Science.gov

Sample records for absorb sulfur dioxide

  1. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latestmore » version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.« less

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Designations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This area provides information on the process EPA, the states, and the tribes follow to designate areas as attainment (meeting) or nonattainment (not meeting) the sulfur dioxide air quality standards.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  5. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  15. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  16. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    PubMed Central

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  17. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  18. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S. R.

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers throughmore » the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.« less

  19. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method...

  20. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method...

  1. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method...

  2. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method...

  3. Sulfur content of hybrid poplar cuttings fumigated with sulfur dioxide

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with sulfur dioxide ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 5 ppm for periods of 5 to 80 hours. At the end of the fumigation periods, the cuttings were harvested and the sulfur and chlorophyll contents of the leaves were measured. At 0.1 ppm and 0.25 ppm the sulfur content initially increased, but decreased as fumigation continued. At...

  4. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. This image was taken in 1996 by NASA Galileo spacecraft.

  5. Prometheus Silicates/Sulfur dioxide/NIMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The Prometheus region of Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft in 1999. The maps made from spectrometer data show the interplay between hot silicates on the surface and sulfur dioxide frost.

  6. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOEpatents

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  7. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  8. Taxing sulfur dioxide emission allowances

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.L.

    1993-09-15

    The acid rain control program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) was designed to reduce the adverse effects of acid rain by limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) into the atmosphere. The program is a complex scheme involving the issuance, consumption, holding, and trading of emission allowances for SO[sub 2]. Not surprisingly, electric utilities will face federal income tax issues in connection with the program. Under the emission allowance program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will issue emission allowance to owners or operators of certain utility power plants at no costmore » to the recipients. An emission allowance is an authorization to emit one ton of SO[sub 2] during or after the calendar year for which it is issued. If a utility power plant subject to the program emits SO[sub 2] in excess of its allowances, the owner or operator will be subject to a penalty of $2,000 a ton, and must offset the excess emissions with allowances in the subsequent year. Allowances may be bought and sold. Phase I of the program begins January 1, 1995, and will apply to 110 utility generating units. Phase II takes effect January 1, 2000, and will include most electric utility generating units. EPA will withhold a specified number of allowances for direct sale and auction. The resulting proceeds will be paid to the utilities from which the allowances were withheld. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has provided somewhat limited guidance on several tax issues raised by the program. Significant tax issues and the positions articulated by the IRS (if any) are discussed in this article.« less

  9. Vanadium doped tin dioxide as a novel sulfur dioxide sensor.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Bandyopadhyay, S; Samudrala, S K; Sen, A; Maiti, H S

    2008-04-15

    Considering the short-term exposure limit of SO2 to be 5 ppm, we first time report that semiconductor sensors based on vanadium doped SnO2 can be used for SO2 leak detection because of their good sensitivity towards SO2 at concentrations down to 5 ppm. Such sensors are quite selective in presence of other gases like carbon monoxide, methane and butane. The high sensitivity of vanadium doped tin dioxide towards SO2 may be understood by considering the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide on SnO2 surface through redox cycles of vanadium-sulfur-oxygen adsorbed species.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides respiratory...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides respiratory...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides respiratory...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides respiratory...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  19. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  20. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  3. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided in...

  4. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action on...

  6. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15...

  7. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production...

  8. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  9. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action on...

  11. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided in...

  12. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15...

  13. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided in...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action on...

  15. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production...

  16. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15...

  17. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  18. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production...

  19. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw agricultural...

  20. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action on...

  2. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production...

  3. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b...

  4. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided in...

  5. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b...

  6. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw agricultural...

  7. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided in...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action on...

  9. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15...

  10. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b...

  11. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15...

  12. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  13. Prehydrolysis of birch wood with sulfur dioxide

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Springer; Kimball A. Libkie

    1980-01-01

    Work in progress on prehydrolysis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) wood with sulfur dioxide presents an alternative means for producing a relatively concentrated pentose solution with a very small requirement for steam or other forms of energy. The key ideas are to conduct the prehydrolysis reaction at a very low liquor-to-wood ratio (called vapor-phase cooking in...

  14. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  17. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  18. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

    The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

    It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

    Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  19. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a devic...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a devic...

  9. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts

  10. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  12. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur...

  13. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed...

  16. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed...

  19. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur...

  20. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur...

  1. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer UV camera for monitoring sulfur dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamminen, J.; Kujanpää, J.; Ojanen, H.; Saari, H.; Näkki, I.; Tukiainen, S.; Kyrölä, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel UV camera for sulfur dioxide emission monitoring.The camera is equipped with a piezo-actuated Fabry-Perot interferometer allowing thefilter transmission to be tuned to match the differential absorption features ofsulfur dioxide in the wavelength region 305-320 nm. The differential absorption structuresare exploited to reduce the interfering effects of weakly wavelength dependent absorbers, suchas aerosols and black carbon, present in the exhaust gas. A data processing algorithm basedon two air gaps of the filter is presented allowing collection of a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio fordetecting sulfur dioxide in the ship plumes even in the designated emission control areas, such as the Baltic Seawhere the sulfur content limit of fuel oil is 0.1 %. First field tests performed inLänsisatama harbour, Helsinki Finland, indicate that sulfur dioxide can be detectedin ship plumes. The camera is light-weight and can be mounted to a drone.

  2. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  3. Sulfur dioxide: foe or friend for life?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO₂ can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats. In addition, SO₂ reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, SO₂ exerts both detrimental and protective effects in mammals. Is SO₂ a foe or friend for life?.

  4. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL R.C. McDonald R. Vierra P. Harris M. Guentert F. Goebel C. Todino S. Hossain Yardney Technical Products, Inc. 82 Mechanic... McDonald ; P Harris; F Goebel; S Hossain; R Vierra; M Guentert; C Todino 7. Z mG OnGAMiATIO MAMES AND AOSS4ES) g.Pta~o Yardney Technical Products, Inc...cathode was then dried and cured at 280’C under flowing argon for 20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a Starbuck 20

  5. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    AD-A274 908IIIIlIIIE McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossi ierra, M. Guentert, C. Todino 7 ad r nse TECHNICAL PRODUCTS INCY DTIC ELECTE JAN26 1994...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a I Starbuck 20-station cycler system which is connected to a computer to monitor

  6. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  7. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  8. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  9. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  10. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did not...

  12. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did not...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did not...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did not...

  16. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  19. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  20. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  1. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) [Reserved] (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation...

  2. Sulfur Dioxide Capture by Heterogeneous Oxidation on Hydroxylated Manganese Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haodong; Cai, Weimin; Long, Mingce; Wang, Hairui; Wang, Zhiping; Chen, Chen; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan

    2016-06-07

    Here we demonstrate that sulfur dioxide (SO2) is efficiently captured via heterogeneous oxidation into sulfate on the surface of hydroxylated manganese dioxide (MnO2). Lab-scale activity tests in a fluidized bed reactor showed that the removal efficiency for a simulated flue gas containing 5000 mg·Nm(-3) SO2 could reach nearly 100% with a GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) of 10000 h(-1). The mechanism was investigated using a combination of experimental characterizations and theoretical calculations. It was found that formation of surface bound sulfate proceeds via association of SO2 with terminal hydroxyls. Both H2O and O2 are essential for the generation of reactive terminal hydroxyls, and the indirect role of O2 in heterogeneous SO2 oxidation at low temperature was also revealed. We propose that the high reactivity of terminal hydroxyls is attributed to the proper surface configuration of MnO2 to adsorb water with degenerate energies for associative and dissociative states, and maintain rapid proton dynamics. Viability analyses suggest that the desulfurization method that is based on such a direct oxidation reaction at the gas/solid interface represents a promising approach for SO2 capture.

  3. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  4. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  5. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide determined...

  6. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide determined...

  7. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide determined...

  8. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide determined...

  9. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  10. Sulfur Dioxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) Checklist Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tools, guidance, and examples to assist air quality agencies of non-attainment areas in developing plans to implement national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), including the sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emissions standard.

  11. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  12. [Sulfur dioxide limit standard and residues in Chinese medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Mo, Ge; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Jing-Yi; Lv, Chao-Geng; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Ye; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese

  13. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.

    1976-01-01

    Design information was obtained for a new, regenerable carbon dioxide control system for extravehicular activity life support systems. Solid potassium carbonate was supported in a thin porous sheet form and fabricated into carbon dioxide absorber units. Carbon dioxide and water in the life support system atmosphere react with the potassium carbonate and form potassium bicarbonate. The bicarbonate easily reverts to the carbonate by heating to 150 deg C. The methods of effectively packing the sorbent material into EVA-sized units and the effects of inlet concentrations, flowrate, and temperature upon performance were investigated. The cycle life of the sorbent upon the repeated thermal regenerations was demonstrated through 90 cycles.

  14. Interaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide with clean silver in ultrahigh vacuum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that when a clean polycrystalline silver surface is subjected to sulfur dioxide at a pressure of 1 nanotorr, sulfur is chemisorbed to the silver. Heating the contaminated silver leads to an estimation of the minimum heat of desorption of 59 kcal/mol. Sulfur Auger peak height and relative function measurements of the surface during exposure show that adsorption occurs during 6 microtorr/sec exposure at 1 nanotorr.

  15. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes [State College, PA; Zhang, Yinzhi [State College, PA; Kuchta, Matthew E [State College, PA; Andresen, John M [State College, PA; Fauth, Dan J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  16. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  17. Sulfur and Sulfuric Acid Microphysics in the Venus Atmosphere: Implications for the Unknown UV Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Carlson, R. W.; Robinson, T. D.; Crisp, D.; Lyons, J. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-12-01

    A mystery that has continued to plague our sister planet, Venus, for nearly a century is the nature of the brightness contrasts observed crisscrossing its disk in near-ultraviolet wavelength images. These contrasts - specifically the dark regions - have been attributed to the actions of an unknown UV absorber, knowing the identity of which is integral to understanding the Venus atmosphere due to the high rates of mesospheric heating attributed to the absorption of solar UV. One possible candidate for the UV absorber is polysulfur, which form from polymerization of elemental sulfur arising from SO2 photolysis at the Venus cloud tops under low O2 conditions. In this work we investigate the microphysics of condensed polysulfur and its interaction with the sulfuric acid clouds. We consider the "gumdrop model", where sulfur is allowed to condense onto sulfuric acid cloud particles. We explore the possibility that S2 vapor may condense faster than its loss to gas phase reactions that produce higher allotropes, leading to solid state polymerization to S8. This process may explain the ephemeral and variable nature of the UV absorption.

  18. An efficient absorbing system for spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveeshwar, Rachana; Amlathe, Sulbha; Gupta, V. K.

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using o-nitroaniline as an efficient absorbing, as well as diazotizing, reagent is described. o-Nitroaniline present in the absorbing medium is diazotized by the absorbed nitrite ion to form diazonium compound. This is later coupled with 1-amino-2-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in acidic medium to give red-violet-coloured dye,having λmax = 545 nm. The isoamyl extract of the red azo dye has λmax = 530 nm. The proposed reagents has ≈ 100% collection efficiency and the stoichiometric ratio of NO 2:NO 2- is 0.74. The other important analytical parameters have been investigated. By employing solvent extraction the sensitivity of the reaction was increased and up to 0.03 mg m -3 nitrogen dioxide could be estimated.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS...

  20. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11, 1993, as amended at 70 FR 25337, May 12, 2005] ...

  1. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11, 1993, as amended at 70 FR 25337, May 12, 2005] ...

  2. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by an...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS...

  4. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11, 1993, as amended at 70 FR 25337, May 12, 2005] ...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS...

  6. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by an...

  7. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by an...

  8. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520 ng/J...

  9. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by an...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS...

  12. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are...

  13. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11, 1993, as amended at 70 FR 25337, May 12, 2005] ...

  14. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

  15. LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

  16. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  17. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  18. Dramatic reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Northeastern China in the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentration in planetary boundary layer were conducted. The data were generated by NASA satellite daily from October of 2004 and were obtained through NASA Giovanni. The global monthly mean spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide showed several hot spots including: several spots on some islands in the Pacific Ocean, several spots in central America, and central Africa. Most of these hot spots of sulfur dioxide are related to known active volcanos. The biggest hot spot of sulfur dioxide were observed in Northeastern China. While high concentration sulfur dioxide was still observed in Northeastern China in 2017. The area averaged concentration of sulfur dioxide declined dramatically since its peak in 2008. This temporal trend indicates that sulfur reduction effort has been effective in the last decade or post 2008 financial crisis recovery lead an industry less sulfur dioxide emission.

  19. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...-9811-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under the Clean Air Act. This...

  20. Io - Longtudinal distribution of sulfur dioxide frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.; Matson, D. L.; Fanale, F. P.; Nash, D. B.; Johnson, T. V.

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal variation in the distribution of SO2 frost on Io is examined. Twenty spectra of Io (0.26 to 0.33 micrometer) are presented and a strong ultraviolet absorption is found shortward of 0.33 micrometer. The abundance of frost is greatest at orbital longitudes 72 to 137 degrees. Longitudes 250 to 323 degrees are least abundant in SO2. Comparisons are made with a Voyager color relief map, which suggest that SO2 frost is in greatest concentration in the white areas of Io and other sulfurous materials are in greatest concentration in the red areas.

  1. Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Ramachandran; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Ji-Woong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with a mixture of a superbase and alcohol affords a superbase alkylcarbonate salt via a process that can be reversed at elevated temperatures. To utilize the unique chemistry of superbases for carbon capture technology, it is essential to facilitate carbonation and decarbonation at desired temperatures in an easily controllable manner. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal stabilities of the alkylcarbonate salts of superbases in organic solutions can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of hydroxylic solvent and polar aprotic solvent mixtures, thereby enabling the best possible performances to be obtained from the various carbon dioxide capture agents based on these materials. The findings provides valuable insights into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents. PMID:26033537

  2. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2012 Decision to Retain the Secondary NAAQS for Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On April 3, 2012, EPA sdecided to retain the current secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).This page contains a fact sheet describing that action.

  3. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  4. Removing sulfur dioxide from exhaust air

    SciTech Connect

    Germerdonk, R.; Jonas, A.

    A method for removing sulfur oxides from flue gases is described. An absorption solution of glutaric acid buffered to a pH of about 3.5 to 6.5 is used. The concentration of the glutaric acid is from about 40 to 90% of the saturation concentration, its temperature is from about 20 to 25/sup 0/C, it has a concentration of heavy metal ions no more than about 10/sup -6/ mole/1, and to improve the separation of SO/sub 2/ from the absorption solution, steam is introduced into at least one separator in from about 0.01 to 0.1 kg/1 of solution to be desorbed.

  5. Electrochemistry of Sulfur Dioxide in Nonaqueous Solutions. Part I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-18

    carried out as part of a program to investigate safety hazards in nonaqueous ambient temperature lithium batteries. Comparison and discussion of...behavior of nonaqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide has been generated by the use of these systems in high energy density lithium batteries. During the past... hexafluorophosphate ) 6 at -0.13V and +0.63V (vs. AgCl coated Ag wire), which were assigned to the oxidation of S02- and 62042-. Fouchard observed that the

  6. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  7. An evaluation of possible mechanisms for conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid and sulfate aerosols in the troposphere

    Treesearch

    Jack G. Calvert

    1976-01-01

    The mechanisms and rates of conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid, and other "sulfate" aerosol precursors are considered in view of current knowledge related to atmospheric reactions and chemical kinetics. Several heterogeneous pathways exist for SO2 oxidation promoted on solid catalyst particles and in aqueous...

  8. 75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum... October 6, 2009, Minnesota submitted a request for a sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision for... installation of new boilers and a sulfur recovery unit and changes to three existing heaters. Overall, this...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your...

  10. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of this...

  11. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the Indian...

  12. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of this...

  13. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on shipment...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your...

  15. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of this...

  16. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on shipment...

  17. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your...

  20. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of this...

  2. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of this...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this paragraph...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your...

  5. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on shipment...

  6. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  7. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  10. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on shipment...

  11. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  12. VUV pressure-broadening in sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, J. R.; Herde, H.; Stark, G.; Blackie, D. S.; Pickering, J. C.; de Oliveira, N.

    2018-05-01

    In the pre-oxygenated ancient Earth atmosphere, the lack of O3 absorption allowed ultraviolet photodissociation of numerous molecules in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. For molecules with narrow line-type absorption spectra, optically thick columns would have produced isotope fractionation due to self-shielding of the most abundant isotopologues. In the lower atmosphere pressure broadening would modify, and in some cases, eliminate these isotope signatures. Shielding is particularly important for quantifying or constraining photolysis-derived isotope effects, such as those believed to explain the sulfur mass-independent fractionation in Archean sedimentary rocks. Here, we report pressure broadening coefficients for natural abundance SO2 in theC˜1B2 ←X˜1A1 band system at 215 nm. For gas bath pressures up to 750 mbar, we find broadening coefficients of 0.30 ± 0.03 cm-1 atm-1 and 0.40 ± 0.04 cm-1 atm-1 for N2 and CO2, respectively. These broadening coefficients are ∼30% larger than SO2 broadening coefficients previously measured in the B˜ -X˜ bands at 308 nm. Because of the highly congested nature of the C˜ -X˜ bands, pressure broadening in the early Earth troposphere will cause line profile overlap that will diminish the self-shielding-derived mass-independent isotope fractionation for optically thick SO2 columns. Thus, non-explosive volcanic eruptions may not have left a signature of SO2 self-shielding in the ancient sedimentary rock record.

  13. Sulfur dioxide emissions from la soufriere volcano, st. Vincent, west indies.

    PubMed

    Hoff, R M; Gallant, A J

    1980-08-22

    During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +/- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

  14. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

  15. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  16. Stability of patulin to sulfur dioxide and to yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, L F

    1977-01-01

    The affinity of patulin for sulfur dioxide (SO2) is much less than was previously reported and is of little significance at the SO2 concentrations (below 200 ppm) used in the processing of apple juice and cider. However, at concentrations of 2000 ppm SO2 and 15 ppm patulin, combination was 90% complete in 2 days. Removal of SO2 liberated only part of the patulin, which suggests that 2 mechanisms are involved: one reversible (opening the hemiacetal ring) and one irreversible (SO2 addition at the double bond). Test with 2 yeasts used in English commercial cider making confirmed that patulin is effectively removed during yeast fermentation.

  17. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  18. Selective sulfur dioxide adsorption on crystal defect sites on an isoreticular metal organic framework series

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Albelo, L. Marleny; López-Maya, Elena; Hamad, Said; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Calero, Sofia; Navarro, Jorge A.R.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread emissions of toxic gases from fossil fuel combustion represent major welfare risks. Here we report the improvement of the selective sulfur dioxide capture from flue gas emissions of isoreticular nickel pyrazolate metal organic frameworks through the sequential introduction of missing-linker defects and extra-framework barium cations. The results and feasibility of the defect pore engineering carried out are quantified through a combination of dynamic adsorption experiments, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations. The increased sulfur dioxide adsorption capacities and energies as well as the sulfur dioxide/carbon dioxide partition coefficients values of defective materials compared to original non-defective ones are related to the missing linkers enhanced pore accessibility and to the specificity of sulfur dioxide interactions with crystal defect sites. The selective sulfur dioxide adsorption on defects indicates the potential of fine-tuning the functional properties of metal organic frameworks through the deliberate creation of defects. PMID:28198376

  19. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  20. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0233; FRL-9793-7] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability and Public... responses to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are limited...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are limited...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are limited...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are limited...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are limited...

  6. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2009-0808; FRL-9243-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum... proposing to approve a sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in...

  7. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide... of this document? III. What is sulfur dioxide? IV. What is the 2010 SO 2 NAAQS and what are the...

  8. Environmental sulfur dioxide: toxicity toward the alveolar macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Butenhoff, J.L.

    This study was designed to determine if SO/sub 2/ and/or its associated ions in solution (H/sub 3/O/sup +/, HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/) are cytotoxic to rat PAM cells in primary culture. The indices of cytotoxicity which were evaluated included cell viability uptake of particles and viable bacteria, inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, cell surface morphology and oxygen utilization. For determining effects on cell viability, function and morphology, exposures were conducted for 20 hours at either 30 or 37 deg. C in Leighton culture tubes of polystyrene petri dishes. In both instances, cells were attached tomore » glass. Cell viability dose-response curves were obtained with H/sub 3/O/sup +/ (HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), SO/sub 2/ (dissolved gas), HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/. Buffer strength and pH were varied to determine the effect of these various molecular species on viability. Sulfur dioxide gas exhibited a weak protentiating effect on H/sub 3/O/sup +/ toxicity below pH 6.4. Significant viability loss did not occur above pH 6.4. Particle uptake was diminished significantly at sulfite concentration greater than or equal to 500 uM, pH 7.2. Sulfite was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of GSH-peroxidase in vitro. A slight yet significant change in cell morphology occurred at sulfite concentrations of 200 uM and 4000 uM and pH 7.2. There was a significant difference in O/sub 2/ utilization between control and 4000 uM exposed cells, indicating a potential diminution in cell-surface mediated respiratory stimulation. Based on these studies, sulfur dioxide gas exposure may have an effect on alveolar macrophage function depending on the ambient concentration of the gas and its accumulation in the airspaces of the lung.« less

  9. Extraordinary Difference in Reactivity of Ozone (OOO) and Sulfur Dioxide (OSO): A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu; Wheeler, Steven E; Houk, K N

    2011-07-12

    Ozone and sulfur dioxide are valence isoelectronic yet show very different reactivity. While ozone is one of the most reactive 1,3-dipoles, SO2 does not react in this way at all. The activation energies of dipolar cycloadditions of sulfur dioxide with either ethylene or acetylene are predicted here by B3LYP, M06-2X, CBS-QB3, and CCSD(T) to be much higher than reactions of ozone. The dipolar cycloaddition of ozone is very exothermic, while that of than sulfur dioxide is endothermic. The prohibitive barriers in the case of SO2 arise from large distortion energies as well as unfavorable interaction energies in the transition states. This arises in part from the HOMO-LUMO gap of sulfur dioxide, which is larger than that of ozone. Valence bond calculations also show that while ozone has a high degree of diradical character, SO2 does not, and is better characterized as a dritterion.

  10. Guidance for 1-Hour Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nonattainment Area State Implementation Plans (SIP) Submissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document is intended to provide guidance and recommendations to state, local and tribal governments for the development of SIPs and tribal implementation plans (TIPs) under the 2010 1-hour primary NAAQS for Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).

  11. Table of Historical Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  12. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of wine polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Makhotkina, Olga; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2013-06-12

    Electrochemical oxidation of three representative wine polyphenols (catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin) in the presence of sulfur dioxide in a model wine solution (pH = 3.3) was investigated. The oxidation was undertaken using chronoamperometry at a rotating glassy carbon rod electrode, and the reaction products were characterized by HPLC-MS. The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide was proposed to be an ECEC mechanism. The polyphenols first underwent a one-electron oxidation to a semiquinone radical, which can be reduced back to the original polyphenol by sulfur dioxide, or further oxidized to the quinone form. In the cases of caffeic acid and catechin, the quinone combined with sulfur dioxide and produced new derivatives. The quercetin quinone underwent further chemical transformations, producing several new compounds. The proposed mechanisms were confirmed by digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms.

  14. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  15. Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus 1 sounding rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in that spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary spectral absorber in the 190 - 230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et. al. (1994) show that sulfur monoxide features are also present in these data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targets within 18 deg of the sun while earth orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

  16. Dose-response of urban trees to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.

    1972-01-01

    Controlled fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the dose-response relationships for four species of urban trees exposed to sulfur dioxide. The species chosen were ginkgo, Norway maple, pin oak, and Chinese elm. Results indicated that resistance to SO/sub 2/ increased among the species in the following order: Chinese elm, Norway maple, ginkgo, pin oak. Elm showed almost 100% leaf necrosis at exposures over 2 ppM for 6 hr, and severe chlorosis and necrosis at 0.25 ppM for 30 days. Fifty percent leaf necrosis occurred on Norway maple at 3 ppM for 6 hr, and on ginkgo at 4 ppM formore » 6 hr, and both species developed moderate marginal chlorosis at 0.50 ppM for 30 days. Injury on pin oak was minor, even at 8 ppM for 8 hr, but at 0.50 ppM for 30 days, a slight overall chlorosis developed on the leaves. The relative susceptibilities of the four species were the same in the long-term as in the short-term exposures. The shapes of the dose-response surfaces indicated that durations of exposure and concentration of the pollutant were of equal importance in producing injury on Chinese elm and probably on pin oak, but on Norway maple and ginkgo, concentration of SO/sub 2/ was of greater importance than the duration of exposure.« less

  17. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  18. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  19. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  20. Flame imaging using planar laser induced fluorescence of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honza, Rene; Ding, Carl-Philipp; Dreizler, Andreas; Böhm, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Laser induced fluorescence of sulfur dioxide (SO2-PLIF) has been demonstrated as a useful tool for flame imaging. Advantage was taken from the strong temperature dependence of the SO2 fluorescence signal. SO2 fluorescence intensity increases by more than one order of magnitude if the temperature changes from ambient conditions to adiabatic flame temperatures of stoichiometric methane-air flames. This results in a steep gradient of SO2-PLIF intensities at the reaction zone and therefore can be used as a reliable flame marker. SO2 can be excited electronically using the fourth-harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. This is an attractive alternative to OH-LIF, a well-recognized flame front marker, because no frequency-doubled dye lasers are needed. This simplifies the experimental setup and is advantageous for measurements at high repetition rates where dye bleaching can become an issue. To prove the performance of this approach, SO2-PLIF measurements were performed simultaneously with OH-PLIF on laminar premixed methane-air Bunsen flames for equivalence ratios between 0.9 and 1.25. These measurements were compared to 1D laminar flamelet simulations. The SO2 fluorescence signal was found to follow the temperature rise of the flame and is located closer to the steep temperature gradient than OH. Finally, the combined SO2- and OH-PLIF setup was applied to a spark ignition IC-engine to visualize the development of the early flame kernel.

  1. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasalmore » discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.« less

  2. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time.

  3. 77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality... extend by up to 1 year the deadline for promulgating initial area designations for the primary sulfur... necessary to modify any of the state recommendations. The EPA was originally intending to complete the...

  4. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  6. 78 FR 28143 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...-9811-6] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... amend the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for NO 2 and SO 2 to be consistent with the...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Absorbers: An Engaging Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticich, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and direct method for measuring the absorption of carbon dioxide by two different substances is described. Lithium hydroxide has been used for decades to remove the gas from enclosed living spaces, such as spacecraft and submarines. The ratio of the mass of carbon dioxide absorbed to the mass of lithium hydroxide used obtained from this…

  8. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  9. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James [Niskayuna, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; O'Brien, Michael Joseph [Clifton Park, NY; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY; Kniajanski, Sergei [Clifton Park, NY; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert [Clifton Park, NY; Lee, Julia Lam [Niskayuna, NY; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona [Ballston Spa, NY

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  10. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on three tall fescue cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    Although many reports have been published concerning differential susceptibility of various crops and/or cultivars to air pollutants, most have used foliar injury instead of the marketable yield as the factor that determined susceptibility for the crop. In an examination of screening in terms of marketable yield, three cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), 'Alta,' 'Fawn,' and 'Kentucky 31,' were exposed to 0-0.40 ppm O/sub 3/ or 0-0.50 ppm SO/sub 2/ 6 h/d, once a week, for 7 and 9 weeks, respectively. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Statistical analysis was by standard analysis of variancemore » and regression techniques. Three variables were analyzed: top dry weight (yield), tiller number, and weight per tiller. Ozone had a significant effect on all three variables. Significant linear decreases in yield and weight per tiller occurred with increasing O/sub 3/ concentrations. Linear regressions of these variables on O/sub 3/ concentration produced significantly different regression coefficients. The coefficient for Kentucky 31 was significantly greater than Alta or Fawn, which did not differ from each other. This indicated that Kentucky 31 was more susceptible to O/sub 3/ than either of the other cultivars. Percent reductions in dry weight for the three cultivars at highest O/sub 3/ level were 35, 44, and 53%, respectively, for Fawn, Alta, and Kentucky 31. For weight per tiller, Kentucky 31 had a higher percent reduction than the other cultivars (59 vs. 46 and 44%). Tiller number was generally increased by O/sub 3/, but this variable was not useful for determining differential susceptibility to the pollutant. Sulfur dioxide treatments produced no significant effects on any of the variables analyzed.« less

  11. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in themore » presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.« less

  12. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presencemore » of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.« less

  13. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August).

  14. Measuring the impact of global tropospheric ozone, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations on biodiversity loss.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Bhuiyan, Miraj; Rashid Khan, Haroon Ur; Zaman, Khalid; Hishan, Sanil S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of air pollutants, including mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on ecological footprint, habitat area, food supply, and biodiversity in a panel of thirty-four developed and developing countries, over the period of 1995-2014. The results reveal that NOx and SO 2 emissions both have a negative relationship with ecological footprints, while N 2 O emission and real GDP per capita have a direct relationship with ecological footprints. NOx has a positive relationship with forest area, per capita food supply and biological diversity while CO 2 emission and GHG emission have a negative impact on food production. N 2 O has a positive impact on forest area and biodiversity, while SO 2 emissions have a negative relationship with them. SO 2 emission has a direct relationship with per capita food production, while GDP per capita significantly affected per capita food production and food supply variability across countries. The overall results reveal that SO 2 , CO 2 , and GHG emissions affected potential habitat area, while SO 2 and GHG emissions affected the biodiversity index. Trade liberalization policies considerably affected the potential habitat area and biological diversity in a panel of countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a prototype regeneration carbon dioxide absorber. [for use in EVA conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, P. S.; Baker, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber was developed to maintain the environmental quality of the portable life support system. The absorber works on the alkali metal carbonate-bicarbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The prototype sorber module was designed, fabricated, and tested at simulated extravehicular activity conditions to arrive at optimum design. The unit maintains sorber outlet concentration below 5 mm Hg. An optimization study was made with respect to heat transfer, temperature control, sorbent utilization, sorber life and regenerability, and final size of the module. Important parameters influencing the capacity of the final absorber unit were identified and recommendations for improvement were made.

  16. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D R

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer. PMID:50930

  17. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1...

  20. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increasedmore » by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model

  1. Sulfur cathodes with hydrogen reduced titanium dioxide inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-27

    Sulfur is a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. The rapid capacity fading, however, presents a significant challenge for the practical application of sulfur cathodes. Two major approaches that have been developed to improve the sulfur cathode performance include (a) fabricating nanostructured conductive matrix to physically encapsulate sulfur and (b) engineering chemical modification to enhance binding with polysulfides and, thus, to reduce their dissolution. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) electrode structure to achieve both sulfur physical encapsulation and polysulfides binding simultaneously. The electrode is based on hydrogen reduced TiO2 with an inverse opal structure that is highly conductive and robust toward electrochemical cycling. The relatively enclosed 3D structure provides an ideal architecture for sulfur and polysulfides confinement. The openings at the top surface allow sulfur infusion into the inverse opal structure. In addition, chemical tuning of the TiO2 composition through hydrogen reduction was shown to enhance the specific capacity and cyclability of the cathode. With such TiO2 encapsulated sulfur structure, the sulfur cathode could deliver a high specific capacity of ∼1100 mAh/g in the beginning, with a reversible capacity of ∼890 mAh/g after 200 cycles of charge/discharge at a C/5 rate. The Coulombic efficiency was also maintained at around 99.5% during cycling. The results showed that inverse opal structure of hydrogen reduced TiO2 represents an effective strategy in improving lithium sulfur batteries performance.

  2. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  3. Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions for the same period. Emissions from smelters in the region comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source of sulfate. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected for the watersheds. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. Year-to-year variability in stream sulfate concentration is much greater than any long-term trends that might be inferred.

  4. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina

    2018-04-15

    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosol chemistry at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattantyus, Andre K.; Businger, Steven; Howell, Steven G.

    2018-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide emissions from the Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i and the subsequent formation of sulfate aerosols have caused a public health hazard across the state of Hawai'i since the volcano began erupting continuously in 1983. The University of Hawai'i at Mānoa began to forecast the trajectory and dispersion of emissions in 2010 to help mitigate the hazards to public health. In this paper a comprehensive review of potential conversion reactions is presented with the goal of more accurately representing the sulfur dioxide chemistry in the dispersion model. Atmospheric sulfur dioxide chemistry and major process responsible for sulfate formation are well documented in urban and industrial settings. The atmosphere in the vicinity of Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i differs from that in previous investigations by virtue of being far removed from both urban and industrial settings in a remote, tropical marine atmosphere. Additionally, the combination of the high rate of sulfur dioxide emissions and trace gases and metals from Kīlauea Volcano creates a unique circumstance that requires a new look at potential conversion pathways to determine the dominant reactions. The theoretical analysis suggests that the dominant reaction in clear air will be between sulfur dioxide and the hydroxyl radical (0.01-5% h-1) and the dominant reaction in cloudy air involves hydrogen peroxide (3-50% s-1). Moreover, given the high SO2 emissions from the Halema'uma'u Crater vent, the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by these reactants is limited by their rate of production.

  6. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  7. Testing of Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Cells for Waste Disposal Hazards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    r AD-AO90 785 WAPORA INC CHEVY CHASE NO F/G 10/3 TESTING OF LITHIUM-SULFUR DIOXIDE CELLS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL HAZA-ETC(U) OCT 80 D B BOIES OAAK20-79-C... TESTING ION T HUM -SUFU DIXD-EL ORWSEDSOA Daved B. pBli else 69stributonsi nlmied.e OCTOBELE198 Fia PRepr for Peio OCT 23198008 STRYUIO AELETOISRSA...34 cell Toxic waste Sulfur dioxide vapor pressure Structural Integrity Test Ignitable waste Extraction procedure results Corrosive waste ftactive waste

  8. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as a...

  9. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related system

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO 2 or have a high-affinity for CO 2, and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO 2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  10. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related systems

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lewis, Larry Neil; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona; Hancu, Dan

    2016-09-13

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO.sub.2 or have a high-affinity for CO.sub.2; and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO.sub.2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  11. Performance of a new carbon dioxide absorbent, Yabashi lime® as compared to conventional carbon dioxide absorbent during sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kei; Atiba, Ayman; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Shizuko; Miwa, Takashi; Katsumata, Teruya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we compare a new carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent, Yabashi lime(®) with a conventional CO2 absorbent, Sodasorb(®) as a control CO2 absorbent for Compound A (CA) and Carbon monoxide (CO) productions. Four dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with four preparations, Yabashi lime(®) with high or low-flow rate of oxygen and control CO2 absorbent with high or low-flow rate. CA and CO concentrations in the anesthetic circuit, canister temperature and carbooxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration in the blood were measured. Yabashi lime(®) did not produce CA. Control CO2 absorbent generated CA, and its concentration was significantly higher in low-flow rate than a high-flow rate. CO was generated only in low-flow rate groups, but there was no significance between Yabashi lime(®) groups and control CO2 absorbent groups. However, the CO concentration in the circuit could not be detected (≤5ppm), and no change was found in COHb level. Canister temperature was significantly higher in low-flow rate groups than high-flow rate groups. Furthermore, in low-flow rate groups, the lower layer of canister temperature in control CO2 absorbent group was significantly higher than Yabashi lime(®) group. CA and CO productions are thought to be related to the composition of CO2 absorbent, flow rate and canister temperature. Though CO concentration is equal, it might be safer to use Yabashi lime(®) with sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs than conventional CO2 absorbent at the point of CA production.

  12. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  13. Loss of sulfur dioxide and changes in some chemical properties of Malatya apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) during sulfuring and drying.

    PubMed

    Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet; Güzel, Nihal

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in some analytical properties of four apricot cultivars and to determine the changes in these analytical properties during sulfuring and sun-drying. There were significant differences in the contents of polyphenols, carotenoids and organic acids (OA) as well as antioxidant activities (AOAs) of the cultivars (P < 0.05). After sulfuring and drying, considerable reductions were detected in the contents of total polyphenols (TPCs, 11-26%), OAs (4-32%) and β-carotene (6-21%), and AOAs (2-21%) of the samples. Sun-drying resulted in 71-83% decreases in sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) contents of sulfured-dried apricots (SDAs) in comparison with apricots immediately after sulfuring. As the TPCs increased, the SO2 absorption by the samples also increased. In contrast, the OA contents had no effect on SO2 absorption, but an increase in OA content resulted in an increase in the browning values of the SDAs. As expected, increases in contents of ferulic acid (r = 0.932), chlorogenic acid (r = 0.850), epicatechin (r = 0.804) and quercetin (r = 0.750) led to an increase in browning values of the SDAs. There were significant effects of cultivar and processing on the physico-chemical properties investigated in the study, and with the absorption of SO2 and the formation of a brown colour in the samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fruit growing in areas of air pollution by sulfur dioxide (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Guderian, R.

    1969-01-01

    A review is presented dealing with leaf injuries and reductions in growth, yield, and fruit quality in pome fruits, stone fruits, bush fruits, vines, strawberries, and walnuts caused by sulfur dioxide. References to varietal resistance and the effects of manuring on resistance are provided. 11 references.

  15. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on height and stem specific gravity of Populus hybrids

    Treesearch

    Roy L. Patton

    1981-01-01

    Unfumigated hybrid poplars (Populus spp.) were compared with poplars of the same nine clones fumigated with 0.15 pprn ozone or 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide. After 102 days, plant height and stem specific gravity were measured to determine whether specific gravity is altered by the fumigants and to compare that response to height suppression, an accepted...

  16. CALCINATION AND SINTERING OF SORBENTS DURING BOILER INJECTION FOR DRY SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the calcination and sintering of sorbents during boiler injection for dry sulfur dioxide (S02) control, with emphasis on calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--because of its superior reactivity with S02 and its wide commercial availability. Calcination and sintering are...

  17. ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

  18. COMBINED EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON BEAN AND TOBACCO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris and one cultivar of Nicotiana tabacum were exposed to a replicated series of concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (03), and combinations of these two air pollutants for single four-hour periods. Experiments were performed in ...

  19. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  20. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  1. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.6 Penalties for excess emissions of...

  2. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.5 Deduction of allowances to offset...

  3. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

  4. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  5. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  6. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  7. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support systems. [for astronaut EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a prototype carbon dioxide absorber using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is described. Absorbers are constructed of thin, porous sheets of supported K2CO3 that are spirally wound to form a cylindrical reactor. Axial gas passages are formed between the porous sheets by corrugated screen material. Carbon dioxide and water in an enclosed life support system atmosphere react with potassium carbonate to form potassium bicarbonate. The potassium carbonate is regenerated by heating the potassium bicarbonate to 150 C at ambient pressure. The extravehicular mission design conditions are for one man for 8 h. Results are shown for a subunit test module investigating the effects of heat release, length-to-diameter ratio, and active cooling upon performance. The most important effect upon carbon dioxide removal is the temperature of the potassium carbonate.

  8. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  9. Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Effect of Sulfuric Acid on the Uptake of Sulfur Dioxide on Soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, J. G.; Koehler, B. G.

    2001-05-01

    The uptake of SO2 on soot may lead to the formation of sulfuric acid on the soot. The sulfuric acid then can affect the further uptake of SO2 on the soot. We are interested in the effect of submonolayer H2SO4 on the uptake of SO2. We measured the uptake of SO2 on n-hexane soot as a function SO2 pressure (10-7 to 10-4 Torr) and sulfuric acid coverage between -140\\deg and -120\\deg C. We generate sulfuric acid by adsorbing varying amounts of SO3 on soot, covering the SO3 with a thick layer of condensed H2O, and heating to 193 K to react the SO3 and H2O and to remove the excess H2O. The sulfuric acid coverage is in the range of monolayer or sub-monolayer. Adsorption of SO2 on soot with and without the sulfuric acid shows that the acid reduces the SO2 uptake by a factor of two or more. Varying the amount of acid has little effect on uptake. However, increasing the thickness of the soot substrate causes a significant increase in SO2 uptake.

  11. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  12. NASA AIRS Instrument Tracks Transport of Sulfur Dioxide from Chilean Volcanic Eruption Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-07

    For the first time in 40 years, the Calbuco volcano in southern Chile erupted on April 22, 2015. The eruption caused airline flight cancellations in Chile, Argentina and Uruguay and the evacuation of approximately 4,000 people. This movie shows alternating day and nighttime views of the plume of sulfur dioxide gas emitted by Calbuco, as observed by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, from April 22 to May 5, 2015. Significant amounts of sulfur dioxide are shown in bright red. The largest plume is apparent over South America during the initial eruption on April 22. The plume is then carried by winds across the south Atlantic Ocean and southern Africa. A second large eruption on April 29 produced a smaller plume. Volcanic sulfur dioxide can be an important factor in climate. Some of it is carried into Earth's stratosphere, where it is transformed into highly reflective droplets of sulfuric acid. By reflecting sunlight, these droplets can cool Earth. Large eruptions, like Mt. Pinatubo in 1991, cool our planet and disrupt rainfall patterns. Though an impressive eruption, Calbuco is expected to have only a small impact on Earth's climate. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19385

  13. Development of an Ultra-Violet Digital Camera for Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluth, G. J.; Shannon, J. M.; Watson, I. M.; Prata, F. J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to improve monitoring of passive volcano degassing, we have constructed and tested a digital camera for quantifying the sulfur dioxide (SO2) content of volcanic plumes. The camera utilizes a bandpass filter to collect photons in the ultra-violet (UV) region where SO2 selectively absorbs UV light. SO2 is quantified by imaging calibration cells of known SO2 concentrations. Images of volcanic SO2 plumes were collected at four active volcanoes with persistent passive degassing: Villarrica, located in Chile, and Santiaguito, Fuego, and Pacaya, located in Guatemala. Images were collected from distances ranging between 4 and 28 km away, with crisp detection up to approximately 16 km. Camera set-up time in the field ranges from 5-10 minutes and images can be recorded in as rapidly as 10-second intervals. Variable in-plume concentrations can be observed and accurate plume speeds (or rise rates) can readily be determined by tracing individual portions of the plume within sequential images. Initial fluxes computed from camera images require a correction for the effects of environmental light scattered into the field of view. At Fuego volcano, simultaneous measurements of corrected SO2 fluxes with the camera and a Correlation Spectrometer (COSPEC) agreed within 25 percent. Experiments at the other sites were equally encouraging, and demonstrated the camera's ability to detect SO2 under demanding meteorological conditions. This early work has shown great success in imaging SO2 plumes and offers promise for volcano monitoring due to its rapid deployment and data processing capabilities, relatively low cost, and improved interpretation afforded by synoptic plume coverage from a range of distances.

  14. Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western Atlantic Ocean during CITE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A. R., III; Ferek, R.

    1993-01-01

    During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western Atlantic Ocean, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean was remarkably similar duing this experiment.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit means a furnace or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit means a furnace or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit means a furnace or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit means a furnace or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit means a furnace or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of...

  20. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in

  1. A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Reconciling evidence for persistent liquid water during the late Noachian with our understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and of solar luminosity remains a challenge, despite several decades of research. An optically-thicker atmosphere to supply the necessary radiative forcing would result in the existence of a carbon cycle similar to Earth's, where the release of CO2 from volcanoes is balanced by burial of calcium carbonate through silicate weathering reactions that remove protons and release alkalinity to surface waters. Existence of such a carbon cycle on Mars, even for tens of millions of years, would yield carbonate sediments in far greater abundance than has been observed, as well as residual clay minerals. The high concentration of sulfur in Martian soils and rocks indicates that Martian volcanic emissions contained abundant sulfur volatiles in addition to CO2. However, the atmospheric and aquatic chemistry of SO2 under the reducing conditions of early Mars, in contrast with the presently oxidizing and biologically-catalyzed Earth, has not been thoroughly examined. We argue that these conditions may have allowed atmospheric concentrations of SO2 high enough to augment a thick CO2-H2O greenhouse. Furthermore, early Martian climate may have been stabilized by a feedback mechanism involving SO2 and the solubility of sulfite minerals instead of CO2 and the solubility of carbonates. We present the results of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, demonstrating the radiative importance of SO2 to the planetary energy budget. We also use a simple geochemical model to show that the presence of SO2 in the early Martian atmosphere would have dominated the aquatic chemistry on the planet's surface, and may provide an explanation for how water could have persisted for millions of years without forming massive carbonate sediments, yet allowing the formation of clay minerals.

  2. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  3. Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) for the Proposed Revisions to the Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) provides estimates of the incremental costs and monetized human health benefits of attaining a revised short‐term Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) NAAQS within the current monitoring network.

  4. Economic, Environmental, and Coal Market Impacts of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading under Alternative Acid Rain Control Proposals (1989)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report examines the ramifications of diferent levels of emissions trading in the context of tro representative electric utility sulfur dioxide emisson reduction proposals designed to control acid rain, and in the absence of any new control program.

  5. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for primary standards for Sulfur Dioxide, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, projected nonattainment areas for 2020, and a presentation on the 2011 SO2 primary NAAQS revision.

  6. Probability model for atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations in the area of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Buttazzoni, C.; Lavagnini, I.; Marani, A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper deals with a comparative screening of existing air quality models based on their ability to simulate the distribution of sulfur dioxide data in the Venetian area. Investigations have been carried out on sulfur dioxide dispersion in the atmosphere of the Venetian area. The studies have been mainly focused on transport models (Gaussian, plume and K-models) aiming at meaningful correlations of sources and receptors. Among the results, a noteworthy disagreement of simulated and experimental data, due to the lack of thorough knowledge of source field conditions and of local meteorology of the sea-land transition area, has been shown. Investigationsmore » with receptor oriented models (based, e.g., on time series analysis, Fourier analysis, or statistical distributions) have also been performed.« less

  7. Age of pine seedlings with primary needles affects sensitivity to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1974-02-01

    Seedlings of Virginia (Pinus virginiana), shortleaf (P. echinata), slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii), and loblolly (P. taeda) pines at ages 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wk were exposed to individual dosages of ozone and sulfur dioxide. Exposures were 2 hr at 655.0 +/- 65 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 477.5 +/- 48 ..mu../m/sup 3/ for O/sub 3/ (25 +/- 2.5 parts per hundred million). The two gases were equally injurious to all species, and all species were equally sensitive to each gas. Maximum sensitivity of the seedlings to the two gases, however, occurred at different ages. For ozonemore » the greatest sensitivity was 2 wk or younger, and for sulfur dioxide at 8 to 10 wk or older.« less

  8. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Kīlauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  10. Remotely Sensed Density Measurements of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes Using a Spectral Long Wave Infrared Imager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    USGS). (Tilling, R., Heliker, C., and Wright, T., “ Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes ”) The mission of HVO is to monitor Hawaii’s Mauna Loa and Kilauea ...Hendley, J., “Living on Active Volcanoes ”) Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano is unique in its long-term (1983 – present), nearly continuous eruptive ...monitoring the gas emission process of Kilauea Volcano . During periods of sustained eruption , Kilauea emits about 2,000 tons of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2

  11. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Sulfur Dioxide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    irritation and moist rales, bilaterally and anteriorly over the large bronchi. One-half of the subjects exposed to sulfur dioxide at concentrations of... burns . The pharyngeal mucosa was hyperemic but without ulceration . These men had decreased breath sounds, diffuse rales and rhonchi, with essentially...workplace have limited appli- cation in the military setting; the basis for their selection is the protection of chronically exposed workers against

  12. Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This review summarized the current advances in understanding the role of the novel gasotransmitter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), in the cardiovascular system. Articles on the advances in the study of the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system were accessed from PubMed and CNKI from 2003 to 2013, using keywords such as "endogenous sulfur dioxide" and "cardiovascular system". Articles with regard to the role of SO2 in the regulation of cardiovascular system were selected. Recently, scientists discovered that an endogenous SO2 pathway is present in the cardiovascular system and exerts physiologically significant effects, such as regulation of the cardiac function and the pathogenesis of various cardiopulmonary diseases such as hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, coronary atherosclerosis, and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in the cardiovascular system. Endogenous SO2 is a novel member of the gasotransmitter family in addition to the nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Studies indicated that it has a role in regulating the cardiovascular disease.

  13. Accurate thermochemistry and spectroscopy of the oxygen-protonated sulfur dioxide isomers.

    PubMed

    Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-12-28

    Despite the promising relevance of protonated sulfur dioxide in astrophysical and atmospheric fields, its thermochemical and spectroscopic characterization is very limited. High-level quantum-chemical calculations have shown that the most stable isomer is the cis oxygen-protonated sulfur dioxide, HOSO(+), while the trans form is about 2 kcal mol(-1) less stable; even less stable (by about 42 kcal mol(-1)) is the S-protonated isomer [V. Lattanzi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 194305]. The enthalpy of formation for the cis- and trans-HOSO(+) is presented, based on the well tested HEAT protocol [A. Tajti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 11599]. Systematically extrapolated ab initio energies, accounting for electron correlation through coupled cluster theory, including up to single, double, triple and quadruple excitations, have been corrected for core-electron correlation, anharmonic zero-point vibrational energy, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer and scalar relativistic effects. As a byproduct, proton affinity of sulfur dioxide and atomization energies have also been obtained at the same levels of theory. Vibrational and rotational spectroscopic properties have been investigated by means of composite schemes that allow us to account for truncation of basis set as well as core correlation. Where available, for both thermochemistry and spectroscopy, very good agreement with experimental data has been observed.

  14. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

  16. U.S. sulfur dioxide emission reductions: Shifting factors and a carbon dioxide penalty

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Marilyn Ann; Li, Yufei; Massetti, Emanuele; ...

    2017-01-18

    For more than 20 years, the large-scale application of flue gas desulfurization technology has been a dominant cause of SO 2 emission reductions. From 1994–2004, electricity generation from coal increased, but the shift to low-sulfur coal eclipsed this. From 2004–2014, electricity generation from coal decreased, but a shift to higher-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coal overshadowed this. Here, the shift in coal quality has also created a CO 2 emissions penalty, representing 2% of the sector’s total emissions in 2014.

  17. [Mechanisms of tolerance to sulfur dioxide and sodium metabisulfite].

    PubMed

    Atzori, L; Corriga, A M; Cannas, E; Congiu, L

    1997-01-01

    Inhalation of sulphur dioxide (250 ppm), (SO2) or sodium metabisulfite (80 mM) (MBS) aerosol or perfusion with MBS (3 mM) induced a reduction in compliance and conductance in the isolated, perfused and ventilated guinea pig lung. Pretreatment of the lung with sodium sulfite (3 mM), a dissolution product of SO2 and MBS, reduced the bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS. Bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS in associated to increased levels of Calcitonin gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) in the perfusate effinent, indicating activation of sensory nerves. The release of CGRP induced by SO2 and MBS was not affected by sodium sulfite. Sulfite treatment did not modify lung reactivity towards acethylcholine, bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and substance P (fragment 5-11). An inhibitory effect by sulfite was observed on bronchoconstriction induced by neurokinin A (fragment 4-10). Since bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS appears to be mediated by neurokinin A release and action, sulfite may act by affecting its signal transduction pathway. In conclusion, the results indicate that during exposure to some environmental and occupational pollutants, e.g. SO2 and MBS, critical modifications of sulfhydryl groups on smooth muscle receptors may occur. We hypothesise this as a possible step in the development of tolerance and hyperreactivity.

  18. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  19. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  20. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  1. Mechanisms of resistance to sulfur dioxide in the Cucurbitaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Bressan, R.A.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1978-05-01

    The relative resistance of four cultivars of the Cucurbitaceae (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling, and inbred line SC 25; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Prolific Straightneck Squash, and cv. Small Sugar Pumpkin) to SO/sub 2/ was determined. According to plots of the degree of exposure to SO/sub 2/ (which depends on the SO/sub 2/ concentration and the duration of the exposure), there is an 8-fold difference in resistance to this toxic gas among these cultivars. However, if the degree of injury is plotted as a function of the amount of SO/sub 2/ absorbed, all four cultivars appear similarly sensitive tomore » the gas. We conclude that the principal reason for special and varietal differences in resistance among these cultivars is the relative rate of absorption of the gas. The densities of stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves did not differ sufficiently between cultivars to account for the differences in absorption rates. It remains to be determined whether the differences in rate of SO/sub 2/ absorption reflect differences in stomatal activity. Resistance of individual leaves changes with position on the plant axis (age of the leaf). There exists a gradient of decreasing resistance from the apex downward. This resistance gradient cannot be accounted for by differences in rates of SO/sub 2/ absorption. We infer the existence of a biochemically based, developmentally controlled resistance mechanism which functions after SO/sub 2/ has entered the leaf. Biochemical comparisons of old and young leaves with such differences in resistance should be helpful in determining the biochemistry of SO/sub 2/ toxicity.« less

  2. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  3. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-03

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  4. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  5. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present paper, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute ofmore » Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. Finally, this could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.« less

  6. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present paper, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute ofmore » Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. Finally, this could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.« less

  7. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  9. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  10. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-24

    ammonia , chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400... ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint...sections of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (CCl2O), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases in the fingerprint

  11. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    ammonia , chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400... ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint...sections of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (CCl2O), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases in the fingerprint region

  12. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  13. Molecular dynamics and a spectroscopic study of sulfur dioxide absorption by an ionic liquid and its mixtures with PEO.

    PubMed

    Hoher, Karina; Cardoso, Piercarlo F; Lepre, Luiz F; Ando, Rômulo A; Siqueira, Leonardo J A

    2016-10-19

    An investigation comprising experimental techniques (absorption capacity of SO 2 and vibrational spectroscopy) and molecular simulations (thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics) has been performed for the polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the ionic liquid butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N 4111 ][Tf 2 N]) and their mixtures as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) absorbing materials. The polymer PEO has higher capacity to absorb SO 2 than the neat ionic liquid, whereas the mixtures presented intermediary absorption capacities. The band assigned to the symmetric stretching band of SO 2 at ca. 1140 cm -1 , which is considered a spectroscopic probe for the strength of SO 2 interactions with its neighborhood, shifts to lower wavenumbers as more negative total interaction energy values of SO 2 were evaluated from the simulations. The solvation free energy of SO 2 , ΔG sol , correlates linearly with the absorption capacity of SO 2 . The negative values of ΔG sol are due to negative and positive values of enthalpy and entropy, respectively. In the ionic liquid, SO 2 weakens the cation-anion interactions, whereas in the mixture with a high content of PEO these interactions are slightly increased. Such effects were correlated with the relative population of cisoid and transoid conformers of Tf 2 N anions as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 in the systems provokes the increase of diffusion coefficients of the absorbing species in comparison with the systems without the gas. Proper to the slow dynamics of the polymer, the diffusion coefficient of ions and SO 2 diminishes with the increase of the PEO content.

  14. A study of the total atmospheric sulfur dioxide load using ground-based measurements and the satellite derived Sulfur Dioxide Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Balis, D.; Koukouli, M. E.; Meleti, C.; Bais, A.; Zerefos, C.

    We present characteristics of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) loading over Thessaloniki, Greece, and seven other selected sites around the world using SO 2 total column measurements from Brewer spectrophotometers together with satellite estimates of the Version 8 TOMS Sulfur Dioxide Index (SOI) over the same locations, retrieved from Nimbus 7 TOMS (1979-1993), Earth Probe TOMS (1996-2003) and OMI/Aura (2004-2006). Traditionally, the SOI has been used to quantify the SO 2 quantities emitted during great volcanic eruptions. Here, we investigate whether the SOI can give an indication of the total SO 2 load for areas and periods away from eruptive volcanic activity by studying its relative changes as a correlative measure to the SO 2 total column. We examined time series from Thessaloniki and another seven urban and non-urban stations, five in the European Union (Arosa, De Bilt, Hohenpeissenberg, Madrid, Rome) and two in India (Kodaikanal, New Delhi). Based on the Brewer data, Thessaloniki shows high SO 2 total columns for a European Union city but values are still low if compared to highly affected regions like those in India. For the time period 1983-2006 the SO 2 levels above Thessaloniki have generally decreased with a rate of 0.028 Dobson Units (DU) per annum, presumably due to the European Union's strict sulfur control policies. The seasonal variability of the SO 2 total column exhibits a double peak structure with two maxima, one during winter and the second during summer. The winter peak can be attributed to central heating while the summer peak is due to synoptic transport from sources west of the city and sources in the north of Greece. A moderate correlation was found between the seasonal levels of Brewer total SO 2 and SOI for Thessaloniki, Greece ( R = 0.710-0.763) and Madrid, Spain ( R = 0.691) which shows that under specific conditions the SOI might act as an indicator of the SO 2 total load.

  15. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  17. High-efficiency and high-power rechargeable lithium–sulfur dioxide batteries exploiting conventional carbonate-based electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeokjun; Lim, Hee-Dae; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Seong, Won Mo; Moon, Sehwan; Ko, Youngmin; Lee, Byungju; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Shedding new light on conventional batteries sometimes inspires a chemistry adoptable for rechargeable batteries. Recently, the primary lithium-sulfur dioxide battery, which offers a high energy density and long shelf-life, is successfully renewed as a promising rechargeable system exhibiting small polarization and good reversibility. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that reversible operation of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery is also possible by exploiting conventional carbonate-based electrolytes. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal that the sulfur dioxide electrochemistry is highly stable in carbonate-based electrolytes, enabling the reversible formation of lithium dithionite. The use of the carbonate-based electrolyte leads to a remarkable enhancement of power and reversibility; furthermore, the optimized lithium-sulfur dioxide battery with catalysts achieves outstanding cycle stability for over 450 cycles with 0.2 V polarization. This study highlights the potential promise of lithium-sulfur dioxide chemistry along with the viability of conventional carbonate-based electrolytes in metal-gas rechargeable systems. PMID:28492225

  18. Safety hazards associated with the charging of lithium/sulfur dioxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Lawson, D. D.; Barnes, J. A.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A continuing research program to assess the responses of spirally wound, lithium/sulfur dioxide cells to charging as functions of charging current, temperature, and cell condition prior to charging is described. Partially discharged cells that are charged at currents greater than one ampere explode with the time to explosion inversely proportional to the charging current. Cells charged at currents of less than one ampere may fail in one of several modes. The data allows an empirical prediction of when certain cells will fail given a constant charging current.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-03

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km. The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02678

  20. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, P.J.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  1. Novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents in low-flow anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Go; Mitsui, Takanori; Kakinuma, Takayasu; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Matsumoto, Shohei; Isshiki, Atsushi; Yasuo, Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    During long-term low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia, dew formation and the generation of compound A are increased in the anesthesia circuit because of elevated soda lime temperature. The object of this study was to develop a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents used for long durations of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia. Eleven female swine were divided into two groups comprising a "radiator" group (n = 5) that used a novel radiator for carbon dioxide absorbents and a "control" group (n = 6) that used a conventional canister. Anesthesia was maintained with N2O, O2, and sevoflurane, and low-flow anesthesia was performed with fresh gas flow at 0.6 L/min for 12 hr. In the "control" group, the soda lime temperature reached more than 40 degrees C and soda lime dried up with severe dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In the "radiator" group, the temperature of soda lime stayed at 30 degrees C, and the water content of soda lime was retained with no dew formation in the inspiratory valve. In addition, compound A concentration was reduced. In conclusion, radiation of soda lime reduced the amounts of condensation formed and the concentration of compound A in the anesthetic circuit, and allowed long term low-flow anesthesia without equipment malfunction.

  2. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren

    2004-08-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered.

  3. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  4. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  5. Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20–32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  7. Effect of Porosity Parameters and Surface Chemistry on Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Sulfur-Doped Porous Carbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Jie; Sui, Zhu-Yin; Sun, Ya-Nan; Ma, Zhuang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2018-05-22

    In this work, a series of highly porous sulfur-doped carbons are prepared through physical activation methods by using polythiophene as a precursor. The morphology, structure, and physicochemical properties are revealed by a variety of characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen sorption measurement. Their porosity parameters and chemical compositions can be well-tuned by changing the activating agents (steam and carbon dioxide) and reaction temperature. These sulfur-doped porous carbons possess specific surface area of 670-2210 m 2 g -1 , total pore volume of 0.31-1.26 cm 3 g -1 , and sulfur content of 0.6-4.9 atom %. The effect of porosity parameters and surface chemistry on carbon dioxide adsorption in sulfur-doped porous carbons is studied in detail. After a careful analysis of carbon dioxide uptake at different temperatures (273 and 293 K), pore volumes from small pore size (less than 1 nm) play an important role in carbon dioxide adsorption at 273 K, whereas surface chemistry is the key factor at a higher adsorption temperature or lower relative pressure. Furthermore, sulfur-doped porous carbons also possess good gas adsorption selectivity and excellent recyclability for regeneration.

  8. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

  9. Influence of cell temperature on sulfur dioxide contamination in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Y.; Bender, G.; Bethune, K.; Rocheleau, R.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of temperature on sulfur dioxide (SO2) contamination in PEMFCs are investigated by operating single cells with 2 ppm SO2 in the cathode at different temperatures. Cell performance response shows that voltage degradation was delayed and appears a transition of multiple processes at low temperatures; a similar performance loss is observed when performances reached steady state. The restored performance from the reversible and the irreversible degradations highly depends on temperature. At low temperature, the performance recovery is only negligible with neat air operation (self-recovery), while full recovery is observed after cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning. As temperature increased, so did the self-recovery performance. However, the total recovery performance decreased. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis indicates that the potential-dependent poisoning process was delayed at low temperature, and the removal of the sulfur species from Pt/C was inhibited during the self-recovery. Water balance analysis implies that the delay could be attributed to the effect of liquid water scavenging and the mass transport of SO2 in the membrane electrode assemblies. The CV analysis confirms that the decomposition/desorption of the sulfur adsorbates was inhibited and indicates that the SO2 crossover from the cathode to the anode side was also mitigated at low temperature.

  10. [Spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide around a tobacco bulk-curing workshop cluster].

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Wang, Mei; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jian-Feng; Huang, Wu-Xing; Tian, Bin-Qiang; Gong, Chang-Rong

    2014-03-01

    In order to manifest lower energy consumption and less labor employment, and provide the theoretical basis for constructing environmentally friendly modem tobacco agriculture, this paper analyzed gas composition of the chimney from a bulk-curing barn and the dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) around the workshop cluster using ecom-J2KN flue gas analyzer and air sampler. During curing, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 in the chimney were both highest at 38 degrees C, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was highest at 42 degrees C. The emission concentration of SO2 from the chimney was 1327.60-2218.40 mg x m(-3). Average SO2 emission would decrease by 49.7% through adding 4.0% of a sulfur-fixed agent. The highest concentrations of SO2 in the surface soil appeared at the yellowing stage. SO2 concentration in horizontal direction localized at 43-80 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3). The highest concentration of SO2 (0.57 mg x m(-3)) was observed at 50 m. At 50 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster, SO2 concentration in vertical direction localized at 0.9-1.8 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3), and the highest concentration of SO2 in vertical direction was 0.65 mg x m(-3) at 1.6 m. During curing, the average concentration of SO2 was decreased by 0.43 mg x m(-3) by using the sulfur-fixed agent. The polluted boundary was localized at 120 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster.

  11. Transport of sulfur dioxide from the Asian Pacific Rim to the North Pacific troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Donald C.; Bandy, Alan R.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1997-12-01

    The NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission over the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) field experiment provided an opportunity to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean from the tropics to 60°N during February-March 1993. The large suite of chemical and physical measurements yielded a complex matrix in which to understand the distribution of sulfur dioxide over the western Pacific region. In contrast to the late summer period of Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) (1991) over this same area, SO2 showed little increase with altitude, and concentrations were much lower in the free troposphere than during the PEM-West B period. Volcanic impacts on the upper troposphere were again found as a result of deep convection in the tropics. Extensive emission of SO2 from the Pacific Rim land masses were primarily observed in the lower well-mixed part of the boundary layer but also in the upper part of the boundary layer. Analyses of the SO2 data with aerosol sulfate, beryllium-7, and lead-210 indicated that SO2 contributed to half or more of the observed total oxidized sulfur (SO2 plus aerosol sulfate) in free tropospheric air. The combined data set suggests that SO2 above 8.5 km is transported from the surface but with aerosol sulfate being removed more effectively than SO2. Cloud processing and rain appeared to be responsible for lower SO2 levels between 3 and 8.5 km than above or below this region.

  12. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Seow, W J; Downward, G S; Wei, H; Rothman, N; Reiss, B; Xu, J; Bassig, B A; Li, J; He, J; Hosgood, H D; Wu, G; Chapman, R S; Tian, L; Wei, F; Caporaso, N E; Vermeulen, R; Lan, Q

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation in the rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, in Yunnan Province, China, which have among the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, a total of 163 participants in 30 selected villages were enrolled. Indoor 24-h NO2 and SO2 samples were collected in each household over two consecutive days. Compared to smoky coal, smokeless coal use was associated with higher NO2 concentrations [geometric mean (GM) = 132 μg/m(3) for smokeless coal and 111 μg/m(3) for smoky coal, P = 0.065] and SO2 [limit of detection = 24 μg/m(3) ; percentage detected (%Detect) = 86% for smokeless coal and 40% for smoky coal, P < 0.001]. Among smoky coal users, significant variation of NO2 and SO2 air concentrations was observed across different stove designs and smoky coal sources in both counties. Model construction indicated that the measurements of both pollutants were influenced by stove design. This exposure assessment study has identified high levels of NO2 and SO2 as a result of burning solid fuels for cooking and heating. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, elemental sulfur and the byproduct sulfuric acid were produced at 109 operations in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Total shipments were valued at about $1.6 billion. Elemental sulfur production was 8.2 Mt (9 million st); Louisiana and Texas accounted for about 53 percent of domestic production.

  14. UTILIZATION OF A RESPONSE-SURFACE TECHNIQUE IN THE STUDY OF PLANT RESPONSES TO OZONE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-di...

  15. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  16. Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more...

  17. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain, ozone and sulfur dioxide on suitability of elms for elm leaf beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hall; Jack H. Barger; Alden M. Townsend

    1988-01-01

    Cuttings from two clonally propagated elm hybrids ('Pioneer' and 'Homestead') were treated with ozone (03), sulfur dioxide (S02), simulated acid rain or left untreated. Fumigants were applied 7 hours per day, 5 days per week for 9 weeks in open-top chambers. Fumigation treatments were: 0.1 ppm 0

  19. Improving volcanic sulfur dioxide cloud dispersal forecasts by progressive assimilation of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Clarisse, Lieven; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting the dispersal of volcanic clouds during an eruption is of primary importance, especially for ensuring aviation safety. As volcanic emissions are characterized by rapid variations of emission rate and height, the (generally) high level of uncertainty in the emission parameters represents a critical issue that limits the robustness of volcanic cloud dispersal forecasts. An inverse modeling scheme, combining satellite observations of the volcanic cloud with a regional chemistry-transport model, allows reconstructing this source term at high temporal resolution. We demonstrate here how a progressive assimilation of freshly acquired satellite observations, via such an inverse modeling procedure, allows for delivering robust sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud dispersal forecasts during the eruption. This approach provides a computationally cheap estimate of the expected location and mass loading of volcanic clouds, including the identification of SO2-rich parts.

  20. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications.

  1. The effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorine dioxide in the clinical reduction of volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Soares, Leo Guimaraes; Guaitolini, Roberto Luiz; Weyne, Sergio de Carvalho; Falabella, Marcio Eduardo Vieira; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; da Silva, Denise Gomes

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouthrinse containing 0.3% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing oral volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Halitosis was induced by L-cysteine in 11 volunteers, and 4 solutions were compared: a test solution containing 0.3% ClO2, 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 0.05% sodium fluoride; a placebo; a solution containing 0.05% CPC; and a control solution of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). VSC levels were assessed using a Halimeter, and 6 measurements were made from baseline to 3 hours postrinse. The VSC reduction rate of the test mouthrinse was superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. There was no difference between the test solution and the CHX solution in VSC reduction rates immediately postrinse, or at 2 and 3 hours postrinse; both solutions were statistically superior to the placebo and the CPC solution.

  2. Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.A.; Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H. III

    1984-12-01

    Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the controls and two laged values thereof. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. Regression analyses revealed a negative effect onmore » annual growth that diminished with increasing distance from the smelter and during drought years. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in sensitivity to climate that persisted decades beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions 10-fold. 38 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.« less

  3. Phytotoxicity and growth responses of ornamental bedding plants to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Adedipe, N.O.; Barrett, R.F.; Ormrod, D.P.

    No appreciable signs of phytotoxicity were observed for 4 days following fumigation of plants (including begonias, petunias, snapdragons) with ozone of up to 80 parts per hundred million or sulfur dioxide of up to 400 pphm for 2 hr. Thereafter, there was considerable necrosis, particularly on begonias fumigated with the highest concentration of the pollutants. Growth suppression was reflected in reduced shoot and flower wt, and to a lesser degree in reduced flower number. Overall, begonias and petunias were the most sensitive. Coleus and snapdragons were moderately sensitive, while marigold, celosia, impatiens and salvia were tolerant. White Tausendschon was themore » most sensitive begonia cultivar while blue-flowered Capri was the most sensitive petunia. Mixed color petunias exhibited varying degrees of tolerance. Scarlet rainbow coleus was more sensitive than Pastel Rainbow. Measurements of growth alterations in plants were found very useful in determining latent forms of air pollutant injury.« less

  4. Probing the Superfluid Response of para-Hydrogen with a Sulfur Dioxide Dopant.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Guillon, Grégoire; Cantin, Joshua T; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2013-07-18

    We recently presented the first attempt at using an asymmetric top molecule (para-water) to probe the superfluidity of nanoclusters (of para-hydrogen) [ Zeng , T. ; Li , H. ; Roy , P.-N. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013 , 4 , 18 - 22 ]. Unfortunately, para-water could not be used to probe the para-hydrogen superfluid response. We now report a theoretical simulation of sulfur dioxide rotating in para-hydrogen clusters and show that this asymmetric top can serve as a genuine probe of superfluidity. With this probe, we predict that as few as four para-hydrogen molecules are enough to form a superfluid cluster, the smallest superfluid system to date. We also propose the concept of "exchange superfluid fraction" as a more precise measurement. New superfluid scenarios brought about by an asymmetric top dopant and potential experimental measurements are discussed.

  5. Bacterial Synthesis of Unusual Sulfonamide and Sulfone Antibiotics by Flavoenzyme-Mediated Sulfur Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Ding, Ling; Willing, Karsten; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-02

    Sulfa drugs, such as sulfonilamide and dapsone, are classical antibiotics that have been in clinical use worldwide. Despite the relatively simple architectures, practically no natural products are known to feature such aromatic sulfonamide or diarylsulfone substructures. We report the unexpected discovery of three fully unprecedented, sulfonyl-bridged alkaloid dimers (sulfadixiamycins A-C) from recombinant Streptomyces species harboring the entire xiamycin biosynthesis gene cluster. Sulfadixiamycins exhibit moderate antimycobacterial activities and potent antibiotic activities even against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gene inactivation, complementation, and biotransformation experiments revealed that a flavin-dependent enzyme (XiaH) plays a key role in sulfadixiamycin biosynthesis. XiaH mediates a radical-based, three-component reaction involving two equivalents of xiamycin and sulfur dioxide, which is reminiscent of radical styrene/SO2 copolymerization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Sulfur dioxide retrievals from OMI and GOME-2 in preparation of TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; van Gent, Jeroen; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) will be launched in 2016 onboard the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform and will provide global observations of atmospheric trace gases, with unprecedented spatial resolution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from S5P will significantly improve the current capabilities for anthropogenic and volcanic emissions monitoring, and will extend the long-term datasets from past and existing UV sensors (TOMS, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This work presents the SO2 retrieval schemes performed at BIRA-IASB as part of level-2 algorithm prototyping activities for S5P and tested on OMI and GOME-2. With a focus on anthropogenic sources, we show comparisons between OMI and GOME-2 as well as ground-based measurements, and discuss the possible reasons for the differences.

  7. The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.; Murdy, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongationmore » in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.« less

  8. Impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    Du Bay, D.T.; Murdy, W.H.

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set. An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tubemore » elongation in vitro to assess the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant secual reproduction in vivo is not valid.« less

  9. Influence of sulfur dioxide generators on red raspberry quality during postharvest storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spayd, S.E.; Norton, R.A.; Hayrynen, L.D.

    Hand harvested Meeker red raspberries were held at 4/sup 0/, 14/sup 0/, and 25/sup 0/C for up to 12 days using two types of sulfur dioxide generating pads. Visual mold rating were lower for fruits held with either SO/sub 2/ generator, but Howard Mold Count did not differ between the generators and the control fruits. Fruits stored with the generators were brighter and redder in color than controls when stored at 4/sup 0/C. Irregular bleaching of anthocyanins from drupelets occurred when fruits were stored at 14/sup 0/C or higher. Use of SO/sub 2/ generators is not recommended for fresh marketmore » fruit or nonheat treated processing fruit due to the bleaching and due to SO/sub 2/ residues in the fruit.« less

  10. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxidemore » also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.« less

  11. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. II. Alteration of quality constituents. [Festuca arundinacea

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine whether ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) might alter forage quality parameters of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Alta). Plants were exposed weekly to four O/sub 3/ treatments, 0, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ..mu..L L/sup -1/; with or without 0.10 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/, 6 h d/sup -1/ for 12 weeks. Ozone had a much greater impact on forage quality than did SO/sub 2/. Ozone increased protein content on a g kg/sup -1/ basis and decreased protein on a weight per plant basis. Ozone reduced crude fat, crude fiber, andmore » total nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the forage. Crude ash content increased due to O/sub 3/ exposure. On a weight per plant basis, O/sub 3/ decreased the forage concentration of Ca, Mg, and P. Ozone increased Ca concentration of herbage. Sulfur dioxide increased ash content of the forage. Phosphorus concentration and weight per plant of Mg and P were all reduced by SO/sub 2/ Significant pollutant interactions occurred for crude fiber, crude ash, total Mg, and total P contents of forage. While treatments resulted in some apparent increases in forage quality, these were at the expense of yield. The most adverse effects on forage quality were an increase in ash content which resulted from an interaction of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/, and a reduction in soluble carbohydrate content of shoots due to O/sub 3/.« less

  12. Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: impact of meteorological data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Rößler, Thomas; Griessbach, Sabine; Heng, Yi; Stein, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from strong volcanic eruptions are an important natural cause for climate variations. We applied our new Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) to perform simulations for three case studies of volcanic eruption events. The case studies cover the eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, and Nabro, Eritrea, in May and June 2011. We used SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS/Aqua) and a backward trajectory approach to initialize the simulations. Besides validation of the new model, the main goal of our study was a comparison of simulations with different meteorological data products. We considered three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and NCAR/NCEP) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. Qualitatively, the SO2 distributions from the simulations compare well with the AIRS data, but also with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aerosol observations. Transport deviations and the critical success index (CSI) are analyzed to evaluate the simulations quantitatively. During the first 5 or 10 days after the eruptions we found the best performance for the ECMWF analysis (CSI range of 0.25 - 0.31), followed by ERA-Interim (0.25 - 0.29), MERRA (0.23 - 0.27), and NCAR/NCEP (0.21 - 0.23). High temporal and spatial resolution of the meteorological data does lead to improved performance of Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Reference: Hoffmann L., Rößler, T., Griessbach, S., Heng, Y., and Stein, O., Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: impact of meteorological data products, J. Geophys. Res., 121(9), 4651-4673, doi:10.1002/2015JD023749, 2016.

  13. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

  14. India Is Overtaking China as the World's Largest Emitter of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Krotkov, Nickolay; Carn, Simon; Joiner, Joanna; Streets, David; He, Hao; Ren, Xinrong; Li, Zhanqing; hide

    2017-01-01

    Severe haze is a major public health concern in China and India. Both countries rely heavily on coal for energy, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from coal-fired power plants and industry is a major pollutant contributing to their air quality problems. Timely, accurate information on SO2 sources is a required input to air quality models for pollution prediction and mitigation. However, such information has been difficult to obtain for these two countries, as fast-paced changes in economy and environmental regulations have often led to unforeseen emission changes. Here we use satellite observations to show that China and India are on opposite trajectories for sulfurous pollution. Since 2007, emissions in China have declined by 75 percent while those in India have increased by 50 percent. With these changes, India is now surpassing China as the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic SO2. This finding, not predicted by emission scenarios, suggests effective SO2 control in China and lack thereof in India. Despite this, haze remains severe in China, indicating the importance of reducing emissions of other pollutants. In India, approximately 33 million people now live in areas with substantial SO2 pollution. Continued growth in emissions will adversely affect more people and further exacerbate morbidity and mortality.

  15. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  16. Constraining the Sulfur Dioxide Degassing Flux from Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica Using Unmanned Aerial System Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xi, Xin; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fladeland, Matthew; Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Observed sulfur dioxide (SO2)mixing ratios onboard unmanned aerial systems (UAS) duringMarch 11-13, 2013 are used to constrain the three-day averaged SO2 degassing flux fromTurrialba volcanowithin a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. A mesoscale model coupled with Lagrangian stochastic particle backward trajectories is used to quantify the source-receptor relationships at very high spatial resolutions (i.e., b1 km). The model shows better performance in reproducing the near-surface meteorological properties and observed SO2 variations when using a first-order closure non-local planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The optimized SO2 degassing fluxes vary from 0.59 +/- 0.37 to 0.83 +/- 0.33 kt d-1 depending on the PBL scheme used. These fluxes are in good agreement with ground-based gas flux measurements, and correspond to corrective scale factors of 8-12 to the posteruptive SO2 degassing rate in the AeroCom emission inventory. The maximum a posteriori solution for the SO2 flux is highly sensitive to the specification of prior and observational errors, and relatively insensitive to the SO2 loss term and temporal averaging of observations. Our results indicate relatively low degassing activity but sustained sulfur emissions from Turrialba volcano to the troposphere during March 2013. This study demonstrates the utility of low-cost small UAS platforms for volcanic gas composition and flux analysis.

  17. Removal of sulfur dioxide and formation of sulfate aerosol in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and submicron sulfate aerosol (SO42-) together with carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted at an urban site in Tokyo, Japan from spring 2003 to winter 2004. The observed concentrations of SO2 were affected dominantly by anthropogenic emissions (for example, manufacturing industries) in source areas, while small fraction of the data (<30%) was affected by large point sources of SO2 (power plant and volcano). Although emission sources of CO in Tokyo are different from those of SO2, the major emission sources of CO and SO2 are colocated, indicating that CO can be used as a tracer of anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Tokyo. The ratio of SO42- to total sulfur compounds (SOx = SO2 + SO42-) and the remaining fraction of SOx, which is derived as the ratio of the linear regression slope of the SOx-CO correlation, is used as measures for the formation of SO42- and removal of SOx, respectively. Using these parameters, the average formation efficiency of SO42- (i.e., amount of SO42- produced per SO2 emitted from emission sources) are estimated to be 0.18 and 0.03 in the summer and winter periods, respectively. A simple box model was developed to estimate the lifetime of SOx. The lifetime of SOx for the summer period (26 h) is estimated to be about two times longer than that for the winter period (14 h). The seasonal variations of the remaining fraction of SOx, estimated formation efficiency of SO42-, and lifetime of SOx are likely due to those of the boundary layer height and photochemical activity (i.e., hydroxyl radical). These results provide useful insights into the formation and removal processes of sulfur compounds exported from an urban area.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun molybdenum dioxide-carbon nanofibers as sulfur matrix additives for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ruiyuan; Yao, Shanshan; Jing, Maoxiang; Shen, Xiangqian; Xiang, Jun; Li, Tianbao; Xiao, Kesong; Qin, Shibiao

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional molybdenum dioxide-carbon nanofibers (MoO 2 -CNFs) were prepared using an electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using sol-gel precursors and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a processing aid. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MoO 2 -CNFs with an average diameter of 425-575 nm obtained after heat treatment were used as a matrix to prepare sulfur/MoO 2 -CNF cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The polysulfide adsorption and electrochemical performance tests demonstrated that MoO 2 -CNFs did not only act as polysulfide reservoirs to alleviate the shuttle effect, but also improve the electrochemical reaction kinetics during the charge-discharge processes. The effect of MoO 2 -CNF heat treatment on the cycle performance of sulfur/MoO 2 -CNFs electrodes was examined, and the data showed that MoO 2 -CNFs calcined at 850 °C delivered optimal performance with an initial capacity of 1095 mAh g -1 and 860 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles. The results demonstrated that sulfur/MoO 2 -CNF composites display a remarkably high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient, low interfacial resistance and much better electrochemical performance than pristine sulfur cathodes.

  19. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Marlize Z; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Paul A; Wilkes, Eric N

    2016-09-10

    The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu(2+)) and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu(2+) and SO₂ significantly increased H₂S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu(2+) or SO₂. The formation of H₂S produced through Cu(2+) mediated reactions was likely either: (a) directly through the interaction of SO₂ with either Cu(2+) or H₂S; or (b) indirectly through the interaction of SO₂ with other wine matrix compounds. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the significant increases in H₂S concentration in the Verdelho samples, the interaction between Cu(2+) and SO₂ was studied in a model wine matrix with and without the presence of a representative thiol quenching compound (4-methylbenzoquinone, 4MBQ). In these model studies, the importance of naturally occurring wine compounds and wine additives, such as quinones, SO₂, and metal ions, in modulating the formation of H₂S post-bottling was demonstrated. When present in equimolar concentrations a 1:1 ratio of H₂S- and SO₂-catechol adducts were produced. At wine relevant concentrations, however, only SO₂-adducts were produced, reinforcing that the competition reactions of sulfur nucleophiles, such as H₂S and SO₂, with wine matrix compounds play a critical role in modulating final H₂S concentrations in wines.

  20. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  1. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2010 Revision to the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for primary standards for Sulfur Dioxide, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, projected nonattainment areas for 2020, and a presentation on the 2011 SO2 primary NAAQS revision.

  2. Free-standing sulfur host based on titanium-dioxide-modified porous-carbon nanofibers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiong; Gao, Tuo; Wang, Suqing; Bao, Yue; Chen, Guoping; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Haihui

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as a promising next-generation electrical-energy-storage technology due to their low cost and high theoretical energy density. Furthermore, flexible and wearable electronics urgently requires their power sources to be mechanically robust and flexible. However, the effective progress of high-performance, flexible Li-S batteries is still hindered by the poor conductivity of sulfur cathodes and the dissolution of lithium polysulfides as well as the weak mechanical properties of sulfur cathodes. Herein, a new type of flexible porous carbon nanofiber film modified with graphene and ultrafine polar TiO2 nanoparticles is designed as a sulfur host, in which the artful structure enabled the highly efficient dispersion of sulfur for a high capacity and a strong confinement capability of lithium polysulfides, resulting in prolonged cycle life. Thus, the cathode shows an extremely high initial specific discharge capacity of 1501 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent rate capability of 668 mA h g-1 at 5 C as well as prolonged cycling stability. The artful design provides a facile method to fabricate high-performance, flexible sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

  3. Catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from dibenzothiophene sulfone over Mg-Al mixed oxides supported on mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    You, Nansuk; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2010-05-01

    Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTS), one of the products of the oxidative desulfurization of heavy oil, can be removed through extraction as well as by an adsorption process. It is necessary to utilize DBTS in conjunction with catalytic cracking. An object of the present study is to provide an Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst for the removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The characteristics of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst were investigated through N2 adsorption, XRD, ICP, and XRF. An Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst formulated in a direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance compared to pure MgO during the catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The higher dispersion of Mg as well as the large surface area of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst strongly influenced the catalyst basicity in DBTS cracking.

  4. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

    1993-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  5. A new fluorescent probe for colorimetric and ratiometric detection of sulfur dioxide derivatives in liver cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-Peng; Wang, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Jie; Wang, Xin; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    A new ratiometric fluorescent probe was constructed with hemicyanine and 7-nitrobenzofurazan for detection of sulfur dioxide derivatives (HSO3-/SO32-). The ratiometric response mode could be attributed to the efficient FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) platform. The probe exbihited some desirable properties including fast response (within 2 minutes), good selectivity and high sensitivity. Moreover, the probe could detect endogenous HSO3- in liver cancer cells rather than normal liver cells, implying the diagnosal potential of the probe.

  6. Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing

    2012-02-06

    The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the η(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K.

  7. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    AIP ADVANCES 6, 025310 (2016) Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia , chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in...Received 10 December 2015; accepted 3 February 2016; published online 11 February 2016) Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen...and cross sections of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (CCl2O), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases in the fingerprint

  8. In-situ surface science studies of the interaction between sulfur dioxide and two-dimensional palladium loaded-cerium/zirconium mixed metal oxide model catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Esteban Javier

    2005-07-01

    Cerium and zirconium oxides are important materials in industrial catalysis. Particularly, the great advances attained in the past 30 years in controlling levels of gaseous pollutants released from internal combustion engines can be attributed to the development of catalysts employing these materials. Unfortunately, oxides of sulfur are known threats to the longevity of many catalytic systems by irreversibly interacting with catalytic materials. In this work, polycrystalline cerium-zirconium mixed-metal-oxide (MMO) solid solutions were synthesized. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectral data was collected and examined for revelation of the surface species that form on these metal oxides after in-situ exposures to sulfur dioxide. The model catalysts were exposed to sulfur dioxide using a custom modified in-situ reaction cell and platen heater. The results of this study demonstrate the formation of sulfate and sulfite surface sulfur species. Temperature and compositional dependencies were displayed, with higher temperatures and ceria molar ratios displaying a larger propensity for forming surface sulfur species. In addition to analysis of sulfur photoemission, the photoemission regions of oxygen, zirconium, and cerium were examined for the materials used in this study before and after the aforementioned treatments with sulfur dioxide. The presence of surface hydroxyl groups was observed and metal oxidation state changes were probed to further enhance the understanding of sulfur dioxide adsorption on the synthesized materials. Palladium loaded mixed-metal oxides were synthesized using a unique solid-state methodology to probe the effect of palladium addition on sulfur dioxide adsorption. The addition of palladium to this model system is shown to have a strong effect on the magnitude of adsorption for sulfur dioxide on some material/exposure condition combinations. Ceria/zirconia sulfite and sulfate species are identified on the palladium

  9. Investigation into the ring-substituted polyanilines and their application for the detection and adsorption of sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuhong; Qu, Ke; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in this study that the substituents on the monomer aniline benzene ring are able to introduce the significant differences to the resulting polyaniline’s collective properties. We systematically evaluated the structural perturbation effects of two substituents (methyl and methoxy) of aniline monomer through the electrochemical method. Our results showed that the methoxy group induces the less structural perturbation than the methyl counterpart, because of its partial double bond restriction. The morphologies are different for the polyaniline and the ring-substituted polyanilines, in which substituted polyanilines feature the larger porosities with the addition of these side groups. The influential effects of the methoxy side group have been further illustrated and amplified by its superior sensing performance towards the environmentally-significant sulfur dioxide gas, evaluated through the construction of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based gas sensor with these polyaniline materials. The as-constructed gas sensor’s sensitivity, selectivity and stability in terms of its SO2 responses have been evaluated in details. The methoxy-substituted polyaniline was tested to show the unique gas sensing properties for the sulfur dioxide at the low concentrations (50–250 ppm) and function as the adsorbing material at the high concentrations (500–1250 ppm). Thus it can be used both as sensing material as well as a novel filter and/or storage reservoir for the removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant from the environments. PMID:29033497

  10. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  11. Core localization and {sigma}* delocalization in the O 1s core-excited sulfur dioxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Andreas; Kivimaeki, Antti; Sorensen, Stacey L.

    Electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements of sulfur dioxide at discrete resonances near the O 1s ionization edge are reported. The spectra are analyzed using a model based upon molecular symmetry and on the geometry of the molecule. We find clear evidence for molecular alignment that can be ascribed to symmetry properties of the ground and core-excited states. Configuration interaction (CI) calculations indicate geometry changes in accord with the measured spectra. For the SO{sub 2} molecule, however, we find that the localized core hole does not produce measurable evidence for valence localization, since the transition dipole moment is not parallel to a breakingmore » {sigma}* O-S bond, in contrast to the case of ozone. The dissociation behavior based upon the CI calculations using symmetry-broken orbitals while fixing a localized core-hole site is found to be nearly equivalent to that using symmetry-adapted orbitals. This implies that the core-localization effect is not strong enough to localize the {sigma}* valence orbital.« less

  12. Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

    2014-11-01

    This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ∼30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth.

  13. Responses to sulfur dioxide and exercise by medication-depend asthmatics: Effect of varying medication levels

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.

    Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) at concentrations of O (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the medication usually taken by subjects, was often supplemented by beta-adrenergics. Exposures were for 10 min and were accompanied by continuous heavy exercise (ventilation {approximately} 50 1/min). Lung function and symptoms were measured before and after exposure. With normal medication,more » symptomatic bronchoconstriction occurred with exercise and was exacerbated by 0.6 ppm SO{sub 2}, as reported for mildly unmedicated asthmatics studied previously. Both baseline and post-exposure lung function were noticeably worse in the low-medication state. High medication improved baseline lung function and prevented most broncho-constrictive effect of SO{sup 2}/exercise. High medication also increased heart rate and apparently induced tremor or nervousness in some individuals.« less

  14. [Relationship between sulfur dioxide pollution and upper respiratory outpatients in Jiangbei, Ningbo].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Qian, Xujun; Xu, Guozhang; He, Tianfeng; Shen, Yueping; Cai, Yibiao

    2015-07-01

    To describe the daily average concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Ningbo, and to analysis the health impacts it caused in upper respiratory disease. With outpatients log and air pollutants monitoring data matched in 2011-2013, the distributed lag non-linear models were used to analysis the relative risk of the number of upper respiratory patients associated with SO2, and also excessive risk, and the inferred number of patients due to SO2 pollution. The daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the limit value of second class area. The coefficient of upper respiratory outpatient number and daily average concentration of SO2 matched was 0.44,with the excessive risk was 10% to 18%, the lag of most SO2 concentrations was 4 to 6 days. It could be estimated that about 30% of total upper respiratory outpatients were caused by SO2 pollution. Although the daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the standard in 3 years, the health impacts still be caused with lag effect.

  15. Sensitivity and symptomology of marigold cultivars exposed to acute sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    Thirty-nine cultivars of marigold (Tagetes spp.) were exposed to sulfur dioxide to determine their relative sensitivity. Flowering plants were fumigated at 1 ppM SO/sub 2/ for 4 hours or at 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours. The average foliar injury for all leaves on individual plants ranged from 42.3% for 'Crackerjack Mix' at 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ to 0.0% for 'Cupid Yellow' at 1 ppM SO/sub 2/. Foliar necrosis appeared as a gray to white marginal and/or interveinal scorch 1 day after exposure. There was a tendency for interveinal necrosis to be near the midvein. The extra-floral nectaries whichmore » line the leaf margins of marigold were scorched in 15 of the 39 cultivars. This injury may be of diagnostic value. Sepals were very sensitive to SO/sub 2/. Sepal injury appeared as a pinpoint scorch and as tip burn, and was apparent in some cultivars when no foliar injury occurred. 12 references, 1 figure, 1 table.« less

  16. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Oldermore » adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.« less

  17. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983. the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu'u 'O'o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

  18. Manipulating the Surface Chemistry of Quantum Dots for Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Houjuan; Sun, Mingtai; Yan, Yehan; Zhang, Kui; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2015-08-11

    Herein, we report a novel approach to the rapid visual detection of gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) by manipulating the surface chemistry of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-modified quantum dots (QDs) using fluorescent coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CCA) for specific reaction with SO2. The CCA molecules are attached to the surface amino groups of the QDs through electrostatic attraction, thus the fluorescence of CCA is greatly suppressed because of the formation of an ion-pair complex between the ATPS-modified QDs and CCA. Such an interaction is vulnerable to SO2 because SO2 can readily react with surface amino groups to form strong charge-transfer complexes and subsequently release the strongly fluorescent CCA molecules. The mechanism has been carefully verified through a series of control experiments. Upon exposure to different amounts of SO2, the fluorescent color of the nanoparticle-based sensor displays continuously changes from red to blue. Most importantly, the approach owns high selectivity for SO2 and a tolerance of interference, which enables the sensor to detect SO2 in a practical application. Using this fluorescence-based sensing method, we have achieved a visual detection limit of 6 ppb for gaseous SO2.

  19. Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

    As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31±0.12 Tg yr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

  20. Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.-W. Antony; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

    2001-05-01

    As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31+/-0.12Tgyr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

  1. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  2. Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure alters brainstem parasympathetic control of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO₂ exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO₂ for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO₂ exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO₂ exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO₂ exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO₂ exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO₂ exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO₂ exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons. Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO₂-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart.

  3. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the controlmore » after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.« less

  4. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  5. Measurements of Rural Sulfur Dioxide and Particle Sulfate: Analysis of CASTNet Data, 1987 through 1996.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Isil, Selma S; Bowser, Jon J; Fitzgerald, Kelley M

    1999-11-01

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991 in response to Title IX of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, which mandated the deployment of a national ambient air monitoring network to track progress of the implementation of emission reduction programs in terms of deposition, air quality, and changes to affected ecosystems. CASTNet evolved from the National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN). CASTNet currently consists of 45 sites in the eastern United States and 28 sites in the West. Each site measures sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), particle sulfate (SO 4 = ), particle nitrate (NO 3 - ), and ozone. Nineteen sites collect precipitation samples. NDDN/CASTNet uses a uniform set of site-selection criteria which provides the data user with consistent measures to compare each site. These criteria also ensure that, to the extent possible, CASTNet sites are located away from local emission sources. This paper presents an analysis of SO 2 and SO 4 = concentration data collected from 1987 through 1996 at rural NDDN/CASTNet sites. Annual and seasonal variability is examined. Gradients of SO 2 and SO 4 = are discussed. The variability of the atmospheric mix of SO 2 and SO 4 = is explored spatially and seasonally. Data from CASTNet are also compared to SO 2 and SO 4 = data from concurrent monitoring studies in rural areas.

  6. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  7. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Huang, Zhong-Qin; Tang, Jun; Hu, Kang-Di

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M) effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (⋅O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during PCD. PMID:29155872

  8. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.

  9. Role of Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide in Regulating Vascular Structural Remodeling in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Selena; Tang, Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), an emerging gasotransmitter, was discovered to be endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system. Recently, the physiological effects of endogenous SO2 were confirmed. Vascular structural remodeling (VSR), an important pathological change in many cardiovascular diseases, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Here, the authors reviewed the research progress of endogenous SO2 in regulating VSR by searching the relevant data from PubMed and Medline. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and pulmonary hypertensive rats, SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway was significantly altered. SO2 inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, promoted apoptosis, inhibited the synthesis of extracellular collagen but promoted its degradation, and enhanced antioxidative capacity, thereby playing a significant role in attenuating VSR. However, the detailed mechanisms needed to be further explored. Further studies in this field would be important for the better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension. Also, clinical trials are needed to demonstrate if SO2 would be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27721913

  10. Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol protects inflammatory insults from sulfur dioxide inhalation via cannabinoid receptors in the brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Chen, Minjun; Guo, Lin; Yun, Yang; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) pollution in the atmospheric environment causes brain inflammatory insult and inflammatory-related microvasculature dysfunction. However, there are currently no effective medications targeting the harmful outcomes from chemical inhalation. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. The 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant eCBs and a full agonist for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), is also capable of suppressing proinflammatory stimuli and improving microvasculature dysfunction. Here, we indicated that endogenous 2-AG protected against neuroinflammation in response to SO 2 inhalation by inhibiting the activation of microglia and astrocytes and attenuating the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), interleukin (IL)-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, endogenous 2-AG prevented cerebral vasculature dysfunction following SO 2 inhalation by inhibiting endothelin 1 (ET-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression, elevating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) level, and restoring the imbalance between thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). In addition, the action of endogenous 2-AG on the suppression of inflammatory insult and inflammatory-related microvasculature dysfunction appeared to be mainly mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptors. Our results provided a mechanistic basis for the development of new therapeutic approaches for protecting brain injuries from SO 2 inhalation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals

  12. Endogenous sulfur dioxide aggravates myocardial injury in isolated rat heart with ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suqing; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang; Li, Wei; Liang, Yinfang; Geng, Bin; Li, Shukui; Zhang, Chunyu; Tang, Chaoshu

    2009-02-27

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important clinical problem. This article investigated the role of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the regulation of cardiac function and in the pathogenesis of cardiac I/R injury in isolated rat heart. Rat hearts isolated on a Langendorff apparatus were divided into control, I/R, I/R+SO2, and I/R+hydroxamate groups. Hydroxamate is an inhibitor of SO2 synthetase. I/R treatment was ischemia for 2 hr in hypothermic solution (4 degrees C), then reperfusion/rewarming (37 degrees C) for 60 min. Cardiac function was monitored by MacLab analog to a digital converter. Determination of sulfite content involved reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Myoglobin content of coronary perfusate was determined at 410 nm. Myocardial malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by thiobarbituric acid method, and conjugated diene (CD) was extracted by chloroform. 5,50-Dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid was used to determine glutathione (GSH). The results showed that I/R treatment obviously increased myocardial sulfite content, and sulfite content of myocardium was negatively correlated with the recovery rate of left-ventricle developed pressure and positively correlated with the leakage of myoglobin. In postreperfusion, myocardial function recovery was decreased by SO2. During reperfusion, myocardium-released enzymes, MDA and CD level were increased but myocardial GSH content was depressed with the treatment of SO2 donor. Incubation of myocardial tissue with SO2 significantly increased MDA and CD generation. Endogenous SO2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial I/R injury, and its mechanism might be associated with an increase in lipid peroxide level and a decrease in GSH generation.

  13. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  14. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. I. Growth and yield responses

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    The effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on growth and yield components of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. 'Alta') were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Four O/sub 3/ treatments ranging from 0 to 0.30 ppm in equally spaced intervals and two SO/sub 2/ treatments, 0 and 0.10 ppm, were arranged factorially in a randomized complete block design utilizing three blocks. Each block was exposed to the pollutants 6 h/d, once a week, for 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance and regression techniques. Ozone significantly affected root/shoot ratio and all dry weight fractions. Tillermore » weight was also affected adversely by O/sub 3/ with a linear decrease of >44% at the highest O/sub 3/ level. SO/sub 2/ also affected tall fescue, but not nearly as severely as O/sub 3/. Total dry weight was reduced by 7.3% due to SO/sub 2/. Root weight was decreased by 11%, but shoot weight was unaffected. Root/shoot ratio was lowered about 7% due to the pollutant. Weight per tiller was unaffected by SO/sub 2/. Number of tillers was significantly reduced by an interaction of the two pollutants. Neither O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/ had an effect singly, but at the high O/sub 3/ level, the addition of SO/sub 3/ caused an 18.6% reduction in number of tillers. This was the only significant pollutant interaction noted. (JMT)« less

  15. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  16. Interaction of sulfur dioxide with titanium-carbide nanoparticles and surfaces: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A.

    2003-11-01

    In the control of environmental pollution, metal carbides are potentially useful for trapping and destroying sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the present study, the density functional theory was employed to study the surface structures and electronic properties of the adsorbed SO2 on titanium carbides: metcar Ti8C12, nanocrystal Ti14C13, and a bulk TiC(001) surface. The geometries and orientations of SO2 were fully optimized on all these substrates. Our calculations show that, in spite of the high C/Ti ratio and C2 groups, metcar Ti8C12 exhibits extremely high activity towards SO2. The S-O bonds of SO2 spontaneously break on Ti8C12. The products of the decomposition reaction (S, O) interact simultaneously with Ti and C sites. The C atoms are not simple spectators, and their participation in the dissociation of SO2 is a key element for the energetics of this process. Nanocrystal Ti14C13 also displays a strong interaction with SO2. Although the dissociation of SO2 on Ti14C13 cannot proceed as easily as that on Ti8C12, it could occur by thermal activation even at very low temperature. SO2 is weakly bonded with the bulk TiC(001) surface. By thermal activation the dissociation of SO2 on a TiC(001) surface may also take place but it should be much more difficult than that on Ti14C13. Therefore, we suggest that the carbide nanoparticles (Ti8C12 and Ti14C13) should have special chemical activity towards SO2 removal associated with their "magic" structures.

  17. Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure alters brainstem parasympathetic control of heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO2 exposure. Methods and results Pregnant Sprague–Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO2 for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO2 exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO2 exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO2 exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO2 exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO2 exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO2 exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons. Conclusions Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO2-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart. PMID:23504550

  18. Prior exposure to ozone potentiates subsequent response to sulfur dioxide in adolescent asthmatic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Hanley, Q.S.

    The objective of this study was to test whether prior exposure to a low concentration of ozone (120 ppb) would condition airways in asthmatic subjects to respond to a subthreshold concentration of sulfur dioxide (100 ppb). Eight male and five female subjects 12 to 18 yr of age participated. They all had allergic asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm. Subjects were exposed to three test atmosphere sequences during intermittent moderate exercise (a 45-min exposure to one pollutant followed by a 15-min exposure to the second pollutant). The sequences were: air followed by 100 ppb SO2, 120 ppb O3 followed by 120 ppbmore » O3, and 120 ppb O3 followed by 100 ppb SO2. The pulmonary function measurements assessed were FEV1, total respiratory resistance (RT), and maximal flow (Vmax50). Air-SO2 and O3-O3 exposures did not cause significant changes in pulmonary function. On the other hand, exposure to 100 ppb SO2 after a 45-min exposure to 120 ppb O3 caused a significant (8%) decrease in FEV1 (p = 0.046), a significant (19%) increase in RT (p = 0.048), and a significant (15%) decrease in Vmax50 (p = 0.008). It is concluded that prior O3 exposure increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness in these subjects such that they responded to an ordinarily subthreshold concentration of SO2. These data suggest that assessment of pulmonary changes to single pollutant challenges overlooks the interactive effects of common coexisting or sequentially occurring air pollutants.« less

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km.

    The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring

  20. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  1. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  2. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-07-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual

  3. First results of an Investigation of Sulfur Dioxide in the Ultraviolet from Pioneer Venus through Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Molaverdikhani, K.; Esposito, L. W.; Pankratz, C. K.

    2010-10-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics is carrying on a project to restore and preserve data products from several past missions for archival and use by the scientific community. This project includes the restoration of data from Mariner 6/7, Pioneer Venus, Voyager 1/2, and Galileo. Here, we present initial results of this project that involve Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (PVO UVS) data. Using the Discrete Ordinate Method for Radiative Transfer (DISORT), we generate a suite of models for the three free parameters in the upper atmosphere of Venus in which we are interested: sulfur dioxide abundance at 40mb, scale height of sulfur dioxide, and the typical radius of the upper haze particles (assumed to be composed of 84.5% sulfuric acid). We calculate best fits to our radiative transfer model results for multi-spectral images taken with PVO UVS, as well as the 'visible' channel (includes wavelengths from 290nm to about 1000nm) of the mapping mode of the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M-Vis) on the Venus Express spacecraft, currently orbiting Venus. This work is funded though the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program, NNH08ZDA001N.

  4. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol.

  5. Development of the electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Heppner, D. B.; Marshall, R. D.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    As the length of manned space missions increase, more ambitious extravehicular activities (EVAs) are required. For the projected longer mission the use of expendables in the portable life support system (PLSS) will become prohibited due to high launch weight and volume requirements. Therefore, the development of a regenerable CO2 absorber for the PLSS application is highly desirable. The paper discusses the concept, regeneration mechanism, performance, system design, and absorption/regeneration cycle testing of a most promising concept known as ERCA (Electrochemically Regenerable CO2 Absorber). This concept is based on absorbing CO2 into an alkaline absorbent similar to LiOH. The absorbent is an aqueous solution supported in a porous matrix which can be electrochemically regenerated on board the primary space vehicle. With the metabolic CO2 recovery the ERCA concept results in a totally regenerable CO2 scrubber. The ERCA test hardware has passed 200 absorption/regeneration cycles without performance degradation.

  6. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations.

  7. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  8. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  9. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  10. Alteration of Extracellular Enzymes in Pinto Bean Leaves upon Exposure to Air Pollutants, Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Peters, J L; Castillo, F J; Heath, R L

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter x hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  11. Monitoring ambient sulfur dioxide levels at some residential environments in the Greater Cairo urban Region--Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Dars, F M S; Mohamed, A M F; Aly, H A T

    2004-07-01

    The impact of the increased sulfur dioxide emissions within the Greater Cairo Urban Region over the part 50 yr has been overwhelming. While previous air-pollution surveys measuring SO2 levels in the region converged upon the study of emissions from specific industrial activities, no correlation between the measured concentrations and the induced health-related impacts in living environments was provided. As well, no inventory of emissions from other sources within some residential areas were accounted for or evaluated. During the study period of January to April 2000, the ambient sulfur dioxide levels in four residential locations within the capital region were investigated. The results indicated that the measured cumulative ambient SO2 concentrations were in excess of the national and the international monthly mean exposure limits, irrespective of the type of local activity. As well, measurements within three of the selected environments surpassed the 0.5 ppm SO2 odor-threshold. The data also showed a significant dependency of the measured content upon the physical layout and topography of the studied environment as well as with respect to the prevailing seasonal weather conditions.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Charles E.; Elzey, John W.; Hershberger, Robert E.; Donnelly, Russell J.; Pfotenhauer, John

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the “energy penalty” or “parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Charles E; Elzey, John W; Hershberger, Robert E; Donnelly, Russell J; Pfotenhauer, John

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the "energy penalty" or "parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures.

  14. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  15. Constraints on water vapor and sulfur dioxide at Ceres: Exploiting the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Lorenz

    2018-05-01

    Far-ultraviolet observations of dwarf-planet (1) Ceres were obtained on several occasions in 2015 and 2016 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), both on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We report a search for neutral gas emissions at hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur lines around Ceres from a potential teneous exosphere. No detectable exosphere emissions are present in any of the analyzed HST observations. We apply analytical models to relate the derived upper limits for the atomic species to a water exosphere (for H and O) and a sulfur dioxide exosphere (for S and O), respectively. The H and O upper limits constrain the H2O production rate at the surface to (2 - 4) ×1026 molecules s-1 or lower, similar to or slightly larger than previous detections and upper limits. With low fluxes of energetic protons measured in the solar wind prior to the HST observations and the obtained non-detections, an assessment of the recently suggested sputter-generated water exosphere during solar energetic particle events is not possible. Investigating a sulfur dioxide-based exosphere, we find that the O and S upper limits constrain the SO2 density at the surface to values ∼ 1010 times lower than the equilibrium vapor pressure density. This result implies that SO2 is not present on Ceres' sunlit surface, contrary to previous findings in HST ultraviolet reflectance spectra but in agreement with the absence of SO2 infrared spectral features as observed by the Dawn spacecraft.

  16. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  17. Evaluation of Redoubt Volcano's sulfur dioxide emissions by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Taryn; Carn, Simon A.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Fee, David; Kelly, Peter; Doukas, Michael P.; Pfeffer, Melissa; Webley, Peter; Cahill, Catherine F.; Schneider, David

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, provided a rare opportunity to compare satellite measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with airborne SO2 measurements by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Herein we: (1) compare OMI and airborne SO2 column density values for Redoubt's tropospheric plume, (2) calculate daily SO2 masses from Mount Redoubt for the first three months of the eruption, (3) develop simple methods to convert daily measured SO2 masses into emission rates to allow satellite data to be directly integrated with the airborne SO2 emissions dataset, (4) calculate cumulative SO2 emissions from the eruption, and (5) evaluate OMI as a monitoring tool for high-latitude degassing volcanoes. A linear correlation (R2 ~ 0.75) is observed between OMI and airborne SO2 column densities. OMI daily SO2 masses for the sample period ranged from ~ 60.1 kt on 24 March to below detection limit, with an average daily SO2 mass of ~ 6.7 kt. The highest SO2 emissions were observed during the initial part of the explosive phase and the emissions exhibited an overall decreasing trend with time. OMI SO2 emission rates were derived using three methods and compared to airborne measurements. This comparison yields a linear correlation (R2 ~ 0.82) with OMI-derived emission rates consistently lower than airborne measurements. The comparison results suggest that OMI's detection limit for high latitude, springtime conditions varies from ~ 2000 to 4000 t/d. Cumulative SO2 masses calculated from daily OMI data for the sample period are estimated to range from 542 to 615 kt, with approximately half of this SO2 produced during the explosive phase of the eruption. These cumulative masses are similar in magnitude to those estimated for the 1989–90 Redoubt eruption. Strong correlations between daily OMI SO2 mass and both tephra mass and acoustic energy during the explosive phase of the eruption suggest that OMI data may

  18. Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarauz, Jorge V.

    The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL

  19. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  20. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  1. Formation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing light-absorbing compounds accelerated by evaporation of water from secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (<2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>105 L mol-1 cm-1 at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 103 cm2 g-1 - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH ˜ 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

  2. MIPAS observations of volcanic sulfate aerosol and sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Annika; Höpfner, Michael; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Griessbach, Sabine; Deshler, Terry; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can increase the stratospheric sulfur loading by orders of magnitude above the background level and are the most important source of variability in stratospheric sulfur. We present a set of vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume densities and derived liquid-phase H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) mole fractions for 2005-2012, retrieved from infrared limb emission measurements performed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board of the Environmental Satellite (Envisat). Relative to balloon-borne in situ measurements of aerosol at Laramie, Wyoming, the MIPAS aerosol data have a positive bias that has been corrected, based on the observed differences to the in situ data. We investigate the production of stratospheric sulfate aerosol from volcanically emitted SO2 for two case studies: the eruptions of Kasatochi in 2008 and Sarychev in 2009, which both occurred in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes during boreal summer. With the help of chemical transport model (CTM) simulations for the two volcanic eruptions we show that the MIPAS sulfate aerosol and SO2 data are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with each other. Further, we demonstrate that the lifetime of SO2 is explained well by its oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (OH). While the sedimentation of sulfate aerosol plays a role, we find that the long-term decay of stratospheric sulfur after these volcanic eruptions in midlatitudes is mainly controlled by transport via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Sulfur emitted by the two midlatitude volcanoes resides mostly north of 30° N at altitudes of ˜ 10-16 km, while at higher altitudes ( ˜ 18-22 km) part of the volcanic sulfur is transported towards the Equator where it is lifted into the stratospheric overworld and can further be transported into both hemispheres.

  3. Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Irradiated a-Pinene/Tolueme/NOx Mixtures and the Effect of Isoprene and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating a series of a-pinene/toluene/NOx mixtures in the absence and presence of isoprene or sulfur dioxide. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the extent to which chemical perturbations to this base-case (a-pinene/...

  4. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur content; or (2) maintaining fuel records as described in § 60.49b(r). (k)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2), (k)(3), and (k)(4) of this section, on and after the date on which the initial performance... percent reduction standard and paragraph (k)(3) of this section, only the heat input supplied to the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur content; or (2) maintaining fuel records as described in § 60.49b(r). (k)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2), (k)(3), and (k)(4) of this section, on and after the date on which the initial performance... percent reduction standard and paragraph (k)(3) of this section, only the heat input supplied to the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur content; or (2) maintaining fuel records as described in § 60.49b(r). (k)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2), (k)(3), and (k)(4) of this section, on and after the date on which the initial performance... percent reduction standard and paragraph (k)(3) of this section, only the heat input supplied to the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur content; or (2) maintaining fuel records as described in § 60.49b(r). (k)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2), (k)(3), and (k)(4) of this section, on and after the date on which the initial performance... percent reduction standard and paragraph (k)(3) of this section, only the heat input supplied to the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur content; or (2) maintaining fuel records as described in § 60.49b(r). (k)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2), (k)(3), and (k)(4) of this section, on and after the date on which the initial performance... percent reduction standard and paragraph (k)(3) of this section, only the heat input supplied to the...

  9. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: I. Vertical distribution and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Belyaev, D.; Chamberlain, S.; Evdokimova, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Mahieux, A.; Marcq, E.; Mills, F. P.; Montmessin, F.; Parkinson, C. D.; Robert, S.; Roman, T.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.; Wilquet, V.

    2017-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur containing species (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed unexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur oxide observations provide therefore important insight into the on-going chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism. This paper is the first of a series of two investigating the SO2 and SO variability in the Venus atmosphere. This first part of the study will focus on the vertical distribution of SO2, considering mostly observations performed by instruments and techniques providing accurate vertical information. This comprises instruments in space (SPICAV/SOIR suite on board Venus Express) and Earth-based instruments (JCMT). The most noticeable feature of the vertical profile of the SO2 abundance in the Venus atmosphere is the presence of an inversion layer located at about 70-75 km, with VMRs increasing above. The observations presented in this compilation indicate that at least one other significant sulfur reservoir (in addition to SO2 and SO) must be present throughout the 70-100 km altitude region to explain the inversion in the SO2 vertical profile. No photochemical model has an explanation for this behaviour. GCM modelling indicates that dynamics may play an important role in generating an inflection point at 75 km altitude but does not provide a definitive explanation of the source of the inflection at all local times or latitudes The current study has been carried out within the frame of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) International Team entitled 'SO2 variability in the Venus atmosphere'.

  10. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  11. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  12. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and somemore » air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.« less

  13. A Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for Aircraft Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Thornberry, Troy D.; Ciciora, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Watts, Laurel A.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Bui, Thaopaul V.; Fahey, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development and testing of a new instrument for in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on airborne platforms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The instrument is based on the laser-induced fluorescence technique and uses the fifth harmonic of a tunable fiber-amplified semiconductor diode laser system at 1084.5 nm to excite SO2 at 216.9 nm. Sensitivity and background checks are achieved in flight by additions of SO2 calibration gas and zero air, respectively. Aircraft demonstration was performed during the NASA Volcano Plume Investigation Readiness and Gas-Phase and Aerosol Sulfur (VIRGAS) experiment, which was a series of flights using the NASA WB-57F during October 2015 based at Ellington Field and Harlingen, Texas. During these flights, the instrument successfully measured SO2 in the UTLS at background (non-volcanic) conditions with a precision of 2 ppt at 10 s and an overall uncertainty determined primarily by instrument drifts of +/- (16% + 0.9 ppt).

  14. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0434; FRL-8826-6] Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite... for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide, and gas... identifies those species for which exposure and effects may occur for all inorganic nitrates- nitrites...

  15. Laboratory Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Microwave Absorption with Application to the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suleiman, Shady H.; Kolodner, Marc A.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1996-01-01

    High-accuracy laboratory measurements of the temperature dependence of the opacity from gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere at temperatures from 290 to 505 K and at pressures from 1 to 4 atm have been conducted at frequencies of 2.25 GHz (13.3 cm), 8.5 GHz (3.5 cm), and 21.7 GHz (1.4 cm). Based on these absorptivity measurements, a Ben-Reuven (BR) line shape model has been developed that provides a more accurate characterization of the microwave absorption of gaseous S02 in the Venus atmosphere as compared with other formalisms. The developed BR formalism is incorporated into a radiative transfer model. The resulting microwave emission spectrum of Venus is then used to set an upper limit on the disk-averaged abundance of gaseous S02 below the main cloud layer. It is found that gaseous S02 has an upper limit of 150 ppm, which compares well with previous spacecraft in situ measurements and Earth-based radio astronomical observations.

  16. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants.

  17. Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Andreae, T. W.; Kritz, M. A.; Bates, T. S.

    1988-01-01

    The vertical distributions, in temperate latitudes, of dimethylsulfide (DMS), SO2, radon, methanesulfonate (MSA), nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-sulfate), and aerosol Na(+), NH4(+), and NO(-) ions were determined in samples collected by an aircraft over the northeast Pacific Ocean during May 3-12, 1985. DMS was also determined in surface seawater. It was found that DMS concentrations, both in seawater and in the atmospheric boundary layer, were significantly lower than the values reported previously for subtropical and tropical regions, reflecting the seasonal variability in the temperate North Pacific. The vertical profiles of DMS, MSA, SO2, and nss-sulfate were found to be strongly dependent on the convective stability of the atmosphere and on air mass origin. Biogenic sulfur emissions could account for most of the sulfur budget in the boundary layer, while the long-range transport of continentally derived air masses was mainly responsible for the elevated levels of both SO2 and nss-sulfate in the free troposphere.

  18. Direct Retrieval of Sulfur Dioxide Amount and Altitude from Spaceborne Hyperspectral UV Measurements: Theory and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Kau; Liu, Xiong; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon A.; Hughes, Eric J.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Spurr, Robert D.; Trahan, Samuel G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the physical processes by which a vertically localized absorber perturbs the top-of-atmosphere solar backscattered ultraviolet (UV) radiance. The distinct spectral responses to perturbations of an absorber in its column amount and layer altitude provide the basis for a practical satellite retrieval technique, the Extended Iterative Spectral Fitting (EISF) algorithm, for the simultaneous retrieval of these quantities of a SO2 plume. In addition, the EISF retrieval provides an improved UV aerosol index for quantifying the spectral contrast of apparent scene reflectance at the bottom of atmosphere bounded by the surface and/or cloud; hence it can be used for detection of the presence or absence of UV absorbing aerosols. We study the performance and characterize the uncertainties of the EISF algorithm using synthetic backscattered UV radiances, retrievals from which can be compared with those used in the simulation. Our findings indicate that the presence of aerosols (both absorbing and nonabsorbing) does not cause large errors in EISF retrievals under most observing conditions when they are located below the SO2 plume. The EISF retrievals assuming a homogeneous field of view can provide accurate column amounts for inhomogeneous scenes, but they always underestimate the plume altitudes. The EISF algorithm reduces systematic errors present in existing linear retrieval algorithms that use prescribed SO2 plume heights. Applying the EISF algorithm to Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite observations of the recent Kasatochi volcanic eruption, we demonstrate the successful retrieval of effective plume altitude of volcanic SO2, and we also show the improvement in accuracy in the corresponding SO2 columns.

  19. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  20. Utilization of waste bittern from saltern as a source for magnesium and an absorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Na, Choon-Ki; Park, Hyunju; Jho, Eun Hea

    2017-10-01

    During solar salt production, large quantities of bittern, a liquid by-product containing high inorganic substance concentrations, are produced. The purpose of this research was to examine the utilization of waste bittern generated from salterns as a source for Mg production and as an absorbent for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture. The study was conducted in a sequential two-step process. At NaOH/Mg molar ratios of 2.70-2.75 and pH 9.5-10.0, > 99% Mg precipitation from the bittern was achieved. After washing with water, 100-120 g/L of precipitate containing 94% Mg(OH) 2 was recovered from the bittern. At the optimum NH 4 OH concentration of 5%, 120 g of sodium bicarbonate precipitate per liter of bittern were recovered, which was equivalent to 63 g CO 2 captured per liter of bittern. These results can be used to support the use of bittern as a resource and reduce economic losses during solar salt production.

  1. The plumes of IO: A detection of solid sulfur dioxide particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R. R.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Geballe, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    Spectra of Io obtained during eclipse show a narrow deep absorption feature at 4.871 microns, the wavelength of the Nu sub 1 + Nu sub 3 band of solid SO2. The 4 micron radiation comes from volcanic hot spots at a temperature too high for the existence of solid SO2. It is concluded that the spectral feature results from SO2 particles suspended in plumes above the hot spots. The derived abundance of approximately 0.0003 gm/sq cm may imply an SO2 solid-to-gas ratio of roughly one for the Loki plume, which would in turn suggest that it is driven by the SO2 rather than by sulfur.

  2. Associations between short-term exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide and increased cause-specific mortality in 272 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Cong; Meng, Xia; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Jianmin; Zhou, Maigeng; Chen, Renjie; Yin, Peng; Kan, Haidong

    2018-04-28

    Ambient sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) remains a major air pollutant in developing countries, but epidemiological evidence about its health effects was not abundant and inconsistent. To evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to SO 2 and cause-specific mortality in China. We conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major Chinese cities (2013-2015). We used the over-dispersed generalized linear model together with the Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze the data. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. We conducted stratification analyses to examine potential effect modifications by age, sex and educational level. On average, the annual-mean SO 2 concentrations was 29.8 μg/m 3 in 272 cities. We observed positive and associations of SO 2 with total and cardiorespiratory mortality. A 10 μg/m 3 increase in two-day average concentrations of SO 2 was associated with increments of 0.59% in mortality from total non-accidental causes, 0.70% from total cardiovascular diseases, 0.55% from total respiratory diseases, 0.64% from hypertension disease, 0.65% from coronary heart disease, 0.58% from stroke, and 0.69% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In two-pollutant models, there were no significant differences between single-pollutant model and two-pollutant model estimates with fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide and ozone, but the estimates decreased substantially after adjusting for nitrogen dioxide, especially in South China. The associations were stronger in warmer cities, in older people and in less-educated subgroups. This nationwide study demonstrated associations of daily SO 2 concentrations with increased total and cardiorespiratory mortality, but the associations might not be independent from NO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling long-term effects attributed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on asthma morbidity in a nationwide cohort in Israel.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N; Carel, R S; Derazne, E; Tiktinsky, A; Tzur, D; Portnov, B A

    2017-01-01

    Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) or sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) air pollutants. The effects of annual NO 2 and SO 2 exposures on asthma prevalence were determined in 137,040 17-year-old males in Israel, who underwent standard health examinations before induction to military service during 1999-2008. Three alternative models of cumulative exposure were used: arithmetic mean level (AM), average peak concentration (APC), and total number of air pollution exposure episodes (NEP). Air pollution data for NO 2 and SO 2 levels were linked to the residence of each subject and asthma prevalence was predicted using bivariate logistic regression. There was significant increased risk for asthma occurrence attributed to NO 2 exposure in all models with the highest correlations demonstrated using the APC model. Data suggested that exposure-response is better correlated with NO 2 peak concentration than with average exposure concentration in subjects with asthma. For SO 2 , there was a weaker but still significant exposure response association in all models. These differences may be related to differences in physiological responses including effects on different regions of the airways following exposure to these pollutants. NO 2 , which is poorly soluble in water, penetrates deep into the bronchial tree, producing asthmatic manifestations such as inflammation and increased mucus production as a result of high

  5. Laboratory measurements of the 3.7-20 cm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; Shahan, Patrick; Christopher Barisich, G.; Bellotti, Amadeo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, multiple observations of Venus have been made at X-Band (3.6 cm) using the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and maps have been created of the 3.6 cm emission from Venus (see, e.g., Devaraj, K. [2011]. The Centimeter- and Millimeter-Wavelength Ammonia Absorption Spectra under Jovian Conditions. PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA). Since the emission morphology is related both to surface features and to deep atmospheric absorption from CO2 and SO2 (see, e.g., Butler, B.J., Steffes, P.G., Suleiman, S.H., Kolodner, M.A., Jenkins, J.M. [2001]. Icarus 154, 226-238), knowledge of the microwave absorption properties of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus is required for proper interpretation. Except for a single measurement campaign conducted at a single wavelength (3.2 cm) over 40 years ago (Ho, W., Kaufman, I.A., Thaddeus, P. [1966]. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5091-5108), no measurements of the centimeter-wavelength properties of any Venus atmospheric constituent have been conducted under conditions characteristic of the deep atmosphere (pressures from 10 to 92 bars and temperatures from 400 to 700 K). New measurements of the microwave properties of SO2 and CO2 at wavelengths from 3.7 to 20 cm have been conducted under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus, using a new high-pressure system. Results from this measurement campaign conducted at temperatures from 430 K to 560 K and at pressures up to 92 bars are presented. Results indicate that the model for the centimeter-wavelength opacity from pure CO2 (Ho, W., Kaufman, I.A., Thaddeus, P. [1966]. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5091-5108), is valid over the entire centimeter-wavelength range under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus. Additionally, the laboratory results indicate that both of the models for the centimeter-wavelength opacity of SO2 in a CO2 atmosphere from Suleiman et al. (Suleiman, S

  6. Utilization of a Response-Surface Technique in the Study of Plant Responses to Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide Mixtures 1

    PubMed Central

    Ormrod, Douglas P.; Tingey, David T.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Olszyk, David M.

    1984-01-01

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-dimensional) plots. The contour plots aided in the interpretation of the pollutant interactions and were judged easier to use than the isometric plots. Plants of `Grand Rapids' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), `Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and `Alsweet' pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in a controlled environment chamber and exposed to seven combinations of SO2 and O3. Injury was evaluated based on visible chlorosis and necrosis and growth was evaluated as leaf area and dry weight. Covariate measurements were used to increase precision. Radish and pea had greater injury, in general, that did lettuce; all three species were sensitive to O3, and pea was most sensitive and radish least sensitive to SO2. Leaf injury responses were relatively more affected by the pollutants than were plant growth responses in radish and pea but not in lettuce. In radish, hypocotyl growth was more sensitive to the pollutants than was leaf growth. PMID:16663598

  7. Utilization of a response-surface technique in the study of plant responses to ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ormrod, D P; Tingey, D T; Gumpertz, M L; Olszyk, D M

    1984-05-01

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-dimensional) plots. The contour plots aided in the interpretation of the pollutant interactions and were judged easier to use than the isometric plots. Plants of ;Grand Rapids' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), ;Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and ;Alsweet' pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in a controlled environment chamber and exposed to seven combinations of SO(2) and O(3). Injury was evaluated based on visible chlorosis and necrosis and growth was evaluated as leaf area and dry weight. Covariate measurements were used to increase precision. Radish and pea had greater injury, in general, that did lettuce; all three species were sensitive to O(3), and pea was most sensitive and radish least sensitive to SO(2). Leaf injury responses were relatively more affected by the pollutants than were plant growth responses in radish and pea but not in lettuce. In radish, hypocotyl growth was more sensitive to the pollutants than was leaf growth.

  8. The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in Stratospheric Aerosol Formation Evaluated Using In-Situ Measurements in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L. A.; Yu, P.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Mills, M.; Baumann, E.; Giorgetta, F. R.; Bui, T. V.; Höpfner, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.; Colarco, P. R.; Newman, P. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols (SAs) are a variable component of the Earth's albedo that may be intentionally enhanced in the future to offset greenhouse gases (geoengineering). The role of tropospheric-sourced sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining background SAs has been debated for decades without in-situ measurements of SO2 at the tropical tropopause to inform this issue. Here we clarify the role of SO2 in maintaining SAs by using new in-situ SO2 measurements to evaluate climate models and satellite retrievals. We then use the observed tropical tropopause SO2 mixing ratios to estimate the global flux of SO2 across the tropical tropopause. These analyses show that the tropopause background SO2 is about 5 times smaller than reported by the average satellite observations that have been used recently to test atmospheric models. This shifts the view of SO2 as a dominant source of SAs to a near-negligible one, possibly revealing a significant gap in the SA budget. PMID:29225384

  9. Gas chromatography using ice-coated fused silica columns: study of adsorption of sulfur dioxide on water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenberg, Stefan; Schurath, Ulrich

    2018-05-01

    The well established technique of gas chromatography is used to investigate interactions of sulfur dioxide with a crystalline ice film in a fused silica wide bore column. Peak shape analysis of SO2 chromatograms measured in the temperature range 205-265 K is applied to extract parameters describing a combination of three processes: (i) physisorption of SO2 at the surface, (ii) dissociative reaction with water and (iii) slow uptake into bulk ice. Process (ii) is described by a dissociative Langmuir isotherm. The pertinent monolayer saturation capacity is found to increase with temperature. The impact of process (iii) on SO2 peak retention time is found to be negligible under our experimental conditions. By analyzing binary chromatograms of hydrophobic n-hexane and hydrophilic acetone, the premelt surface layer is investigated in the temperature range 221-263 K, possibly giving rise to irregular adsorption. Both temperature dependencies fit simple van't Hoff equations as expected for process (i), implying that irregular adsorption of acetone is negligible in the investigated temperature range. Adsorption enthalpies of -45 ± 5 and -23±2 kJ mol-1 are obtained for acetone and n-hexane. The motivation of our study was to assess the vertical displacement of SO2 and acetone in the wake of aircraft by adsorption on ice particles and their subsequent sedimentation. Our results suggest that this transport mechanism is negligible.

  10. The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in Stratospheric Aerosol Formation Evaluated Using In-Situ Measurements in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Rollins, A W; Thornberry, T D; Watts, L A; Yu, P; Rosenlof, K H; Mills, M; Baumann, E; Giorgetta, F R; Bui, T V; Höpfner, M; Walker, K A; Boone, C; Bernath, P F; Colarco, P R; Newman, P A; Fahey, D W; Gao, R S

    2017-05-16

    Stratospheric aerosols (SAs) are a variable component of the Earth's albedo that may be intentionally enhanced in the future to offset greenhouse gases (geoengineering). The role of tropospheric-sourced sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in maintaining background SAs has been debated for decades without in-situ measurements of SO 2 at the tropical tropopause to inform this issue. Here we clarify the role of SO 2 in maintaining SAs by using new in-situ SO 2 measurements to evaluate climate models and satellite retrievals. We then use the observed tropical tropopause SO 2 mixing ratios to estimate the global flux of SO 2 across the tropical tropopause. These analyses show that the tropopause background SO 2 is about 5 times smaller than reported by the average satellite observations that have been used recently to test atmospheric models. This shifts the view of SO 2 as a dominant source of SAs to a near-negligible one, possibly revealing a significant gap in the SA budget.

  11. The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in Stratospheric Aerosol Formation Evaluated Using In Situ Measurements in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L. A.; Yu, P.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Mills, M.; Baumann, E.; Girogetta, F. R.; Bui, T. V.; Hopfner, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols (SAs) are a variable component of the Earth's albedo that may be intentionally enhanced in the future to offset greenhouse gases (geoengineering). The role of tropospheric-sourced sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining background SAs has been debated for decades without in-situ measurements of SO2 at the tropical tropopause to inform this issue. Here we clarify the role of SO2 in maintaining SAs by using new in-situ SO2 measurements to evaluate climate models and satellite retrievals. We then use the observed tropical tropopause SO2 mixing ratios to estimate the global flux of SO2 across the tropical tropopause. These analyses show that the tropopause background SO2 is about 5 times smaller than reported by the average satellite observations that have been used recently to test atmospheric models. This shifts the view of SO2 as a dominant source of SAs to a near-negligible one, possibly revealing a significant gap in the SA budget.

  12. Comparative morphological characteristics of three Brettanomyces bruxellensis wine strains in the presence/absence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Louw, Marli; du Toit, Maret; Alexandre, Hervé; Divol, Benoit

    2016-12-05

    The red wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been the subject of numerous investigations. Some of these studies focused on spoilage mechanisms, sulfur dioxide tolerance and nutrient requirements. Pseudomycelium formation, although a striking feature of this species, has however been poorly investigated. Furthermore, literature regarding the induction mechanism of pseudomycelium formation in this yeast is limited and lacks clarity, as results published are contradictory. This study elucidates this phenomenon among strains from geographically different areas. Potential environmental cues were investigated, to attain a better understanding of this mechanism and its role as a survival strategy. SO 2 was previously reported to induce this morphological change however results obtained in this study did not support this. Nevertheless, the results obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy illustrate, for the first time in this yeast, deformity to the cell membrane and alterations to the fibrillar layers in SO 2 treated cells. In addition, the SO 2 exposed cultures displayed cell size variations, with cells displaying a decrease in length as well as delayed growth, with a prolonged lag phase. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated a decrease in metabolic activity and the appearance of inclusion body-like structures in the cells following exposure to SO 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations over the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lyra, Gustavo Bastos

    2011-09-01

    Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts.

  14. Using CATS Near-Real-time Lidar Observations to Monitor and Constrain Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. J.; Yorks, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; da Silva, A. M.; Mcgill, M.

    2016-01-01

    An eruption of Italian volcano Mount Etna on 3 December 2015 produced fast-moving sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol clouds that traveled across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, reaching North America in just 5 days. The Ozone Profiler and Mapping Suite's Nadir Mapping UV spectrometer aboard the U.S. National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite observed the horizontal transport of the SO2 cloud. Vertical profiles of the colocated volcanic sulfate aerosols were observed between 11.5 and 13.5 km by the new Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) space-based lidar aboard the International Space Station. Backward trajectory analysis estimates the SO2 cloud altitude at 7-12 km. Eulerian model simulations of the SO2 cloud constrained by CATS measurements produced more accurate dispersion patterns compared to those initialized with the back trajectory height estimate. The near-real-time data processing capabilities of CATS are unique, and this work demonstrates the use of these observations to monitor and model volcanic clouds.

  15. Using CATS Near-Real-Time Lidar Observations to Monitor and Constrain Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. J.; Yorks, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Da Silva, A. M.; McGill, M.

    2016-01-01

    An eruption of Italian volcano Mount Etna on 3 December 2015 produced fast-moving sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol clouds that traveled across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, reaching North America in just 5days. The Ozone Profiler and Mapping Suite's Nadir Mapping UV spectrometer aboard the U.S. National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite observed the horizontal transport of the SO2 cloud. Vertical profiles of the colocated volcanic sulfate aerosols were observed between 11.5 and 13.5 km by the new Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) space-based lidar aboard the International Space Station. Backward trajectory analysis estimates the SO2 cloud altitude at 7-12 km. Eulerian model simulations of the SO2 cloud constrained by CATS measurements produced more accurate dispersion patterns compared to those initialized with the back trajectory height estimate. The near-real-time data processing capabilities of CATS are unique, and this work demonstrates the use of these observations to monitor and model volcanic clouds.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion in china: from 1990 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Su, Shenshen; Li, Bengang; Cui, Siyu; Tao, Shu

    2011-10-01

    China has become the world's largest emitter of SO(2) since 2005, and aggressive deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at coal-fired power plants appeared in China when facing the formidable pressure of environment pollution. In this work, we estimate the annual emission from combustion sources at provincial levels in China from 1990 to 2007, with updated data investigations. We have implemented the method of transportation matrix to gain a better understanding of sulfur content of coal in consuming provinces, which in turn improved the inventory. The total emissions from combustion in 2007 were 28.3 Tg, half of which was contributed by coal-fired power plants. Meanwhile, the industrial boiler coal combustion and residential coal consumed in centralized heating were responsible for another 32% of the total emissions. From 1990 to 2007, annual SO(2) emission was fluctuated with two peaks (1996 and 2006), and total emission doubled from 15.4 Tg to 30.8 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 4.4% (6.3% since 2000). Due to the extensive application of FGD technology and the phase-out of small, high emitting units, the SO(2) emission began to decrease after 2006. Furthermore, the differences among estimates reported in literatures highlight a great need for further research to reduce the uncertainties with more detailed information on key sources and actual operation of devices.

  17. Computational studies of small neutral vanadium oxide clusters and their reactions with sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubikova, Elena; He, Sheng-Gui; Xie, Yan; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Bernstein, Elliot

    2007-03-01

    Vanadium oxide is a catalytic system that plays an important role in the conversion of SO2 to SO3. Density functional theory at the BPW91/LANL2DZ level is employed to obtain structures of VOy (y=1,,5), V2Oy (y=2,,7), V3Oy (y=4,,9), V4Oy (y=7,,12) and their complexes with SO2. BPW91/LANL2DZ is insufficient to describe properly relative V-O and S-O bond strengths of vanadium and sulfur oxides. Calibration of theoretical results with experimental data is necessary to compute enthalpies of reactions between VxOy and SO2. Theoretical results indicate SO2 to SO conversion occurs for oxygen-deficient clusters and SO2 to SO3 conversion occurs for oxygen-rich clusters. Subsequent experimental studies confirm the presence of SO in the molecular beam as well as the presence of VxOy complexes with SO2. Some possible mechanisms for SO3 formation and catalyst regeneration for solids are also suggested.

  18. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus Atmosphere: II. Spatial and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Belyaev, D.; Chamberlain, S.; Evdokimova, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Mahieux, A.; Marcq, E.; Mills, F. P.; Montmessin, F.; Parkinson, C. D.; Robert, S.; Roman, T.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.; Wilquet, V.

    2017-10-01

    The vertical distribution of sulfur species in the Venus atmosphere has been investigated and discussed in Part I of this series of papers dealing with the variability of SO2 on Venus. In this second part, we focus our attention on the spatial (horizontal) and temporal variability exhibited by SO2. Appropriate data sets - SPICAV/UV nadir observations from Venus Express, ground-based ALMA and TEXES, as well as UV observation on the Hubble Space Telescope - have been considered for this analysis. High variability both on short-term and short-scale are observed. The long-term trend observed by these instruments shows a succession of rapid increases followed by slow decreases in the SO2 abundance at the cloud top level, implying that the transport of air from lower altitudes plays an important role. The origins of the larger amplitude short-scale, short-term variability observed at the cloud tops are not yet known but are likely also connected to variations in vertical transport of SO2 and possibly to variations in the abundance and production and loss of H2O, H2SO4, and Sx.

  19. Holocene Concentrations of Methane in the Atmosphere are in Part Proportional to Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide and Inversely Proportional to the Oxidizing Capacity of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    The atmosphere cleans itself by oxidizing pollutants. The primary oxidant is the hydroxyl radical (OH) formed by photodissociation of ozone in the near ultra-violet. Ozone and OH are in limited supply. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbs near ultraviolet light limiting production of OH and reacts immediately with any available OH, forming sulfuric acid. Methane reacts more slowly with OH and will typically not be oxidized until there is little SO2. Thus a high concentration of methane indicates low oxidizing capacity. The rate at which SO2 is injected into the atmosphere controls oxidizing capacity and climate change in four ways: 1. Moderate rate: Large volcanic eruptions (VEI >=6) lower global temperatures for a few years when they are separated by years to decades so the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere can fully recover. In 1991, Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines erupted 20 Mt SO2 and 491 Mt H2O, the largest volcanic eruption since 1912. The SO2 was oxidized primarily by OH to form a 99% pure aerosol of sulfuric acid and water at an elevation of 20-23 km. This aerosol reflected sunlight, lowering the world's temperature on average 0.4°C for three years. Ozone levels were reduced by 10%. Methane increased by 15 ppb for a year. The e-folding time for SO2 was 35 days. 2. High rate: When large eruptions occur once to several times per year, there is insufficient oxidizing capacity leading to increases in methane and other greenhouse gases and global warming. There were 15 times in the Holocene when large volcanoes erupted on average at least every year for 7 to 21 years. Man is now putting as much SO2 from burning fossil fuels into the atmosphere every year as one large volcano, causing current global warming. The two previous times were from 818-838 AD, the onset of the Medieval Warming Period, and from 180-143 BC, the onset of the Roman Warm Period. 3. Low rate: When there are no large eruptions for decades, the oxidizing capacity can catch up, cleaning the

  20. [Presence of the trace elements from carbon dioxide absorbent containing lime using a circular apparatus during general anesthesia. ].

    PubMed

    Macheta, A; Słodowski, W; Kocot, M; Muszyński, T; Rokita, E; Andres, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate release of the trace elements from carbon dioxide absorbent containing soda lime during general anesthesia. We compared two suppliers Polish "Polfa" and German "Dräger". Following trace elements were evaluated: chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, nickel in soda lime. In blood of the patients we evaluated: copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, bromine, rubidium, iron, mercury. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure concentrations of the elements. Probes of soda lime were analyzed before anesthesia (Polfa, Dräger), 6 hr after the use (Polfa only) and after 10 weeks (Dräger only). 10 patients were divided in two equal groups, one was anesthetized using soda lime from Polfa and another one from Dräger. Blood samples were taken before anesthesia, immediately after and the next day. Mean values of the concentrations of the elements in soda lime coming from Polfa ranged from 0.20 ppm (nickel) to 7.19 ppm (zinc). In Dräger the measurements were from 0.22 ppm (nickel) to 3.70 ppm (zinc). Mean concentrations of trace elements in blood samples were between 0.20 ppm (lead) and 487 ppm (iron) for the patients anesthetized with Polfa soda lime. In Dräger the measurements ranged from 0.15 ppm (lead) to 485 ppm (iron). Concentrations of cadmium and mercury were below the method's limit. Mean values were almost the same in all time points. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-tests. Values of P < 0.05 were consider significant. We concluded that there were no statistically significant differences between examined groups. Thus, we can say that trace elements were not released from soda lime and concentrations of examined elements in patients' blood were not affected by general anesthesia.

  1. Sulfur dioxide emissions in Asia in the period 1985-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Tsai, Nancy Y.; Akimoto, Hajime; Oka, Kaoru

    A consistent set of SO 2 emission trends has been developed for Asian countries for the time period 1985-1997. The trend is based on extrapolation of a detailed 1990 inventory, which was constructed as part of the World Bank's RAINS-ASIA project, using IEA energy-use data. The trend shows Asian SO 2 emissions growing from 33.7 Tg in 1990 to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Estimates interpolated from the RAINS-ASIA computer model suggest a value for 1997 of 46.4 Tg, assuming no major changes in emission abatement policies after 1990. The reduction in the 1997 value, by some 16%, is primarily due to regulatory requirements and other trends toward lower sulfur content of oil products and coal. A slowdown in the growth of emissions in China - due to a reduction in economic growth, the mining of higher-quality coals, enhanced environmental awareness, and a reduction in industrial coal use - has been instrumental in arresting the growth of Asian emissions. Most of the positive developments have occurred in East Asia, and high-emission growth rates persist in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The outlook for the future is that Asian SO 2 emissions may well peak in the region of 40-45 Tg by the year 2020 or earlier, in contrast to previous predictions of 2020 emissions as high as 80-110 Tg. The trends developed in this paper are good news for the local and regional environment, particularly in East Asia. However, they also signify lower-than-anticipated concentrations of sulfate aerosol over the Asian continent, with the resulting possibility of greater-than-anticipated regional and global warming.

  2. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 μg dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 μg dm-2ṡday and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 μg m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 μg m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 μg m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 μg m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in

  3. Detection of volcanic eruptions from space by their sulfur dioxide clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite for tracking volcano plumes are assessed. TOMS was installed on the sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellite to measure spatial variations in the global total ozone field. Radiance absorption coefficients of the atmosphere for four near-UV wavelengths from 312.5-380.0 are measured. Data from the El Chichon eruption in March-April 1982 revealed that SO2 was an absorbing species at 312.5 and 317.5 nm. The near-UV absorption level differences between SO2 and O3 permit discriminating the atmospheric densities of each species. An examination of the data base generated by TOMS since 1978 showed the perceptible tracks of all known major eruptions in the 1978-1982 time period. A constellation of three of the polar orbiting TOMS would be sufficient to provide near-real time alerts of plumes to warn aircraft of the hazards.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-05-17

    boiling points should be investigated to dotermine the effect of certain structures on the behavior of amines. Only amines which are commercially...ALKANOL ALIPHATIC AMINIES (Contd.) Alkanol Tertiary Amines 141 2-Dinaethylethanolamine (CH3 )2N02 1401 142 2- Diethylethanolamine (02115) 2N0C2 40 143... Diethylethanolamine (C2115)2NC2 1401 143 Triethanolamine (C211401),3N- 144 Ethyl Diethanolamine C2H5N(C2 1401)2 145 Methyl Diethanolamine CH3N(C H401)9

  5. Selective Extraction of Metals from Pacific Sea Nodules with Dissolved Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafalla, Sanaa E.; Pahlman, John E.

    1981-08-01

    How to tritrate a rock? … The following article illustrates the possibility of titrating a metallic constituent in a mineral with a selective reagent to an endpoint of near complete metal extraction. A very rapid and efficient—almost instantaneous and quantitative—method has been devised to differentially leach manganese, nickel, and cobalt to the exclusion of copper and iron from deep-sea nodules.1 In this method, a given weight of raw sea nodules ground to -200 mesh in an aqueous slurry is contacted for 10 min at room temperature and ambient pressure with a specified quantity of SO2. An independent leaching parameter R has been defined as the ratio of the number of moles of SO2 in the leaching solution to the weight of sea nodules. Variation of metal extraction with R generates sigmoidal curves characteristic of the metals extracted. A threshold value of R is required to initiate the leaching of a given metal from the mixed oxides. Once this threshold is reached, the metal recovery can rise above 95% in less than 10 minutes. For increasing value of R the extractability of various metals from Pacific sea nodules by SO2 follows the order: Mn > Ni > Co ≫ Fe, Al, Cu. Disparity in the R values permits a variety of selective leaching systems and metal separations simply by changing the quantity of SO2 in the contacting solution. Success in this leaching system depends on comminuting the nodules to less than 100 mesh. Above this critical size, leaching is slowed due to the inaccessibility of the inner particle reacting groups to the SO2 leaching agent, resulting in lower and nonselective extractions of preferred metal values. Leaching with HCl solutions of the same pH level as dissolved SO2 yielded mixed, slow, and incomplete metal extractions. This finding rules out any interpretation based on hydrogen ion from the ionization of sulfurous acid as the leaching agent. The leaching curves observed in the new system resemble the complexometric titration curves of

  6. Important role of calcium chloride in preventing carbon monoxide generation during desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free carbon dioxide absorbents.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takahiro; Mori, Atsushi; Ito, Rie; Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), a supplementary additive in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbents, could affect carbon monoxide (CO) production caused by desflurane degradation, using a Japanese alkali-free CO 2 absorbent Yabashi Lime ® -f (YL-f), its CaCl 2 -free and 1% CaCl 2 -added derivatives, and other commercially available alkali-free absorbents with or without CaCl 2 . The reaction between 1 L of desflurane gas (3-10%) and 20 g of desiccated specimen was performed in an artificial closed-circuit anesthesia system for 3 min at 20 or 40 °C. The CO concentration was measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a semiconductor sensor detector. The systems were validated by detecting dose-dependent CO production with an alkali hydroxide-containing CO 2 absorbent, Sodasorb ® . Compared with YL-f, the CaCl 2 -free derivative caused the production of significantly more CO, while the 1% CaCl 2 -added derivative caused the production of a comparable amount of CO. These phenomena were confirmed using commercially available absorbents AMSORB ® PLUS, an alkali-free absorbent with CaCl 2 , and LoFloSorb™, an alkali-free absorbent without CaCl 2 . These results suggest that CaCl 2 plays an important role in preventing CO generation caused by desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free CO 2 absorbents like YL-f.

  7. Characterization of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, Timothy P.; Nacheff-Benedict, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the performance of a silver-oxide-based absorbent in terms of its ability to remove both gaseous CO2 and water vapor in an astronaut portable life support systems (PLSS) is discussed. Attention is focused on regeneration of the absorbent from the carbonite state of the oxide state, preconditioning of the absorbent using a humidified gas stream, and absorption breakthrough testing. Based on the results of bench-scale experiments, a test plan is carried out to further characterize the silver-oxide-based absorbent on a larger scale; it calls for examination of the absorbent in both an adiabatic packed bed and a near-isothermal cooled bed configuration. It is demonstrated that the tested absorbent can be utilized in a way that removes substantial amounts of CO2 and water vapor during an 8-hour extravehicular activity mission, and that applying the absorbent to PLSS applications can simplify the ventilation loop.

  8. Influence of sulfur dioxide on the respiratory system of Miyakejima adult residents 6 years after returning to the island.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Takeshi; Iwasawa, Satoko; Nakano, Makiko; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Tanaka, Shigeru; Kitamura, Hiroko; Wilson, Donald John; Takebayashi, Toru; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-27

    Mount Oyama, on the Japanese island of Miyakejima, began erupting in June 2000, necessitating the evacuation of 3,000 island residents. Volcanic gas emissions, primarily consisting of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), gradually decreased and residents returned to the island after the evacuation order was lifted in February 2005. To assess the exposure-effect and exposure-response relationships between SO 2 exposure and effects on respiratory system in adult Miyakejima residents. Health checkups focusing on pulmonary function and respiratory/irritative symptoms were conducted six times every November from 2006 to 2011. The study population comprised 168 subjects who underwent all health checkups. SO 2 concentrations were measured at six fixed monitoring stations in inhabitable areas. Based on the annual mean SO 2 concentration, inhabitable areas were classified into three categories; namely, lower (L), higher (H-1), and highest (H-2) areas. Average SO 2 concentrations (ppb) during 3 months prior to each health checkup dropped from 11.3 to 3.29, 32.2 to 13.4 and 75.1 to 12.6 from 2006 to 2010/2011 in L, H-1, and H-2. No significant declines in pulmonary function were observed in all areas. However, prevalence of subjective symptoms such as "Cough," "Irritation and/or pain in throat," "Irritation, runny nose, and/or nasal sniffles," and "Irritation and/or pain in the eyes," dependently increased on SO 2 concentration. Odds ratios were statistically significant at approximately 70 ppb of SO 2 or above. Adult residents of Miyakejima island showed no deterioration in pulmonary function at SO 2 levels, but complained of respiratory/irritative symptoms in an SO 2 concentration-dependent manner.

  9. Risk of Asthmatic Episodes in Children Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Stack Emissions from a Refinery Point Source in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Hicks, John; Plante, Céline; Armstrong, Ben; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goudreau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada). Methods We used a time-stratified case–crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2–4 years of age living within 0.5–7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels. Results The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively. Conclusions Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children. PMID:19440507

  10. Increased Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Involved in the Pathogenesis of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Si-Yao; Liao, Ying; Han, Zhen-Hui; Huang, Pan; Sun, Chu-Fan; Liu, Jia; Song, Jing-Yuan; Tang, Chao-Shu; Du, Jun-Bao; Chen, Yong-Hong; Jin, Hong-Fang

    2018-02-20

    The pathogenesis of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes and significance of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in patients with POTS. The study included 31 children with POTS and 27 healthy children from Peking University First Hospital between December 2013 and October 2015. A detailed medical history, physical examination results, and demographic characteristics were collected. Hemodynamics was recorded and the plasma SO 2 was determined. The plasma SO 2 was significantly higher in POTS children compared to healthy children (64.0 ± 20.8 μmol/L vs. 27.2 ± 9.6 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The symptom scores in POTS were positively correlated with plasma SO 2 levels (r = 0.398, P < 0.05). In all the study participants, the maximum heart rate (HR) was positively correlated with plasma levels of SO 2 (r = 0.679, P < 0.01). The change in systolic blood pressure from the supine to upright (ΔSBP) in POTS group was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The ΔSBP was negatively correlated with baseline plasma SO 2 levels in all participants (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). In the control group, ΔSBP was positively correlated with the plasma levels of SO 2 (r = 0.487, P < 0.01). The change in HR from the supine to upright in POTS was obvious compared to that of the control group. The area under curve was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.928-1.000), and the cutoff value of plasma SO 2 level >38.17 μmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.6% for predicting the diagnosis of POTS. Increased endogenous SO 2 levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of POTS.

  11. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Johnson, R E; Anderson, M S

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide and sulfur in the Madison Limestone: A natural analog in southwest Wyoming for geologic carbon-sulfur co-sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Thyne, Geoffrey; Chopping, Curtis; Meuzelaar, Tom

    2011-09-01

    The Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, southwest Wyoming, USA contains large volumes (65-95%) of supercritical CO 2 that it has stored naturally for 50 million years. This reservoir also contains supercritical H 2S, aqueous sulfur complexes (SO 42- and HS -), and sulfur-bearing minerals (anhydrite and pyrite). Although SO 2 is not present, these sulfur-bearing phases are known products of SO 2 disproportionation in other water-rock systems. The natural co-occurrence of SO 42-, S 2-, supercritical CO 2 and brine affords the opportunity to evaluate the fate of a carbon-sulfur co-sequestration scenario. Mineralogic data was obtained from drill core and aqueous geochemical data from wells outside and within the current supercritical CO 2-sulfur-brine-rock system. In addition to dolomite, calcite, and accessory sulfur-bearing minerals, the Madison Limestone contains accessory quartz and the aluminum-bearing minerals feldspar, illite, and analcime. Dawsonite (NaAlCO 3(OH) 2), predicted as an important carbon sink in sequestration modeling studies, is not present. After confirming equilibrium conditions for the Madison Limestone system, reaction path models were constructed with initial conditions based on data from outside the reservoir. Addition of supercritical CO 2 to the Madison Limestone was simulated and the results compared to data from inside the reservoir. The model accurately predicts the observed mineralogy and captures the fundamental changes expected in a Madison Limestone-brine system into which CO 2 is added. pH decreases from 5.7 to 4.5 at 90 °C and to 4.0 at 110 °C, as expected from dissolution of supercritical CO 2, creation of carbonic acid, and buffering by the carbonate rock. The calculated redox potential increases by 0.1 V at 90 °C and 0.15 V at 110 °C due to equilibrium among CO 2, anhydrite, and pyrite. Final calculated Eh and pH match conditions for the co-existing sulfur phases present in produced waters and core from within the reservoir

  13. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  14. PARTICLE FLOW, MIXING, AND CHEMICAL REACTION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mixing model has been developed to simulate the particle residence time distribution (RTD) in a circulating fluidized bed absorber (CFBA). Also, a gas/solid reaction model for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by lime has been developed. For the reaction model that considers RTD dis...

  15. Changes in Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) over the English Channel - 1.5 Years of Measurements from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Smyth, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory near Plymouth, United Kingdom between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near near the Plymouth Sound. International Maritime Organization regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce sulfur emissions tenfold in Sulfur Emission Control Areas such as the English Channel. We observed a three-fold reduction from 2014 to 2015 in the estimated ship-emitted SO2 during southeasterly winds. Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from ~1/3 in 2014 to ~1/2 in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  16. Effects of sulfur dioxide on expansion of lesions caused by Corynebacterium nebraskense in maize and by Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.; Aluisio, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of air pollution on plant disease development, the authors investigated the effects of SO/sub 2/ on lesion development by two bacterial pathogens. Maize or soybean plants were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ or 262 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ before, after or before and after inoculation with Corynebacterium nebraskense or Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis, respectively. Lesion development was inhibited in both cases, regardless of when the exposures occurred. The time of exposure, however, altered the subsequent effect on lesion size. Dry weight and sulfur content of host tissue were notmore » altered by the joint effects of the pollutant and the pathogens.« less

  17. Thermally switchable meta-material absorber involving vanadium dioxide semiconductor-metal transition for thermo photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendelala, Fathi; Cheknane, Ali; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2018-01-01

    A new switchable absorber design using meta-materials for thermo photovoltaic applications is proposed here. Conventional absorbents are normally non-adjustable with narrow band-widths and polarization-dependence. The present study describes an alternative infrared absorber structure with tunable characteristics. The absorber is based on VO2 which exhibits transition from semiconductor to metallic conductor by thermal effect. With this design, the results show that wide-band absorption can be achieved. The absorption bandwidth can be improved from 15.94 to 36.75 THz. With 40.42% relative shift in the peak frequency, a maximum absorption efficiency of 99% can be achieved. This structure design is polarization-independent of normal incident radiations, and may accommodate radiations from wide oblique angles. These new features make the new thermally adjustable absorber potentially useful in thermo-photovoltaic conversion devices.

  18. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  19. Detecting volcanic sulfur dioxide plumes in the Northern Hemisphere using the Brewer spectrophotometers, other networks, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, Christos S.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kapsomenakis, John; Solomos, Stavros; Inness, Antje; Balis, Dimitris; Redondas, Alberto; Eskes, Henk; Allaart, Marc; Amiridis, Vassilis; Dahlback, Arne; De Bock, Veerle; Diémoz, Henri; Engelmann, Ronny; Eriksen, Paul; Fioletov, Vitali; Gröbner, Julian; Heikkilä, Anu; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Jarosławski, Janusz; Josefsson, Weine; Karppinen, Tomi; Köhler, Ulf; Meleti, Charoula; Repapis, Christos; Rimmer, John; Savinykh, Vladimir; Shirotov, Vadim; Siani, Anna Maria; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Stanek, Martin; Stübi, René

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the adequacy of the existing Brewer network to supplement other networks from the ground and space to detect SO2 plumes of volcanic origin. It was found that large volcanic eruptions of the last decade in the Northern Hemisphere have a positive columnar SO2 signal seen by the Brewer instruments located under the plume. It is shown that a few days after the eruption the Brewer instrument is capable of detecting significant columnar SO2 increases, exceeding on average 2 DU relative to an unperturbed pre-volcanic 10-day baseline, with a mean close to 0 and σ = 0.46, as calculated from the 32 Brewer stations under study. Intercomparisons with independent measurements from the ground and space as well as theoretical calculations corroborate the capability of the Brewer network to detect volcanic plumes. For instance, the comparison with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) SO2 space-borne retrievals shows statistically significant agreement between the Brewer network data and the collocated satellite overpasses in the case of the Kasatochi eruption. Unfortunately, due to sparsity of satellite data, the significant positive departures seen in the Brewer and other ground networks following the Eyjafjallajökull, Bárðarbunga and Nabro eruptions could not be statistically confirmed by the data from satellite overpasses. A model exercise from the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) project shows that the large increases in SO2 over Europe following the Bárðarbunga eruption in Iceland were not caused by local pollution sources or ship emissions but were clearly linked to the volcanic eruption. Sulfur dioxide positive departures in Europe following Bárðarbunga could be traced by other networks from the free troposphere down to the surface (AirBase (European air quality database) and EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network)). We propose that by combining Brewer data with that

  20. A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

  1. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Bonding in O3 and SO2.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tyler Y; Lindquist, Beth A; Dunning, Thom H

    2015-07-16

    There are many well-known differences in the physical and chemical properties of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). O3 has longer and weaker bonds than O2, whereas SO2 has shorter and stronger bonds than SO. The O-O2 bond is dramatically weaker than the O-SO bond, and the singlet-triplet gap in SO2 is more than double that in O3. In addition, O3 is a very reactive species, while SO2 is far less so. These disparities have been attributed to variations in the amount of diradical character in the two molecules. In this work, we use generalized valence bond (GVB) theory to characterize the electronic structure of ozone and sulfur dioxide, showing O3 does indeed possess significant diradical character, whereas SO2 is effectively a closed shell molecule. The GVB results provide critical insights into the genesis of the observed difference in these two isoelectronic species. SO2 possesses a recoupled pair bond dyad in the a"(π) system, resulting in SO double bonds. The π system of O3, on the other hand, has a lone pair on the central oxygen atom plus a pair of electrons in orbitals on the terminal oxygen atoms that give rise to a relatively weak π interaction.

  2. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  3. Development of alternative sulfur dioxide control strategies for a metropolitan area and its environs, utilizing a modified climatological dispersion model

    Treesearch

    K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith

    1977-01-01

    Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...

  4. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.

    1994-12-01

    SO2 from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO2 emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO2 emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of 'excess sulfur' (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO2 emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO2 emissions, together with the H2O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO2. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body.

  5. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  6. First analysis of the rotationally-resolved ν 2 and 2ν 2-ν 2 bands of sulfur dioxide, 33S 16O 2

    DOE PAGES

    Blake, T. A.; Flaud, J. -M.; Lafferty, W. J.

    2017-01-03

    A Fourier transform spectrum of sulfur dioxide 33S 16O 2 has been recorded in the 18.3 μm spectral region at a resolution of 0.002 cm $-$1 using a Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer leading to the observation of the ν 2 and 2ν 2-ν 2 vibrational bands of the 33S 16O 2 molecule. The corresponding upper state ro-vibrational levels were fit using Watson-type Hamiltonians. In this way it was possible to reproduce the upper state ro-vibrational levels to within the experimental uncertainty; i.e., ~ 0.20 × 10 $-$3 cm $-$1. Finally, very accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were derived frommore » the fit together with the following band centers: ν 0 (ν 2) = 515.659089(50) cm $-$1, ν 0 (2ν 2) = 1030.697723(20) cm $-$1.« less

  7. Improving the efficiency of cadmium sulfide-sensitized titanium dioxide/indium tin oxide glass photoelectrodes using silver sulfide as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanocrystals are deposited on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to prepare CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO photoelectrodes through a new method known as the molecular precursor decomposition method. The Ag2S is interposed between the TiO2 nanocrystal film and CdS nanocrystals as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber. As a consequence, the energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrodes is significantly improved. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation, the maximum efficiency achieved for the CdS(4)/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrode is 3.46%, corresponding to an increase of about 150% as compared to the CdS(4)/TiO2/ITO electrode without the Ag2S layer. Our experimental results show that the improved efficiency is mainly due to the formation of Ag2S layer that may increase the light absorbance and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electrons with redox ions from the electrolyte. PMID:25411566

  8. Determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air by use of a passive sampling technique and triethanolamine as absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Krochmal, D.; Gorski, L.

    1991-03-01

    The effects of temperature, humidity, and storage on a diffusive sampler were tested by use of the Amaya-Sugiura method, modified previously. Several materials were used as carriers for triethanolamine in the sampler. The mass of NO{sub 2} absorbed in the sampler was determined spectrophotometrically as nitrite by using Saltzman solution. The collection efficiency of the sampler was lower than that calculated from Fick's law of diffusion due to significant contribution of liquid phase in the overall sampler diffusive resistance. This resulted in an increase of the mass of NO{sub 2} absorbed in the sampler by ca. 20% per 10{degree}C ofmore » temperature growth and by ca. 25% when the relative humidity rose from 0 to 100%. Dependence of concentration of TEA solution in the sampler on the relative humidity of the air was noted. The relative precision of the method characterized by RSD was 10%; the detection limit of NO{sub 2} was 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for a 24-h exposure.« less

  9. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-emore » project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.« less

  10. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  11. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOEpatents

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  12. Reactions of sulfur dioxide with neutral vanadium oxide clusters in the gas phase. I. Density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Jakubikova, Elena; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2007-12-27

    Thermodynamics of reactions of vanadium oxide clusters with SO2 are studied at the BPW91/LANL2DZ level of theory. BPW91/LANL2DZ is insufficient to properly describe relative V-O and S-O bond strengths of vanadium and sulfur oxides. Calibration of theoretical results with experimental data is necessary to compute reliable enthalpy changes for reactions between VxOy and SO2. Theoretical results indicate SO2 to SO conversion occurs for oxygen-deficient clusters and SO2 to SO3 conversion occurs for oxygen-rich clusters. Stable intermediate structures of VOy (y = 1 - 4) clusters with SO2 are also obtained at the BPW91/TZVP level of theory. Some possible mechanisms for SO3 formation and catalyst regeneration for condensed-phase systems are suggested. These results are in agreement with, and complement, gas-phase experimental studies of neutral vanadium oxide clusters.

  13. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) film as a new saturable absorber for generating mode-locked Thulium-Holmium doped all-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Rusdi, Muhammad Farid; Latiff, Anas Abdul; Paul, Mukul Chandra; Das, Shyamal; Dhar, Anirban; Ahmad, Harith; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

    2017-03-01

    We report the generation of mode-locked thulium-holmium doped fiber laser (THDFL) at 1979 nm. This is a first demonstration of mode-locked by using Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) film as a saturable absorber (SA). A piece of 1 mm×1 mm TiO2 film was sandwiched in between two fiber ferrule in the cavity. Fabrication process of TiO2 film incorporated a TiO2 and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The stable 9 MHz repetition rate of mode-locked mode operation with 58 dB SNR was generated under pump power of 902-1062 mW. At maximum pump power, the mode-locked THDFL has output power and pulse energy of 15 mW and 1.66 nJ, respectively. Our results demonstrate the TiO2 can be used promisingly in ultrafast photonics applications.

  14. Organic sulfur compounds resulting from the interaction of iron sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in an anaerobic aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinen, Wolfgang; Lauwers, Anne Marie

    1996-04-01

    The reaction of iron sulfide (FeS) with H2S in water, in presence of CO2 under anaerobic conditions was found to yield H2 and a variety of organic sulfur compounds, mainly thiols and small amounts of CS2 and dimethyldisulfide. The same compounds were produced when H2S was replaced by HCl, in the H2S-generating system FeS/HCl/CO2. The identification of the products was confirmed by GC-MS analyses and the incorporation of H2 in the organic sulfur compounds was demonstrated by experiments in which all hydrogen compounds were replaced by deuterium compounds. Generation of H2 and the synthesis of thiols were both dependent upon the relative abundance of FeS and HCl or H2S, i.e. the FeS/HCl- or FeS/H2S-proportions. Whether thiols or CS2 were formed as the main products depended also on the FeS/HCl-ratio: All conditions which create a H2 deficiency were found to initiate a proportional increase in the amount of CS2. The quantities of H2 and thiols generated depended on temperature: the production of H2 was significantly accelerated from 50°C onward and thiol synthesis above 75°C. The yield of thiols increased with the amount of FeS and HCl (H2S), given a certain FeS/HCl-ratio and a surplus of CO2. A deficiency of CO2 results in lower thiol systhesis. The end product, pyrite (FeS2), was found to appear as a silvery granular layer floating on the aqueous surface. The identity of the thiols was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and the reduction of CO2 demonstrated by the determination of deuterium incorporation with DCl and D2O. The described reactions can principally proceed under the conditions comparable to those obtaining around submarine hydrothermal vents, or the global situation about 4 billion years ago, before the dawn of life, and could replace the need for a reducing atmosphere on the primitive earth.

  15. Links Between the Oxidation of Glyoxal and Sulfur Dioxide, the Production of Brown Carbon, and Geoengineering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haan, D. O.; Sueme, W. R.; Rynaski, A.; Torkelson, A.; Czer, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    A correlation between oxalic acid and sulfate in atmospheric aerosol was reported by J. Z. Yu et al. in 2005. It was suggested that this correlation could be explained by the dominance of in-cloud oxidation pathways forming both species from their major precursors, SO2 and glyoxal. The chemistry of these two precursors is linked via the rapid, reversible formation of an adduct molecule reported by Olson and Hoffmann in 1988. We show that at pH > 4, the oxidation of solutions containing both sulfite ions and glyoxal generates a series of redox-active quinones that absorb visible light. Using LCMS in negative ion mode, we quantify the formation of the colored compounds tetrahydroquinone, rhodizonic acid, and croconic acid (CrA) in glyoxal + bisulfite aqueous reaction mixtures as a function of pH. Of these three compounds, CrA would be expected to have the longest lifetime in the atmosphere. Ultimately, the same oxidation products are formed as when SO2 and glyoxal are oxidized separately (e.g. sulfate, oxalate, malonic acid). There are no other reported colored compounds in the oxidation series after CrA. However, comparisons between LCMS and UV-Vis absorbance measurements indicate that even after the three known colored compounds have oxidized, glyoxal / bisulfite reaction samples remain yellow for many days. This suggests the production of additional, unknown compounds that absorb visible light. These experiments show that the linked oxidation of glyoxal and SO2 in clouds and aqueous aerosol is capable of producing brown carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of proposed geoengineering schemes where SO2 would be intentionally added to the atmosphere in order to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo through sulfate aerosol formation. The presence of glyoxal in the atmosphere (produced from the oxidation of biogenic gases) could partially cancel the desired cooling effect due to the unintended production of brown carbon

  16. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additivemore » effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.« less

  17. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    PubMed

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  19. EPR characterization of ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radicals trapped during the reaction of bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase with molecular oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Michelle A.; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Denis L.; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2010-04-01

    The reaction intermediates of reduced bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) were trapped following its reaction with oxygen at 50 μs-6 ms by innovative freeze-quenching methods and studied by EPR. When the enzyme was reduced with either ascorbate or dithionite, distinct radicals were generated; X-band (9 GHz) and D-band (130 GHz) CW-EPR measurements support the assignments of these radicals to ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radical (SO2-rad), respectively. The X-band spectra show a linewidth of 12 G for the ascorbyl radical and 11 G for the SO2-rad radical and an isotropic g-value of 2.005 for both species. The D-band spectra reveal clear distinctions in the g-tensors and powder patterns of the two species. The ascorbyl radical spectrum displays approximate axial symmetry with g-values of gx = 2.0068, gy = 2.0066, and gz = 2.0023. The SO2-rad>/SUP> radical has rhombic symmetry with g-values of gx = 2.0089, gy = 2.0052, and gz = 2.0017. When the contributions from the ascorbyl and SO2-rad radicals were removed, no protein-based radical on CcO could be identified in the EPR spectra.

  20. Endogeous sulfur dioxide protects against oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in association with inhibition of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyao; Zheng, Saijun; Liu, Zhiwei; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-02-01

    The role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2), an efficient gasotransmitter maintaining homeostasis, in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) remains unidentified. We aimed to investigate the role of endogenous SO2 in the pathogenesis of ALI. An oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI rat model was established. Endogenous SO2 levels, lung injury, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis were examined. OA-induced ALI rats showed a markedly downregulated endogenous SO2/aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1)/AAT2 pathway and severe lung injury. Chemical colorimetry assays demonstrated upregulated reactive oxygen species generation and downregulated antioxidant capacity in OA-induced ALI rats. However, SO2 increased endogenous SO2 levels, protected against oxidative stress and alleviated ALI. Moreover, compared with OA-treated cells, in human alveolar epithelial cells SO2 downregulated O2(-) and OH(-) generation. In contrast, L-aspartic acid-β-hydroxamate (HDX, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation), an inhibitor of endogenous SO2 generating enzyme, promoted free radical generation, upregulated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase expression, activated caspase-3, as well as promoted cell apoptosis. Importantly, apoptosis could be inhibited by the free radical scavengers glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The results suggest that SO2/AAT1/AAT2 pathway might protect against the development of OA-induced ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress.