaluation of high-concentration photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J. ); Whisnant, R.A. ); McGowin, C.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design, and estimated cost and performance of two high-concentration, 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver.

  3. Transformation of acesulfame in water under natural sunlight: joint effect of photolysis and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ruonan; Hu, Hongwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Ren, Xinhao

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of acesulfame in water under environmentally relevant conditions, including direct and indirect photolysis, biodegradation, and hydrolysis, was systematically evaluated. Under natural sunlight, both direct and indirect photolysis of acesulfame were negligible in sterilized systems at neutral or alkaline pH, whereas direct photolysis occurred at pH of 4 with a rate constant of 0.0355 d(-1) in deionized water. No significant reduction in acesulfame contents was found in the dark controls or in the incubation experiments, indicating acesulfame was resistant to hydrolysis and biodegradation. In unsterilized systems, photolysis was substantially enhanced, implying that there was a joint effect of photolysis and biodegradation or that the sterilization process had the secondary effect of inactivating some photosensitizers. The near-surface summer half-life of acesulfame in the water from the Haihe River was 9 d. Specific experiments revealed the involvement of (1)O2/(3)DOM* in acesulfame photolysis, whereas OH exhibited only a slight contribution in the presence of DOM or bicarbonate. As indicated by the total organic carbon data, no significant mineralization occurred in both sterilized and unsterilized systems after acesulfame was irradiated under simulated sunlight for 7 d, suggesting the generation of persistent intermediates. Finally, major degradation intermediates were analyzed, and the degradation pathways of acesulfame under environmentally relevant conditions were proposed for the first time. PMID:25046375

  4. Chloroplast avoidance movement is not functional in plants grown under strong sunlight.

    PubMed

    Higa, Takeshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-04-01

    Chloroplast movement in nine climbing plant species was investigated. It is thought that chloroplasts generally escape from strong light to avoid photodamage but accumulate towards weak light to perform photosynthesis effectively. Unexpectedly, however, the leaves of climbing plants grown under strong sunlight showed very low or no chloroplast photorelocation responses to either weak or strong blue light when detected by red light transmittance through leaves. Direct observations of Cayratia japonica leaves, for example, revealed that the average number of chloroplasts in upper periclinal walls of palisade tissue cells was only 1.2 after weak blue-light irradiation and almost all of the chloroplasts remained at the anticlinal wall, the state of chloroplast avoidance response. The leaves grown under strong light have thin and columnar palisade tissue cells comparing with the leaves grown under low light. Depending on our analyses and our schematic model, the thinner cells in a unit leaf area have a wider total plasma membrane area, such that more chloroplasts can exist on the plasma membrane in the thinner cells than in the thicker cells in a unit leaf-area basis. The same strategy might be used in other plant leaves grown under direct sunlight.

  5. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Poleta and Polzeta in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight.

    PubMed

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Pavlov, Youri I; Kunkel, Thomas A; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-08-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase eta (Poleta) and polymerase zeta (Polzeta), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310-1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Delta, rev3Delta and rev3Delta rad30Delta strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6-4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Poleta participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polzeta is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polzeta, Poleta contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine. PMID:12888515

  6. Transformation of acesulfame in water under natural sunlight: joint effect of photolysis and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ruonan; Hu, Hongwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Ren, Xinhao

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of acesulfame in water under environmentally relevant conditions, including direct and indirect photolysis, biodegradation, and hydrolysis, was systematically evaluated. Under natural sunlight, both direct and indirect photolysis of acesulfame were negligible in sterilized systems at neutral or alkaline pH, whereas direct photolysis occurred at pH of 4 with a rate constant of 0.0355 d(-1) in deionized water. No significant reduction in acesulfame contents was found in the dark controls or in the incubation experiments, indicating acesulfame was resistant to hydrolysis and biodegradation. In unsterilized systems, photolysis was substantially enhanced, implying that there was a joint effect of photolysis and biodegradation or that the sterilization process had the secondary effect of inactivating some photosensitizers. The near-surface summer half-life of acesulfame in the water from the Haihe River was 9 d. Specific experiments revealed the involvement of (1)O2/(3)DOM* in acesulfame photolysis, whereas OH exhibited only a slight contribution in the presence of DOM or bicarbonate. As indicated by the total organic carbon data, no significant mineralization occurred in both sterilized and unsterilized systems after acesulfame was irradiated under simulated sunlight for 7 d, suggesting the generation of persistent intermediates. Finally, major degradation intermediates were analyzed, and the degradation pathways of acesulfame under environmentally relevant conditions were proposed for the first time.

  7. Psychiatric hospitalizations for affective disorders in Warsaw, Poland: Effect of season and intensity of sunlight.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Monika; Swiecicki, Lukasz; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess any associations between the number of hospitalizations for affective disorders, seasons of the year and the intensity of sunlight in Poland, a country with a very changeable climate and significant seasonal fluctuations. We analyzed 2837 admissions with affective disorders hospitalized in the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, between 2002 and 2010 (mania, n=380, mixed episode, n=131, bipolar depression, n=736, recurrent depression, n=681, single depressive episode, n=909). For each diagnostic group admission time series were created and categorized into subgroups according to sex and age, and these were analyzed by means of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method. Regression models and correlations were used to assess the influence of the intensity of sunlight on the number of hospitalizations. Most mania admissions were noted in spring/summer months and in midwinter, mixed episode-late spring and winter, and depression (bipolar, recurrent and single depressive episode)-spring and autumn months. The association between frequency of admissions and monthly hours of sunshine was observed in some age and sex subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder and single depressive episode. The results support the seasonality of admissions of patients with affective disorders.

  8. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Christopher C.; Olsen, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth's main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results show that the Birkeland currents vary with the conductivity, which depends most strongly on solar EUV emissions on the dayside and on particle precipitation at pre-midnight magnetic local times. In sunlight, the horizontal equivalent current flows in two cells, resembling an opposite ionospheric convection pattern, which implies that it is dominated by Hall currents. By combining the Birkeland current maps and the equivalent current, we are able to calculate the total horizontal current, without any assumptions about the conductivity. We show that the total horizontal current is close to zero in the polar cap when it is dark. That implies that the equivalent current, which is sensed by ground magnetometers, is largely canceled by the horizontal closure of the Birkeland currents.

  9. New kinetic model for predicting the photoreactivation of bacteria with sunlight.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Colmenares, J J; Acevedo, A; Salcedo, I; Nebot, E

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is a disinfection process that is used worldwide for the treatment of wastewater in order to minimize microbial contamination caused by wastewater discharge to natural waters. Once organisms have been exposed to ultraviolet radiation, they are able to repair the damage through two processes - dark repair and photoreactivation. In the work described here, the photoreactivation process after ultraviolet disinfection has been studied in pure culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, ATCC 15597 and in real wastewater, using both a laboratory plant and a pilot plant. A new kinetic model is proposed that is a modification of the model proposed by Kashimada et al. [15] including a first order decay phase. This model was applied to the photoreactivation process with sunlight. The new model incorporates a decay rate constant (M(s)) for solar reactivation in order to explain correctly the decay phase detected in the experimental data for photoreactivation with sunlight. The new model fits the data obtained in reactivation experiments, thus allowing the interpretation of the kinetic parameters S(m), S(m)-S(o), k(s), and M(s) and their relationship with UV dose.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid degradation in the presence of Fe(III) under natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Xiu, Zongming; Liu, Fei; Wu, Gang; Adamson, Dave; Newell, Charles; Vikesland, Peter; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Alvarez, Pedro J

    2013-11-15

    Due to the high bond dissociation energy (BDE) of CF bonds (116 kcal/mol), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a highly recalcitrant pollutant. Herein, we demonstrate a novel method to decompose PFOA in the presence of sunlight and ferric iron (Fe(III)). Under such conditions, 97.8 ± 1.7% of 50 μM PFOA decomposed within 28 days into shorter-chain intermediates and fluoride (F(-)), with an overall defluorination extent of 12.7 ± 0.5%. No PFOA was removed under visible light, indicating that UV radiation is required for PFOA decomposition. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that the decomposition reaction is likely initiated by electron-transfer from PFOA to Fe(III), forming Fe(II) and an unstable organic carboxyl radical. An alternative mechanism for the formation of this organic radical involves hydroxyl radicals, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observation that PFOA can be degraded by Fe(III) under solar irradiation provides mechanistic insight into a possibly overlooked natural attenuation process. Because Fe(III) is abundant in natural waters and sunlight is essentially free, this work represents a potentially important step toward the development of simple and inexpensive remediation strategies for PFOA-contaminated water.

  11. Improving the sunlight-to-biomass conversion efficiency in microalgal biofactories.

    PubMed

    Wobbe, Lutz; Remacle, Claire

    2015-05-10

    Microalgae represent promising organisms for the sustainable production of commodities, chemicals or fuels. Future use of such systems, however, requires increased productivity of microalgal mass cultures in order to reach an economic viability for microalgae-based production schemes. The efficiency of sunlight-to-biomass conversion that can be observed in bulk cultures is generally far lower (35-80%) than the theoretical maximum, because energy losses occur at multiple steps during the light-driven conversion of carbon dioxide to organic carbon. The light-harvesting system is a major source of energy losses and thus a prime target for strain engineering. Truncation of the light-harvesting antenna in the algal model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was shown to be an effective way of increasing culture productivity at least under saturating light conditions. Furthermore engineering of the Calvin-Benson cycle or the creation of photorespiratory bypasses in A. thaliana proved to be successful in terms of achieving higher biomass productivities. An efficient generation of novel microalgal strains with improved sunlight conversion efficiencies by targeted engineering in the future will require an expanded molecular toolkit. In the meantime random mutagenesis coupled to high-throughput screening for desired phenotypes can be used to provide engineered microalgae.

  12. A full-sunlight-driven photocatalyst with super long-persistent energy storage ability.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Zhijian; Zhang, Guozhu; Zou, Tao; Zou, Zhijun; Zhang, Shunping; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of traditional photocatalysts like TiO2 is that they can only work under illumination, and the light has to be UV. As a solution for this limitation, visible-light-driven energy storage photocatalysts have been developed in recent years. However, energy storage photocatalysts that are full-sunlight-driven (UV-visible-NIR) and possess long-lasting energy storage ability are lacking. Here we report, a Pt-loaded and hydrogen-treated WO3 that exhibits a strong absorption at full-sunlight spectrum (300-1,000 nm), and with a super-long energy storage time of more than 300 h to have formaldehyde degraded in dark. In this new material system, the hydrogen treated WO3 functions as the light harvesting material and energy storage material simultaneously, while Pt mainly acts as the cocatalyst to have the energy storage effect displayed. The extraordinary full-spectrum absorption effect and long persistent energy storage ability make the material a potential solar-energy storage and an effective photocatalyst in practice.

  13. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  14. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  15. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  16. Black carbon and other absorbing impurities in northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibb, J. E.; Polashenski, C.; Courville, Z.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the SAGE Traverse in May 2013, described in companion presentations by Courville et al. and Polashenski et al., snow samples were collected at 3 cm resolution down to 21 cm in 26 pits between Summit and northwest Greenland. Concentrations of major ions and black carbon have been quantified in these samples. We will discuss spatial patterns in both the concentrations in near surface layers and the inventories (mass/unit area) over different water equivalent depth intervals of these impurities as indicators of provenance of the snow falling on different regions along the 4000 km traverse route. Surface albedo measurements made at each sampling location will also be compared to the burden and depth profiles of the major absorbing impurities, black carbon, and calcium (a tracer of dust). Preliminary assessment of the relationship between impurity concentrations and snow microphysical characteristics (describe more fully by Courville at al.) in individual pit strata will also be presented.

  17. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  18. Dust in the Milky Way absorbs and scatters starlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 Aum Solar elongation angle = 90 degree Maps. Galactic coordinate Mollweide projection maps of the entire sky as seen by the DIRBE at a fixed angle relative to the Sun. Stars concentrated in the Galactic plane (horizontal feature) dominate the images at these wavelengths. Dust in the Milky Way absorbs and scatters starlight, producing the dark band that runs through the Galactic center in the 1.25 Aum image; this 'extinction' effect diminishes with increasing wavelength.

  19. Ultrathin flexible dual band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yan; Chen, Lin; Shi, Cheng; Cheng, Zhaoxiang; Zang, Xiaofei; Xu, Boqing; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    We propose an ultrathin and flexible dual band absorber operated at terahertz frequencies based on metamaterial. The metamaterial structure consists of periodical split ring resonators with two asymmetric gaps and a metallic ground plane, separated by a thin-flexible dielectric spacer. Particularly, the dielectric spacer is a free-standing polyimide film with thickness of 25 μm, resulting in highly flexible for our absorber and making it promising for non-planar applications such as micro-bolometers and stealth aircraft. Experimental results show that the absorber has two resonant absorption frequencies (0.41 THz and 0.75 THz) with absorption rates 92.2% and 97.4%, respectively. The resonances at the absorption frequencies come from normal dipole resonance and high-order dipole resonance which is inaccessible in the symmetrical structure. Multiple reflection interference theory is used to analyze the mechanism of the absorber and the results are in good agreement with simulated and experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption properties are studied under various spacer thicknesses. This kind of metamaterial absorber is insensitive to polarization, has high absorption rates (over 90%) with wide incident angles range from 0° to 45° and the absorption rates are also above 90% when wrapping it to a curved surface.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds in marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chalker, B.E.; Dunlap, W.C. )

    1990-01-09

    Studies on the biological effects of solar ultraviolet radiations are becoming increasingly common, in part due to recent interest in the Antarctic ozone hole and in the perceived potential for global climate change. Marine organisms possess many strategies for ameliorating the potentially damaging effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and the shorter wavelengths of UV-A (320-400nm). One mechanism is the synthesis of bioaccumulation of ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds. Several investigators have noted the presence of absorbing compounds in spectrophotometer scans of extracts from a variety of marine organisms, particularly algae and coelenterates containing endosymbiotic algae. The absorbing compounds are often mycosporine-like amino acids. Thirteen mycosporine-like amino acids have already been described, and several others have recently been detected. Although, the mycosporine-like amino acids are widely distributed. these compounds are by no means the only type of UV-B absorbing compounds which has been identified. Coumarins from green algae, quinones from sponges, and indoles from a variety of sources are laternative examples which are documented in the natural products literature. When the biological impact of solar ultraviolet radiation is assessed, adequate attention must be devoted to the process of photoadaptation, including the accumulation of ultraviolet radiation absorbing compounds.

  1. An extremely wideband and lightweight metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pei, Zhibin; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Zhang, Anxue; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional microwave metamaterial absorber based on the stand-up resistive film patch array. The absorber has wideband absorption, lightweight, and polarization-independent properties. Our design comes from the array of unidirectional stand-up resistive film patches backed by a metallic plane, which can excite multiple standing wave modes. By rolling the resistive film patches as a square enclosure, we obtain the polarization-independent property. Due to the multiple standing wave modes, the most incident energy is dissipated by the resistive film patches, and thus, the ultra-wideband absorption can be achieved by overlapping all the absorption modes at different frequencies. Both the simulated and experimental results show that the absorber possesses a fractional bandwidth of 148.2% with the absorption above 90% in the frequency range from 3.9 to 26.2 GHz. Moreover, the proposed absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.062 g/cm2, which is approximately equivalent to that of eight stacked standard A4 office papers. It is expected that our proposed absorber may find potential applications such as electromagnetic interference and stealth technologies.

  2. Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenliang; Liu, Yuexia; Han, Tiancheng

    2016-09-01

    By using sub-wavelength resonators, metamaterial absorber shows great potential in many scientific and technical applications due to its perfect absorption characteristics. For most practical applications, the absorption bandwidth is one of the most important performance metrics. In this paper, we demonstrate the design of an ultra-broadband infrared absorber based on metasurface. Compared with the prior work [Opt. Express22(S7), A1713-A1724 (2014)], the proposed absorber shows more than twice the absorption bandwidth. The simulated total absorption exceeds 90% from 7.8 to 12.1 um and the full width at half maximum is 50% (from 7.5 to 12.5 μm), which is achieved by using a single layer of metasurface. Further study demonstrates that the absorption bandwidth can be greatly expanded by using two layers of metasurface, i.e. dual-layered absorber. The total absorption of the dual-layered absorber exceeds 80% from 5.2 to 13.7 um and the full width at half maximum is 95% (from 5.1 to 14.1 μm), much greater than those previously reported for infrared spectrum. The absorption decreases with fluctuations as the incident angle increases but remains quasi-constant up to relatively large angles. PMID:27607662

  3. Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

  4. Sunlight-Driven Decarboxylative Alkynylation of α-Keto Acids with Bromoacetylenes by Hypervalent Iodine Reagent Catalysis: A Facile Approach to Ynones.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Li, Hongji; Ji, Wangqin; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-13

    A novel and practical decarboxylative alkynylation of α-keto acids with bromoacetylenes is catalyzed by hypervalent iodine(III) reagents when irradiation by sunlight at room temperature. The product ynones are generated in good yields. Experiments show that results obtained with blue light (λ=450-455 nm) are comparable to those obtained when using sunlight. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the sunlight-driven decarboxylation undergoes a radical process.

  5. Roadmaps for powering the world, U.S., and individual states for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses these problems and technical and economic plans to solve them by powering 100% of the world, individual countries, and states for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) together with efficiency measures, within 20-40 years. Specific plans for New York State and California are discussed. For California, the plan contemplates all new energy powered with WWS by 2020, 80-85% of existing energy replaced by 2030, and 100% replaced by 2050. Electrification plus modest efficiency measures would reduce California's end-use power demand ~44% and stabilize energy prices since WWS fuel costs are zero. Even without additional efficiency improvements, remaining all-purpose 2030 end-use demand could be met with 25% onshore and 10% offshore wind, 15% concentrated solar, 15% utility-scale PV, 10% residential PV, 15% commercial/government PV, 5% geothermal, 0.5% wave, 0.5% tidal, and 4% hydroelectric. These percentages will shift upon implementation. Converting would create ~137,000 net permanent jobs, decrease ~16,000 (4,800-29,600) state air pollution deaths/yr, and avoid 131 (39-296) billion/yr in health costs (6.9% of California's 2010 gross domestic product), repaying the 1 trillion capital cost for 573 GW installed power within ~7.3 yr. California's emission decreases would reduce 2050 U.S. and global climate costs by ~6 and 60 billion/yr, respectively.

  6. Circular polarization sensitive absorbers based on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kunpeng; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polarization of a linearly polarized (LP) light would rotate after passing through a single layer graphene under the bias of a perpendicular magnetostatic field. Here we show that a corresponding phase shift could be expected for circularly polarized (CP) light, which can be engineered to design the circular polarization sensitive devices. We theoretically validate that an ultrathin graphene-based absorber with the thickness about λ/76 can be obtained, which shows efficient absorption >90% within incident angles of ±80°. The angle-independent phase shift produced by the graphene is responsible for the nearly omnidirectional absorber. Furthermore, a broadband absorber in frequencies ranging from 2.343 to 5.885 THz with absorption over 90% is designed by engineering the dispersion of graphene. PMID:27034257

  7. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  8. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  9. Absorber topography dependence of phase edge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Waller, Laura; Neureuther, Andy

    2015-10-01

    Mask topography contributes to phase at the wafer plane, even for OMOG binary masks currently in use at the 22nm node in deep UV (193nm) lithography. Here, numerical experiments with rigorous FDTD simulation are used to study the impact of mask 3D effects on aerial imaging, by varying the height of the absorber stack and its sidewall angle. Using a thin mask boundary layer model to fit to rigorous simulations it is seen that increasing the absorber thickness, and hence the phase through the middle of a feature (bulk phase) monotonically changes the wafer-plane phase. Absorber height also influences best focus, revealed by an up/down shift in the Bossung plot (linewidth vs. defocus). Bossung plot tilt, however, responsible for process window variability at the wafer, is insensitive to changes in the absorber height (and hence also the bulk phase). It is seen to depend instead on EM edge diffraction from the thick mask edge (edge phase), but stays constant for variations in mask thickness within a 10% range. Both bulk phase and edge phase are also independent of sidewall angle fluctuation, which is seen to linearly affect the CD at the wafer, but does not alter wafer phase or the defocus process window. Notably, as mask topography varies, the effect of edge phase can be replicated by a thin mask model with 8nm wide boundary layers, irrespective of absorber height or sidewall angle. The conclusions are validated with measurements on phase shifting masks having different topographic parameters, confirming the strong dependence of phase variations at the wafer on bulk phase of the mask absorber.

  10. Precise dispersion equations of absorbing filter glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Biertümpfel, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The refractive indices versus wavelength of optical transparent glasses are measured at a few wavelengths only. In order to calculate the refractive index at any wavelength, a so-called Sellmeier series is used as an approximation of the wavelength dependent refractive index. Such a Sellmeier representation assumes an absorbing free (= loss less) material. In optical transparent glasses this assumption is valid since the absorption of such transparent glasses is very low. However, optical filter glasses have often a rather high absorbance in certain regions of the spectrum. The exact description of the wavelength dependent function of the refractive index is essential for an optimized design for sophisticated optical applications. Digital cameras use an IR cut filter to ensure good color rendition and image quality. In order to reduce ghost images by reflections and to be nearly angle independent absorbing filter glass is used, e.g. blue glass BG60 from SCHOTT. Nowadays digital cameras improve their performance and so the IR cut filter needs to be improved and thus the accurate knowledge of the refractive index (dispersion) of the used glasses must be known. But absorbing filter glass is not loss less as needed for a Sellmeier representation. In addition it is very difficult to measure it in the absorption region of the filter glass. We have focused a lot of effort on measuring the refractive index at specific wavelength for absorbing filter glass - even in the absorption region. It will be described how to do such a measurement. In addition we estimate the use of a Sellmeier representation for filter glasses. It turns out that in most cases a Sellmeier representation can be used even for absorbing filter glasses. Finally Sellmeier coefficients for the approximation of the refractive index will be given for different filter glasses.

  11. Preparation of K-doped TiO2 nanostructures by wet corrosion and their sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Kim, Jiyoon; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Park, Kwang-Won; Hong, Jongin

    2016-08-01

    K-doped TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Their sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity was also investigated with differently charged dye molecules, such as methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange. The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface would play a critical role in their selective photodegradation under sunlight illumination.

  12. A Highly Efficient Gold-Catalyzed Photoredox α-C(sp(3))-H Alkynylation of Tertiary Aliphatic Amines with Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Shi, Shuai; Zhang, Tuo; Mehrkens, Nina; Rudolph, Matthias; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-05-11

    A new α-C(sp(3))H alkynylation of unactivated tertiary aliphatic amines with 1-iodoalkynes as radical alkynylating reagents in the presence of [Au2(μ-dppm)2](2+) in sunlight provides propargylic amines. Based on mechanistic studies, a C-C coupling of an α-aminoalkyl radical and an alkynyl radical is proposed for the C(sp(3))-C(sp) bond formation. The mild, convenient, efficient, and highly selective C(sp(3))-H alkynylation reaction shows excellent regioselectivity and good functional-group compatibility. A scale-up to gram quantities is possible with sunlight used as a clean and sustainable energy source.

  13. Engineering reverse saturable absorbers for desired wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.; Scharf, Benjamin

    1986-06-01

    A variety of applications exist for reverse saturable absorbers (RSAs) in laser science (RSAs are substances whose excited-state absorption cross section is larger than their ground-state absorption cross section at a given wavelength and possess a number of other properties). We propose an approach to designing RSAs at a desired wavelength by construction of dimers of dye molecules which absorb near the wavelength of interest. The dimer ground-state absorption is to a state in which the excitation is spread over both monomeric units and the excited-state absorption commences from this state to the doubly excited electronic state in which both monomeric units are excited.

  14. Spin Particle in an Absorbing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amooshahi, M.

    2015-10-01

    The quantum dynamics of a localized spin Particle interacting with an absorbing environment is investigated. The quantum Langevin-Schrödinger equation for spin is obtained. The susceptibility function of the environment is calculated in terms of the coupling function of the spin and the environment. it is shown that the susceptibility function satisfies the Kramers-Kronig relations. Spontaneous emission and the shift frequency of the spin is obtained in terms of the imaginary part of the susceptibility function in frequency domain. Some transition probabilities between the spin states are calculated when the absorbing environment is in the thermal state.

  15. OSCEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the quiet clean short haul experiment engine (OCSEE UTW) was evaluated. The acoustic suppression to the original design for the engine fan duct which consisted of phased single degree-of-freedom wall treatment was tested with a splitter and also with the splitter removed. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration, however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  16. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  17. Sunlight Mediated Biogeochemodynamics of Mercury in the Everglades Aquatic Ecosystem: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Lindberg, S.; Southworth, G.; Kuiken, T.

    2003-12-01

    Competition of photochemical reduction of Hg(II) with methylation process may reduce local Hg toxicity in aquatic ecosystems as the produced dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be emitted back to the atmosphere. Diel changes of DGM levels in natural freshwaters driven by sunlight have been observed widely, especially in the large northern lakes. The Florida Everglades aquatic ecosystem is a special wetland ecosystem, which receives rich solar radiation and strong influence of aquatic plants (e.g., cattails and sawgrass) but generally has still water with enriched organic matter. Biogeochemical cycling of Hg in this system has been of special interest because of involvement of both photochemical redox of Hg and solar-driven transport of DGM by the aquatic vegetation. We here report a study of sunlight-mediated biogeochemodynamics of aquatic Hg in a natural area of the Everglades in a cool season (late February and early March) and a warm season (early June). The DGM levels were found to be very low both in the cool season (4.1 +/- 2.2 (1.1-8.6) pg/L, n = 17, T = 20 +/- 2.5 deg C) and in the warm season (3.9 +/- 1.5 (1.4-8.0) pg/L, n = 19, T = 25 +/- 1.8 deg C), exhibiting little seasonal change over the time studied. These values were all much lower than those found in summer season in the northern lakes (20-72 pg/L), in a southern small lake in Cookeville, TN (e.g., 39 pg/L in early Aug.), and in the Everglades ENR (4-33 pg/L). Only moderate to very weak diel trends were observed (e.g., highest daily difference between max and min DGM = 3.7 pg/L). In situ incubations of freshwater samples in sunlight led to moderate increases in DGM production (e.g, from 4.4 to 18 pg/L in 3.4 h), but dark incubations of initially solar-exposed water samples showed significant decreases in DGM (e.g., from 9.8 to 1.2 pg/L in 5 h). Spike of 1000 pg/L Hg(II) led to only moderate increases of DGM (e.g., from 6.7 to 32 in 10 min and to 54 pg/L in 54 min), while little enhancing effect of

  18. Natural sunlight irradiated flower-like CuS synthesized from DMF solvothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Zihao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Nianqi; Wang, Hongxing

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional CuS hierarchical crystals with high catalytic activity had been successfully fabricated using a facile solvothermal process. The CuS microparticles showed different flower-like morphology and good dispersion by optimizing reaction conditions. It was found that using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent reagent in the proper temperature conditions was favorable for the growth of hierarchically structured CuS. The hexagonal flower-like CuS synthesized at 170°C for 60 min displayed broad-spectrum photocatalytic properties under ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiation. The as-prepared CuS crystals exhibited good performance to decolorize methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light irradiation. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal of rhodamine B (RhB) solution was nearly 60% after 5 h of the natural sunlight irradiation, and the property was stable after testing over four recycles, demonstrating a potential application in waster water treatment.

  19. The significance of direct sunlight and polarized skylight in the ant's celestial system of navigation.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin

    2006-08-15

    As textbook knowledge has it, bees and ants use polarized skylight as a backup cue whenever the main compass cue, the sun, is obscured by clouds. Here we show, by employing a unique experimental paradigm, that the celestial compass system of desert ants, Cataglyphis, relies predominantly on polarized skylight. If ants experience only parts of the polarization pattern during training but the full pattern in a subsequent test situation, they systematically deviate from their true homeward courses, with the systematics depending on what parts of the skylight patterns have been presented during training. This "signature" of the polarization compass remains unaltered, even if the ants can simultaneously experience the sun, which, if presented alone, enables the ants to select their true homeward courses. Information provided by direct sunlight and polarized skylight is picked up by different parts of the ant's compound eyes and is channeled into two rather separate systems of navigation.

  20. Use of sunlight for plant lighting in a bioregenerative life support system Equivalent system mass calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Nakamura, Takashi; Yorio, Neil; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray

    2008-12-01

    Plant lighting is a critical issue for cost effectiveness of bioregenerative systems. A plant lighting system using sunlight has been investigated and compared to systems using electrical lighting. Co-generation of electricity and use of in situ resource utilization (ISRU) were also considered. The fixed part of equivalent system mass was found to be reduced by factors of from 3.1 to 3.9, according to the mission assumptions. The time-dependent part of equivalent system mass was reduced by a smaller value, of about 1.05. Cost effectiveness of bioregeneration has been compared to the cost of shipping food. Break-even times for different Lunar and Mars missions were generally in the order of 2-10 years, and were quite sensitive to the assumptions. There is significant scope for future refinement of these values, and work is ongoing.

  1. Space Satellite Dynamics with Applications to Sunlight Pressure Attitude Control. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuck, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    A research program into three aspects of space satellite dynamics was carried out. First, a four-dimensional space-time formulation of Newtonian mechanics is developed. This theory allows a new physical interpretation of the conservation theorems of mechanics first derived rigorously by Noether. Second, a new concept for estimating the three angles which specify the orientation in space of a rigid body is presented. Two separate methods for implementing this concept are discussed, one based on direction cosines, the other on quaternions. Two examples are discussed: constant orientation in space, and constant rate of change of the three angles with time. Third, two synchronous equatorial orbit communication satellite designs which use sunlight pressure to control their attitude are analyzed. Each design is equipped with large reflecting surfaces, called solar sails, which can be canted in different directions to generate torques to correct pointing errors.

  2. The significance of direct sunlight and polarized skylight in the ant's celestial system of navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin

    2006-08-01

    As textbook knowledge has it, bees and ants use polarized skylight as a backup cue whenever the main compass cue, the sun, is obscured by clouds. Here we show, by employing a unique experimental paradigm, that the celestial compass system of desert ants, Cataglyphis, relies predominantly on polarized skylight. If ants experience only parts of the polarization pattern during training but the full pattern in a subsequent test situation, they systematically deviate from their true homeward courses, with the systematics depending on what parts of the skylight patterns have been presented during training. This "signature" of the polarization compass remains unaltered, even if the ants can simultaneously experience the sun, which, if presented alone, enables the ants to select their true homeward courses. Information provided by direct sunlight and polarized skylight is picked up by different parts of the ant's compound eyes and is channeled into two rather separate systems of navigation. insect vision | polarization compass | sun compass | Cataglyphis

  3. Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaughlin, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Holick, M.F.

    1982-05-28

    The photosynthesis of previtamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol in human skin was determined after exposure to narrow-band radiation or simulated solar radiation. The optimum wavelengths for the production of previtamin D3 were determined to be between 295 and 300 nanometers. When human skin was exposed to 295-nanometer radiation, up to 65 percent of the original 7-dehydrocholesterol content was converted to previtamin D3. In comparison, when adjacent skin was exposed to simulated solar radiation, the maximum formation of previtamin D3 was about 20 percent. Major differences in the formation of lumisterol3, and tachysterol3 from previtamin D3 were also observed. It is concluded that the spectral character of natural sunlight has a profound effect on the photochemistry of 7-dehydrocholesterol in human skin.

  4. Development of optical tools for the characterization of selective solar absorber at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Philemon; Braillon, Julien; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for characterization of this solar absorber in condition of use that is to say in air and at elevated temperature. In this paper we present two new optical test benches developed for optical characterization of solar absorbers in condition of use up to 800°C. The first equipment is an integrated sphere with heated sample holder which measures the hemispherical reflectance between 280 and 2500 nm to calculate the solar absorbance at high temperature. The second optical test bench measures the emittance of samples up to 1000°C in the range of 1.25 to 28.57 µm. Results of high temperature measurements on a series of metallic absorbers with selective coating and refractory material for high thermal receiver are presented.

  5. Testing and optical modeling of novel concentrating solar receiver geometries to increase light trapping and effective solar absorptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellowhair, Julius; Ho, Clifford K.; Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating solar power receivers are comprised of panels of tubes arranged in a cylindrical or cubical shape on top of a tower. The tubes contain heat-transfer fluid that absorbs energy from the concentrated sunlight incident on the tubes. To increase the solar absorptance, black paint or a solar selective coating is applied to the surface of the tubes. However, these coatings degrade over time and must be reapplied, which reduces the system performance and increases costs. This paper presents an evaluation of novel receiver shapes and geometries that create a light-trapping effect, thereby increasing the effective solar absorptance and efficiency of the solar receiver. Several prototype shapes were fabricated from Inconel 718 and tested in Sandia's solar furnace at an irradiance of ~30 W/cm2. Photographic methods were used to capture the irradiance distribution on the receiver surfaces. The irradiance profiles were compared to results from raytracing models. The effective solar absorptance was also evaluated using the ray-tracing models. Results showed that relative to a flat plate, the new geometries could increase the effective solar absorptance from 86% to 92% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 86%, and from 60% to 73% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 60%.

  6. Retrieval and monitoring of atmospheric trace gas concentrations in nadir and limb geometry using the space-borne SCIAMACHY instrument.

    PubMed

    Sierk, B; Richter, A; Rozanov, A; Von Savigny, Ch; Schmoltner, A M; Buchwitz, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2006-09-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) onboard the European Envisat spacecraft performs continuous spectral observations of reflected, scattered and transmitted sunlight in various observation geometries. A unique feature of SCIAMACHY is the capability of probing the atmosphere in three different observation geometries:The nadir, limb, and occultation measurement modes. In nadir mode, column densities of trace gases are retrieved with a spatial resolution of typically 30 x 60 km using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique (Platt and Perner, 1983). Alternating with the nadir measurement, vertical profiles of absorber concentration in the stratosphere are derived in limb and occultation. In this paper we present an overview over some applications of SCIAMACHY data in space-based monitoring of atmospheric pollution. The DOAS algorithms for the retrieval of total column amounts from nadir spectra are briefly described and case studies of pollution events are presented. We also illustrate the technique used to derive stratospheric concentration profiles from limb observations and show comparisons with other remote sensing systems. Special emphasis will be given to techniques, which take advantage of SCIAMACHY's different viewing geometries. In particular, we will discuss the potential and limits of strategies to infer tropospheric abundances of O3 and NO2. PMID:16715354

  7. Retrieval and monitoring of atmospheric trace gas concentrations in nadir and limb geometry using the space-borne SCIAMACHY instrument.

    PubMed

    Sierk, B; Richter, A; Rozanov, A; Von Savigny, Ch; Schmoltner, A M; Buchwitz, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2006-09-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) onboard the European Envisat spacecraft performs continuous spectral observations of reflected, scattered and transmitted sunlight in various observation geometries. A unique feature of SCIAMACHY is the capability of probing the atmosphere in three different observation geometries:The nadir, limb, and occultation measurement modes. In nadir mode, column densities of trace gases are retrieved with a spatial resolution of typically 30 x 60 km using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique (Platt and Perner, 1983). Alternating with the nadir measurement, vertical profiles of absorber concentration in the stratosphere are derived in limb and occultation. In this paper we present an overview over some applications of SCIAMACHY data in space-based monitoring of atmospheric pollution. The DOAS algorithms for the retrieval of total column amounts from nadir spectra are briefly described and case studies of pollution events are presented. We also illustrate the technique used to derive stratospheric concentration profiles from limb observations and show comparisons with other remote sensing systems. Special emphasis will be given to techniques, which take advantage of SCIAMACHY's different viewing geometries. In particular, we will discuss the potential and limits of strategies to infer tropospheric abundances of O3 and NO2.

  8. Absorber and emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2009-08-17

    We present theoretical considerations as well as detailed numerical design of absorber and emitter for Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPV) applications. The absorber, consisting of an array of tungsten pyramids, was designed to provide near-unity absorptivity over all solar wavelengths for a wide angular range, enabling it to absorb light effectively from solar sources regardless of concentration. The emitter, a tungsten slab with Si/SiO(2) multilayer stack, provides a sharp emissivity peak at the solar cell band-gap while suppressing emission at lower frequencies. We show that, under a suitable light concentration condition, and with a reasonable area ratio between the emitter and absorber, a STPV system employing such absorber-emitter pair and a single-junction solar cell can attain efficiency that exceeds the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  9. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds. PMID:25222929

  10. Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurement of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide Using Reflected Sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2003-01-01

    A series of sensitivity studies is carried out to explore the feasibility of space-based global carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon cycle studies. The detection method uses absorption of reflected sunlight in the CO2 vibration-rotation band at 1.58 microns. The sensitivities of the detected radiances are calculated using the line-by-line model (LBLRTM), implemented with the DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer) model to include atmospheric scattering in this band. The results indicate that (a) the small (approx.1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable in this CO2 band provided adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable; (b) the radiance signal or sensitivity to CO2 change near the surface is not significantly diminished even in the presence of aerosols and/or thin cirrus clouds in the atmosphere; (c) the modification of sunlight path length by scattering of aerosols and cirrus clouds could lead to large systematic errors in the retrieval; therefore, ancillary aerosol/cirrus cloud data are important to reduce retrieval errors; (d) CO2 retrieval requires good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile, e.g. approximately 1K RMS error in layer temperature; (e) the atmospheric path length, over which the CO2 absorption occurs, must be known in order to correctly interpret horizontal gradients of CO2 from the total column CO2 measurement; thus an additional sensor for surface pressure measurement needs to be attached for a complete measurement package.

  11. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds.

  12. The relationship between long-term sunlight radiation and cognitive decline in the REGARDS cohort study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Shia T.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Howard, Virginia J.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Peace, Fredrick; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-04-01

    Sunlight may be related to cognitive function through vitamin D metabolism or circadian rhythm regulation. The analysis presented here sought to test whether ground and satellite measures of solar radiation are associated with cognitive decline. The study used a 15-year residential history merged with satellite and ground monitor data to determine sunlight (solar radiation) and air temperature exposure for a cohort of 19,896 cognitively intact black and white participants aged 45+ from the 48 contiguous United States. Exposures of 15, 10, 5, 2, and 1-year were used to predict cognitive status at the most recent assessment in logistic regression models; 1-year insolation and maximum temperatures were chosen as exposure measures. Solar radiation interacted with temperature, age, and gender in its relationships with incident cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of cognitive decline for solar radiation exposure below the median vs above the median in the 3rd tertile of maximum temperatures was 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.85), that in the 2nd tertile was 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.09, 1.62), and that in the 1st tertile was 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.92, 1.60). We also found that participants under 60 years old had an OR = 1.63 (95 % CI: 1.20, 2.22), those 60-80 years old had an OR = 1.18 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.36), and those over 80 years old had an OR = 1.05 (0.80, 1.37). Lastly, we found that males had an OR = 1.43 (95 % CI: 1.22, 1.69), and females had an OR = 1.02 (0.87, 1.20). We found that lower levels of solar radiation were associated with increased odds of incident cognitive impairment.

  13. Molecular and sensory mechanisms to mitigate sunlight-induced DNA damage in treefrog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Schuch, André P; Lipinski, Victor M; Santos, Mauricio B; Santos, Caroline P; Jardim, Sinara S; Cechin, Sonia Z; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2015-10-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been proposed as an environmental stressor, which may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations worldwide. Despite growing knowledge regarding the UV-induced biological effects in several amphibian models, little is known about the efficacy of DNA repair pathways. In addition, little attention has been given to the interplay between these molecular mechanisms with other physiological strategies that avoid the damage induced by sunlight. Here, DNA lesions induced by environmental doses of solar UVB and UVA radiation were detected in genomic DNA samples of treefrog tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus) and their DNA repair activity was evaluated. These data were complemented by monitoring the induction of apoptosis in blood cells and tadpole survival. Furthermore, the tadpoles' ability to perceive and escape from UV wavelengths was evaluated as an additional strategy of photoprotection. The results show that tadpoles are very sensitive to UVB light, which could be explained by the slow DNA repair rates for both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6,4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6,4PPs). However, they were resistant to UVA, probably as a result of the activation of photolyases during UVA irradiation. Surprisingly, a sensory mechanism that triggers their escape from UVB and UVA light avoids the generation of DNA damage and helps to maintain the genomic integrity. This work demonstrates the genotoxic impact of both UVB and UVA radiation on tadpoles and emphasizes the importance of the interplay between molecular and sensory mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by sunlight.

  14. Modeling of integrated sunlight velocity measurements: The effect of surface darkening by magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Henney, C. J.; Schimpf, S.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Loudagh, S.; Schmider, F.-X; Palle, P.; Regulo, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been known since the work by Claverie et al. (1982) that integrated-sunlight velocities measured with the resonance scattering technique show variations with time scales of weeks to months. The cause can be understood in terms of the effects of solar activity as was pointed out by Edmunds & Gough (1983) and Andersen & Maltby (1983). The latter authors included a model calculation based on sunspot areas which showed good promise of being able to quantitatively reproduce the observed velocity shifts. We discuss in this paper a new modeling effort based on daily magnetograms obtained at the 150-ft tower on Mt. Wilson. This type of database is more quantitative than sunspot area. Similar maps of magnetically sensitive quantities will be measured on a continuous time base as part of several planned helioseismology experiments (from space with the Solar Oscillations Imagery/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOI/MDI) experiment on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), see Scherrer et al. (1991) or with ground-based networks, see Hill & Leibacher (1991)). We discuss the correlations between various magnetically sensitive quantities and develop a new model for the effects of magnetic field on line profiles and surface brightness. From these correlations we integrate the line profile changes over the solar surface using observed magnetic field strengths measured at lambda 5250.2. The final output is a new model for the effects of magnetic fields on integrated sunlight velocities which we compare with daily offset velocities derived from the International Research on the Interior of the Sun (IRIS)-T instrument at the Observatorio del Teide.

  15. Direct photodegradation of lamotrigine (an antiepileptic) in simulated sunlight--pH influenced rates and products.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert B; Chefetz, Benny; Liu, Aiju; Desyaterik, Yury; Borch, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic and mood stabilizing drug that has been detected in wastewater, groundwater, surface water and drinking water, at frequencies in surface water ranging from 47 to 97%. Because lamotrigine is a weak base (pKa = 5.7) that appears in two protonation states in natural waters, this study examined the direct photodegradation of lamotrigine (11.4 to 12.0 mg L(-1)) in simulated sunlight using liquid chromatography-UV diode array detection and buffered aqueous solutions at pH 3.3, 5.3, and 7.7. Lamotrigine's half-life varied little (100 ± 3 to 112 ± 2 h) with solution pH, but its specific light absorption rate was 12 times higher, and its reaction quantum yield was 13 times lower, at pH 7.7 versus pH 3.3. In the estimated midday, midsummer sunlight in Denver, CO, USA (latitude 39.8617 °N), lamotrigine's estimated photodegradation rate was more than twice as fast at pH 7.7 versus pH 3.3. Lamotrigine's photoproducts were detected by liquid chromatography-UV diode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Solution pH was shown to affect the identities and relative abundances of lamotrigine's photoproducts. Some photoproducts appeared only in solutions containing protonated lamotrigine, and others appeared only in solutions containing neutral lamotrigine. As a result, different reaction mechanisms were proposed. Finally, lamotrigine's reaction quantum yield (2.51 ± 0.07 × 10(-5) mol einstein(-1) at pH 7.7) and other results suggested that lamotrigine and three photoproducts are approximately as resistant to direct photodegradation as carbamazepine, a frequently detected pharmaceutical in surface waters.

  16. Compositional changes in 'Bartlett' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) cell wall polysaccharides as affected by sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Raffo, María D; Ponce, Nora M A; Sozzi, Gabriel O; Vicente, Ariel R; Stortz, Carlos A

    2011-11-23

    Preharvest conditions can have a great impact on fruit quality attributes and postharvest responses. Firmness is an important quality attribute in pear, and excessive softening increases susceptibility to bruising and decay, thus limiting fruit postharvest life. Textural characteristics of fruits are determined at least in part by cell wall structure and disassembly. Few studies have analyzed the influence of fruit preharvest environment in softening, cell wall composition, and degradation. In the current work 'Bartlett' pears grown either facing the sun (S) or in the shade (H) were harvested and stored for 13 days at 20 °C. An evaluation of fruit soluble solids, acidity, color, starch degradation, firmness, cell wall yield, pectin and matrix glycan solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition was carried out. Sun-exposed pears showed more advanced color development and similar levels of starch degradation, sugars, and acids than shaded fruit. Sunlight-grown pears were at harvest firmer than shade-grown pears. Both fruit groups softened during storage at 20 °C, but even after ripening, sun-exposed pears remained firmer. Sunlight exposure did not have a great impact on pectin molecular weight. Instead, at harvest a higher proportion of water-solubilized uronic acids and alkali-solubilized neutral sugars and a larger mean molecular size of tightly bound glycans was found in sun-exposed pears. During ripening cell wall catabolism took place in both sun- and shade-grown pears, but pectin solubilization was clearly delayed in sun-exposed fruit. This was associated with decreased removal of RG I-arabinan side chains rather than with reduced depolymerization.

  17. Impact of sunlight on the age of onset of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Andreassen, Ole A; Ardau, Raffaella; Bellivier, Frank; Berk, Michael; Bjella, Thomas D; Bossini, Letizia; Zompo, Maria Del; Dodd, Seetal; Fagiolini, Andrea; Frye, Mark A; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Henry, Chantal; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kliwicki, Sebastian; König, Barbara; Kunz, Mauricio; Lafer, Beny; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Manchia, Mirko; Marsh, Wendy; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Melle, Ingrid; Morken, Gunnar; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nery, Fabiano G; O’Donovan, Claire; Pfennig, Andrea; Quiroz, Danilo; Rasgon, Natalie; Reif, Andreas; Rybakowski, Janusz; Sagduyu, Kemal; Simhandl, Christian; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although bipolar disorder has high heritability, the onset occurs during several decades of life, suggesting that social and environmental factors may have considerable influence on disease onset. This study examined the association between the age of onset and sunlight at the location of onset. Method Data were obtained from 2414 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, according to DSM-IV criteria. Data were collected at 24 sites in 13 countries spanning latitudes 6.3 to 63.4 degrees from the equator, including data from both hemispheres. The age of onset and location of onset were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interviews. Solar insolation data, or the amount of electromagnetic energy striking the surface of the earth, were obtained from the NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) database for each location of onset. Results The larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the location of onset, the younger the age of onset (coefficient= −4.724, 95% CI: −8.124 to −1.323, p = 0.006), controlling for each country’s median age. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. No relationships were found between the age of onset and latitude, yearly total solar insolation, and the maximum monthly decrease in solar insolation. The largest maximum monthly increases in solar insolation occurred in diverse environments, including Norway, arid areas in California, and Chile. Conclusion The large maximum monthly increase in sunlight in springtime may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:22612720

  18. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Hui

    2013-08-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4-7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe.

  19. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

  20. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Chojnacki, E.P.

    1994-05-31

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.